[302] **viXra:1710.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 19:15:50*

**Authors:** José de Jesús Camacho Medina

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article disseminates a series of new and interesting mathematical formulas, there are formulas of prime numbers, fibonacci sequence, square root and others as product of the investigations of the author since 2011.

**Category:** Number Theory

[301] **viXra:1710.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 20:36:11*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Fabric-of-Space is not solid, liquid, gas nor plasma. It is a thread particle network made from individual yet connected quantum threads.

Space has all threads expanded to full length.

Matter has threads balled-up and or wrapped around the nucleus.

Creating matter from space? Yes, the basic ratio is four to one. Four units of space can make 2 protons and 2 electrons and that makes an Hydrogen gas molecule -- basic matter.

That means the thread network in space is the equivalent of 25% real matter, but since it is actually just the network that you cannot see, I guess you can call it Dark Matter.

Got it? If you think of all the particles in space that are filling the Universe and convert them into normal matter... you would get a Universe that is filled with 25% matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[300] **viXra:1710.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 23:11:27*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, I want to conclude that elementary particles are topological objects of the geometric nature of the three-dimensional gravity of Chern Simons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[299] **viXra:1710.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 01:40:16*

**Authors:** Saksith Jaksri

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

We study theory of modified gravity, namely disformal gravity, which is con-
structed from disformal metric. We derive the action for disformal gravity from general
purely disformal transformation. Then we find the equations of motion for the back-
ground universe and find that the disformal gravity does not provide the kinetic driven
for cosmic acceleration as usually expected from Galilean-like theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[298] **viXra:1710.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 03:04:07*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A solar-sail spacecraft propulsion concept uses a large Fresnel lens to concentrate radiation onto one or two small beam-steering mirrors. The lens itself does not effect significant momentum transfer from the photon flux; it only functions as a condenser, which allows the use of much smaller mirrors as momentum-transfer elements.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[297] **viXra:1710.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 03:21:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures on Novák-Carmichael numbers: (1) There exist an infinity of Novák-Carmichael numbers of the form (30n + p)*(30n + q) – p*q for any [p, q] distinct primes of the form 6k + 1; (2) There exist an infinity of Novák-Carmichael numbers of the form (30n + p)*(30n + q) - p*q for any [p, q] distinct primes of the form 6k – 1, where k > 1. See the sequence A124240 in OEIS for Novák-Carmichael numbers (numbers n such that a^n ≡ 1 (mod n) for every a coprime to n).

**Category:** Number Theory

[296] **viXra:1710.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 03:23:06*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures on Novák-Carmichael numbers: (1) There exist an infinity of Novák-Carmichael numbers of the form (6k + 1)*(12k + 1)*(18k + 1) – 1; (2) There exist an infinity of Novák-Carmichael numbers of the form (6k - 1)*(12k - 1)*(18k - 1) + 1; (3) There exist an infinity of Novák-Carmichael numbers C such that C + 1 is a Poulet number. See the sequence A124240 in OEIS for Novák-Carmichael numbers (numbers n such that a^n ≡ 1 (mod n) for every a coprime to n).

**Category:** Number Theory

[295] **viXra:1710.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 09:40:52*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 13 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Borges has a rare ability to put wild ideas into detective stories with reporting style. At least that is the impression that we got on his short stories. In particular, one of his short story is worthnoting: Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius. The story told us about a mysterious country called Uqbar, in apparently an unofficial reprint of Encyclopedia Britannica. It also tells about Tlon, a mysterious planet, created purely by imaginative minds. While this story clearly criticizes Berkeley view and may be not related to our daily reality, a reinterpretation of this story leads us to a long standing discourse in the philosophy of science: to how extent the entire modern physics follow such a Berkeley-antirealism tendency? This paper is intended to bring this subject into our attention. We will also discuss shortly on the antirealism in certain trends in theoretical physics and cosmology.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[294] **viXra:1710.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 11:06:27*

**Authors:** S.A. Larin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Relativistic quantum gravity with the action including tems quadratic in the curvature tensor is analyzed. We derive new expressions for the crresponding Lagrangian and the graviton propagator. We argue that the considered model is a good candidate for the fundamental quantum theory of gravitation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[293] **viXra:1710.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 11:12:22*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In German

Hidden uncertainty in gravitational wave detection. There are two basic problems that call into question the validity of direct gravitational wave detection: 1. The strain data of the gravitational wave detectors contain the chirp-like signals in abundance. 2. The data processing procedure reduces relativistic templates to a fraction. But this remnant can have countless curves as a template. In this way, the assignment of the signal to the theoretical model disappears.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[292] **viXra:1710.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 11:52:12*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker, Galina Pana

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper deals with an influence of Laminine , a dietary supplemental on subtle structure of water and field spinning in vicinity of a person taking this substance.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[291] **viXra:1710.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 14:36:19*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The fine-strucure dimensionless constant alpha (1/137.035999139) has long been a mystery in physics. It now appears to be related to dark energy and the radius of the universe at age 13.5 billion years (scheduled collapse age of the 9th cyclic universe which did not happen) according to holographic cyclic E8 symmetric universe theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[290] **viXra:1710.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-25 06:44:57*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Planck second is likely the shortest relevant time interval. If the Planck acceleration lasts for one Planck second, one will reach the speed of light. Yet, according to Einstein, no particle with rest-mass can travel at the speed of light as this would require an infinite amount of energy. Modern physics is incompatible with the Planck acceleration in many ways. However in atomism we see that the Planck acceleration happens for the building blocks of the Planck mass and that the Planck mass is dissolved into energy within one Planck second. Further, the Planck mass stands absolutely still as observed from any reference frame. Atomism is fully consistent with the Planck acceleration. The relativistic Planck acceleration is unique among accelerations because it can only happen from absolute rest; it is therefore the same as the Planck acceleration. In other words, atomism predicts breaks in Lorentz invariance at the Planck scale, something several quantum gravity theories address as well. Atomism seems to solve a series of challenges in modern physics and this paper is one of a series in pointing this out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[289] **viXra:1710.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 19:02:00*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

This article proposes a synthesized classification of some Goldbach-like conjectures, including those which are "stronger" than the Binary Goldbach's Conjecture (BGC) and launches a new generalization of BGC briefly called "the Vertical Binary Goldbach's Conjecture" (VBGC), which is essentially a meta-conjecture, as VBGC states an infinite number of conjectures stronger than BGC, which all apply on "iterative" primes with recursive prime indexes (i-primeths). VBGC was discovered by the author of this paper in 2007 and perfected (by computational verifications) until 2017 by using the arrays of matrices of Goldbach index-partitions, which are a useful tool in studying BGC by focusing on prime indexes. VBGC distinguishes as a very important conjecture of primes, with potential importance in the optimization of the BGC experimental verification (including other possible theoretical and practical applications in mathematics and physics) and a very special self-similar property of the primes set. Keywords: Primes with prime indexes; i-primeths; the Binary Goldbach Conjecture; Goldbach-like conjectures; the Vertical Binary Goldbach Conjecture. 2010 mathematics subject classification: 11N05 (Distribution of primes, URL: http://www.ams.org/msc/msc2010.html?t=11N05&btn=Current) OFFICIAL LINKS OF THIS PUBLISHED (OPEN) PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE: http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/3151 http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/JAMCS_69/2017/Oct/Andrei2522017JAMCS36895.pdf http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/21625 http://www.sciencedomain.org/metrics/21625

**Category:** Number Theory

[288] **viXra:1710.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 19:14:08*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper was earlier saved in academia.com. site. But it might be also interesting to multiple readers on vixra.com.
The sound transmission loss of windows at very low frequencies cannot be interpreted by the theory of infinitely large partitions. Here, the bending wave resonances are essential but not the only contributors. The low sound radiation coefficient and “niche effect” are also important. The goal is to illustrate such phenomena via simplified theoretical models and experimental results. In particular, the role of low sound radiation is interpreted using the sound radiation model of a piston inside the aperture cut in a rigid baffle between the source and receiving rooms. The “niche effect” is compared to the low-frequency sound transmission via symmetric triple windows (where the middle element is the real window and the role of the edge leaves is played by the air masses entrained at the aperture edges). In addition to the previously published results, the new experimental data are provided to support this theory in the “double-niche” case: the aperture consists of two in-series halves with different areas, and the window is installed in the smaller one. Such simple models can also be utilized to interpret the experimental sound transmission data for relatively small partitions mounted in the aperture made in a thick wall between two rooms. The paper may be helpful for students and engineers engaged in measurements of the sound transmission loss.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[287] **viXra:1710.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 19:58:05*

**Authors:** A. I. Andreus

**Comments:** 7 Pages, in Russian and English of Google.

Continuing his discovery of positrino and electrino, postulating, as absolute symmetry, the tetrahedroncubic base of the world - [ASTC] - the representation of a proton and a neutron, a neutron star. The essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the human outlook on nature for humanity in the light of ASTC is exemplified in the abstract: the example of a proton and neutron device, a neutron star. An analogy is suggested, as a lyrical digression, by association with a vine with bunches of grapes, using the example of a quark device. Lyrical digressions in the illustration of the device of a neutron and a proton, quarks lead us to the ensembles of spaces of a certain number of electrino (E-1 \ 3) and spaces of a certain number of positrino (E + 1 \ 3) in their internal arrangement.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[286] **viXra:1710.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 23:50:38*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[285] **viXra:1710.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 21:39:34*

**Authors:** Lulu Karami

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This submission is more or less an amateur exposition on a specific elliptic curve, discussing counting points over finite fields as well as constructing an associated $L$-function and pinning down the affiliated special value $L(E, 1)$ for the elliptic curve $E$ primarily discussed throughout this piece. The techniques and tools presented can be carried over to infinitely many elliptic curves partitioned into two sets depending on 'twists' of two specific curves; one of which happens to be the curve previously, and vaguely, mentioned.

**Category:** Number Theory

[284] **viXra:1710.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 05:47:22*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is obtained a solution of the Fermat’s last theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[283] **viXra:1710.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 07:53:11*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents three limits for 1/pi

**Category:** Number Theory

[282] **viXra:1710.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 07:57:53*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note presents a simple formula for pi

**Category:** Number Theory

[281] **viXra:1710.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 08:02:35*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This note presents some integrals involving pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[280] **viXra:1710.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 08:05:19*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This note presents some definite integrals

**Category:** General Mathematics

[279] **viXra:1710.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 09:45:16*

**Authors:** Anatoli Kuznetsov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We present the formula for the mass spectrum of the charged composite particles (CP). This formula includes the renormalized fine-structure constant a =1/128.330593928, the rest mass of a new electrically charged particle m = 156.3699214 eV/c2 and two quantum numbers of n and k. The half–integer and integer quantum number n is the projection of an orbital angular momentum electrically charged particle on the symmetry axis of the CP, and the integer k defines the magnetic charges of two Dirac magnetic monopoles, which have opposite signs of magnetic charges and masses. The presented model predicts the values of spins, masses, charge orbit radii and magnetic moments for an infinite number of charged fermions and bosons in the infinite range of mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[278] **viXra:1710.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 10:25:25*

**Authors:** Réjean Labrie

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Résumé: Le postulat de Bertrand et la conjecture de Legendre sont deux cas particuliers d'une nouvelle
conjecture encore plus puissante sur les nombres premiers.
Abstract: Bertrand's postulate and Legendre's conjecture are two special cases of a new and more
powerful conjecture on prime numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[277] **viXra:1710.0326 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-20 06:48:14*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 138 Pages. Biggest part of this work is published in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017.07.02., Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

The present work shows the inapplicability of the Pauli principle to chemical bond, and a new theoretical model of the chemical bond is proposed based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. See pp. 88 - 104. Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.

**Category:** Chemistry

[276] **viXra:1710.0325 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 07:47:38*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is all about wavefunctions and their interactions. If one seeks to understand Quantum Mechanics, then a deep intuitive understanding of wavefunctions and wavefunction collapse would seem essential, indispensable. That’s where it all starts, the causal origin of the quantum as manifested in the physical world. We introduce a wavefunction comprised of the geometric elements of the Pauli algebra of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with quantized electromagnetic fields. Wavefunction interactions are described by the geometric product of geometric Clifford algebra, generating the Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime, the particle physicist’s S-matrix. Electromagnetic synthesis of four fundamental forces becomes apparent via this Geometric Wavefunction Interpretation (GWI).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[275] **viXra:1710.0324 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-09 05:34:27*

**Authors:** Jianwen Huang, Jianjun Wang, Feng Zhang, Wendong Wang

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The paper discusses the recovery of signals in the case that signals are nearly sparse with respect to a tight frame $D$ by means of the $l_1$-analysis approach. We establish several new sufficient conditions regarding the $D$-restricted isometry property to ensure stable reconstruction of signals that are approximately sparse with respect to $D$. It is shown that if the measurement matrix $\Phi$ fulfils the condition $\delta_{ts}<t/(4-t)$ for $0<t<4/3$, then signals which are approximately sparse with respect to $D$ can be stably recovered by the $l_1$-analysis method. In the case of $D=I$, the bound is sharp, see Cai and Zhang's work \cite{Cai and Zhang 2014}. When $t=1$, the present bound improves the condition $\delta_s<0.307$ from Lin et al.'s reuslt to $\delta_s<1/3$. In addition, numerical simulations are conducted to indicate that the $l_1$-analysis method can stably reconstruct the sparse signal in terms of tight frames.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[274] **viXra:1710.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 10:17:52*

**Authors:** Marek Kurpiewski

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The problem of gravitational potential energy is analyzed within a simple model, in which the 3-dimensional (3D) space is a curved hypersurface of a 4-dimensional (4D) Euclidean space. The analysis shows that the effect of gravitational potential energy deficit is present in the model.
For a particular profile of hypersurface representing 3D space, the effects of aforementioned deficit are similar to effects attributed to dark matter, while not being contrary to Newton's law of gravity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[273] **viXra:1710.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 10:35:56*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 19 pages, 2 figures

Thermodynamic treatments of properties of strong electrolytes in aqueous solutions based on the idea of complete dissociation and activity coefficients became too complicated to be meaningful. Therefore, on systematically re-investigating the existing data, it became evident that the earlier ideas of partial dissociation and hydration were correct. The degrees of dissociation and hydration numbers evaluated from vapor pressures or osmotic coefficients could explain many thermodynamic properties quantitatively (from zero to saturation for electrolytes like NaCl). This paper presents simple thermodynamic relations for redox and solubility equilibria in terms of ionic molalities and hydration. Lewis and Randall’s results for a classical electrochemical cell have been used for demonstrating the new approach.

**Category:** Chemistry

[272] **viXra:1710.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 11:20:58*

**Authors:** N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P

**Comments:** 4 Pages. E Theorem Prover/Smart Devices/Hardware/Firmware/Software/Protocols/IoT

We present in this short communication - “E Theorem Prover and Verification of Smart Devices &
Protocols Based on IoT Environments – A Novel Suggestion on Informatics Framework of Smart
Devices involving Hardware,Firmware & Software Verification.”

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[271] **viXra:1710.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 07:35:04*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This article is the Author's invited contribution (a chapter) to a new book. No copyright limitations.

The key to the stars and the basis for big bang cosmology is thermal emission, not the kinetic theory of gases or Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, although the latter employs thermal emission in the form given by Kirchhoff and Planck. Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission is fundamental to astronomy and much of physics, including quantum mechanics. Via Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission, Max Planck introduced the quantum of action in developing his equation for blackbody spectra. From Kirchhoff's Law Planck's equation acquired universality and Planck's mystical absolute units. Without Kirchhoff's Law and universality of Planck's equation, astronomy and cosmology completely collapse. Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission is certainly false, as the clinical existence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) proves. Consequently Planck's equation is not universal, Planck's absolute units have no special character, and astronomy and cosmology lose their foundations entirely.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[270] **viXra:1710.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 09:45:35*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 4 p. Russian

The drift (directed downward) and diffusive (directed upward) streams of
molecules of ideal gas in the gravitational field were considered. It is shown that in
the Boltzmann distribution of concentration of molecules on a height these streams
are not equal to each other. They try to create quasi Boltzmann distribution. But
such distribution can not be carried out.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[269] **viXra:1710.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 02:03:32*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 1 Page.

here Is No Need for Big G in Einstein’s Field Equation! Newton Swapped with Max Planck,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[268] **viXra:1710.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 03:27:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[267] **viXra:1710.0311 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-31 04:20:07*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 13 pages. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by:

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and malignant melanoma.
Objectives: In this systematic review we re-analysed the study of Roussaki-Schulze et al. and the study of La Placa et al. so that some new inferences can be drawn.
Materials and methods: Roussaki-Schulze et al. obtained data from 28 human mel-anoma biopsy specimens and from 6 healthy individuals. La Placa et al. investigated 51 primary melanoma (PM) and in 20 control skin samples. The HPV DNA was de-termined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Statistical Analysis: The method of the conditio per quam relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) guarantees the presence of malignant melanoma. In other words, if human papillomavirus (HPV) is present, then malignant melanoma is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and malignant melanoma. Signifi-cance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.
Results: Based on the data as published by Roussaki-Schulze et al. and the data of La Placa et al. the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) guarantees the presence of malignant melanoma. In other words, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a conditio per quam of malignant melanoma. In contrast to the study of La Placa et al. and contrary to expectation, the study of Roussaki-Schulze et al. which is based on a very small sample size failed to provide evidence of a significant cause effect relationship be-tween human papillomavirus (HPV) and malignant melanoma.
Conclusions: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary condition of malignant melanoma. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of malignant melanoma.

**Category:** Statistics

[266] **viXra:1710.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 12:24:53*

**Authors:** George Cherevichenko

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Using explicit weakenings, we can define alpha-conversion by simple equations without any mention of free variables.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[265] **viXra:1710.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 15:36:47*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper will address the perceived necessity of ideas surrounding panspermia and all its variants in light of the general theory.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[264] **viXra:1710.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 15:57:17*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Based on Prof. Bekenstein and Prof. Hawking, the black hole maximal entropy , the maximum amount of information that a black hole can absorb, beyond its event horizon is proportional to the area of its event horizon divided by quantized area units, in the scale of Planck area (the square of Planck length).[1]
This quantization in entropy and information in the quantized units of Planck area leads us to the assumption that space is not “smooth” but rather divided into quantized units (“space cells”). Although the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy equation describes a specific case regarding the quantization of the 2D event horizon, this idea can be generalized to the standard 3 dimension (3D) flat space, outside and far away from the black hole’s event horizon. In this general case we assume that these quantized units of space are 3D quantized space “cells” in the scale of Planck length in each of its 3 dimensions.
If this is truly the case and the universe fabric of space is quantized to local 3D space cells in the magnitude size of Planck length scale in each dimension, than we assume that there must be extra non-local space dimensions situated in the non-local bordering’s of these 3D space cells since there must be something dividing space into these quantized space cells.
Our assumption is that these bordering’s are extra non local dimensions which we named as the “GRID” (or grid) extra dimensions, since they look
like a non-local 3D grid bordering of the local 3D space cells. These non-local grid dimensions are responsible for all unexplained non-local phenomena’s like the well-known non-local entanglement or in the phrase of Albert Einstein “spooky action at a distance” [2].So by proving that space-time is quantized we prove the existence of the non-local grid dimension that divides space-time to these quantized 3D Planck scale cells.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[263] **viXra:1710.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 17:41:13*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 49 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

A mass model of the neutron and proton reported previously was successful in providing insights into physics and cosmology [9][13]. The equation E=e0*exp(N), where e0 is a constant, was used to characterize energy. This equation works but Edwin Klingman [17] indicated that it needed a clear derivation. This document presents the Schrodinger based fundamentals of the relationship and an understanding of N values for the proton mass model. The fundamentals indicate that zero energy, probability one and quanta found in the neutron model should apply to all mesons and baryons. To study this, data from the new Particle Data Group (PDG) 2016 Particle Physics Booklet [18] was placed in an Excel© spreadsheet and analyzed. The principles zero energy and probability one are consistent with PDG data (even though the particle accelerator must supply energy to create the particles). Understanding mesons and baryons including their properties and fields is important to physics (a subject known as chromodynamics). It is intriguing that results also extend Schrodinger’s equation to quantum gravity and cosmology. New in this document:
1. Nature is extremely simple at the most fundamental level. Schrodinger “quantum circles” at probability one are the source of Charge, Parity, Time (spin) and Fields. Nature creates everything by separating properties from zero (CPTF=0). Energy was originally zero and separated into mass+ kinetic energy and opposite field energy. Parity conjugation is involved in some separations.
2. Quark masses were correlated and their fields identified. It is proposed that “tunneling” allows mesons and baryons to form at various energies rather than their “ideal” energy (the energy where mass+ kinetic energy is equal and opposite the field energy). This explains the large number of mesons and baryons.
3. Fundamentals of decay time are presented and demonstrated for the neutron. Meson and baron decay times are based on N values for their quarks. Some mesons have positive and negative field components correlated with longer decay times (11 orders of magnitude longer).
4. Currently literature suggests that charge, parity and time (CPT) is violated in the weak interaction. New properties of the Up and Down quarks were discovered that cast doubt on this result. The new properties explain Iso-spin (I) and allow baryons to conserve CPTIF=0.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[262] **viXra:1710.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 18:50:32*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the general theory of stellar metamorphosis stars are essentially the second largest dissipative systems in a galaxy. The properties of a dissipative system match the evolution of a star as it cools and dies into what are called "planets". Explanation is provided.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[261] **viXra:1710.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 05:14:23*

**Authors:** Prashanth Alluvada

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Describes monochromatic spectra that cause controlled opponent channel excitation

We describe controlled excitation of opponent color channels. For monochromatic
impingement of spectral energy, the wavelength sequences we develop cause a channel to
attain a preset excitation level, causing thereby a controlled excitation of color channels.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[260] **viXra:1710.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 05:26:44*

**Authors:** Sergey Bilyk

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

Basic complete ultimate knowledge about the universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[259] **viXra:1710.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 05:57:53*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work, we present in more details the formulation of Euclidean relativity. We show that even though there are profound differences between Einstein special relativity and Euclidean special relativity, general relativity with both pseudo-Euclidean metric and Euclidean metric have many common features. For example, both forms of metric can be used to describe the precession of planetary orbits around a gravitational mass and the cosmological evolution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[258] **viXra:1710.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 23:58:12*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Aufgezeigt wird die Möglichkeit der Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und ihrer Gravitationskraft zur Energieumwandlung ihrer Rotationsenergie in mechanische / elektrische Energie. Hinweise zum Michelson-Experiment (Wahl der Bezugssysteme), zur Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit und zu einer weiteren Form der Energie

**Category:** Astrophysics

[257] **viXra:1710.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 04:13:49*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[256] **viXra:1710.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 02:59:18*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The original ideas

We egeneralize the relativistic energy relation for the photoelectric effect in case
of the simultaneous emission of electrons and phonons in the metal medium.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[255] **viXra:1710.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 03:57:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the next term of a sequence based on Evolution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[254] **viXra:1710.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 15:37:57*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 83 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“The Gravitational waves have their energy contained in gravitons”
. Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons have negative energy E = a × f and the speed higher than the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitons are the carriers of the gravitational interactions at quantum level in my theory of quantized gravity.
Einstein did not receive the Nobel Prize for his wrong gravitation theory, but they received the Nobel Prize for the gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein’s wrong theory.
Einstein did not understand quantum gravity.
Ferent quantum gravity theory is the right gravitation theory.
For Einstein, Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves with the speed of light.
“Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent
“LIGO is the biggest fraud in science”
Adrian Ferent
“In the last 100 years nobody discovered 1 meter of curved space”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[253] **viXra:1710.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 23:47:37*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[252] **viXra:1710.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 01:24:46*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[251] **viXra:1710.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 02:09:04*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitina N.N.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Description of the process of creation of the world and breakthrough exclusive ideas in the field of cosmology and astrophysics relating to the Divine Universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[250] **viXra:1710.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 02:14:21*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The steady growth of the number of mysteries of the mysterious universe is a sign of imperfection of existing theories and ideas about the surrounding world, which contributes to the creation of radically new alternative ideas and theories. New ideas should be piercing and understandable to everyone. They should also contribute to an adequate perception of reality and be as closely interrelated as possible with existing scientific knowledge. In this case, alternative ideas will inevitably become punchy! The results of long-term theoretical studies of the solar system nearest to us are given with the aim of revealing their secrets and riddles, as well as explaining various phenomena. A total of 14 exclusive hypotheses.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[249] **viXra:1710.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-19 05:22:58*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 9 pages

What is proposed here is a simple modication in the quantum protocol [1] for achieving
instantaneous teleportation of arbitrary quantum state from Alice to Bob even when Bob
is several light years away. This modied quantum protocol is constructed by adding a step
the in the celebrated quantum teleportation protocol [1]. It consists of the action of a unitary
operator to be performed by Alice on the qubits in her possession before she does the Bell
basis measurement. It is important to note that the existing quantum teleportation protocol
[1] requires certain classical communication between the participants, Alice and Bob, and we
are going to eliminate this classical communication through our modification. In the existing
protocol [1] Alice requires sending the classical bits generated during her Bell basis measurement
over a classical channel to Bob for Bob to use these classical bits to determine the exact recovery
operation to be performed on the qubit(s) in his possession for creating the exactly identical
copy of unknown quantum state that was with Alice and got destroyed during her Bell basis
measurement. Alice cannot send the classical bits she obtained to Bob with the speed faster
than that of light since it is the well known experimentally veried universal upper limit on the
speed. We show that by incorporating suitable unitary operation to be performed by Alice on
her qubits before the Bell basis measurement the requirement of the transmission of classical
bits by Alice to Bob for the creation of the unknown quantum state by Bob at his place can
be completely eliminated. Our modification in the teleportation protocols [1], [2] thus clearly
demonstrates the enormous advantage of remaining in the quantum regime and avoiding the
requirement of any classical communication for the teleportation of the quantum states.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[248] **viXra:1710.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 03:56:28*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[247] **viXra:1710.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 04:33:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

"In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[246] **viXra:1710.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 05:12:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is a very short non-technical note pointing out a key finding from modern mathematical atomism, namely that the world is Binary, and that the Planck mass, the Planck length, and the Planck second are invariant entities.
With Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks, the speed of light (in a vacuum) is the same in every direction, it is isotropic and it is often represented with the character c. The speed of light is, per definition, exactly 299 792 458 m/s, a tremendous speed. We do not contest that this is the speed of light as measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks, but still we ask: ``Is this truly always the case?".

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[245] **viXra:1710.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 06:34:58*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An explicitly time independent Lagrangian functional of a three-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator has been proposed. I derive results for the motion of the three-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator with a pure imaginary three dimensional vector and oscillator’s position-dependent friction coefficient.
The Hamiltonians corresponding to the Lagrangian is also explicitly time independent. The choice of functional form of the friction coefficient on the
oscillator position determines and plays a vital role in the form of the equation of motion classically and quantum mechanically. One choice of the form of the friction coefficient I made lead to breaking the symmetry of the isotropy of
oscillations in the three dimensional space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[244] **viXra:1710.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 07:28:35*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Vol. 29, Issue 2, pp. 361-371 (2016). https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00161-016-0536-8.

The virial theorem is considered for a system of randomly moving particles that are tightly bound to each other by the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, acceleration field and pressure field. The kinetic energy of the particles of this system is estimated by three methods, and the ratio of the kinetic energy to the absolute value of the energy of forces, binding the particles, is determined, which is approximately equal to 0.6. For simple systems in classical mechanics, this ratio equals 0.5. The difference between these ratios arises by the consideration of the pressure field and acceleration field inside the bodies, which make additional contribution to the acceleration of the particles. It is found that the total time derivative of the system’s virial is not equal to zero, as is assumed in classical mechanics for systems with potential fields. This is due to the fact that although the partial time derivative of the virial for stationary systems tends to zero, but in real bodies the virial also depends on the coordinates and the convective derivative of the virial, as part of the total time derivative inside the body, is not equal to zero. It is shown that the convective derivative is also necessary for correct description of the equations of motion of particles.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[243] **viXra:1710.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 09:51:42*

**Authors:** Vladimir Vasilenko

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 7 p., Russian

The hypothesis of real acceleration of time was proposed to explain a subjective acceleration of time at strong psychological stresses. The using of the single physical parameter k of acceleration of time of local system allow us to explain some of well known experimental date. It was shown due to principle of simultaneously, that the time of local system must be two-dimensional.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[242] **viXra:1710.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 12:45:01*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

outline of book project

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[241] **viXra:1710.0280 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-23 10:52:40*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 270 Pages.

preliminary version of a book about foundations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[240] **viXra:1710.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-24 04:45:19*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[239] **viXra:1710.0278 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-18 03:31:34*

**Authors:** Suehwan Jeong, Junho Yeo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Four Color Theorem (4CT) is the theorem stating that no more than four colors are required to color each part of a plane divided into finite parts so that no two adjacent parts have the same color. It was proven in 1976 by Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken, but in this paper, we will prove 4CT simply without computer resources.

**Category:** Topology

[238] **viXra:1710.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 00:47:59*

**Authors:** Sunil Thakur

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The theory of relativity’s concept o motion suggests that every observer must assume that his own frame of reference is always at rest; therefore, he must ascertain the state of the motion of all other entities in relation to his own frame of reference. In this article, we have shown that for every entity its own frame of reference actually behaves as if it is in the state of the absolute rest. Therefore, the motion of an entity has to be ascertained in relation to its own frame of reference. Thus, we have made only a slight but very significant change in the proposal of the theory of relativity. Our proposal is based on actual observations of how things behave.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[237] **viXra:1710.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 17:15:19*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, I.Yu. Obuhovskiy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 4 p. Russian

Glaciologists and historians of architecture discovered that at the end of the last freezing, the North geographical pole of Earth moved approximately to 20o from territory of Greenland to modern position. Our model allowed to estimate the depth of immersion of locality in an ocean in Portugal (near 4км) and in Mesopotamia (about 500 м). Results well comport with the conclusions of ДНК-genealogy on Turkey and biology on Crimea.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[236] **viXra:1710.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 17:49:56*

**Authors:** Ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The idea of time dilation was initially proposed by Einstein in 1905 as one component/consequence of the theory of special relativity (SR). Based on a thought, not real, experiment it maintains that a light clock which is moving away from an observer with a constant speed, goes slower in comparison with a stationary clock. This slower tick is imagined in a clock which is positioned so that the direction of light movement within the clock at rest is perpendicular to the direction of the relative movement of the clock, φ=90⁰.
It is shown in [2] that the idea of length contraction and time dilation is not supported by Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. It is argued further here that the thought experiment did not try, for no obvious reason, to test the clock function in any other angles, i.e. φ<90⁰. It is shown that if the clock so positioned that φ<90⁰ not only the clock on average goes even more slower but also the ticks become irregular. One tick is slower and the following one is faster than the tick of the stationary clock. This irregularity is worse when φ=0⁰. The first problem can be corrected by another component of SR, namely, length contraction. However, irregular ticks are left untouched by the theory.
Also, in SR the tick of the clock is studied when it only moves away from the observer. Moreover, no associated time delay is considered in the tick. It is shown that a related time delay or time advance must be considered in the ticks when the clock moves away from or returns to the observer, respectively. Time dilation, thus, was proposed based on incomplete analysis of one thought experiment and not all-inclusive analysis of real experiments necessary for developing a scientific theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[235] **viXra:1710.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-30 06:58:56*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is confirmed that a photon is the kinetic energy detached from an electron, and, the kinetic energy of an electron is undulation created in space, because of the wave length of bright line spectrum of light.
The wavelength of the bright line spectrum of light from a hydrogen atom is explained by Niels Henrik David Bohr's hydrogen atom model. But, I assumed that "the energy and momentum of a photon " were equal to "electronic kinetic energy", in the unique way from Bohr's hydrogen atom model, and it was confirmed that the wavelengths of the bright line spectrums of light from a hydrogen atom were calculated correctly. This thing means that electronic kinetic energy becomes a photon separated from an electron. Moreover, it means that the direction and velocity of a traveling photon is different from well-known ones of light which is generally admitted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[234] **viXra:1710.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 22:19:51*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Some clarifying statements are made concerning the ability for a star to create life essentially from scratch. This paper is to set the stage for future statistical analysis of the probabilities involved, and only contains simple generalizations. This paper will need to be edited in the future, but that is because the idea of evolving stars being the location for the beginning of life is still new.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[233] **viXra:1710.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 23:14:04*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the average of a sequence in Primes Basis.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[232] **viXra:1710.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-24 01:42:13*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages. submitted to Physics Letters B

Recently, solutions to the $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson equation were found [2] with cosmological applications. We were able to obtain a value for the vacuum energy density of the same order of magnitude as the extremely small observed vacuum energy density, and explained the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature. In this work we show how to obtain a value for the vacuum energy density which coincides $exactly$ with the extremely small observed vacuum energy density.
This construction allows also to borrow the results over the past two decades pertaining the study of the Renormalization Group (RG) within the context of Weinberg's
Asymptotic Safety scenario. The RG flow behavior of $ G $ shows that $ G $ $increases$ with distance, so that the magnitude of the repulsive force exemplified by $ - G < 0 $ becomes larger, and larger, as the universe expands. This is what is observed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[231] **viXra:1710.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-24 03:18:24*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Разрушение космических объектов может быть вызвано изменением энергетической плотности пространства на пути их движения.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[230] **viXra:1710.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-24 03:43:27*

**Authors:** Nikitin V., Nikitin I.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Steady growth of number of riddles of the mysterious Universe is a sign of imperfection of the existing theories and ideas of the world around that promotes creation of cardinally new alternative ideas and theories. The new ideas have to be penetrative and are clear to everyone, to promote adequate perception of reality and to be most interconnected among themselves and with the existing scientific knowledge. In this case, the alternative ideas inevitably will become penetrative! Results of long-term theoretical researches of structure and evolution of the Universe are given in interrelation with climatic cataclysms and physical properties of Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[229] **viXra:1710.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 06:21:13*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the average of a sequence in Primes Basis.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[228] **viXra:1710.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 06:45:18*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In english and portuguese. A better translation of the my article published at Transactions on Mathematics (TM) Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2017, pp. 34-37.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[227] **viXra:1710.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 06:57:37*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Submitted to Prespacetime Journal

In the reading Nyambuya (2015), we proposed a hypothetical state of the Hydrogen atom whose name we coined 'Neutronium'. That is to say, in the typical Hydrogen atom, the Electron is assumed to orbit the Proton, while in the Neutronium, the converse is assumed, i.e., the Proton orbits the Electron. In the present reading, we present some seductive argument which lead us to think that this Neutronium may actually be the usual Neutron that we are used to know. That is to say, we show that under certain assumed conditions, a free Neutronium may be unstable while a non-free Neutronium is stable in its confinement. Given that a free Neutron is stable in it confinement of the nucleus and unstable where free with a lifetime of ∼ 15 min, one wonders whether or not this Neutronium might be the Neutron if we are to match the lifetime of a free Neutronium to that of a free Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[226] **viXra:1710.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 07:56:01*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This note presents some fractals related with the function: f(z)=((1-z^5)^2/(1+z^10))-z

**Category:** Geometry

[225] **viXra:1710.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 08:03:39*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This note presents three formulas involving pi and some fractals.

**Category:** Number Theory

[224] **viXra:1710.0262 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-28 03:31:49*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Notice they way a lot of molecules tend to form tetrahedrally?

A tetrahedron is the opposite diagonal corners of a cube.

And the reason being: electrons form a thread-mesh-type cage around the nucleus. Certain sizes are of course the 8 corners of a cube -- that's what the octet rule is and how it happens. It also explains Pi bonds, Sigma bonds and all atomic structures.

A lot of atoms and molecules have a bond angle of exactly 109.4712° (degrees). That's tetrahedral. -- corners of the cube.

That is NOT probability.

It is NOT a cloud.

It is NOT a blur.

It is NOT uncertainty.

It is NOT counterintuitive.

IT IS EXACT.

Electrons DO NOT have any probability or uncertainty involved

Electrons actually are something but everyone mistakenly thinks the vibration travelling around the thread is the electron -- that's what has caused all the confusion.

The electron is conveying vibrations but the material it is made from (quantum threads) are NOT moving..

EXAMPLE: Think guitar string -- the string itself would be the electron but everyone thinks the vibration or note is the electron.

That is why there is all kinds of probability and uncertainty -- the vibration is traveling around a spherical thread mesh cage -- where exactly is the vibration? No way to know for sure.

Got that? The electron has exact position. The vibration position is of course unknown.

NOTE: Heisenberg would be OK with this. A vibration of course has uncertain position

**Category:** Chemistry

[223] **viXra:1710.0261 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-01 10:20:35*

**Authors:** Russell Leidich

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD) quantifies the “information distance” between a pair of probability distributions. (A more generalized version, which is beyond the scope of this paper, is given in [1]. It extends this divergence to arbitrarily many such distributions. Related divergences are presented in [2], which is an excellent summary of existing work.)

A couple of novel applications for this divergence are presented herein, both of which involving sets of whole numbers constrained by some nonzero maximum value. (We’re primarily concerned with discrete applications of the JSD, although it’s defined for analog variables.) The first of these, which we can call the “Jensen-Shannon divergence transform” (JSDT), involves a sliding “sweep window” whose JSD with respect to some fixed “needle” is evaluated at each step as said window moves from left to right across a superset called a “haystack”.

The second such application, which we can call the “Jensen-Shannon exodivergence transform” (JSET), measures the JSD between a sweep window and an “exosweep”, that is, the haystack minus said window, at all possible locations of the latter. The JSET turns out to be exceptionally good at detecting anomalous contiguous subsets of a larger set of whole numbers.

We then investigate and attempt to improve upon the shortcomings of the JSD and the related Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD).

[222] **viXra:1710.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 00:18:18*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 6

For the first time it is shown that diffusion and drift of ideal gas molecules
in the gravitational field create a temperature gradient on altitude, not
equalize temperature over all volume. The case of heat-insulated gas with
default both convection and adiabatic expansion was considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[221] **viXra:1710.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 00:38:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of Universe’s Way Of Recursively Finding The Next Term Of Any Sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[220] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-03 16:58:34*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Richard Feynman said in the 80s: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!". In fact, Armand Wyler had pointed out in 1969 that (9/16\[Pi]^3)(\[Pi]/5!)^1/4 is close to 1/137 (2), but failed to convince anyone that his explanation of the connection -that the number is a property of a 7-dimensional space-time- was viable. In this note, it is suggested that the reason for the closeness of another expression to 1/137 is, not a numerical curiosity, but -ironically- an indicator of the truth of a multi-dimensional physical theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[219] **viXra:1710.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 04:19:04*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Small KiloNova Merger Black Holes could be the origin of micro lensing Dark Matter Micro QSO Galaxy Halo population and 511 KeV Halo point sources.
Halton Arp was the first astronomer who observed accelerating QSO objects ( Quasi Stellar Objects or Quasars) out of the galaxy into the halo sphere.
Now we suggest (according to Quantum FFF Theory) that dark matter is the same as black holes small or large , which are assumed to accelerate away from local gravity centers just as observed by H.Arp.
At the same time it is assumed that the dark matter structure of the galaxy halo is mainly based on small black holes formed by Neutron star mergers.
Reason to search for so called gravitational micro QSO lensing events in the MW halo also called MACHO, Masco or Salco.
A second Halo postulation, is that the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles. This Big Crunch real particle based nucleus created the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice and numerous chunky nuclei of massive dark matter black holes.
The oscillating vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame of flux tubes, and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time.
The local lattice length is called Planck length, which is assumed to vary dependent on the distance to local vacuum absorbers in the form of black hole nuclei, which grow continuously, in contrast with the so called Hawking evaporation of black holes.
The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons are not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions, however with less impulse than the vacuum dark energy particles.
As a consequence, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[218] **viXra:1710.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 23:23:19*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A LITTLE LATE TO THE PARTY

At this point in time they are debating whether or not space is empty? But the magnetic compass has been around for thousands of years.

With a simple compass you can easily verify:

● There is something filling supposed empty space.

● Whatever is filling space is also lining-up

● Whatever is lining-up also has a direction.

Can General or Special Relativity explain something in space is lining-up and having a direction? Of course not.

String theory with tiny vibration strings can also absolutely NOT explain it.

The supposed Higgs Field does NOT explain it.

There is nothing in the Standard Model that can explain it.

Loop Quantum Gravity? Quantum Mechanics? Nope, nothing explains it.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[217] **viXra:1710.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 05:35:40*

**Authors:** John E. Miller

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Much of the S.M. in Physics defining Solar System orbits is founded on corruption of Maths. standard rules.By correcting Newton's gravitational equations and correctly applying Kepler's constant to Dark Matter/ Dark Energy mass. It is possible to define mechanical physics in lieu of math. symbols to create orbits.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[216] **viXra:1710.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 05:39:32*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** Pages.

Space-Time Doesn't Have A Surface To Ripple

The "fabric of space" cannot ripple like they say.

If you have 2 bowling balls on the surface of swimming pool water and attach them together and spin them -- yes, they will create the sine wave traveling ripple.

But if the bowling balls are underwater -- completely immersed in the water -- the traveling "ripple" will NOT be able to propagate (happen) and it will immediately fizz-out. There is no mechanism to keep the up and down movement going whilst under water.

Black holes and or neutron stars are also completely immersed in space-time. Space time is filling space -- everything is completely immersed in it.

Gravitational waves cannot be transverse ripples like those on top of water.

One type of wave that a gravitational wave can be is a compression type wave -- like sound.

The funny thing is: even though they designed the detector for the wrong type of wave -- the detector can detect the other type -- the compression wave..

A compression would be easily detected by LIGO

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[215] **viXra:1710.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 06:15:08*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work we discuss the motion of quantum particles when they are viewed as three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds by extending the isometric transformations in classical physics to the isometric embedding between smooth manifolds. According to the Whitney embedding theorem, in order to smoothly embed three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds we would need an ambient six-dimensional Euclidean space. As has been shown in our previous works, a six-dimensional Minkowski pseudo-Euclidean spacetime can be obtained by extending one-dimensional temporal continuum to three-dimensional temporal manifold. While the question of whether it is possible to smoothly embed three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds in six-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean spacetime remains, we will show that it is possible to apply the principle of relativity and the postulate of a universal speed to formulate a special theory of relativity in which the geometry of spacetime has a positive definite metric by modifying the Lorentz transformation. The modified Lorentz transformation gives rise to new interesting features, such as there is no upper limit for the relative speed between inertial reference frames, the assumed universal speed is not the speed of any physical object or physical field but rather the common speed of expansion of the spatial space of all inertial frames. Furthermore, we also show that when the relative speed approaches infinite values, there will be a conversion between space and time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[214] **viXra:1710.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 09:46:21*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple estimate is presented that raises doubts whether the new and spectacular observations of
gravitational waves by the LIGO collaboration can be attributed unambiguously to black-hole mergers.
In addition, with the advent of the VIRGO detector running, a test of the polarization character of
gravitational waves has become possible and a corresponding analysis of the data should be envisaged.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[213] **viXra:1710.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-28 02:34:37*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Operated by the superphase processes, *Field Evolutions *give rise to the natural horizons and develop the comprehensive intrinsics that result in a broad range of applications to characterize the behaviors of the elementary particles, prevailing throughout the following contexts, but are not limited to,

*Law of Field Evolution*uncoils the secrets ofas a chain of the evolutionary and imperative processes of the implicit creation, explicit reproduction, and transitional*Double Loops of Triple Entanglements**Gauge*invariance.- Remarkably, it derives
*Yang-Mills*action that transposes seamlessly a duality of triplet synergy among elementary particle fields into modern physics of electroweak interaction, strong nuclear forces of chromodynamics, and*Standard Model*of particle physics. - Finally, a
is formulated concisely and demonstrates a holistic quantum equation of the horizon fields that unifies the four fundamental forces in terms of a set of*General Horizon Infrastructure of Quantum Evolutions**Lagrangians*.

Consequently, this universal and unified field theory complies precisely with and extends further in answer to the empirical and contemporary physics of quantum chromodynamics and *Standard Model*.

[212] **viXra:1710.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-24 07:05:16*

**Authors:** Jalal Jafari

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article, we will state equivalency of time space and energy on basis of vector attribution of time and space, special relativity principle, and electrodynamics. Also, we will state the relation of electromagnetic radiation which has emerged from acceleration of charged particle as a result of change in time and space orthogonality. We will indicate that acceleration of charged particle makes places with equal energy and these places have equal angles in time and space direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[211] **viXra:1710.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 15:27:42*

**Authors:** V.S.Vasilenko, P.I.Kohanovskiy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 5 р. Russian. Odessa State Enveronmental University

The new method of the high-fidelity measuring of resistances was proposed. A Wheatstone bridge was used with two unknown base resistors of R1 and R2 in one branch, the resistance decade boxes and unknown resistance Rx was plugged in other branch. By the selection of Rm1 of resistance decade boxes bridge was balanced. R1 and R2 switched places then. By the selection of Rm2 of resistance decade boxes the bridge was balanced in second times. Unknown resistance settled accounts on the formula of Rx=(Rm1•Rm2)1/2.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[210] **viXra:1710.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 16:34:08*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 2 Pages. None.

Note on Combinatorics.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[209] **viXra:1710.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 16:35:07*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 1 Page. None.

Mathematical Closure.

**Category:** Algebra

[208] **viXra:1710.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 16:35:58*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Riemann-Zeta Note.

None.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[207] **viXra:1710.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 16:36:56*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 2 Pages. None.

None.

**Category:** Number Theory

[206] **viXra:1710.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 16:38:41*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 3 Pages. None.

None.

**Category:** Statistics

[205] **viXra:1710.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 16:39:39*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 4 Pages. None.

None.

**Category:** Number Theory

[204] **viXra:1710.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 16:40:29*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 5 Pages. None.

None.

**Category:** Geometry

[203] **viXra:1710.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-23 04:55:36*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The hypothesis is presented that pulsar-time is geodetic precession rotation time, in both the causal sense and the quantitative sense (T-pulsar exactly equals T-geodetic). The causal sense implies the hypothesis that, in the outer crust of the neutron star, the curvature of the metric favors alignment of elementary particle magnetic moments along the geodetic precession. A consequence of this hypothesis is the partial decoupling of pulsar time and orbital rotation time. For a ``canonical'' neutron star, with 1.4 solar mass and a radius of 10 km, this implies that T-orbit equals approximately one fifth of T-pulsar. The pulsar time as being geodetic precession time explains the extreme stability of pulsar frequencies, despite strong magnetic turbulences. It also quite naturally explains the tilted axis of the neutron stars magnetic moment relative to its orbital axis. The hypothesis is formulated within the environment of the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild Weyl Space Free Fall Grid approach as developed in two previous papers, but it should be theory independent and thus be derivable in GR-Schwarzschild as well.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[202] **viXra:1710.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 07:34:40*

**Authors:** Arayik Emilevich Danghyan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In this paper, by solving the equations of the relativistic M2 [2] it will show that elementary
particles, such as electrons, can contain the wave process with very specific properties. The wave
model of a stationary electron is represented in the form of a spherical wave process.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[201] **viXra:1710.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-13 08:35:50*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

Quantum mechanics differential equations are based on the de Broglie postulate. This paper presents the repercussions on quantum mechanics differential equations when the de Broglie wavelength is replaced by a relation between the radius and the relativistic energy of a particle. This relation results from a theoretical work about the interaction of charged particles, where the particles are modelled as focal points of rays of fundamental particles with longitudinal and transversal angular momentum. Interaction of subatomic particles is described as the interaction of the angular momenta of their fundamental particles. The relationship between the solution of the differential equation for a radial Coulomb field and the Correspondence Principle is presented. All four known forces are the result of electromagnetic interactions, so that only QED is required to describe them. The potential well of an atomic nucleus is shown with the regions that are responsible for the four type of interactions defined in quantum mechanics. Also the compatibility of the gravitation model derived in the theoretical work with quantum mechanics is shown, model where gravitation is the result of the reintegration of migrated electrons and positrons to their nuclei.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[200] **viXra:1710.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 10:32:06*

**Authors:** Anders Lindman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The fundamental set theory (FST) is defined as an axiomatic set theory using nonclassical three-valued logic in the foundation and classical two-valued logic in its applications. In this way the nonclassical logic becomes encapsulated and is only used for resolving inconsistencies such as Russell's paradox.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[199] **viXra:1710.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 14:55:42*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 23 Pages. 2 tables, 3 figures

In a previous paper we have related rest energy to magnetodynamic energy for the baryons. The hypothesis of a zitterbewegung vibrating motion is essential to the scheme. To impose gauge invariance to the model and the continuity of the wavefunctions, we adopted the criterion that the magnetic flux linked through the region covered by the particle vibrations should be quantized in units n of hc/e. Our results, however, displayed some “scattering” of the data around the theoretical line, which was not analyzed in that previous work. To elucidate this point, the imposition of a fixed criterion on the possible values for n has been replaced in the present paper by the calculation of n from the model equations. Such procedure led to advances in our interpretation of mass in terms of magnetodynamic energy. It has now been shown that the data actually follow a sinusoidal pattern in a plot of mass against n. The previous criterion implied the exclusive existence of fully coherent wavefunctions ( several baryons indeed comply with strict flux quantization), but the sinusoidal behavior can be attributed to additional interference involving also incoherent waves, which are now introduced in the model. Therefore, confined magnetic flux modulates currents which cross through internal boundaries ( or topological constraints) inside baryons, in analogy with transport through Josephson Junctions between superconductors. This results in the undulations observed in our new plots of n against the magnetic moments of particles, and of the mass against n for all baryons. The proposal by A.O.Barut in the 1970s that every baryon contains a proton as constituent is also consistent with our data analysis, as well as the conclusion that inner constituents of baryons manifest as correlated unit-charged quasiparticles of topology dictated by the symmetry properties of each baryon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[198] **viXra:1710.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 13:25:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have found ways to test aspects of the Tomonaga–Luttinger theory that describes interacting quantum particles in 1-D ensembles in a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL). [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[197] **viXra:1710.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 19:02:52*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

"There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e \[Dash] the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" Not to be put too fine a point on it, I know exactly what kind of dance to do on the computer to makes this number come out, without putting it in secretly...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[196] **viXra:1710.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 23:29:29*

**Authors:** Paris S. Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 60 Pages. Grand Unified Theory of Electromagnetism Updated

The proposal of this thesis formulation is that of the development, design, and creation of a `Light Gyroscope' which is the formulation of a method to bal- ance light on a point with all such other light in existence; as an emanation of di erence between light and darkness; for which there is a balance between complete physical form and nonphysical formlessness; from that of a non-dual relation of physical electrical component design of general form of an in nite cascade of quarter wave re ectors of nite dimension and volume; of the nature for which an in nite cascade non related to that of the quadrature condition of elliptic function is met with a dual to an in nite cascade of ordinary elliptic operator solutions as their dual sine wave harmonic functions of free extension in space, time, and quanti able moment of temporal singular event structure; for which there exists an in nitely encompassed volumetric space of in nite dimension by co-parallelism of electricity and magnetism of no form other than topological nature; with in nite depth of four fold relation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[195] **viXra:1710.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 03:45:00*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Кометы зарождались во внешних планетах Солнечной системы. Красное пятно на Юпитере является наглядным примером начального этапа формирования комет. Церера – остаток кометы Юпитера.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[194] **viXra:1710.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 03:53:33*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 28 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work claims to be a theory of everything (theory of everything, ToE or TOE). This is not a mathematical fake with fifteen dimensions, but a real concept, based on a hypothetical model-medium with which all physical phenomena in the universe can be linked and explained. With the presented hypothetical model medium the forces of gravitation and mass inertia can be put on a common base. This also clarifies the presence of dark matter. The relativistic mass results as an inevitable consequence. Electrostatic force and magnetic force can be explained with the same concept without a distance force. For the Atomic model, there is a logical improvement.
This work is based on the findings made during the assignment of a real variable for the Coulomb charge unit. "What is Behind Coulomb" / http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0211
The free course for those thoughts with a model medium is given from the findings in "Mistakes and Contradictions in the Michelson Morley Experiment" / http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0211. There the heavy mistakes of the Michelson Morley experiment are proved and therefore the results of this experiment and the conclusions drawn from them are untenable.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[193] **viXra:1710.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 02:30:29*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Чёрные дыры способны не только притягивать к себе тела, но и выталкивать их изнутри.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[192] **viXra:1710.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 02:39:17*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Недостающая часть тёмной материи находится в Антивселенной со своими физическими законами.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[191] **viXra:1710.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 05:54:38*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. What is Charge, from what does it arise and, if discrete, why?

In the paper „ Physics is easy“ we showed, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton. Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles.
We show, that neutron is source β rays - β electrons ( bosons Zo, W+- too) , γ rays, electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, tauon neutrinos.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge, such as electron - Spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud has 4.57e + 14 electron orbits during 1 sec in the hydrogen atom for H alpha, and occupies a volume 2.7e-30m^3/s.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge, such as electron
in neutron - Spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud has 1,944e+25 electron orbits during 1 sec
Electron in neutron works analogically as electron in atom H.
Only their speeds are many times bigger.
Speed of electron in neutron: 0,999994c
Speed of electron in atom H: afnucleum: v/c = 0.0027212435663
perinucleum: v/c = 0.0027270653746
for Spectral line Hα 656.281 + - 1.4 nm
Speed of proton in neutron: 0,023337c
Speed of proton in atom : 0.0000636c
proton orbits around the center-of-mass with speedspeed 0,023337c,
and radiates γ ray.
In the "stable" neutron, electron orbits around the center-of-mass with speed greater than 0,999994c.
Proton is compact mass not making cocoon cloud.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[190] **viXra:1710.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 07:42:54*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

I search for concepts that would allow self-consistent generation of dressed fermions in theories of gravitation. Self-consistency means here having the Compton wave lengths of the same order of magnitude for all particles and the four interactions. To build the quarks and leptons of the standard model preons of spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0 have been introduced by the author. Classification of preons, quarks and leptons is provided by the two lowest representations of the quantum group SLq(2). Three extensions of general relativity are considered for self-consistency: (a) propagating and (b) non-propagating torsion theories in Einstein-Cartan spacetime and (c) a Kerr-Newman metric based theory in general relativity (GR). For self-consistency, the case (a) is not excluded, (b) is possible and (c) has been shown to provide it, reinforcing the preon model, too. Therefore I propose that semiclassical GR with its quantum extension (c) and the preon model will be considered a basis for unification of physics. The possibility remains that there are 'true' quantum gravitational phenomena at or near the Planck scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[189] **viXra:1710.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 08:20:23*

**Authors:** Divyendu Priyadarshi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I have argued that the Real Numbers do not form a set in the sense that they lack any specific character to define them. I am not a professional mathematician but a Physics teacher. So my arguments may lack mathematical precision. All suggestions and criticisms are heartily welcome.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[188] **viXra:1710.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 12:07:02*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This article is about robots, artificial intelligence, the real purpose of Nature and the role of humanity in this process. In a series of previous articles[1]-[5], the authors examined some questions of robot technology, human immortality as well as a totally electronic civilization. In those articles, it was also briefly mentioned the law of increase of complexity self-copying systems and the purpose of existence of mankind. In this brief extensive article that theme is presented in more detail which are developed and improved from the first iteration.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[187] **viXra:1710.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 23:09:13*

**Authors:** Anders Lindman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The set of standard numbers D is constructed from an axiom of infinite fraction sum together with the power set of the set of all rational numbers in the form 2^-n. The power set contains all possible infinite binary sequences who represent the fraction part of the standard numbers together with the integers for the whole number part. The set of standard numbers includes the rational numbers and forms a field (D, +, *) similar to, yet distinct from the set of real numbers R.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[186] **viXra:1710.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 07:14:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[185] **viXra:1710.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 07:26:39*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi=3.141592...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[184] **viXra:1710.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 09:46:07*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

In the following, it is shown that the Michelson & Morley experiment is subject to heavy mistakes. All considerations are based on the original publication, »AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, ARTICLE XXXVI On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether, by ALBERT A. MICHELSON and EDWARD W. MORLEY".
1. The experiment presents measurements and expects results in the evening at around 18:00. This is wrong! Anyone with a knowledge of the earth's rotation and the course around the sun can see that the Michelson and Morley experiment makes sense only at the high noon and at midnight. The "ether wind" is only at this time in the measurable direction to the measuring device. In the evening and in the morning, the ether wind is in any case perpendicular (from top to bottom or from bottom to top) to the horizontal measuring device.
2. The light path, as described, cannot be correct. The perpendicular deflected light path can never be against the "ether wind".
3. Intellectual bases for the experiment are incomplete and therefore incorrect. The assumptions and conditions do not correspond with the mathematics for this experiment.
At the end is only one conclusion possible: The Michelson and Morley experiment is very roughly mistaken and therefore the results must be considered irrelevant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[183] **viXra:1710.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-19 20:09:02*

**Authors:** Huai-Yi Xie

**Comments:** 115 Pages.

In this paper, we have derived planar multilayer dyadic Green’s functions by Fourier expansion method and have checked its correctness by comparing results for reflected electric fields from dipole emissions near such structures available in previous literature. Furthermore, we show how these dyadic Green’s functions can be applied to calculate reflected fields from a dipole source with arbitrary orientations. We believe our formulation will be powerful in the modeling of molecular fluorescence near these structures.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[182] **viXra:1710.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-20 00:17:49*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

After applying the recently proposed Bohm-Poisson equation [1] to the observable Universe as a $whole$, and by introducing an ultraviolet (very close to the Planck scale) and an infrared (Hubble radius) scale, one can naturally obtain a value for the vacuum energy density which coincides $exactly$ with the extremely small observed vacuum energy density, and explain the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature. Because Bohm's formulation of QM is by construction non-local, it is this non-locality which casts light into the crucial ultraviolet/infrared entanglement of the Planck/Hubble scales which was required in order to obtain the observed value of the vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[181] **viXra:1710.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 06:19:34*

**Authors:** S. O. Ilyin

**Comments:** 34 Pages. in Russian

A series of rheological properties of the main components (saturated compounds, light and heavy aromatic compounds, resins and asphaltenes), extracted from a typical sample of heavy oil extracted in tatarstan (russia), were consistently investigated. The viscosity and viscoelastic characteristics of these components are measured in a wide range of temperatures and deformation conditions, as well as their solutions in tetralin. Saturated hydrocarbons behave in a manner similar to paraffin oil, i. E. Demonstrate viscous-plastic behavior at low temperatures. For light aromatic compounds, non-newtonian behavior is characteristic, and heavy aromatic compounds, as well as resins and asphaltenes, behave like newtonian fluids. In their totality, the anomalous-rheological effects practically do not affect the rheology of heavy oil, which can be regarded as a newtonian fluid over a wide range of temperatures. The most significant value for the viscosity of heavy oil is the interaction of resins and asphaltenes. Concentration dependences of the viscosity of these components are qualitatively similar, but the viscosity of solutions of asphaltenes at high concentrations is much higher than the viscosity of equicomponent resin solutions. This reflects a lower critical concentration of asphaltenes, at which their formation occurs (up to the formation of graphene), compared to resins. An investigation of the rheology of the model "artificial" oil, from which the resins were removed, but contained a different amount of asphaltenes, showed that in this case the viscosity was higher than in the original oil. This indicates a stabilizing effect of the resins, which most likely contribute to the formation of emulsions, preventing further structure formation of the asphaltenes.

**Category:** Chemistry

[180] **viXra:1710.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-26 07:20:12*

**Authors:** Seshavatharam U.V.S, Lakshminarayana. S

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Dedicated to Dr. Abdus Salam sir

To have a unified model of nuclear quantum gravity, it seems quite reasonable to consider a large nuclear gravitational constant, $G_s \cong \left(3.3\pm 0.03\right) times 10^{28}$ $m^3/kg/sec^2$ . In this context, we show practical applications pertaining to micro physics as well as macro physics. We would like to suggest that: (1) $G_s$ plays a crucial role in understanding quantum theory of light, photoelectric work functions, superconductivity, nuclear binding energy, nuclear root mean square charge radii, root mean square radius of proton, neutron life time, neutron-proton mass difference, nuclear stability, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, weak coupling angle, Fermi’s weak coupling constant, proton melting point and total energy of electron in Hydrogen atom etc.; (2) Nuclear binding energy can be understood with a single energy coefficient of magnitude 10 MeV. (3) Newtonian gravitational constant $G_N$ and the proposed $G_s$ play a joint role in understanding neutron star mass generation as well as proton mass generation; and (4) Considering $G_s$ as a characteristic feature of magnetism, celestial bodies ‘mass dependent’ magnetic dipole moments can be estimated. (5) Magnitude of $G_N$ can certainly be estimated from microscopic elementary physical constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[179] **viXra:1710.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 13:34:47*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

Starting from the deviation «of the good order» that Coulomb / Ampere disappears in energies, it was shown that behind the in the abstract unit Coulomb is a real value, composed of kilograms, meters and seconds. This gives the field equations a real substance which can represent power and energy in real terms. The results are indicative of a (forbidden) "model medium" without concluding that a medium exists in reality. The logic and physical beauty of this system is overwhelming.
Ausgehend von der stossenden Abweichung «von der guten Ordnung», dass Coulomb/Ampere bei Energierechnungen verschwindet wurde aufgezeigt, dass hinter der abstrakten Einheit Coulomb ein realer Wert, zusammengesetzt aus Kilogramm, Metern und Sekunden zu finden ist. Dadurch bekommen die Feldgleichungen eine reale Substanz welche Leistung und Energie real darstellen kann.
Die Resultate ergeben Indizien auf ein (verbotenes) "Modell-Medium", ohne zu folgern, dass ein Medium in Realität existiert. Die Logik und physikalische Schönheit dieser Systematik ist überwältigend.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[178] **viXra:1710.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 14:30:33*

**Authors:** N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Manchester Coding & Applications - SmartWatch Applications-SAML21

Smart Watches are modern devices involving cutting edge technologies in all aspects of working and
communicating with the surrounding environments by detecting parameters and also providing a means
to transmit the related data for further processing via Computers/Tablets/Smart Phones etc..We wish to
highlight the importance of “Manchester Coding” in the context of Smart Watches based on Micro-
controllers for example SAML21 Series from ATMEL.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[177] **viXra:1710.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 15:14:30*

**Authors:** Leif R. Uppström, Daniel Uppström

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In mathematical literature it is asked for a computable function or efficient algorithm to find all, or at least a large subset, of the prime numbers. This paper shows that all primes can be characerised by their reciprocal period length *L* and its figure value *R*. These parameters are given for each prime after inversion to an infinitely repeated period and are used to group all primes into disjoint sets that arise as a function of a geometric progression. This theory suggests new ways to enumerate and find large primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[176] **viXra:1710.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 23:07:44*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[175] **viXra:1710.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 23:30:00*

**Authors:** Felix M Lev

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

In our previous publications we argue that finite mathematics is fundamental, classical mathematics (involving such notions as infinitely small/large, continuity etc.) is a degenerate special case of finite one, and ultimate quantum theory will be based on finite mathematics. We consider a finite quantum theory (FQT) based on a finite field or ring with a large characteristic $p$ and show that standard continuous quantum theory is a special case of FQT in the formal limit $p\to\infty$. Space and time are purely classical notions and are not present in FQT at all. In the present paper we discuss how classical equations of motions arise as a consequence of the fact that $p$ changes, i.e. $p$ is the evolution parameter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[174] **viXra:1710.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 01:55:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

An asymmetry must exist here somewhere but we simply do not understand where the difference is. What is the source of the symmetry break? [13] They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[173] **viXra:1710.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 02:50:41*

**Authors:** Juan Moreno Borrallo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper it is proved that the sum of consecutive prime numbers under the square root of a given natural number is asymptotically equivalent to the prime counting function. Also, it is proved another asymptotic relationship between the sum of the first prime numbers up to the integer part of the square root of a given natural number and the prime counting function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[172] **viXra:1710.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 09:03:46*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[171] **viXra:1710.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 09:07:50*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages. in Russian

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given. \\ Приводится решение уравнений Максвелла для конденсатора с переменным напряжением, которое является развитием непротиворечивого (соответствующего закону сохранения энергии) решения уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Показано, что в электромагнитной волне, распространяющейся через конденсатор, поток электромагнитной энергии не изменяется во времени. Показано, что существует продольная (вдоль радиуса) стоячая электромагнитная волна.
Для простой проверки полученных выводов приводится подробное доказательство.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[170] **viXra:1710.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 11:44:37*

**Authors:** Shivam Bansal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There are a lot of educational videos online which are in English and inaccessible to 80% population of the world. This paper presents a process to translate a video into another language by creating its transcript and using TTS to produce synthesized fragments of speech. It introduces an algorithm which synthesyses intelligent, synchronized, and easily understandable audio by combining those fragments of speech. This algorithm is also compared to an algorithm from another research paper on the basis of performance.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[169] **viXra:1710.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-12 11:16:19*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We consider how inertia appears in the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The phenomenon of inertia is explained for the case of the presence of symmetry in the wave function. For the rest of cases, inertia was derived from principle of causality.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[168] **viXra:1710.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 14:47:30*

**Authors:** Chuanli Chen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, based on my previous price theory, I will put forward my own labor
market price determination theory, I will discuss the determination of price under
different situations.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[167] **viXra:1710.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 23:37:12*

**Authors:** Hongbing Zhang

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The geometric significance of complex numbers is well known, such as the meaning of imaginary unit i is to rotate a vector with pi/2, etc. In this article, we will try to find some intuitive geometric significances of Pauli matrices, split-complex numbers, SU(2), SO(3), and their relations, and some other operators often used in quantum physics, including a new method to lead to the spinor-space and Dirac equation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[166] **viXra:1710.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 23:42:10*

**Authors:** Hongbing Zhang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In history, the problem of Johann Bernoulli's Brachistochrone Curve (BBC) was assumed the case that the force of gravity on the falling body is constant, for example, the case of near the surface of the Earth. In this article, we will propose and solve a new problem of the General Brachistochrone Curve (GBC), in case of the body falling in a large space of Newton gravity field, or in stronger Newton gravity field, in which the force of gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the height above the center of the star or planet.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[165] **viXra:1710.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-02 20:34:33*

**Authors:** Hongbing Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The metric tensor of Minkowski space-time, the electromagnetic field tensor, etc., are usually represented by 4x4 matrices in many textbooks, but in this paper we will demonstrate that this form of matrix-representation is unreasonable. We will introduce more reasonable rules of matrix-form for representing any (p,q)-type tensor.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[164] **viXra:1710.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 01:23:27*

**Authors:** Chuanli Chen

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper I will put forward my own interest theory. I will discuss the factors that
could influence the real interest rate. I will discuss the relationship between the
interest, money supply and money demand.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[163] **viXra:1710.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 05:22:01*

**Authors:** Wilmer Ortiz Choez, Marcos Quinteros Cortázar, Shirley Huerta Cruz, Katiuska Rubira Carvache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recently, neutrosophic cognitive maps and its
application in decision making have become a topic of great importance for researchers and practitioners alike. In this paper, a new model PEST analysis is presented based on neutrosophic cognitive maps static analysis. The proposed framework is composed of five activities, identifying PEST factors and
sub-factors, modelling interrelation among PEST
factors, calculate centrality measures, factor classification, and factors ranking. A case study developed in environment analysis for a vertical farming project was presented, ranking factor based in interrelation and incorporating indeterminacy in the analysis. Further works will concentrate extending the model for incorporating scenario analysis.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[162] **viXra:1710.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 05:23:34*

**Authors:** Evelyn Jazmín Henríquez Antepara, Oscar Omar Apolinario Arzube, Jorge Arturo Chicala Arroyave, Eduardo Antonio Alvarado Unamuno, Maikel Leyva Vazquez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently, neutrosophic sets and its application
to decision making have become a topic of significant im-portance for researchers and practitioners. The present work addresses one of the most complex aspects of the formative process based on competencies: evaluation. In this paper, a new method for competencies evaluation is
developed in a multicriteria framework.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[161] **viXra:1710.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 05:24:39*

**Authors:** Yingcang Ma, Wanying Zhou, Qing Wan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Rough sets theory is a powerful tool to deal with uncertainty and incompleteness of knowledge in information systems. Wang et al. proposed single valued neutrosophic sets as an extension of intuitionistic fuzzy sets to deal with real-world problems. In this paper, we propose the covering-based rough single valued neutrosophic sets by combining covering-based rough sets and single valued neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[160] **viXra:1710.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 05:25:46*

**Authors:** Silvia Liliana Tejada Yepez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets and its application to decision support have become a topic of great importance for researchers and practitioners alike. In this paper, a new model for decision making in the selection of information system projects is presented based on single valued neutrosophic number (SVN-numbers) allowing the use of linguistic variables with multiples points of view from experts.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[159] **viXra:1710.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 05:26:53*

**Authors:** R. Anitha Cruz, F. Nirmala Irudayam

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The P-union, P-intersection, P-OR and P-AND
of neutrosophic soft cubic sets are introduced and their related properties are investigated. We show that the Punion and the P-intersection of two internal neutrosophic soft cubic sets are also internal neutrosophic soft cubic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[158] **viXra:1710.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 05:35:31*

**Authors:** Ronald Barriga Dias, Wilmer Ortiz Choez, Inelda Martillo Alcivar, Wilber Ortiz Aguilar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Software engineers are involved in complex decisions that require multiples viewpoints. A specific case is the requirement prioritization process. This process is used to decide which software requirement to develop in certain release from a group of candidate requirements. Criteria involved in this process can involve indeterminacy. In this paper a software requirement prioritization model is develop based SVN numbers. Finally, an illustrative example is presented in order to show the proposed model.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[157] **viXra:1710.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 05:36:23*

**Authors:** Pinaki Majumdar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The notion of entropy of single valued
neutrosophic sets (SVNS) was first introduced by
Majumdar and Samanta in [10]. In this paper some
problems with the earlier definition of entropy has been pointed out and a new modified definition of entropy for SVNS has been proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[156] **viXra:1710.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 07:10:03*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The paper proposes a new technique for dealing
with multi-attribute decision making problems
through an extended TOPSIS method under neutrosophic cubic environment. Neutrosophic cubic set is the generalized form of cubic set and is the hybridization of a neutrosophic
set with an interval neutrosophic set. In this
study, we have defined some operation rules for neutrosophic cubic sets and proposed the Euclidean distance between neutrosophic cubic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[155] **viXra:1710.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 07:11:01*

**Authors:** Sabu Sebastian, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we generalize the definition of
Neutrosophic sets and present a method for extending crisp functions on Neutrosophic sets and study some properties of such extended functions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1710.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 07:12:13*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Rumi Roy, Tapan Kumar Roy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we define correlation coefficient
measure between any two rough neutrosophic sets. We also prove some of its basic properties. We develop a new multiple attribute group decision making method based on the proposed correlation coefficient measure.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[153] **viXra:1710.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 07:13:21*

**Authors:** Xiaohong Zhang, Yingcang Ma, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a new mathematical tool
for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. Pseudo-BCI algebra is a kind of non-classical logic algebra in close connection with various non-commutative fuzzy logics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[152] **viXra:1710.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 07:15:08*

**Authors:** S. Broumi, A. Dey, A. Bakali, M. Talea, F. Smarandache, L. H. Son, D. Koley

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[151] **viXra:1710.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-25 20:36:58*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The process that produces electromagnetic wave harmonics and heterodynes are assumed to be well understood. The textbook definitions of these
terms are being tagged herein as cargo cult science because they are incomplete. The effects these term describe occur when electromagnetic waves, singularly or in combination, interact within a non-linear medium. The textbook descriptions of these terms are based upon fundamental electromagnetic waves, sine waves that
represent a single frequency, interactions that occur within electronic devices and interactions that are collinear. Each of these interactions are a special case. Radio astronomers are detecting signals coming from space that have spectral characteristics unlike anything taught in the textbooks. The manner in which textbooks describe EM wave interactions in nonlinear mediums can result in incorrect interpretation of spectral signatures. Radio astronomers need to be aware that artificial modification of the Earth's ionosphere can modify the signals they are detecting coming from celestial sources.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[150] **viXra:1710.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 13:00:37*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Autophagy is a well-known process of cell death. In this work we show that it can be actived in cancerous cells at Quasi-Zero Gravity environments. The result is the total destruction of the cancerous cells without use of medicaments.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[149] **viXra:1710.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 13:46:16*

**Authors:** Enrique Marcet Garcia, Eddy Martinez Padron, Marcelo Marcet Sanchez

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Nanofluids are considered to offer significantly more advantages in heat transfer than conventional fluids. Recently theoretical and experimental research papers appeared in the literature on thermophysical properties of nanofluids and enhancement of heat transfer using suspensions of nanoparticles. The aim of this review summarizes the results of research papers about thermophysical properties and forced convection heat transfer with nanofluids.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[148] **viXra:1710.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 13:48:15*

**Authors:** Enrique Marcet Garcia

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In many industrial applications where plants are used as raw material in the
production process, is important to perform a proper phytosanitary and quality
control. To perform these controls is possible by raw materials visual inspection,
however, to analyze texture and color in plants would allow
identifying/quantifying problems as: nutrient deficiencies; diseases (caused by
fungi, bacteria, etc.), as well as to identify problems in industrial process. The
aims of this paper are: (1) to develop free software (GPL) for texture analysis
(GLCM), color measurement (CIELab) and color-difference calculation using
CIEDE2000; (2) software application in the analysis of Moringa oleifera Lam
leaves. For programming the software we used Perl and wxBasic languages.
GNUplantex is easy-to-use software. It is available at:
http://www.2shared.com/file/tvzJPBy5/gnuplantex.html

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[147] **viXra:1710.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-16 14:04:05*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 7 Pages. (RUS)

This article discusses two grand cosmological events: an explosion of blue supergiant - a star Sanduleak-69º 202 to form Supernova SN1987A, which remains unexplained, compared with at least a grand merger event black holes GW150914, from which the LIGO Collaboration account gravitational wave (GW). From the point of view of the theory of energy - electrodynamics, developed by the author, in physical terms, these two events are not fundamentally different: in all cases, the motion of matter must be radiated GW as part of the whole spectrum of radiation. It is predicted, along with the gravitational, neutrino and photon radiation from GW150914. By analogy with SN1987A, in the case of the merger of black holes after GW150914 GW signal through 10720 s ± 4000 s (~3h 00m 00s ± 1h 06m 40s) to come back to Earth the first neutrino signal (if option is possible that the first neutrino signal came earlier gravity) through 112.9·106 s (~3.6 years) after gravitational signal - the second neutrino signal through 66.031·106 s (~ 2.0924 years) after which the photon flash should be observed. Neutrino signals can be recorded on the IceCube Neutrino Observatory and other neutrino observatories.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[146] **viXra:1710.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 01:35:25*

**Authors:** Choe Ryujin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Theorem of prime pair distribution

**Category:** Number Theory

[145] **viXra:1710.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 04:53:35*

**Authors:** Uta Volkenborn, Heinz Volkenborn

**Comments:** 10 pages, 2 figures

The fine-structure constant α=1⁄137 demands a quantization of space. For this purpose, we refer to a volume constant of electromagnetic processes, which takes effect as a volume quantum. This involves not only a re-evaluation of the Dirac equation but also, and above all, a determination of Einstein’s velocity vector as the fundamental property of these processes. A prerequisite is the linking of the hydrogen spectrum with the hydrogen nucleus.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[144] **viXra:1710.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-19 06:45:03*

**Authors:** XiaoLin Li

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new gravity theory. Gravity is a projection force from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The Lorentz symmetry is a projection of particle-wave symmetry from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The gravity is an additional projection force of Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity is an extension to Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity can be seen as some kind of symmetry. Gravity only exists in 4-dimensional space-time. In 5-dimensional space-time, there not have gravity. Equivalence principle is invalid in the new gravitation. In the new gravitation, there does not have gravitational acceleration. In the new gravitation, there only have inertial coordinates, not have non-inertial coordinates. In the new gravitation, the gravity source is only the rest mass, not energy. The particle can’t be the gravity source if the particle not has rest mass. The photon not has gravity. But any particle can be affected by gravity. The photon is affected by gravity also. The gravitational mass is only equivalent to the rest mass. Under approximate weak gravity and approximate circular orbit condition, the new gravitation is equivalent to the General Relativity. The four classic experimental tests, the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of mercury, the red shift of light by the sun, the radar echo delay, are experimental tests to the new gravitation also. But even under approximate weak gravity condition, if the orbit is not approximate circular, if the orbit has higher eccentricity, there exists obvious difference between the General Relativity and the new gravitation. This difference can be a experimental test to distinguish which one is more realistic. The space-time is flat in the new gravitation, not is curved. In the new gravitation, the energy is conserved. The new gravitation is simpler than the General Relativity. In the new gravitation, the photon’s equivalent gravitational acceleration is twice of the acceleration in Newton Gravitation. In the new gravitation, there not exists black hole, but exists empty hole, and not exists space-time singularity and energy singularity. The new gravity has obvious scale effect. The new gravity has the scale factor. In gravity field, the scale factor determines the quantization results of particle’s motion. The new gravity perhaps is a force that inhibits the uncertainty of macroscopic objects. The new gravitation can derive out the result of the Planck Energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[143] **viXra:1710.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 09:09:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

A quantum simulator is the preliminary stage of a quantum computer. [25] By finding materials that act in ways similar to the mechanisms that biology uses to retain and process information, scientists hope to find clues to help us build smarter computers. [25] Scientists have made a crucial step towards unlocking the "holy grail" of computing-microchips that mimic the way the human brain works to store and process information. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[142] **viXra:1710.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 09:44:37*

**Authors:** Steven Shawcross

**Comments:** 9 Pages. A version of this paper is copyrighted by Steven Shawcross, 2003.

The integer 2 satisfies the divisibility definition of a prime number: it is only divisible by itself and 1. The integer 1 also satisfies this definition, and yet, mathematicians generally do not consider 1 a prime. Rather 1 merits a class of its own, belonging neither to the prime nor composite class. In divisibility theory, 2 does occupy a special subclass within the class of prime numbers: it is the only even prime. This paper introduces a theory of numbers called the Prime Set Representation Theory. This theory utilizes the odd primes and does not rely on the primeness of 2. In Prime Set Representation Theory, the odd primes are building blocks of the theory; all integers, including 2, have representations in terms of them. The import of the theory is not to dislodge the integer 2 from its solitary, even-prime status. The theory's efficacy is a better understanding of the distribution of primes, twin primes, and primes of the form x^2 + 1. A natural extension of the theory yields valid and strikingly direct approximation formulas for these prime classifications. The same theory furnishes a new and improved approximation to the number of Goldbach pairs associated with general even number 2n (the improvement is relative to Sylvester's formula for Goldbach pairs, but the formula performs well vis-à-vis the Hardy-Littlewood formulas in the ranges tested).

**Category:** Number Theory

[141] **viXra:1710.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 10:05:28*

**Authors:** Deli E, Tozzi A, Peters JF

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The brain displays a low-frequency ground energy conformation, called the resting state, which is characterized by
energy/information balance via self-regulatory mechanisms. Despite the high-frequency evoked activity accumulates
information from the detail-oriented sensory processing of environmental data, nevertheless the brain’s automatic
regulation is always able to recover the resting state. Indeed, we show that the two energetic processes are
complementary and symmetric: while activation decreases temporal dimensionality via transient bifurcations, the
ensuing brain’s response leads to procedures that satisfy the Landauer’s principle. Landauer’s principle, which states
that information erasure requires energy, predicts heat accumulation in the system: this means that information
accumulation is correlated with increases in temperature and with actions that recover the resting state. We explain
how brain synaptic networks frame a closed system, similar to the Carnot cycle, where the information/energy cycle
accumulates as energy of synaptic connections, and then dissipates in the resting state. In deep learning, representation
of information might occur via the same mechanism.

**Category:** Mind Science

[140] **viXra:1710.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 13:36:27*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The original ideas

We calculate the photoelectric effect initiated by dressed photon. The photon
propagator is composed from the electron positron pair.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[139] **viXra:1710.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 03:57:54*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

In GNSS, the improvement of atomic clocks will lead to Phi/c^2 in relativistic gravitational redshift three to four decades from today. Research towards a relativistic positioning system capable of handling this expected accuracy is all based upon the Schwarzschild metric as a replacement of todays GNSS Euclidian-Newtonian metric. The method employed in this paper to determining frequency shifts between atomic clocks is an intermediate Minkowski-EEP approach. This approach is based on relating two atomic clocks to one another through a background ensemble of frequency gauged clocks, a grid. The crucial grid of this paper, the Free Fall Grid or FFG, can be related to the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild P-CP Weyl space formalism, when applied to a central mass. The FFG second order in Phi/c^2 redshifts are derived for static to static, static to satellite and satellite to satellite atomic oscillators and then compared to GR-Schwarzschild and PPN (Parametrized Post Newtonian) results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[138] **viXra:1710.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 15:01:31*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 22 Pages. (RUS)

The article is devoted to Mach's "many-sided" principle and relativity principle, which are considered from the point of view of the energy theory, in which all changes and interactions (including gravitational ones) are viewed not as power interactions and manifestations of space-time curvature, but as manifestations and consequences of motion matter, which occurs as a drain and the source of matter and is described as the movement of energy. The article gives an overview of the primary sources of these principles, created by the founders. In the course of the famous thought experiment with two bodies, along with the principle of Mach and the principle of relativity, which are surprisingly interconnected and intertwined, the energy dynamics of moving bodies and such a mysterious phenomenon as the mechanical motion of material bodies in space and time are explored.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[137] **viXra:1710.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 23:42:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article was rejected by "Physical Review D" because it is "scientifically very far from the current state of knowledge in the field". Why do people (including scientists) avoid anything "scientifically very far from the current state of knowledge in the field"? Being far from the current state does not mean my article is incorrect. Depending on the extent of its accuracy, it offers either large or smaller opportunities for readers to make unanticipated advances in science.
When his paper regarding mathematical formulas creating reality was submitted to a scientific journal and rejected as being too speculative, U.S. cosmologist Max Tegmark showed the rejection letter to his friend John Wheeler (1911-2008), a Princeton theoretical physicist. Wheeler rejected the rejection and said, “Extremely speculative? Bah!” Then he reminded Tegmark that some of the original papers on quantum mechanics were also considered extremely speculative. (p.2 of “Is the Universe Actually Made of Math?” By Adam Frank, Monday, June 16, 2008 -
http://discovermagazine.com/2008/jul/16-is-the-universe-actually-made-of-
math#.UQNDUR2-pFk
Remembering Professor Wheeler ...
This article begins with a well known astronomer and author saying "It now truly appears that the universe is infinite”. But how can the cosmos be infinite when general relativity says an infinite amount of energy would curve the universe to an infinitely small size, which obviously does not happen! The proposed solution refers to a problem physics had 120 years ago - a blackbody could release an infinite amount of energy, causing experiment and theory to diverge radically in the ultraviolet spectrum. Max Planck's solution of dividing electromagnetic radiation into quanta (photons) is called upon, and the universe's infinity is "broken" into discrete units by suggesting it's composed of electronics' binary digits (since General Relativity taught us that time is curved and warped, the fantastic possibility exists that the 1's and 0's come from the far future of humanity).
Whatever their origin, the binary digits are assembled, via references to science and maths, into two-dimensional Möbius strips and then four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles. This topological structure is given mass in parts through the coupling of the long-range gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Their interaction substitutes for the Higgs field, according to M. Tanabashi; M. Harada; K. Yamawaki. Nagoya 2006: "The Origin of Mass and Strong Coupling Gauge Theories". International Workshop on Strongly Coupled Gauge Theories. pp. 227–241). The strong and weak nuclear forces may also ultimately result from gravitational - electromagnetic coupling, making the nuclear forces non-fundamental.
For a moment, let's allow our imaginations to fly ... while we simultaneously remain grounded in science. Suppose the 1's and 0's really do come from the far future of humanity. Could a future computer simulation of the universe that uses mathematics' boundary-less, so-called Imaginary Time cause the simulation to be eternal, infinite, and indistinguishable from this "real" universe? (The lack of boundaries would also avoid Relativity's breaking down at the scale of quantum mechanics, thus introducing the graviton and the theory of Quantum Gravity.) This outcome involving so-called Imaginary Time (I.T. might be a better name) is plausible. Professor Itzhak Bars of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles says, "one whole dimension of time and another of space have until now gone entirely unnoticed by us".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[136] **viXra:1710.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 00:16:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A little over 4 centuries ago, Galileo concluded - and possibly confirmed by experiment - that different weights hit the ground at the same time when dropped from a height (discounting air resistance). This agrees with Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity; which proposes that gravity is the curvature of space-time pushing objects towards, say, the surface of a planet. It says this curvature acts equally on all bodies, making massive and less massive ones fall at equal rates. However, Einstein published a paper in 1919 (four years after General Relativity) asking if gravitation plays an essential role in formation of matter's particles. If it does, there would be more gravity acting on a massive body and it would fall slightly faster. The rate at which different objects fall is the subject of a French-backed space experiment called Microscope. Einstein's 1919 paper did more than suggest limitations of his general relativity. It seems to have been the launching pad for his Unified Field Theory; which occupied the last 30 years of his life, sought to unite gravitation with electromagnetism, and proposed that this unified field connected all parts of time and space. While the unified field theory is generally considered a failure, my own conviction is that it could transform into a world-changing success through the application of quantum mechanics, something Einstein didn't approve of because he regarded it as incomplete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[135] **viXra:1710.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-25 13:30:58*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 122 Pages. v4 now fully develops the magnetic moment anomalies without renormalization, and proposes six distinct types of experimental test.

Dirac’s seminal 1928 paper “The Quantum Theory of the Electron” is the foundation of how we presently understand the behavior of fermions in electromagnetic fields, including their magnetic moments. In sum, it is, as titled, a quantum theory of individual electrons, but in classical electromagnetic fields comprising innumerable photons. Based on the electrodynamic time dilations which the author has previously presented and which arise by geometrizing the Lorentz Force motion, there arises an even-richer “hyper-canonical” variant of the Dirac equation which reduces to the ordinary Dirac equation in the linear limits. This advanced Dirac theory naturally enables the magnetic moment anomaly to be entirely explained without resort to renormalization and other ad hoc add-ons, and it also permits a detailed, granular understanding of how individual fermions interact with individual photons strictly on the quantum level. In sum, it advances Dirac theory to a quantum theory of the electron and the photon and their one-on-one interactions. Six distinct types of experimental tests are proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[134] **viXra:1710.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 03:32:34*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya, Adrian Dube, Godwin Musosi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Accepted to Prespacetime Journal

As is well known – Newton's corpuscular model of light can explain the Law of Reflection and Snell's Law of Refraction. Sadly and regrettably – its predictions about the speed of light in different mediums runs contrary to experience. Because of this, Newton's theory of light was abandoned in favour of the wave theory. It [Newton's corpuscular model of light] predicts that the speed of light is larger in higher density mediums. This prediction was shown to be wrong by Foucault's 1850 landmark-ing experiment that brought down Newton's theory. The major assumption of Newton's corpuscular model of light is that the corpuscles of light have an attraction with the particle of the medium. When the converse is assumed, i.e., the corpuscles of light are assumed to not have an attraction-effect, but a repulsion-effect with the particles of the medium, one obtains the correct predictions of the speed of light in denser mediums. This assumption of Newton's corpuscles repelling with the particles of the medium – this, might explain why light has the maximum speed in any given medium.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[133] **viXra:1710.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 13:01:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[132] **viXra:1710.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 15:13:40*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Aufgezeigt wird die Möglichkeit der Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und ihrer Gravitationskraft zur Energieumwandlung ihrer Rotationsenergie in mechanische / elektrische Energie. Hinweise zum Michelson-Experiment (Bezugssysteme) und zur Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[131] **viXra:1710.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 16:20:37*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in french

Here are introduced KdV type equations following the stationary solution which is the Weierstrass fonction of an elliptic curve.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[130] **viXra:1710.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 01:02:32*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In order to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein denied the existence of the absolute reference frame. It will be shown that all Einstein did was replace the absolute reference frame with another preferred reference frame: the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley apparatus. According to the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT ) , there is no preferred reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equivalent in predicting and analyzing the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. No reference frame, including the rest frame of the experiment, has any special significance over other reference frames. It will be shown that the SRT analysis of the experiment violates this principle. This is because all other inertial observers moving relative to the Michelson-Morley apparatus do not know the outcome of the experiment until they get the experimental result of the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus. Only then can they use the Lorentz Transformation equations to ‘predict’ the 'null' outcome of the experiment in their own reference frames. If all inertial reference frames are really equivalent, why not first analyze the experiment in one of the reference frames moving relative to the apparatus, in which case there will be a fringe shift δ, and use Lorentz Transformation so that all other observers ( including the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus ) agree on the same fringe shift δ. The Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) is just another form of Lorentz ether theory ( LET): both depend on a preferred reference frame. In LET the ether is the preferred reference frame, while in SRT the rest frame of the experimental apparatus is the preferred reference frame. SRT only shifted the privilege of deciding the outcome of the experiment from the absolute reference frame to the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The same hidden fallacy exists in the SRT analysis of the Trouton-Noble experiment. An alternative theory of absolute motion and the speed of light will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1710.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:10:54*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

By referring to well-established deductions from the Second Law of Thermodynamics and to the fact that concavity is the essence of this law, it is shown that the existence of negative heat capacities for closed systems is incompatible with the Second Law. However, it is seen that the heat capacity of an open system could be negative.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[128] **viXra:1710.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:26:21*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is intended here to consider the Second Law of Thermodynamics and various deductions made from it, especially the introduction of the quantity known as the entropy. The starting point will be the formulations of the law in classical thermodynamics. Attention will then move to so-called statistical thermodynamics to help illustrate the point that the Second Law of Classical Thermodynamics is certainly not statistical in nature.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[127] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 07:24:57*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Relativity explained win the light of new invention

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[126] **viXra:1710.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:53:15*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper tries a new attempt to space travel at higher speeds

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[125] **viXra:1710.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 07:23:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[124] **viXra:1710.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 08:51:55*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We show how to express the representation of a composite rotation in terms that allow the rotation of a vector to be calculated conveniently via a spreadsheet that uses formulas developed, previously, for a single rotation. The work presented here (which includes a sample calculation) also shows how to determine the bivector angle that produces, in a single operation, the same rotation that is effected by the composite of two rotations.

**Category:** Geometry

[123] **viXra:1710.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 12:01:50*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Replaces use of Cantor's Diagonal Method with a set topological proof.

A number system is developed to visualize the terms and partials of zeta(n>1). This number system consists of radii that generate sectors. The sectors have areas corresponing to all rational numbers and can be added via a tail to head vector addition. Dots on the circles give an un-ambiguous cross reference to decimal systems in all bases. We show, in the proof section of this paper, first that all partials require decimal bases greater than the last denominator used in the partial, then that this can be used to make a sequence of nested intervals with rational endpoints. Using Cantor's Nested Interval theorem this gives the convergence point of zeta series and disallows rational values, thus proving the irrationality of zeta(n>1).

**Category:** Number Theory

[122] **viXra:1710.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-12 05:09:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11]
Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10]
Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[121] **viXra:1710.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-12 07:40:37*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .The fruitful formula of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle allow us to explore some issues concerning the observable universe . One of them is the possible topology of the universe according to recent cosmological data . The other one is the cosmological constant value , arising numerically from the Heisenberg principle . Finally will describe a numerical depiction about the evolution of the observable universe wich involves the Hubble parameter , the number of stars , the hydrogen molecule , the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen mulecule related to the amount of information of ordinary matter and the surface area of the observable universe as the universe’s event horizon .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[120] **viXra:1710.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-12 11:04:15*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We prove some Schur and limit theorems
for lattice group-valued k-triangular set functions with respect to filter convergence, by means of sliding hump-type techniques.
As consequences, we deduce some Vitali-Hahn-Saks and Nikodym-type theorems.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[119] **viXra:1710.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 01:09:58*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work provides the long-sought explanation for the heat transportation between matter.
Outgoing from the fact that degrees Kelvin disappears in heat-energy calculations and easily transforms into Energy-units it has been recognized that for Kelvin there must be a physical base consisting of a certain quantity defined by the units of kg, m, s.
The solution is old and long known. The Bolzmann constant is 1.38064*10^-23 J/K
The exact statement of this constant is: The kinetic energy per degree Kelvin per atom of different kind (or per particle) is always 1.38064*10^-23 J. The full interpretation of the physical statement of this constant is not obvious: Each atom, each particle, has the same kinetic energy at the same temperature, which is 1.38064*10^-23 J per degree Kelvin.
This explanation provides the detailed explanation for heat transfer. From the results the physical explanations for the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube and for "friction generates heat" is given.
Diese Arbeit liefert die seit langem gesuchte Erklärung für den Wärmetransport zwischen Materie. Ausgehend von der Tatsache, dass Grad Kelvin bei der Berechnung der Wärmeenergie verschwindet und sich in Energieeinheiten umwandelt, wurde erkannt, dass es für Kelvin eine physikalische Grösse geben muss, die aus Wert und durch die Einheiten kg, m, s definiert ist. Die Lösung ist alt und seit langem bekannt. Die Bolzmann-Konstante ist 1.38064*10^-23 J / K. Die genaue Aussage dieser Konstante lautet: Die kinetische Energie pro Grad Kelvin pro Atom verschiedener Art (oder pro Teilchen) beträgt immer 1.38064*10^-23 J. Die vollständige Interpretation der physikalischen Aussage dieser Konstante ist nicht offensichtlich: Jedes Atom, jedes Teilchen hat dieselbe kinetische Energie bei der gleichen Temperatur, die 1,38064*10^-23*J pro Grad Kelvin ist. Diese Einsicht liefert eine detaillierte Erklärung für die Wärmeübertragung. Aus den Ergebnissen werden die physikalischen Grundlagen für das Ranque-Hilsch-Wirbelrohr und für "Reibung erzeugt Wärme" erklärbar.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[118] **viXra:1710.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 01:17:37*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 5 pages, written in french

The Dirac operator is twisted by a symmetric automorphism, the Dirac-Lichnerowicz formula is proved. An application for the Seiberg-Witten equations is proposed.

**Category:** Geometry

[117] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-30 00:49:57*

**Authors:** Mihir Kumar Jha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[116] **viXra:1710.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-17 17:26:10*

**Authors:** Alexandre Furtado Neto

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[115] **viXra:1710.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 10:30:41*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (RUS)

In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[114] **viXra:1710.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 10:47:52*

**Authors:** Nikitin A. P.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. (RUS)

General relativity (GRT), created by the genius of Einstein from 1907 to 1915 as a geometric theory of gravity, developing special theory of relativity (STR), has been 100 years does not rest and excites minds. Since then, it performed many experiments to confirm with great accuracy GRT. In this paper, we propose to draw attention to the possibility of direct experimental verification of the dependence of the velocity of light by the gravitational potential, what Einstein wrote in 1911 in his article «On the effect of gravity on light propagation» [1, V1, p.172 ]. We assume that nature itself has put this experiment in space in the presence of "dark matter", namely: February 23, 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud broke out amazing supernova SN1987A, from which the light came to Earth 2h 47m later neutrinos.
On the basis of numerous observations are given an explanation of this fact in terms of changing the speed of light neutrinos, and depending on the time-varying gravitational potential of the Universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[113] **viXra:1710.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 07:44:42*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This note presents a fractal image for f(z)=ln(1+g(z)).

**Category:** Geometry

[112] **viXra:1710.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 07:50:42*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents a definite integral

**Category:** General Mathematics

[111] **viXra:1710.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 11:54:50*

**Authors:** Robert C. Hall

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Regarding Benford's law, many believe that the statistical data sources follow a Benford's law probability density function(1/xLn(10))when, in actuality, it follows a Lognormal probability density function. The only data that strictly follows a Benford's law probability density function is an exponential function i.e. a number (base) raised to a power x. The other sets of data conform to a Lognormal distribution and, as the standard deviation approaches infinity, approximates a true Benford distribution.
Also, the so called Summation theorem whereby the sum of the values with respect to the first digits is a uniform distribution only applies to an exponential function. The data derived from the aforementioned Lognormal distribution is more likely to conform to a Benford like distribution as the data seems to indicate.

**Category:** Number Theory

[110] **viXra:1710.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 13:37:47*

**Authors:** N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P

**Comments:** 4 Pages. HOL/JVM/Circadian Systems/Smart Watches/Hardware Configuration&Verification

In this short communication we focused on Higher Order Logic(HOL) based configuration and
verification of hardware in the java virtual machine environment(JVM) using HOL-Isabelle system.
Smart Watches are fast becoming excellent information processing devices to monitor health.Hence we wish to communicate our idea in the context of circadian systems and informatics applications

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[109] **viXra:1710.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 20:27:18*

**Authors:** Choe ryujin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Proof of happy ending problem

**Category:** Geometry

[108] **viXra:1710.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 21:03:23*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Mathematical certainty often does not translate; but here the stringent analytical means of it's establishment are presented.

Mathematical certainty is defined in terms of sets and deterministic variables; in terms of the error root mean squared deviation.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[107] **viXra:1710.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 22:40:39*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Is shown the solution the problem scalar longitudinal waves without introducing any additional members in the canonical Lagrangian of the field or in the Maxwell equations that ensure the existence of a longitudinal wave component. The Lame equation for the electromagnetic field is obtained, which describes transverse and longitudinal waves, as well as the Fock-Podolsky wave equation for longitudinal electroscalar waves that do not have a magnetic component. It is shown that the terms of the Lorentz gauge condition describe a four-dimensional volume deformation of the electromagnetic field

**Category:** Classical Physics

[106] **viXra:1710.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 23:58:28*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und der Graviationskraft zur Gewinnung von elektr. Energie, Michelson- Experiment und die Realativitätstheorie

**Category:** Classical Physics

[105] **viXra:1710.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 13:27:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

JILA physicists have for the first time used their spinning molecules technique to measure the "roundness" of the electron, confirming the leading results from another group and suggesting that more precise assessments are possible. [18] The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[104] **viXra:1710.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 17:03:35*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The widely held expectation that quantum physics breaks down below the Planck length ($10^{-33}$ cm) is brought into question. A possible experiment is suggested that might test its validity at a
sub-Planckian length scale.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[103] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 11:12:46*

**Authors:** shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

For photon we have obtained the results that the waves of photon obey the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation are introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A to infinite big sphere. The advanced wave started from point B to infinite big sphere. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two return waves. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intensity flow or electric current of the the electron. Hence the electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result can also extend to to Dirac equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[102] **viXra:1710.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 20:58:30*

**Authors:** Harry Watson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let Q denote a function from the nonnegative integers into the real numbers, such that: Q(0) = 1.000000509157;
Q(1) = Q(0) * (4pi));
Q(2) = Q(0) * (4pi) * (4pi-1/pi);
Q(3) = Q(0) * (4pi) * (4pi-1/pi) * (4pi-2/pi);
Q(4) = Q(0) * (4pi) * (4pi-1/pi) * (4pi-2/pi) * (4pi-3/pi);
Q(5) = Q(0) * (4pi) * (4pi-1/pi) * (4pi-2/pi) * (4pi-3/pi) * (4pi-4/pi).
Consider Q(3) = 1836.15267389 and Q(5)=240773.8273. Q(3) is the CODATA value for the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass. Q(5) approximates the mass ratio of the Higgs Boson to the electron. (The value of Q(5)/Q(3) is 131.1295246. If the CODATA value for the mass ratio of the proton to the electron is revised, it will only have to be changed in Q(0). The approximation Q(5)/Q(3) is compared with changing values of the mass ratio of the Higgs Boson to the proton.
harry.watson@att.net

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[101] **viXra:1710.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 23:07:27*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is amazing to see, how the problems find their solutions. Even such extremely long as the 1200 pages of the ABC-hypothesis proof of the ``Japan Perelman'', which is needed to be consumed by the most brilliant men to come. And like the first PCs were huge but became compact, the large proofs can turn into very compact ones. \copyright

**Category:** Topology

[100] **viXra:1710.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 02:54:20*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The arrow of time is the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time. The
thermodynamic arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics,
which says that in an isolated system, entropy tends to increase with time
(Wikipedia).
Nevertheless, this asymmetry of time is not intuitive based on the Einstein’s field
equations that relate to space and time as one entity. Since space is symmetrical to
all directions time is also expected to be a “two way direction”.
Based on Einstein’s field equations mass curves space time and curvature of spacetime
is actually what Newtonian physics refer to as potential energy or the
gravitational field.
Two major questions can arise from this field equation interpretation:
1. Mass m, has a well-defined inherent energy based on Einstein’s special
relativity equation, =
2
.The mass curves space-time and this curvature
adds potential energy to its surrounding based on Einstein’s field equations.
What is the source of this added potential energy?
2. Since space-time is considered as a unified description and since space is
symmetric to all directions, we expect that time should flow symmetrically
both to the future and to the past. We know that this is not the case and time
flows only towards the future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[99] **viXra:1710.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 03:59:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

By finding materials that act in ways similar to the mechanisms that biology uses to retain and process information, scientists hope to find clues to help us build smarter computers. [25] Scientists have made a crucial step towards unlocking the "holy grail" of computing-microchips that mimic the way the human brain works to store and process information. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[98] **viXra:1710.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 05:04:24*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, ( Function Follows Form at the quantum scale) Mass is the potency of rigid string based Fermions and Bosons, to produce and radiate Gravitons by the collision process, between mass less but energetic oscillating transformable Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and.. more complex shaped compound Fermions or Bosons (W + Z+Higgs family).
Gravity is assumed to be the statistical result of local dual opposing graviton pressure (instead of attraction) with opposing Axion Higgs field particles on fermions.
A recent example of local vacuum pressure duality is called “Dipole Repeller” gravity by Yehuda Hoffman also suggested partly in line as Emergent Gravity by E. Verlinde.
More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons photons per Planck time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field..
Black holes do not radiate gravitons but “eat” the local vacuum particles leading to a single repeller effect on the growing Black hole nucleus.
The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long as they do not collide with fermions or bosons.
The new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot of Axion Higgs particles, compressed together by the inflow of vacuum particles.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus .
In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth and all atomic fermions is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum.
Rigid string shaped Fermions are assumed to have a real propeller shape able to plow into the direction of motion through the local space time creating vacuum lattice.
Bosons without a propeller shape ( Higgs and Z ) including black hole nuclei, seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[97] **viXra:1710.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 05:15:07*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The accounts of society reviewed.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[96] **viXra:1710.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 06:32:08*

**Authors:** Kurmet Sultan

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is the Russian version of the manuscript.

The paper describes the First theorem of Kurmet and a simple proof of the Last theorem of Fermat, which was obtained on the basis of Kurmet's First Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[95] **viXra:1710.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 06:35:55*

**Authors:** Kurmet Sultan

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is the Russian version of the manuscript.

In this paper we describe the Second Theorem of Kurmet and give a simple proof of Catalan’s conjecture on the basis of Kurmet's Second Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:1710.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 08:50:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[93] **viXra:1710.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-13 16:26:37*

**Authors:** Mauro Bernardini

**Comments:** 4 Pages. this version corrects some accidental writing errors of the previous loaded version.

This paper attempts to provide a new vision on the 4th spatial dimension starting on the known symmetries of the Euclidean geometry. It results that, the points of the 4th dimensional complex space are circumferences of variable ray. While the axis of the 4th spatial dimension, to be orthogonal to all the three 3d cartesinan axes, is a complex line made of two specular cones surfaces symmetrical on their vertexes corresponding to the common origin of both the real and complex cartesian systems.

**Category:** Geometry

[92] **viXra:1710.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 03:05:33*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Fermats Last Theorem n=4
One line proof

**Category:** Number Theory

[91] **viXra:1710.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 07:08:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Moving Magnet Conductor problem is the problem of 'coincidence' of the effect of magnetic field in the reference frame of the magnet and the effect of electric field in the reference frame of the conductor, the effect being a definite current flowing in the conductor, for a magnet and a conductor in relative motion. In this paper, we will show that this problem will not lead to the theory of relativity, i.e. to the conclusion that absolute motion doesn't exist. This 'coincidence' occurs only in the special case in which at least one of the two ( either the magnet or the conductor ) is at absolute rest and hence is only a special case. In general, the magnet and the conductor can have a relative motion while having a common absolute motion. This is the case, for example, of a magnet - conductor experiment carried out on Earth, which has an absolute velocity of 390 Km/s . In such cases, the motion of the magnet and the motion of the conductor will have different effects even if the relative velocities are the same. We will apply Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) to this problem. In the case of light, the effect of absolute motion for co-moving light source and observer is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the observer. Therefore, no fringe shift will occur in the Michelson-Morley experiment due to an apparent change of source position for the same reason that no (significant ) fringe shift will occur if the position of the source was actually, physically changed relative to the detector. Intuitively, AST can be stated as: the speed of light is equal to c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction, relative to the source, for a source moving with absolute velocity Vabs. This theory readily explains the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST applies not only to light sources, but also to all electromagnetic sources: sources of electric fields ( charges ) , sources of magnetic fields ( magnets or electromagnets ) and sources of gravitational fields. Therefore, for absolutely co-moving magnet and (infinitesimal) conductor, the effect of absolute velocity is to create an apparent change in position of the magnet as seen by the conductor. The procedure of analysis is to replace the real magnet with an apparent magnet and analyze the problem as if both the apparent magnet and the conductor are at rest. There will not be any current induced in the conductor because the conductor is not moving relative to the magnet ( hence relative to the apparent magnet ). Since the conductor is at rest relative to the magnet, it is also at rest relative to the apparent magnet and hence no current will be induced in the conductor. There will be no induced current in this case for the same reason that there will be no induced current in the case of magnet and conductor both at absolute rest. An intuitive way of stating the same theory is to assume that the magnetic field is carried by the real magnet, but will be distorted due to absolute motion. Therefore, absolute motion of a magnet can be detected by a co-moving observer from the distortion of its field. The magnetic field of a magnet moving with absolute velocity will become weaker in front of the magnet and stronger behind the magnet. The electric field of a charge in absolute motion will become weaker in front of the charge and stronger behind the charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1710.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 08:00:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[89] **viXra:1710.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 08:46:09*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 89 Pages.

The Geometrical Inversion Mechanism .
In article is presented the Algebraic and Geometric Solution , and the Geometrical
Construction of all the n-Regular Polygons . The Method , is the Geometrical - Inversion on three circles , of the Alternate Interior angles of the Mechanism , where Extrema ( maximum or minimum Magnitude between two Positions which are the vertices of any two Sequent-Regular-Even-Polygons ) is expressed in this closed and bounded - interval , as the Inflection or Deflection of Coupler curves , and as the local maximum or minimum between the two Points , and which is their critical point .

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[88] **viXra:1710.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 11:39:01*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** Pages. Revised and abridged E-Letter (online: 10 October 2017) in http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6359/79/tab-e-letters

The radius of the proton has aroused a lot interest in recent years, since the reported values vary from 0.8751 fm to 0.8335 fm, where fm = 10-15m. Here the author shows that the former CODATA value obtained for hydrogen can be related to the ground state Bohr radius for hydrogen and the fine structure constant by a simple equation. The latter lower value obtained using muons could be due to the differences in the reduced masses of hydrogen and muon

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[87] **viXra:1710.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 12:57:09*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization
reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the
integer points in a two-dimensional rational polyhedron with conclusion that
P = NP and a polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization using enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of those two-dimensional rational polyhedron

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[86] **viXra:1710.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-07 16:04:48*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

Artykuł przedstawia oryginalną metodę wyprowadzania transformacji dla kinematyk z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie transformacji, które spełniają wyniki eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a tylko w niektórych układach odniesienia, np. w laboratoriach poruszających się względem uniwersalnego układu odniesienia z niedużymi prędkościami.
Te uogólnione transformacje zostały nazwana uogólnionymi transformacjami Galileusza. Uzyskane transformacje są podstawą wyprowadzenia nowej teorii fizycznej, która została nazwana Szczególną Teorią Eteru.
Uogólnione transformacje Galileusza można wyrazić od prędkości względnych (26)-(27) lub od parametru delta(v) (37)-(38). Na podstawie wniosków wynikających z eksperymentu Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a wyznaczony został parametr delta(v). Dzięki temu transformacje przyjmują szczególną postać (81)-(82), która jest zgodna z eksperymentami, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Na podstawie otrzymanych transformacji wyznaczone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości oraz prędkość względną.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autora.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1710.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 13:58:58*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the synthesis of the Newtonian mechanical
force and its counter part the inertial force. It is shows that the Newtonian
mechanical force splits into two counter forces when it is act upon a rigid
body. The paper is also shows the derivation of the momentum and the
kinetic energy that occur due to the presence of the inertial force.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[84] **viXra:1710.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 16:11:25*

**Authors:** Eirini Molla, Theodoros Tzouramanis, Stefanos Gritzalis

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 37 figures, 2 tables, 60 references

Due to the increasing demand for cloud services and the threat of privacy invasion, the user is suggested to encrypt the data before it is outsourced to the remote server. The safe storage and efficient retrieval of d-dimensional data on an untrusted server has therefore crucial importance. The paper proposes a new encryption model which offers spatial order-preservation for d-dimensional data (SOPE model). The paper studies the operations for the construction of the encrypted database and suggests algorithms that exploit unique properties that this new model offers for the efficient execution of a whole range of well-known queries over the encrypted d-dimensional data. The new model utilizes wellknown database indices, such as the B+-tree and the R-tree, as backbone structures in their traditional form, as it suggests no modifications to them for loading the data and for the efficient execution of the supporting query algorithms. An extensive experimental study that is also presented in the paper indicates the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed encryption model for real-life d-dimensional data applications.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[83] **viXra:1710.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 01:50:30*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

We first classify all integers ≥2 into eight kinds, and that formulate each of seven kinds therein into a sum of three unit fractions. For remainder one kind, we classify it into three genera, and that formulate each of two genera therein into a sum of three unit fractions. For remainder one genus, we classify it into five sorts, and that formulate each of three sorts therein into a sum of three unit fractions. For remainder two sorts i.e. 4/(49+120c) and 4/(121+120c) with c≥0, we prove them by logical inference. But miss out 3587 concrete fractions to await computer programming to solve the problem that express each of them into a sum of three unit fractions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[82] **viXra:1710.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 02:30:13*

**Authors:** A chto tam daleshe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Скорость света в энергетической оболочке Вселенной уменьшается до нуля. За её пределами начинается Антивселенная со своими физическими законами.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[81] **viXra:1710.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 12:03:48*

**Authors:** S.O. Iluin, V.V. Makarοva, M.Y. Roluakοva

**Comments:** 17 Pages. in Russiаn

Thе phаsе stаtе аnd thе rhеоlоgу оf соmpоsitiоns fоrmеd by linеаr pоlymеrs аnd funсtiоnаlizеd siliса nаnоpаrtiсlеs hаvе bееn studiеd. Thе study оf sоlubility shоwеd limitеd misсibility оf thе соmpоnеnts. Аs а rеsult, dеpеnding оn tеmpеrаturе аnd соmpоsitiоn, bоth hеtеrоgеnеоus systеms аnd hоmоgеnеоus соmpоsitiоns wеrе fоrmеd. Thе phаsе stаtе оf thе systеms dеtеrminеd thеir rhеоlоgiсаl prоpеrtiеs, whеrеаs thе соntеnt оf thе linеаr pоlymеr influеnсеd thеir visсоеlаstiсity. Thе hоmоgеnеоus sоlutiоns аnd thе dispеrsiоns with а lоw соntеnt оf еmulsifiеd phаsе wеrе Nеwtоniаn fluids, but thе соnсеntrаtеd hеtеrоgеnеоus systеms wеrе struсturеd аnd visсоplаstiс. If thе соmpоsitiоn оf thе mixturеs соrrеspоnds tо thе binоdаl сurvе, thеy еxhibit аn аnоmаly оf rhеоlоgiсаl prоpеrtiеs.

**Category:** Chemistry

[80] **viXra:1710.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 12:34:50*

**Authors:** N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A Simple Suggestion on using Zeitzeiger-R/JVMR/R/Java/Scala/HOL Frameworks to process Circadian Data

“Zeitzeiger is a package for regularized supervised learning on high-dimensional data from an oscillatory system. Zeitzeiger can quantify rhythmic behavior, make accurate predictions, identify major patterns and important features, and detect when the oscillator is perturbed.” We obtained inspiration from : https://github.com/hugheylab/zeitzeiger ; https://dahl.byu.edu/software/jvmr/ to process circadian data.In this communication,we wish to highlight our intention to experiment with an R package like ZEITZEIGER and jvmr providing a cross-platform interface between R,Scala and Java.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[79] **viXra:1710.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-09 05:35:51*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Completion of the universal gravitation law (Sir Isaac Newton, 1687)

Herein we propound the property, present its empirical law—a two Relative-Velocity Dependent (RVD) terms completion of Newton’s law of gravitation—and thereby solve some historic problems as: Solar cycle, apparent connection with Jupiter’s revolution, and why the two periods do not quite coincide; about 2.9–4.5×1019 joules/yr from earth’s rotation slowdown (Secular retardation) “missing” in tidal effects and attributed to some “unknown mechanism”; and the “unknown” nature (and magnitude) of the “driving/propelling force” in Tectonic plates drift; moreover, the RVD completion of Newton’s gravity law predicts that tectonic plates drift, globally, to the west, not randomly, causing earthquakes and volcano eruptions to occur most probable at equinoxes (around March and September). The well-known formula of Perihelion advance is also derived. Several experiments are proposed, some feasible now.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[78] **viXra:1710.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 06:45:37*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A better and symmetric new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is exactly the same as that derived from the first variation’s Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. Although the better new Hamiltonian functional is off that derived from the first variation by a factor of two, it symmetric than in the previous paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[77] **viXra:1710.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 10:56:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11]
In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10]
The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[76] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-27 09:14:48*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We show, based on basic principles, that nature is endowed with symmetry with respect to its laws, such that the principle of relativity is a genuine property of nature, which is independent on the constant velocity of light, or on any other constant. We also show that the principle of relativity is associated with spatial asymmetry, such that the direction of relative motion matters. For frames of reference departing from each other, an observer in one frame will measure time and distance extension, with respect to the time and distance measured in the other frame, while for reference frames approaching each other, the same observer will measure time and distance contraction with respect to the same occurrence. No less important, we show that the principle of relativity is valid for all physical systems, independently of the type of information carrier utilized in the system, and is not specific to systems in which information between reference frames is transmitted by light, or other electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[75] **viXra:1710.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:59:13*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 17 Pages. AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH FINDING INTEGRATING SR AND GR

We examine the Lorentz factor and the Schwarzschild solution in relation to the estimation and
verification of time dilation particularly from available Global Positioning System data. We as a result
detect the possible occurrence of a proportionality between time dilation effects of special and general
relativity in free-fall motion in Keplerian orbits. This observation is then mathematically proved. The
results show that gravitational time dilation during free fall in Keplerian orbits must be exactly double
that caused in special relativity due to linear velocity. We propose that a law has to be enunciated in view
of the proof provided, and of the experimental and technological verification of time dilation effects
during the past six to seven decades. The importance of this finding as a universal phenomenon and in the
further development of stable clocks and satellite technology is highlighted.
1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1710.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 21:43:29*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 13 Pages. TO UPLOAD A NEW PAPER

Research on human’s attachment to cosmological phenomena at least since the Neolithic Period may prove invaluable in modern scientific understanding of our ultimate realities. Of interest has been the archaeological research about the Neolithic Magic Cosmology. In more recent periods the Greek civilization and Hindu cosmological mythology amongst others engaged in various profound intellectual ways to understand and explain the cosmos. The last two millennia saw the progress of more modern civilizations in Asia and Europe resulting in the further empowerment of philosophy, religions and of astronomy. Astronomical discoveries in recent centuries have created particularly interesting philosophical and scientific reflections on the realities of the universe. But the last few decades have evolved differing scientific concepts which have made our notions of the universe and of existence more elusive to unfold thereby digging further the gaps between philosophy, religion and science. Interestingly studies on ancient human socio-religious cultures strongly suggest that human societies have an instinctive urge to unite their material experience with religious and cosmological beliefs, that is, with supernatural phenomena. This is intriguing because our own modern scientific literature clearly shows that many of even the most eminent of scientists see a supernatural character with our universe. Philosophy and religions in their theoretical ways have produced all that can be humanly interpreted on the origin and nature of the universe and existence. Since science has the objective role to explain natural phenomena including the manner the universe originated it should eventually be able to explain what the universe and existence stand from the manner scientific research on the origin of the universe develops in the decades to come. However the final decision as to whether the universe is a natural or supernatural emanation will obviously always remain a matter of personal judgment and choice.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[73] **viXra:1710.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 22:05:08*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 23 Pages. upload

The world of astronomy could be at a new and pivotal crossroad. In recent decades the controversial debate on the origin of the universe in relation to the conflict among science, philosophy and religion has reached a crescendo to the extent that humanity is quite confused on how to interpret the nature of the realities of the universe. Is science an atheistic endeavor and are philosophers and prophets of religion just scientific illiterates. Astronomy, the oldest and biggest branch of Science, has been intimately linked to human culture including philosophy and religion for millennia or even longer. Advances in cosmology and astrophysics on the one hand and the natural sciences on the other hand are now producing insights which could, in the coming decade, elucidate in quite concrete scientific details how most probably our universe originated and what could be the nature of the intriguing realities of the universe such as the nature of matter, life, energy, gravity,
2
the mind and consciousness amongst many other riddles. This paper will show a bit of the trends in relation to mindsets on the universe and its origin and will predict that in due course we will have a new way of profoundly looking at the universe, its realities and of the place of humanity in it. This new view of our ultimate realities, when it materializes and mature, would progressively bring science, philosophy and religion under a common umbrella, spearheaded by a new Scientific Cosmological Argument. Introduction

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1710.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 01:22:16*

**Authors:** Moises Dominguez-Espinosa

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

There is a paradigm in Quantum Mechanics that explains quantization through normal vibration modes called Eigenstates that arise from Schrödinger wave equation. In this contribution we propose an alternative methodology of quantization by using basic concepts of mechanics and chaos from which a Toy Model is built.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[71] **viXra:1710.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 03:04:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Oscar Rodríguez Leal

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Paper writting in spanish. Paper presented at the VII International Congress of Numerical Methods, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

In this work I develop numerical algorithms that can be applied directly to differential equations of the general form f (t, x, x ) = 0, without the need to cleared x . My methods are hybrid algorithms between standard methods of solving differential equations and methods of solving algebraic equations, with which the variable x is numerically cleared.
The application of these methods ranges from the ordinary differential equations of order one, to the more general case of systems of m equations of order n. These algorithms are applied to the solution of different physical-mathematical
equations.
Finally, the corresponding numerical analysis of existence, uniqueness, stability, consistency and convergence is made, mainly for the simplest case of a single ordinary differential equation of the first order.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[70] **viXra:1710.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-22 07:30:12*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The unified theory of dynamic space has been conceived and written by Professor Physicist Naoum Gosdas, inspired from the principle of antithesis (opposition), because of which all natural phenomena are created. These phenomena
are derived from the unique absolute dynamic space, which is structured with the fundamental elements, namely the dimension or distance or length, the elementary electric charges (units) and the forces, according to the principle of antithesis. However, due to the finite dimensions of the Universe and the opposition between existence (the Universe) and nonexistence (non space), a spherical deformity of the space occurred, which has created the equality of the peripheral and radial cohesive forces (Universal symmetry) and the Universal antigravity force, whereby the Hubble's Law is proved. The breaking of the above Universal symmetry, close to the Universe center, causes
the Genesis of the primary form of matter, the first grand Cosmic event of Universe. The gravitational mass of the particle is defined as a stretching of the dynamic space by the core vacuum (Higgs boson) of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[69] **viXra:1710.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 04:56:35*

**Authors:** Valery B. Smolensky

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

the reason for writing this review was a strange situation with data published in CODATA 2014 the result of determining the ratio of masses of proton and electron.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[68] **viXra:1710.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 23:20:04*

**Authors:** Alice Branton

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Copper (II) chloride is an inorganic compound used as a source of copper ions for the treatment of several diseases like cancer, inflammation, hematological and neurological disorders. This article was aimed to evaluate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of copper (II) chloride using PXRD, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Copper chloride was divided into two parts, one part of copper chloride was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative intensities of the characteristic diffraction peak in Alice’s treated sample were significantly changed from -77.37% to 205.56% compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the characteristic diffraction peak in the treated sample was altered from -14.29% to 40.01% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the melting point of the treated copper chloride was significantly increased by 2.91% with a reduced latent heat of fusion (∆H) by 28.73% compared to the control sample. The melting temperature of the 2nd peak in the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.08% with a significant enhancement of ∆H by 77.37% compared with the control sample. The decomposition temperature of the treated sample was increased by 2.36% with a significant reduction of the enthalpy of decomposition by 18.46% compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed the three steps of thermal degradation. The percentage weight loss in the treated sample was decreased by 0.47% and 9.63% in the 1st and 2nd steps of degradation, respectively, while the weight loss in the 3rd step was increased by 2.45% compared with the control sample. The total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 1.32% compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis showed that the maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd peaks of the Biofield Treated sample were increased by 1.20%, 2.00%, and 4.61% compared with the control sample. Briefly, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a polymorphic form of copper (II) chloride that could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated copper chloride would provide better therapeutic response against cancer, inflammation, wound healing, etc.

**Category:** Chemistry

[67] **viXra:1710.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 23:20:39*

**Authors:** Alice Branton

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Resveratrol is a natural dietary antioxidant polyphenol that believed to be effective in improving overall health. The biological activity of resveratrol is limited by its poor absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations following oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton on resveratrol and rats through the measurement of plasma concentrations after oral administration of resveratrol. The test item, resveratrol was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. Additionally, one group of animals also received Biofield Energy Treatment under similar conditions. Resveratrol oral formulations were administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg/kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated resveratrol), G2 (Biofield Treated resveratrol) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals received untreated resveratrol) group. The results showed that resveratrol had a very low oral plasma exposure of 91.71 ng/mL in control group. The Biofield Treatment significantly enhanced the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of resveratrol by 23.35% in G2 group compared to the control group. The Biofield Treatment also improved plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of resveratrol by 125% and 28.5% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared with the control group. Plasma concentrations of resveratrol in G1 was declined with a rapid elimination half-life (T1/2, 1.48 hours), followed by sudden increases in plasma concentrations 12 to 24 hours after the test item administration. These plasma concentrations resulted in a significant prolongation of the terminal elimination half-life of resveratrol. The oral elimination T1/2 of resveratrol in G2 and G3 were 4.67 and 9.0 hours, respectively as compared to the G1. The apparent oral plasma clearance of resveratrol decreased significantly by 54%, and 17.5% in G2 group and G3 group, respectively as compared to the control group. The mean residence time (MRTlast) of resveratrol significantly increased in G2 group (6.45 hours) and G3 group (7.70 hours), as compared to the control group. These data demonstrates greater bioavailability and total plasma level of resveratrol in rats which might be translated into better in vivo biological activity. Hence, The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be considered as an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals and can also improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules.

**Category:** Chemistry

[66] **viXra:1710.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 08:38:43*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[65] **viXra:1710.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 16:48:19*

**Authors:** A. I. Andreus

**Comments:** 7 Pages, in Russian and English of Google

My electron and positron. Annihilation, particles and antiparticles. So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature. There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us.
The proposed work tezisno set out the essence of the doctrine of the novelty of the world view of nature for mankind. I proposed for protection "MY ELECTRON AND POSITRON. ANNIHILATION, PARTICLES AND ANTIPARTICLES. MY PHOTON ", which has already been more than half a century old, a claim to the discovery, and no one has disputed my authorship for this time, but I am not officially recognized either got. Designed copyright in the form of a trademark for protection, placed materials on their websites.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[64] **viXra:1710.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 09:38:09*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

From a mathematical perspective, the key to the universe lies at the central tenet of Pythagorean thought - that the universe can be explained by pure numbers, i.e. dimensionless ratios. A Planck constants hierarchy is created that postulates an undiscovered Planck constant - the Planck circumference, symbol (P). The Planck constants hierarchy produces dimensionless ratios, that allow for the first time the theoretical calculation of constants, e.g. the Planck momentum, Planck mass and Planck energy constants.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[63] **viXra:1710.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-04 05:58:23*

**Authors:** L. H. Koudahoun, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 14 pages

Authors introduce a generalized singular differential equation of quadratic Liénard
type for study of exact classical and quantum mechanical solutions. The equation
is shown to exhibit periodic solutions and to include the linear harmonic
oscillator equation and the Painlevé-Gambier XVII equation as special cases.
It is also shown that the equation may exhibit discrete eigenstates as quantum
behavior under Nikiforov-Uvarov approach after several point transformations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[62] **viXra:1710.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 13:50:32*

**Authors:** Luca Nascimbene

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The elementary particles that make up the universe can distinguish in particle-matter, of a fermionic type (quark, neutrino and neutrino, mass-equipped) and force-particles, bosonic type, carrying the fundamental forces in nature (photons and gluons, , And the W and Z bosons, endowed with mass). The Standard Model contemplates several other unstable particles that exist under certain conditions for a variable time, but still very short, before decaying into other particles. Among them there is at least one Higgs boson, which plays a very special role. The bosonic N, is an elementary discovery discovery thanks to various electronic devices and sensors. All this is a physical-electronic theoretical study. This particle seen on the oscilloscope has a different shape from the other, in particular it moves by looking at the oscilloscope and has a round shape.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[61] **viXra:1710.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 17:20:09*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, Stepan Moskaliuk

**Comments:** 56 Pages. 2nd paper submitted as a conference proceedings paper for the Bogoliubov astroparticle and quantum foundations conference, in Kiev, Ukraine, September 2017

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so we also invoke the geometry of Octonionic non commutative structure and when it breaks down as a trigger point for the release of entropy. Following Lloyd, as to entropy production with 1 count of entropy linked to one graviton via Ng Infinite quantum statistics, and we follow up on this modeling of entropy production by examining if we can relate the presumed graviton production with the behavior of Planck sized mini black holes, in the early phases of cosmological expansion. This analysis is in tandem with considerations as to what is essential as to accessing the quantum versus classical nature of the early universe, with the above listed as consequences. We close with the 2nd half of our work which is reviewing relic gravitons, and their role in presumed entanglement from a prior universe construction to the present universe, possibly for the unification of physical law, from cycle to cycle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] **viXra:1710.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 08:26:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[59] **viXra:1710.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-21 01:18:20*

**Authors:** Chuanli Chen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Whether the supply creates its own demand or the demand determines the supply has been a debate in economy science since one hundred years. In this paper, I will write my own perspective. I will analyze how the demand and supply interact with each other. Besides, I will tell why there is short of demand in the Say’s law[1].

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[58] **viXra:1710.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-09 05:41:01*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Bell's inequality is usually considered to belong to mathematics and not quantum mechanics. We think that this makes it difficult to understand Bell's theory. Thus in this paper, contrary to Bell's spirit (which inherits Einstein's spirit), we try to discuss Bell's inequality in the framework of quantum theory with the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation. And we clarify that whether or not Bell's inequality holds does not depend on whether classical systems or quantum systems, but depend on whether a kind of simultaneous measurements exist or not. And further we assert that our argument ( based on the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation) should be regarded as a scientific representation of Bell's philosophical argument (based on Einstein's spirit).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[57] **viXra:1710.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 12:16:31*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper presents a quantitative equation for Mach’s Principle that appears to satisfy the requirements of most of the qualitative expressions of Mach’s Principle, and it suggests that the universe has spatial closure and a Transactional gravitational exchange mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1710.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-07 14:13:01*

**Authors:** N.T.Kumar, Thiago R, Sandro B, Vinicius R, Lisane V, Vanderlei P

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Technical Notes & Short Communication on Actography using Image J Platform

“Actigraphy is a non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles. A small actigraph unit,also called an actimetry sensor is worn for a week or more to measure gross motor activity. The unit is usually, in a wrist-watch-like package, worn on the wrist. The movements the actigraph unit undergoes
are continually recorded and some units also measure light exposure. The data can be later read to a computer and analysed offline; in some brands of sensors the data are transmitted and analysed in real time.”[1-9].We are interested in focusing on the above mentioned research topic as per the title of this communication.Interested in suggesting an informatics and computational framework in the context of Actigraphy using ImageJ/Actigraphy Plugin by using JikesRVM as the Java Virtual Machine.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[55] **viXra:1710.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-05 05:42:55*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is almost same as that of the conventional Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. The new Hamiltonian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has also been derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[54] **viXra:1710.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-05 06:49:29*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Areas Value Update of the excellent work of Eng. Hélio de Caires including the Vantage of the thing done (Vcf) and corrections due to the current legislation

Avaliação de Glebas
Atualização do excelente trabalho do Eng. Hélio de Caires incluindo a Vantagem da coisa feita (Vcf) e correções devido à legislação atual

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[53] **viXra:1710.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-05 08:30:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[52] **viXra:1710.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-05 10:26:57*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 10 pages, 15 eqs, 15 refs; Paper presented at the FQXi essay contest 2016-2017, http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2774

Based on the unreduced, non-perturbative solution to arbitrary interaction problem, we show that any interaction process underlying real system dynamics and object properties gives rise to irreversible time flow, universally specified evolution purpose and meaningful intentions at higher levels of universally defined dynamic complexity. The new mathematics of real-world complexity contains thus well-specified intrinsic teleology due to its rigorously derived extension with respect to usual, “goal-free” and “mindless” theory. We outline major aspects and applications of that extended, naturally teleological and causally complete science framework, including critically important problem solutions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[51] **viXra:1710.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 01:38:44*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In my attempt to eliminate the Landau Pole from QED by “borrowing” asymptotic freedom from
QCD, I was successful in uniting the coupling constants of the two, respectively. This equation,
together with the already established electroweak unification forms a basis, within the Standard
Model, to experimentally test Grand Unification. The part that can be tested experimentally is the
value of the strong coupling constant for the energy value of the QCD integration parameter Λ,
offering such a prediction for the first time. It should be also noted that I was successful in
eliminating the Landau Pole.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[50] **viXra:1710.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-09 05:49:18*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 2 pages

Galaxy clusters and mass discrepancy blend and dwell together quite harmoniously. Mass discrepancy is always stumbled upon when galaxy clusters are studied. The orbital velocities of galaxies within galaxy clusters are unusually higher than expected and the observable baryonic matter alone cannot account for all the mass and gravity for the overall observed stability of the cluster. The presence of additional matter in the form of dark matter is required to explain the gravitational stability at such high velocities as baryonic matter is insufficient to explain the anomaly. In this paper I present a theory to account for the mass discrepancy within galaxy clusters without involving dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[49] **viXra:1710.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:05:23*

**Authors:** Alice Branton

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid based herbal medicine, is widely used as nutraceutical supplement for the prevention and treatment of various diseases viz. hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antiarrhythmic, antineoplastic, etc. The intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of berberine is very low and almost negligible in humans. In this study, the relative oral bioavailability of berberine was studied, and the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on animals and berberine were investigated through the measurement of plasma concentrations after oral administration in rats. The test item, berberine chloride was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. Additionally, one group of animals also received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment per se by Alice under similar conditions. Berberine oral formulations were made and administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg per kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated berberine), G2 (Biofield Treated berberine) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals were received untreated berberine) group. The results showed that berberine had a very low oral plasma exposure of 179.92 ng/mL in the control group. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly enhanced the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of berberine by 233.40% and 35.62% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. The Biofield Energy Treatment also improved plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of berberine by 37.7 and 1.4 times, in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. The absorption rate constant (Ka) of berberine in Biofield Energy Treatment group significantly increased by 100% (p < 0.05) in G2 group as compared to the control group (G1). The apparent oral plasma clearance of berberine decreased significantly (p < 0.01) by 81%, and 50% in G2 group and G3 group, respectively as compared to the control group. The enhanced bioavailability of berberine might be due to the alteration its physicochemical properties and thermal properties by Biofield Energy Treatment. Biofield Energy Healing Treatment is considered as an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed drug/nutraceuticals/herbal extracts and can also improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules. Thereby, the Biofield Energy Treated berberine chloride having improved bioavailability can significantly increase in antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-ischemia, memory and cognition, inhibition of metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases.

**Category:** Chemistry

[48] **viXra:1710.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:06:15*

**Authors:** Alice Branton

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is usually used as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as well as to maintain the overall quality of life. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), while another part was treated with Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -73.55% to 17.21% and from -14.28% to 125.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 19.29% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) of the treated sample was significantly increased by 2.03%, 70.92%, 142.25%, and 95.42%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of treated sample was significantly decreased by 21.34% compared to the control sample. The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (170.16°C) was decreased by 0.19% compared the control sample (170.48°C). The latent heat of fusion in the treated sample was increased by 3.11% compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis exhibited three steps thermal degradation and the total weight loss of the treated sample was increased by 0.29% compared to the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperatures (Tmax) of the 1st and 2nd peaks were decreased by 2.86% and 1.97%, respectively, while 2nd and 3rd peaks were increased by 1.14% and 0.94% respectively, in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The thermal analysis revealed that the thermodynamic stability of the treated sample was changed compared with the control sample. The Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a crystalline polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could show better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the untreated sample. Hence, Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be advantageous in designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, cancer, diabetes mellitus, stress, aging, etc.

**Category:** Chemistry

[47] **viXra:1710.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:07:00*

**Authors:** Alice Branton

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Pyridoxine hydrochloride is water-soluble B vitamin widely used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and other several diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of pyridoxine hydrochloride using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Pyridoxine hydrochloride was divided into two parts, one part of pyridoxine hydrochloride was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the relative intensities and crystallite sizes of the most characteristic diffraction peaks in the Alice’s treated pyridoxine hydrochloride were significantly decreased from 1.59% to 44.47% and 6.31% to 28.28%, respectively compared with the control sample. Overall, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 5.55% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) (average mass-volume diameter) in Alice’s treated sample were significantly reduced by 13.87%, 9.95%, 7.87%, and 6.59%, respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated sample was significantly increased by 13.67% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting point of the treated sample was lower by 0.20% with a significant reduction of the latent heat of fusion by 24.52% compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 1.76% compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis indicated that the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample was reduced by 0.88% compared to the control sample. Overall, the thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated pyridoxine hydrochloride was declined compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to the production of a polymorphic form of pyridoxine hydrochloride which would be more soluble, absorbable, have a higher dissolution rate and be more bioavailable compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated pyridoxine hydrochloride would be beneficial in the design of better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations which might provide better therapeutic responses against vitamin B6 deficiency, sideroblastic anemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, pyridoxine-dependency seizures, metabolic disorders, pulmonary tuberculosis, hyperhomocysteinemia, cancer, anxiety, asthma, depression, dysmenorrhea, etc.

**Category:** Chemistry

[46] **viXra:1710.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:07:39*

**Authors:** Alice Branton

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There are numerous scientific studies on vitamin D3 reported to have many important roles viz. in bone metabolism, osteoporosis, immunity, and useful in several diseases, e.g., cancers, cardio-vascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, there is little information available about the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the blood, which is the best indicator of vitamin D3 status after its oral absorption. However, the biological activity of vit-D3 is mediated via the formation of the active metabolite, 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. There are several factors which affect its absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations of both the metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) following an oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on vit-D3 and rats through the measurement of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations after the oral administration of vit-D3 in rats. The test item, vit-D3 was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control (without Biofield Energy Healing Treatment), while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. Additionally, one group of animals also received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment per se by the Healer under similar conditions. Vitamin D3 oral formulations were administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 500 µg per kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated Vitamin D3), G2 (Biofield Treated Vitamin D3) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals received untreated Vitamin D3) group. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly altered the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by 54.62% in G2 group compared to the control group, G1. The Biofield Energy Treatment also altered plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by 53.8% and 7.6% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. After oral administration, plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in control group (G1) declined with slow excretion rate and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 100.59 hours. The oral elimination half-life (T1/2) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in G2 and G3 were 69.09 hours and 55.76 hours, respectively. The mean residence time (MRTlast) and elimination rate constant (Kel) remained unaltered in all three groups. The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed pharmaceuticals/nutraceuticals/herbal extracts and can improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules.

**Category:** Chemistry

[45] **viXra:1710.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:08:19*

**Authors:** Alice Branton

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol is a secosteroid nutraceutical used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of cholecalciferol using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Cholecalciferol was divided into two parts, one part of cholecalciferol was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the relative intensities of characteristic diffraction peak in the Alice’s treated cholecalciferol were significantly altered from -28.21% to 54.16% compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was altered from -40.02% to 83.20% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) in Alice’s treated sample were significantly reduced by 33.48%, 23.82%, 18.61%, and 22.08%, respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated cholecalciferol was significantly increased by 32.72% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis demonstrated that the melting point of the treated sample was higher by 0.24% with an enhanced latent heat of fusion (∆H) by 3.54% compared to the control sample. The decomposition temperature of the treated cholecalciferol was increased by 0.12% with a significant increase of the enthalpy of decomposition by 5.85% compared to the control sample. The melting temperature and ∆H of a second broad endothermic peak in the treated sample were increased by 0.18% and 73.87%, respectively compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed that the weight loss in the treated sample was decreased compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis indicated that the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated cholecalciferol was increased by 3.23% compared to the control sample. Overall, the thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated cholecalciferol was improved compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to produce a polymorphic form of cholecalciferol which might have the improved solubility, bioavailability, and thermally stability as compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated cholecalciferol would be beneficial to design better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations, which could provide better therapeutic response against vitamin D deficiency i.e. rickets, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes mellitus, etc.

**Category:** Chemistry

[44] **viXra:1710.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-07 01:36:36*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. submitted to Physics and Astronomy International Journal

Exact solutions to the stationary spherically symmetric Newton-Schroedinger equation are proposed
in terms of integrals involving $generalized$ Gaussians. The energy eigenvalues are also obtained in terms of these integrals which agree with the numerical results in the literature. A discussion of infinite-derivative-gravity follows which allows to generalize the Newton-Schroedinger equation by $replacing$
the ordinary Poisson equation with a $modified$ non-local Poisson equation associated with infinite-derivative gravity. We proceed to replace the nonlinear Newton-Schroedinger equation for a non-linear quantum-like Bohm-Poisson equation involving Bohm's quantum potential, and where the fundamental quantity is $no$ longer the wave-function $ \Psi$ but the real-valued probability density $ \rho$. Finally, we discuss how the latter equations reflect a $nonlinear$ $feeding$ loop mechanism between matter and geometry which allows us to envisage a ``Schwarzschild atom" as a spherically symmetric probability cloud of matter which curves the geometry, and in turn, the geometry back-reacts on this matter cloud perturbing its initial distribution over the space, which in turn will affect the geometry, and so forth until static equilibrium is reached.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[43] **viXra:1710.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:47:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The true nature of absolute motion has eluded physicists for more than a century because they presumed absolute motion to be motion relative to the hypothetical ether. This author has developed a new interpretation of absolute velocity, Apparent Source Theory (AST ), that shows the ether does not exist, but absolute motion does. AST successfully explains the hitherto apparently contradicting experiments including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. An argument against the validity of absolute motion is that if absolute motion existed, it would have been detected in the Ives-Stilwell and the fast ion beam experiments.In this paper it is proposed that, unconventionally, absolute motion does not affect experiments of Doppler effect. Therefore, such experiments cannot prove or disprove absolute motion. Doppler effect is determined only by the source-observer relative velocity, by applying Exponential Doppler Effect theory [1] already proposed by this author. Absolute velocity results only in phase delay of light, and has no effect on Doppler effect and this would be a novel nature of motion and the speed of light. This is not the case for sound waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1710.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 06:23:54*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or Emergent Gravity.
More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field..
So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption.
Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..
The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close.
So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus.
At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all.
In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth and all atomic fermions is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum.
Rigid string shaped Fermions are assumed to have a propeller shape able to plow into the direction of motion through the local spacetime creating vacuum lattice.
Conclusion Bosons (Higgs, W and Z particles) seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice. The LHC could perhaps be able to show this anti inertial mass effect created by the solar reference frame or solar LASOF ( Local Oscillating vacuum Frame).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] **viXra:1710.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 13:02:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The lack of so-called “dark photons” in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon’s magnetic moment. [16]
By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15]
Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core.
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[40] **viXra:1710.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 20:55:25*

**Authors:** Choe Ryujin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Proof of Riemann hypothesis

**Category:** Number Theory

[39] **viXra:1710.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-05 02:19:39*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Войд – Чёрное Облако, оставшееся после разрушения Чёрной Дыры.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[38] **viXra:1710.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 09:43:29*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Efforts based on the results of sophysicated experiments and meant to fit EPR effects in the accepted paradigms of Physics, remain unsatisfactory. A valid Physical Reality model (see Ref1: vixra.org/abs/1604.0230) may help to solve the puzzle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[37] **viXra:1710.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 10:06:22*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

As No.5 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the comparative studies of five fundamental interactions (gravitational interaction, electromagnetic interaction, weak interaction, strong interaction and quantum interaction), and focusing on the comparative studies of quantum interaction and other four fundamental interactions. The law of conservation of energy is put forward to deal with all kinds of fundamental interactions (including five fundamental interactions, and the sixth fundamental interaction that may appear in the future) with unified manner; in this process, there will be the unified theories of any two fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any three fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any four fundamental interactions, and so on. When law of conservation of energy can be used to deal with five fundamental interactions with unified manner, this unified theory of five fundamental interactions can be printed on a T-shirt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1710.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-08 05:32:31*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal, Nikita Parajuli

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper attempts to classify the beggars of modern Nepal according to their professional and their art of begging. By observing their principles of begging, we have classified them into 6 categories and each category has been explained in brief.

**Category:** Social Science

[35] **viXra:1710.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 08:50:43*

**Authors:** Yazzed T.Al-Harbi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we will show the provement of the hadrons existence mechanism. Its duo to the physical consequences of the spinning quarks and the color charge. When we simulate the supposed situation by mathematics we find that it's achieves the perfect understanding of the all physical interactions and all the mysteries of the particle physics with its measurements which proved experimentally.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:1710.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 11:01:23*

**Authors:** Dieter Sengschmitt

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

I can proof that there are infinitely many twin primes. The twin prime counting function π2(n), which gives the number of twin primes less than or equal to n for any natural number n, is for
limn→∞ π2(n)= 2 C2 [π(n)]^2/n
where π(n) is the prime counting function and C2 is the so-called twin prime constant with C2=0,6601618…

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1710.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-19 12:03:53*

**Authors:** Romeo D. Matshaba

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

We illustrate that by viewing gravity as the De Broglie wavelength of quantum mechanics, we are able to construct a working theory of quantum gravity. We also demonstrate that by replacing the inverse square law of Newton and Einstein by an exponential, we are capable of explaining the inconsistencies that lead to Dark Matter, as well as shedding some light on what transpired before the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] **viXra:1710.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 16:37:46*

**Authors:** Robert C. Hall

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An attempt is made to derive the probability density function of the sum of prime numbers, which is x/Ln(x). This does appear to be quite accurate in predicting the sum of prime numbers less than 100,000( within 0.124%). Given this assertion, an attempt is made to derive the probability density function of the distribution of the prime numbers themselves.

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1710.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 21:20:37*

**Authors:** Hong Lai Zhu

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, four kinds of Z Transformations are proposed to get many laws of general solutions of mth-order linear and nonlinear partial differential equations with n variables. Some general solutions of first-order linear partial differential equations, which cannot be obtained by using the characteristic equation method, can be solved by the Z Transformations. By comparing, we find that the general solutions of some first-order partial differential equations got by the characteristic equation method are not complete.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[30] **viXra:1710.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 01:50:21*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Derived the Statistics of the un-solved problems (conjectures). The probability, what a conjecture will be solved is 50 %. The probability, that a conjecture is true is p=37 %. The probability, what we get to know the latter is psi=29 %....

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[29] **viXra:1710.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-05 05:38:09*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Mass is the potency of Rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons.
More extended loops or "arms" of each particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a pressure force.
So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde is one of the results of this assumption, the electric dark matter black hole non inertial effects are the other side of the coin..
The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close.
So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus.
At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all.
In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth and all atomic fermions is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum.
Rigid string shaped Fermions are assumed to have a propeller shape able to plow into the direction of motion through the local spacetime creating vacuum lattice.
Conclusion Bosons (Higgs, W and Z particles) seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice. The LHC could perhaps be able to show this anti inertial mass effect created by the solar reference frame or solar LASOF ( Local Oscillating vacuum Frame).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:1710.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 06:37:46*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 131 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1710.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 13:52:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1710.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 17:11:39*

**Authors:** Thomas Preusser

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The holographic principle concept of physics theory traces its origins to the study of black holes. In the 1970’s Hawking and Bekenstein showed that black holes carry entropy, i.e. information, that is proportional not to black hole volume (i.e. 3-Dimensions), but to the area of the black hole horizon (i.e. 2-Dimensions). Subsequently Hooft and Susskind developed the holographic principle which pairs quantum gravity (3D) with quantum field theory (2D), making the black hole horizon “contoured 2D” and enabling entanglement information across the black hole horizon. More recently (1997 arXiv:9711200) Maldacena’s Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence, provided the holographic principle with a more explicit geometric (bulk, gravity, 3D, AdS) boundary correspondence with quantum field theory (2D, CFT), where the 2D is actually related to a dual boundary and the varying entanglement of two subsystems, A and its complement B.
The most interesting part of all the foregoing is that the holographic principle, which pertains to geometry and information, brings string theory adjacent to loop quantum gravity (LQG), which also pertains to geometry and information. More recently in LQG (1994 arXiv:9411005) Rovelli and Smolin related quantization to area / volume (geometry), and graphs (information). If “conservation” of information is a law, geometry is a more malleable topological property, (i.e. networked inter-connectedness is unaffected by changes in geometry).
There are two major issues that need to be addressed for further holographic principle progress.
Issue 1:The AdS, or bulk, gravity, 3D side, needs to be more topologically explicit and generalized. Gravity in 3D is a purely topological theory. In a topological theory geometric properties and spatial relations, i.e. networked inter-connectedness, are unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of an object. Topological consistency is a very important aspect for systems of information, being akin to adiabatic consistency for systems of energy, thus providing stability.
Issue 2:Holographic principle entanglement needs to be put in a larger context that generalizes entanglement , and development of complexity. This includes CPT symmetry breaking, Lorentz covariant bound states (spooky action at a distance), neutrino oscillation involving electron, muon, and tau neutrinos, and gluon color charge oscillation.
Holography involves projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. This paper expounds on projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. In particular this paper looks at Pascal’s Projection Ellipse, and in a larger sense General Projective Relativit y (GPR), as models for projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer, and in so doing addresses the prior holographic principle issues.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1710.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-30 03:44:28*

**Authors:** Feng Zhang, Jianjun Wang, Yao Wang, Jianwen Huang

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the era of big data, the multi-modal data can be seen everywhere. Research
on such data has attracted extensive attention in the past few years. In this paper,
we investigate perturbations of compressed data separation with redundant
tight frames via ˜Φ-ℓq-minimization. By exploiting the properties of the redundant
tight frame and the perturbation matrix, i.e., mutual coherence, null space
property and restricted isometry property, the condition on reconstruction of
sparse signal with redundant tight frames is established and the error estimation
between the local optimal solution and the original signal is also provided. Numerical
experiments are carried out to show that ˜Φ-ℓq-minimization are robust
and stable for the reconstruction of sparse signal with redundant tight frames.
To our knowledge, our works may be the first study concerning perturbations
of the measurement matrix and the redundant tight frame for compressed data
separation.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[24] **viXra:1710.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 21:40:18*

**Authors:** Alekseenko Victor Victorovich

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This study suggests the mechanism for atomic motion in quantum liquids at low temperatures
where the lifetime of the states that are responsible for atomic motion becomes macroscopically long. This mechanism is an analog to the motion of crowdions in the one-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova model. Soliton-like atomic motion along linear directions, and the circular motions provide a means of explaining many macroscopic phenomena occurring at the transition of 4He to a superfluid state, such as the behavior of rotating superfluid helium and the flow potentiality of the superfluid phase. The thermodynamics of rotating 4He is considered under the assumption
that Bose-Einstein condensate is not the ground state of Bose-Einstein liquid. An experiment is
suggested in order to validate our approach.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[23] **viXra:1710.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 21:52:10*

**Authors:** Michael E Johnson

**Comments:** 86 Pages.

Philosophers have been wondering the nature of consciousness (what it feels like to have subjective experience) and qualia (individual components of subjective experience) for as long as Philosophy has existed. Advancements in physics and neuroscience have informed and constrained this mystery, but have not solved it. What would a systematic solution to the mystery of consciousness look like?
Part I begins by grounding this topic by considering a concrete question: what makes some conscious experiences more pleasant than others? We first review what’s known about the neuroscience of pain & pleasure, find the current state of knowledge narrow, inconsistent, and often circular, and conclude we must look elsewhere for a systematic framework (Sections I & II). We then review the Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness and several variants of IIT, and find each of them promising, yet also underdeveloped and flawed (Sections III-V).
We then take a step back and distill what kind of problem consciousness is . Importantly, we offer eight sub-problems whose solutions would, in aggregate, constitute a c omplete theory of consciousness (Section VI).
Armed with this framework, in Part II we return to the subject of pain & pleasure (valence) and offer some assumptions, distinctions, and heuristics to clarify and constrain the problem (Sections VII-IX). Of particular interest, we then offer a specific hypothesis on what valence is (Section X) and several novel empirical predictions which follow from this (Section XI). Part III finishes with discussion of how this general approach may inform open problems in neuroscience, and the prospects for building a new science of qualia (Sections XII & XIII). Lastly, we identify further research threads within this framework (Appendices A-F).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[22] **viXra:1710.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 00:37:53*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We point to a significant mismatch between the nature of the baryon number and
of the electric charge of baryons in the Skyrme topological model. Requirement
of consistency between these two then demands a significant improvement in
how the electric charge is defined in this model. The Skyrme model thereafter
has a consistent electric charge which has a unique colour dependence built into
it. Its relationship with other theoretical model structures is also studied.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[21] **viXra:1710.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 04:07:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known that most existing cosmology models do not include rotation, with few
exceptions such as rotating Bianchi and rotating Godel metrics. Therefore in this paper
we aim to discuss four possible ways to model rotating universe, including Nurgaliev’s
Ermakov-type equation. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with
observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology
models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1710.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-09 06:11:49*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Abstract:

In 2008 Tomasz Paterek et al published experiments demonstrating that quantum randomness results from logical independence. The job of this paper is to derive implications for Matrix Mechanics. Surprisingly (and apparently unwittingly), the Paterek experiments imply that faithful representation of (non-random) pure states contradicts the Quantum Postulate which imposes unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space mathematics on all states. Paterek's Boolean formalism asserts and demands a non-unitary environment for pure states, which is freely restricted to logically independent unitary structure, wherever the creation of mixed states demands unitarity. Consequently, the Paterek experiments contradict the Quantum Postulate which imposes unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space structures, axiomatically as blanket ontology, across the whole theory. Examination of the ‘non-unitary to unitary transition’ reveals the machinery of quantum indeterminacy. That machinery involves self-referential circularity, inaccessible history, and the geometrical ambiguity of perfect symmetry. The findings here provide answers for researchers studying Foundations of Quantum Mechanics; they make intuitive good sense of indeterminacy; they provide reason and significance for observable operators and eigenvectors; and they should be helpful for those interested in the Measurement Problem, the EPR paradox and possibly those looking for a method to quantize Gravity.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1710.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 07:11:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10]
Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1710.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-03 16:16:10*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The origin of gravitation and mass is explained by the fact that spherical shock fronts locally and temporarily extend the volume of the carrier of this vibration. A surprising conclusion is that spherical shock fronts own an amount of mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1710.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-04 01:32:33*

**Authors:** Alexey Khorev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This article explores an implementation of the 2D Ising model using the Metropolis algorithm in the Python programming language. The goal of this work was to explore the scope of behaviours this model can demonstrate through a simplistic implementation on a relatively low-end machine. The Ising model itself is particularly interesting as it demonstrates relatively complex behaviours of ferromagnetics e.g. the second-order phase transition in spite of its simplicity. To study the specifics of this model several parameters were measured (namely the net magnetization and energy, the specific heat and correlation function) and a visualization of the grid was implemented. The simulations demonstrated an easily observable phase transition near critical temperature on a 100 × 100 Ising grid with the measured parameters behaving nearly as predicted by the exact solution developed for this model.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[16] **viXra:1710.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 05:57:14*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 14 pages, including 12 figures

The quantum/classical connection, found in an analysis of dark energy as vacuum energy, maps the radii of celestial bodies onto specific mass scales in the quantum world. The sun, owing to its location in the middle of the Main Sequence, is associated with a rich phenomenology. While the radius of Jupiter maps onto the mass of the Higgs boson, the radius of the sun maps onto the mass (49.4 GeV) of a particle that is symmetrically opposed to the Higgs boson on the mass levels of the Planck Model and is coupled to the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1710.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 14:09:49*

**Authors:** Nikolay Dementev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Justifications of Everett’s alternative interpretation of Quantum Mechanics are suggested

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1710.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 02:24:57*

**Authors:** Mendzina Essomba Francois

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

four new formulas for pi

**Category:** Number Theory

[13] **viXra:1710.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 02:31:57*

**Authors:** V.N.Nikitin, I.V.Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Временное смещение оси Земли вызвано деформацией (сжатием) энергетического пространства Солнечной системы. Смещение оси вращения должно наблюдаться и на других объектах Солнечной системы.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12] **viXra:1710.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 03:09:57*

**Authors:** Lulu Karami

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This submission gives a closed form identity similar to one given by
Ramanujan. A formula for infinitely many similar identities is presented
here as well.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11] **viXra:1710.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 11:39:44*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We describe a fluid motion in three dimensions with rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10] **viXra:1710.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 11:25:33*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Aufgezeigt wird die technische Bedeutung der Swastika in Hinblick auf das Nutzen der Rotationsenergie der Erde.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[9] **viXra:1710.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 22:03:50*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Hidding et al. suggest that the emergence of intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers’ equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity. In the present paper, we describe a cellular automaton model of the Burgers’ equation, which can be investigated via a fast computer simulation. In the end, this suggests a Cellular Automata Adhesion Model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1710.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-30 08:47:52*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The quasi-exact solvability of symmetrized quartic anharmonic oscillators has been studied first by Znojil [2] and then by Quesne [3]. In this work, we examine the solvability of these models using, as basic parameter, the energy-dependent, constant (i.e. position-independent) term of a quotient polynomial. We examine the cases n=0 and n=1, and we show that our results are in agreement with those of Quesne. For n=2, following a different path from that of Znojil, we derive the cubic equation that our parameter satisfies and for the case it has a root at zero, we follow the zero root to obtain an even-parity, ground-state wave function and an odd-parity, third-excited-state wave function. As in the case of the sextic anharmonic oscillator [6], the straightforwardness and transparency of the analysis demonstrates the eligibility of the quotient polynomial as a solvability tool of polynomial oscillators.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[7] **viXra:1710.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-01 11:48:42*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Mark Langager, Nobyuki Miyazaki, Takashi Kibe

**Comments:** 8 figures, 1 table, 2.5 pages of references.

In this article we introduce scalable modern commercial wood gas cogeneration technology of micro scale, beginning at 35-45 kW electric power, scalable up to 800kW electric power, as offered by several international companies. Cogeneration means to use both electricity and heat, which leads to an overall efficiency of converting the chemical energy in wood of up to 90%. We discuss aspects of technology, sustainability, forest ecology, local and international fuel quality standards, long term cost efficiency, potential for attracting various forms of official financial support and potential risks involved. In particular we make the general study concrete in the form of a case study on renewable energy supply for the International Christian University campus in Mitaka, western Tokyo. Changing scale parameters in order to adapt to the local energy demand, we expect that this case study can be transferred to other schools, universities, institutions, businesses and buildings in Japan. We further try to address the question as to what contribution this technology can make to the future national renewable energy supply in Japan.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[6] **viXra:1710.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 10:04:57*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** Japanese summary at beginning. 2 pages of references.

The recent Encyclical Laudato Si by Pope Francis also highlights environmental stewardship in broad terms. In contrast to this generality, our reflections particularly advance with a fresh look at the person of Christ, his role in the creation of our world as portrayed in the Bible, the origin and commission of man, and the relation of man and Christ. In this triangle of Christ, world and man, all three are appear related in the principle of Christ centered stewardship (of man) for the (created) environment. To gain insight we review some essential Biblical passage from both the Old and New Testaments. The second half of this work endeavors initial application in the fields of purchasing, building, energy, policy and education. Our approach is that of a natural scientist (of theoretical physics) and convinced Christian with interest in environmental questions.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[5] **viXra:1710.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-26 04:20:01*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 tables, 1 figure

The deviation of a galaxy from exhibiting a Keplerian curve either indicates the presence of dark matter or the breakdown of Newtonian dynamics. Dark matter still remaining undetected raises a concern whether it exists or not and can the galaxy rotation problem be addressed by modifying the laws of gravity. However, considering the baryonic matter distribution to solve this discrepant behaviour would prove to be a turning point. In this paper I present the theoretical study regarding the kinematics and dynamics of spiral galaxies by considering the distribution of baryonic matter only. The study of Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) and Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies which are considered to be dominated by dark matter has also been taken into account. The distribution of baryonic matter throughout a galaxy and its role in influencing both; the nature of galaxy’s rotation curve as well as the nature of variation of gravitational acceleration throughout a galaxy has been discussed. We will also compare a planetary system with a galaxy to find out why a planetary system exhibits a Keplerian curve whereas a galaxy deviates from it. The study provides explanation for a galaxy’s non-declining rotation curve without considering the presence of dark matter and also without modifying the laws of gravity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[4] **viXra:1710.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 05:36:13*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Aufgezeigt wird die technische Bedeutung der Swastika zur Nutzung der Rotationsenergie der Erde im Detail.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[3] **viXra:1710.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 05:56:15*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A hypothetical method to connect any future device to any operating system without drivers

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[2] **viXra:1710.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 06:37:59*

**Authors:** Popov Boris

**Comments:** 68 Pages. language Russian

Nebow of this book, the author, guided by the installation of Isaac Newton, that nature all around is very simple and economical and, if she than and gave body in the process of their generation, one only by force of inertia, the fundamental principle of the action of gravity considering inertia. Thanks to the approach based on such a setting, the law of gravity and the other three of Newton's law reduced to one law – the law of inertia, formulated and substantiated long before Newton, Galileo Galilei. This allowed, based on the fundamental principle of action, known since the times of Euler as the conservation of angular momentum, to give a constructive definition of gravity, namely to offer the technology to any group of physical bodies localized in the free space gravitating Association. The reality of the technology is grounded in controlled experiments that the reader can easily repeat yourself. In the metaphysical aspect, without going beyond the main provisions of classical mechanics, we consider the nature itself and inertia, and the Foundation of stability and the principle of the existence of real entities, methods of imparting substances not only gravitational abilities, but also the electromagnetic.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1710.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 06:54:11*

**Authors:** Popov Boris

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In order to provide control system operation in real-time mode, communication system should operate in the mode advancing real-time that can be achieved only by means of providing the communication system with mechanism for network structure forward adaptation to the variations in the user query topics and rates as well as their self-actualization. A technique for developing such nature-like technology that is based on fundamental natural inertia phenomenon and widespread symbiotic cooperation, distinguished by building-up (developing) resources being used, is proposed.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence