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1912 Submissions

[223] viXra:1912.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 08:58:18

Spinning Bosonic Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Researchers at Universidade de Lisboa, Universitat de València and Universidade de Aveiro have recently carried out a fascinating study exploring the dynamics of spinning bosonic stars, which are stars formed from clusters of ultra-light bosons. [35] MIT physicists are reigniting the possibility, which they previously had snuffed out, that a bright burst of gamma rays at the center of our galaxy may be the result of dark matter after all. [34] Dark matter particles may scatter against each other only when they hit the right energy, say researchers in Japan, Germany, and Austria in a new study. [33] A team led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe constructed a map of dark matter throughout the history of the universe by analysing images of more than ten million galaxies. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[222] viXra:1912.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 09:27:27

Ghost Imaging Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Researchers have used advanced imaging approaches to achieve super-resolution microscopy at unprecedented speeds. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[221] viXra:1912.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 09:47:30

Less Quantum Noise is More

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A group of researchers from Osaka University led by Prof. Masayuki Abe and Prof. Hiroshi Toki of the Graduate School of Engineering Science developed a high precision 3-D circuit simulator in the time-domain for quantifying electromagnetic (EM) noise and elucidated its origin, allowing for electronic and electrical circuit layout to reduce EM noise. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[220] viXra:1912.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 10:33:20

Planet-Mass Objects in Extragalactic Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A University of Oklahoma research group is reporting the detection of extragalactic planet-mass objects in a second and third galaxy beyond the Milky Way after the first detection in 2018. [15] UZH researchers have analyzed the composition and structure of faraway exoplanets using statistical tools. [14] A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[219] viXra:1912.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 10:55:27

Improve Cancer Immunotherapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Children's Research Hospital scientists have identified a new therapeutic strategy that enhanced cancer immunotherapy, slowed tumor growth and extended the lives of mice with cancer. [34] Using the latest advances in imaging and computing, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have developed a framework that's able to reveal the structural and functional changes in the blood vessel network required for growth of a tumour. [33] Medical physicist Dr. Aswin Hoffmann and his team from the Institute of Radiooncology-OncoRay at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a proton beam, thus demonstrating for the first time that in principle, this commonly used imaging method can work with particle beam cancer treatments. [32] Washington State University researchers for the first time have shown that they can use electrical fields to gain valuable information about the tiny, floating vesicles that move around in animals and plants and are critically important to many biological functions. [31] Finding a fast and inexpensive way to detect specific strains of bacteria and viruses is critical to food safety, water quality, environmental protection and human health. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[218] viXra:1912.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 13:19:54

Gravitational Wave Detectors Cutting Quantum Noise

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Physicists have successfully developed a new instrument that significantly reduces quantum-level noise that has thus far limited experiments' ability to spot gravitational waves. [20] A group of researchers from Osaka University led by Prof. Masayuki Abe and Prof. Hiroshi Toki of the Graduate School of Engineering Science developed a high precision 3-D circuit simulator in the time-domain for quantifying electromagnetic (EM) noise and elucidated its origin, allowing for electronic and electrical circuit layout to reduce EM noise. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[217] viXra:1912.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 13:47:51

Unification of Gravitation, Black Matter and Black Energy Expression of the Universal Constants C and G

Authors: Khalid Jerrari
Comments: 14 Pages.

I carried out a reflection that aims to understand the influence of space on the laws of cosmology.According to my work, space is a substance that would be the source of universal gravitation, the" matter and the expansion of the universe, I present in this paper a theory that unifies all these laws by means of specific properties of space.First of all, the invariance of the velocity of light, leads me to introduce the notion of own space, which translates that every material body forms a pair "mass / volume of space." Moreover, according to my theory, the presence of a body in space generates an action of the space that manifests itself in the form of a spatial tension In this publication, I express universal gravitation, the expansion of the universe and "dark matter" in the form of a universal acceleration that derives from this tension. I led a reflection that aims to understand The influence of space on the laws of cosmology According to my work, space is a substance that is at the origin of universal gravitation, "dark matter" and the expansion of universe. I present in this paper a theory that unifies all these laws with the specific properties of space. First of all, the invariance of the speed of light leads me to introduce the notion of proper space, which means that every material body forms a pair "mass / volume of space". Moreover, according to my theory, the presence of a body in space generates an action of space that manifests itself in the form of a spatial tension. In this publication, I express universal gravitation, the expansion of the universe and "dark matter" as a universal acceleration that derives from this tension.
Category: Astrophysics

[216] viXra:1912.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 16:57:01

Dark Gravitation Theory for M31 and Coma Cluster

Authors: M. Abarca
Comments: 28 Pages. A D.M. theory that works for galaxies and for galaxy clusters.

The hypothesis of this work is that D.M is generated by the own gravitational field, according an Universal mechanism based on a quantum gravitation phenomenon. In order to study DM as a Universal law is studied rotation curve of M31. The theory developed for galaxies is extended successfully to Coma cluster . In this paper is published by first time the called The equivalence theorem, which is a crucial tool to extend the theory to cluster scale. Another crucial finding made in this paper is that a characteristic parameter of the theory has been calculated by data coming from Coma cluster and by data from M31. Both results match with a high precision. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis.In the chapter 9, considering B= 5/3 are recalculated the others parameters a&b and A and formulas of theory are rewriting. In the tenth chapter are introduced the called reduced formulas for field, density and total mass. The variable of these functions is dimensionless, this way the formulas gain simplicity. In the eleventh chapter, is calculated masses in M31 at different radius by the reduced formula of mass. In the chapter 12 is introduced The equivalence theorem which is crucial in order to extend the dark gravitation theory to cluster scale. As mass and density are additive magnitudes it is found a new parameter D associated to the cluster, considering as start point the parameter D associated to one single galaxy. In the thirteenth chapter are estimated masses in Coma cluster by the equivalent theorem and results got match very well with the most recent measured of masses in such cluster. In the fourteenth chapter is developed the most awesome result of the theory up to now. The parameter DCOMAat virial radius is calculated by the Virial theorem by recent data from Coma cluster and also it is calculated by the equivalence theorem from the parameter DM31 associated to M31 galaxy. Relative difference between both results is 3%. This fact shows clearly that parameter D is backed by a Universal law. In the fifteenth chapter is introduced the average density formula, it is applied to Coma cluster and it is shown that at virial radius Coma cluster has an average density equal to 100 times the critical density of universe, which match very well with measures. Also it is calculated the radius of the sphere where the average density is equal to the Universal average D.M. density, Factor Omega D.M.= 0.27
Category: Astrophysics

[215] viXra:1912.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 01:19:28

Замечание о глобальном потеплении.

Authors: Киров
Comments: 1 Page. Rus lang

Соображения о глобальном потеплении, его причинах, и роли CO2 в нём.
Category: Climate Research

[214] viXra:1912.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 01:37:14

A Note on Global Warming.

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 1 Page.

Considerations for global warming, its causes, and the role of CO2 in it.
Category: Climate Research

[213] viXra:1912.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 02:12:43

Summary of a Theory of Mathematical Connections Between Ramanujan's Formulas and the Equations of Inflationary Cosmology: the Scalar Field ϕ, the Inflaton Mass, the Higgs Boson Mass and Pion Meson π^± Mass

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper is a summary of a Theory of Mathematical Connections between Ramanujan's formulas of Modular Equations and Approximations to π and the equations of Inflationary Cosmology concerning the scalar field ϕ, the Inflaton mass, the Higgs boson mass and the Pion meson π^± mass
Category: Mathematical Physics

[212] viXra:1912.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 04:30:02

Maxwell's Electromagnetism at Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

On Dec. 11, 2019, a general framework for incorporating and correcting for nonclassical electromagnetic phenomena in nanoscale systems will be presented in the journal Nature. [28] Now, researchers at the University of Barcelona have presented the first theoretical and experimental solution of a continuous version of Maxwell's demon in a single molecule system. [27] Lensless microscopy with X-rays, or coherent diffractive imaging, is a promising approach. It allows researchers to analyse complex three-dimensional structures, which frequently exist in nature, from a dynamic perspective. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[211] viXra:1912.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 04:49:57

Dark Matter of Milky Way

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

MIT physicists are reigniting the possibility, which they previously had snuffed out, that a bright burst of gamma rays at the center of our galaxy may be the result of dark matter after all. [34] Dark matter particles may scatter against each other only when they hit the right energy, say researchers in Japan, Germany, and Austria in a new study. [33] A team led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe constructed a map of dark matter throughout the history of the universe by analysing images of more than ten million galaxies. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[210] viXra:1912.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 05:53:59

Quantum Weirdness Casimir Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

If you use a vacuum-insulated thermos to help keep your coffee hot, you may know it's a good insulator because heat energy has a hard time moving through empty space. [36] A team of researchers from the University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has found a way to make the Casimir effect attract or repulse depending on the size of the gap between two objects. [35] Researchers from the University of Maryland have for the first time measured an effect that was predicted more than 40 years ago, called the Casimir torque. [34] The properties of matter are typically the result of complex interactions between electrons. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[209] viXra:1912.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-12 17:25:18

Refutation of Triangular Bases of Fuzzy Sets in Łukasiewicz Infinite-Valued Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the first lemma of properties of fuzzy sets for strictly min-convex as not tautologous. This refutes subsequent conjectures for the logical content of triangular bases of fuzzy sets in Łukasiewicz infinite-valued. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[208] viXra:1912.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 05:58:40

Numbers Are Three Dimensional, as Nature

Authors: Surajit Ghosh
Comments: 41 Pages.

Riemann hypothesis stands proved in three different ways.To prove Riemann hypothesis from the functional equation concept of Delta function is introduced similar to Gamma and Pi function. Other two proofs are derived using Eulers formula and elementary algebra. Analytically continuing gamma and zeta function to an extended domain, poles and zeros of zeta values are redefined.
Category: Number Theory

[207] viXra:1912.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 06:12:25

Orbital Angular Momentum of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Currently, it is urgent to further develop novel devices that can reconfigure and switch between distinct OAM modes to fully exploit the extra degree of freedom provided by the OAM both for classical and quantum communications. [20] A compact and simple camera that can determine the full polarization of light has been developed by researchers in the US. [19] In their experiments, the researchers first transformed an ordinary laser beam into an accelerating one by reflecting the laser beam off of a spatial light modulator. [18] Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17] Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons-particles of light-interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion.
Category: Quantum Physics

[206] viXra:1912.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 06:31:11

Combined Measure Nanostructure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Researchers at Leiden University and TU Delft have combined two techniques that are used to measure the structure of biomolecules, creating a method that is 10 times more sensitive. [33] The researchers hope that these predictions will now also be tested experimentally and lead to the development of new nanostructures. Such systems can make important contributions to the further miniaturisation of electronics. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[205] viXra:1912.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 07:41:46

Making Sense of the Cosmos by a Fractal Geometry Experiment

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: Pages.

‘Fractals are everywhere’; but for the large-scale galaxy distribution in the observable universe, by the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, they were ruled out. They were, however, granted on small cosmic scales, as claimed by proponents, and notwithstanding the ensuing enigma of explaining the standard model of cosmology ‘very large’ cosmic structures (LQGs) have indeed – as predicted – have been observed in the large-scale universe since the WiggleZ survey. Can a (different) fractal model explain all these cosmological observations and conjectures, and if so, are we are modelling the fractal the universe incorrectly? An experiment was conducted on a ‘simple’ (Koch snowflake) fractal from the perspective of an observer within a growing/emergent fractal – ‘looking’ in iteration-time. The fractal was inverted – to show what the fractal looks like back to its origin; new triangle sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated. Classical kinematic equations of velocities and accelerations were calculated for total area total and the distance between points. Hubble-Lemaitre's Law and other cosmological observations and conjectures were tested for. Results showed area(s) expanded exponentially from an arbitrary starting position; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. It was concluded that the fractal is a geometrical match to the cosmological problems. It explains Hubble-Lemaitre and accelerated expansion; inhomogeneous (and said fractal) galaxy distribution on small scale and large scales; and other problems – including the cosmological catastrophe and the early inflationary expansion epoch of the universe. Also, the fractal offers a direct mechanism to the cosmological problem and can further explain the quantum problem – unifying the two realities as being two aspects of the same geometry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[204] viXra:1912.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 19:50:48

The Study of the Determination Reasonable ㄷ-Type Extinction Grid Based on the Analysis of the Electromagnetic Field Between the Arcs, and the Grid in the ac Contacts Machine

Authors: Yong Chol Jong, Un Chol Ri, Gum Chol Ri, Chung Hyok Kim, Il Mo Ri, Jong Chol Chu, Maek Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

To improve the life of the appliance and ensure the full production capacity, it is important to improve the protection of the contactor. In the literature, due to the inability to accurately determine the type of arc-extinguishing of contactors with multiple open points[1-4]. Therefore, the researchers did not determine a reasonable ㄷ-type arc grid for enhancing the arc capacity. This paper puts forward the problem of determining the electrodynamic force acting between the arc and the grid when the contact is open. The most reasonable ㄷ-type arc grid is determined by the ANSYS application program, and the method of increasing the service life of the mechanism is introduced.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[203] viXra:1912.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 19:54:47

A Study on the Improvement of Characteristics of AC Contactor by Addition of Rare Earth Element

Authors: Yong Chol Jong, Un Chol Ri, Gum Chol Ri
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the prior literature, to improve the characteristics of the AC contactor, the structural dimension of the contact point was changed or the type of contact material was changed. This section introduces a method of improving the characteristics of contact including contact resistance and electrical wear by adding a rare earth element to the Ag-Cd0 contact point, which is currently used as an AC contactor.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[202] viXra:1912.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 20:02:08

Microstructure and Wear Properties of Hardfacing Metal Manufactured by Smaw with Hardfacing Electrode Adding Ferroalloys Nitrided Jointly

Authors: Wonchol Son, UnChol Ri, Songgil Jong, GumChol Ri, HuiChong KANG Wonzun Ri, Sokchol Ri
Comments: 8 Pages.

In order to improve wear resistance of components such as screws with severe friction-wear, microstructure and wear resistance of Fe-C-Cr-Mo-V-Ti-N hardfacing metal were investigated. Ferroalloys added into the coating of hardfacing electrodes were nitrided jointly. The microstructure and wear resistance of hardfacing metals were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). In addition, Factsage 7.0 software was used to calculate the equilibrium phase diagram of the hardfacing metals. The results show that the hardfacing layers mainly consist of martensite, austenite, α-Fe, M23C6, M7C3, V8C7-type carbides and MX-type complex precipitations (M= V, Ti; X=C, N). The Fe-C-Cr-Mo-V-Ti-N hardfacing layer possesses 1.5 times higher wear resistance than cladding layers without nitrides.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[201] viXra:1912.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 10:17:02

Protein Structure Biomedical Puzzles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers in Dana-Farber's cBio Center have now demonstrated a powerful 'experimental evolution' method to discover details of protein shape and function, and the method may find uses across a very broad spectrum of biomedical research. [37] The discovery, published in Nature Communications, could help uncover treatments for age-related conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, which are often caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins. [36] Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27]
Category: Physics of Biology

[200] viXra:1912.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 10:40:35

Molecular Sensor Emit Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Alberta have created a molecular colourant that can emit light in a wider range of colours than any other molecule currently available. [38] When molecules interact with the oscillating field of a laser, an instantaneous, time-dependent dipole is induced. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[199] viXra:1912.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 11:04:37

Leptonic Decay D+->T+VT

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 87 Pages.

The Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) collaboration, a large team of researchers from universities worldwide conducting particle physics studies has recently reported the first observation of the leptonic decay D+→τ+ντ. [48] Instead, it involves smashing electrons into protons at nearly the speed of light, then measuring how far the electrons travel when they bounce off, or scatter, from the protons. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[198] viXra:1912.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 12:54:28

Protect Enzymes by Organic Packaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Further research into other enzymes and the possibility to adapt the encapsulins depending on the application is needed. [38] Researchers in Dana-Farber's cBio Center have now demonstrated a powerful 'experimental evolution' method to discover details of protein shape and function, and the method may find uses across a very broad spectrum of biomedical research. [37] The discovery, published in Nature Communications, could help uncover treatments for age-related conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, which are often caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins. [36] Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28]
Category: Physics of Biology

[197] viXra:1912.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 13:04:56

Dynamic Organic Plasmonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Researchers in the Organic Photonics and Nano-optics goup at the Laboratory of Organic Electronics have developed optical nanoantennas made from a conducting polymer. [33] The first detection of quantum dots using this approach has been outstanding. [32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[196] viXra:1912.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 13:28:41

The Riemann Metrics

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We define the Riemann metrics for riemannian manifolds.
Category: Geometry

[195] viXra:1912.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 13:36:59

Sunqm-3s11: Using {N,n} QM’s Probability Density 3D Map to Build a Complete Solar System with Time-Dependent Orbital Movement (Semi-QM Deduction)

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 24 Pages.

Combining the results from the previous SunQM series papers, a (high resolution) 3D probability density map has been constructed and it is able to describe the whole Solar system with time-dependent orbital movement. It is the Eigen description of our Solar system using Schrodinger equation’s solution. In it, the Eigen n’ values of all planet have been calculated. These Eigen n’ values give both the orbital r and the surface r information for each planet. The result revealed that for all planets, their Eigen n’ values in all three dimensions are equal. For example, for a planet at orbit {1,5//6} (in the Solar {N,n//6} QM structure), if it has Eigen n’ = n*q^w = 5*6^11 = 1.81E+9 in each of rθφ-3D dimension, then it will have an orbital r = 1.57E+11 m, and surface r = 7.89E+6 m. This is very close to Earth’s orbital r = 1.49E+11 m and surface r = 6.38E+6 m. For Asteroid belt and the cold-KBO, their Eigen n’(s) in the r- and θ-dimension are equal. For example, Asteroid belt’s Eigen n’ = 48 in both r- and θ-dimension. In the current paper, although the r- and θ-dimension’s probability densities were deduced with the full-QM, the φ-dimension’s probability density was deduced with only semi-QM (for the purpose to follow the traditional QM’s rule). A full-QM deduced φ-dimension’s probability density will be given in SunQM-4s1 (where some traditional QM’s rules are modified). Because {N,n//6} QM structure covers from quark at {-17,1//6} to the Virgo super cluster at {10,1//6} with good consistency, and Schrodinger equation/solution can accurately describe the Solar system from {-2,1//6} to {5,1//6}, we believe that either the whole universe or a single quark can be described by Schrodinger equation and solution. Several (lower resolution) 3D probability density maps (also based on Schrodinger equation’s solution) for the whole Solar system have also been successfully built. A summary of the major results from the phase-1 of the SunQM series studies has been listed.
Category: Astrophysics

[194] viXra:1912.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 19:18:17

Metric Conventions and the FLRW Metric

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 5 Pages.

We investigate the flat space time Friedmann Lemaitre Robertson Walker model of cosmology in the light of two metric signatures:(−,+,+,+) and (+,−,−,−). We arrive at the interesting fact that with the (+,−,−,−)signature both the Ricci scalar and the energy component of the stress energy tensor are negative for all points no cosmological time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[193] viXra:1912.0210 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-11 12:28:52

Teoremas de Engenharia Analítica e Propriedades Hiperbólicas Restritas

Authors: Ordepte Ezurk; Síul Hodrad
Comments: 4 Pages.

A utilização das conjecturas demonstradas na matemática contemporânea, submetida à progressivas sentenças direcionadas à resolução de problemas, demonstra fatores errôneos no quesito de seus axiomas, a partir de vias hiperbólicas restritas. A engenharia analítica, fundamentada na adesão de axiomas definidos segundo a restritividade de Herbert K., 1987, contrapõe as perspectivas algébricas atuais, correlacionando campos do estudo previamente não unificados e possibilitando a proposição e a demonstração de teoremas anteriormente impossibilitados pela incompletude de Gödel. Este documento busca comprimir os fundamentos da teoria da engenharia analítica, os quais terão suas proposições posteriormente comprovadas por meio dos fatores restritivos hiperbólicos.
Category: General Mathematics

[192] viXra:1912.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 22:08:44

Refutation of Anticommutative Hypercomplex Number Systems

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate a fragment of two rows of the multiplication table for the quaternion as not tautologous and not equivalent. This refutes the hypercomplex product and hence the conjecture of quadratic anticommutative hypercomplex number systems. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: General Mathematics

[191] viXra:1912.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 23:15:55

多 与 少 告 诉 我 们 黎 曼 伪 造 质 数 ( 2 )

Authors: Aaron chau
Comments: 2 Pages.

然而黎曼的假设,挥之不去地刺激了世界各民族的数学家。 但他们在受到了刺激之后,究竟干了一些什么呢? 可惜有些人还在把伪造质数说成是“数学主流”, 并又靠伪造质数来争取学位,难道数学的主流就是伪造质数? 也事实上推翻黎曼假设需要越筒单越有智慧的算术。
Category: Number Theory

[190] viXra:1912.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 01:03:26

Consideration of Twin Prime Conjecture\\ Average Difference is 2.296

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 9 Pages.

I considered the Twin Prime Conjecture. The probability twin prime approximately is slightly lower than 4/3 times the square of the probability that a prime will appear in.\\ When the number grows to the limit, the primes to be produced rarely, but since Twin Primes are slightly lower than 4/3 times the square of the distribution of primes, the frequency of production of Twin Primes is very equal to 0.\\ The places where prime numbers come out are filled with multiples of primes one after another, and eventually disappear almost.\\ Primes can only occur very rarely when the numbers are huge.\\ This is natural from the following equation.\\ \begin{equation} \pi(x)\sim\frac{x}{\log{x}}\ \ \ (x\to\infty) \end{equation}\\ $[Probability\ of\ the\ Existence\ of\ primes]^2\times4/3\sim$ (Probability\ of\ the\ Existence\ of\ Twin\ Primes)\\ When the number becomes extreme, the generation of primes becomes extremely small. However, it is not 0.\\ Very few, but primes are generated.\\ If the twin primes appears as two primes completely independently, Twin Prime Problem is denied.\\ However, if twin primes appear in combination and appear like primes, twin primes consist forever and Twin Prime Problem is correct.\\
Category: Number Theory

[189] viXra:1912.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 01:35:55

Induce Magnetism in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

For the first time, the researchers have now succeeded in producing such a structure in practice, and showed that the theory does correspond to reality. [21] University of Groningen physicists in collaboration with a theoretical physics group from Universität Regensburg have built an optimized bilayer graphene device that displays both long spin lifetimes and electrically controllable spin-lifetime anisotropy. [20] Researchers working at coupled graphene, a monolayer form of carbon, with thin layers of magnetic materials like cobalt and nickel to produce exotic behavior in electrons that could be useful for next-generation computing applications. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors-materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures-can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[188] viXra:1912.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 02:48:40

Almost no Primes in the Infinite World

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

There are almost no primes in the infinite world. This is because the place where the primes appears is occupied by multiple of the primes. If you think about a hexagon, you can see it right away.
Category: Number Theory

[187] viXra:1912.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 02:54:35

Conditional Activation Gan: Improved Conditional Gan

Authors: JeongIk Cho
Comments: 8 Pages.

Conditional GAN is a GAN that can generate data with the desired condition from the latent vector. In this study, propose a conditional activation GAN that can replace conditional GAN to reduce hyperparameter and improve training speed. Conditional activation loss is the sum of the losses of each GAN when creating a GAN for each condition, and since each GAN shares hidden layers, it does not increase the amount of computation much. Also, like conditional activation GAN is a combination of multiple GANs, proposes a method for evaluating conditional GAN: the average of each GAN’s evaluation score. Also, purpose mixed batch training to apply batch normalization in discriminator.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[186] viXra:1912.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 04:38:21

Converting Graphene into Diamond Film

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Researchers of the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM) within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, South Korea) have reported in Nature Nanotechnology the first experimental observation of a chemically induced conversion of large-area bilayer graphene to the thinnest possible diamond-like material, under moderate pressure and temperature conditions. [22] For the first time, the researchers have now succeeded in producing such a structure in practice, and showed that the theory does correspond to reality. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[185] viXra:1912.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 05:04:54

Quantum World Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have been able to record, frame-by-frame, how an electron interacts with certain atomic vibrations in a solid. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[184] viXra:1912.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 06:55:39

Secret to a Long Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

The discovery, published in Nature Communications, could help uncover treatments for age-related conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, which are often caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins. [36] Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Physics of Biology

[183] viXra:1912.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 07:33:19

Huge Bandwidth Communication Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Illinois have created sugar cube-sized blocks of an electromagnetic material with potential to transform communication networks. [42] Counter to intuition, in a new counterfactual communication protocol published in NPJ Quantum Information, scientists from the University of Vienna, the University of Cambridge and the MIT have experimentally demonstrated that in quantum mechanics this is not always true, thereby contradicting a crucial premise of communication theory. [41] One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the fragile quantum information, the other, as a messenger to provide prior notification of its twin. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[182] viXra:1912.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-12 11:14:12

Beta Decay Blackbody Model

Authors: Vladimir Aksayskiy
Comments: 3 Pages.

The energy beta spectrum of radioactive beta emitters is similar to the continuous spectra of thermal radiation, thermionic emission and bremsstrahlung. A useful and universal way of describing such spectra is the blackbody model.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[181] viXra:1912.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-12 15:53:09

The Kakeya Set Conjecture is Valid

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we will prove the Kakeya set conjecture. Secondly, we build a direct connection between line incidence theorems and Kakeya type conjectures.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[180] viXra:1912.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 22:23:41

Nonlinear Waves in Two-Dimensional Autonomous Cellular Neural Networks Coupled by Memristors

Authors: Makoto Itoh
Comments: 26 Pages.

In this paper, we propose two-dimensional autonomous cellular neural networks (CNNs), which are formed by connecting single synaptic-input CNN cells to each node of an ideal memristor grid. Our computer simulations show that the proposed two-dimensional autonomous CNNs can exhibit interesting and complex nonlinear waves. In some autonomous CNNs, we have to choose a locally active memristor grid, in order for the autonomous CNNs to exhibit the continuous evolution of nonlinear waves. Some other notable features are: The autonomous Van der Poll type CNN can exhibit various kinds of nonlinear waves by changing the characteristic curve of the nonlinear resistor in the CNN cell. Furthermore, if we choose a different step size in the numerical integration, it exhibits a different nonlinear wave. The autonomous Lotka-Volterra CNN can also exhibit various kinds of nonlinear waves by changing the initial conditions. That is, it can exhibit different response for each initial condition. Furthermore, we have to choose a passive memristor grid to avoid an overflow in the numerical integration process of this CNN. Our computer simulations show that the dynamics of the proposed autonomous CNNs are more complex than we expected.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[179] viXra:1912.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 23:14:56

Closing Proof of the Soul

Authors: Thomas Halley
Comments: 15 pages, +1 page References

Author explores a constructed symmetrical structure with forms ranging from the Fibonacci Sequence, to confirmed Calculus formulations that break the Fibonacci Spiral down to topological elements, which can be rebuilt in an approach to better understand the biomimetic connection within geometry found in Fibonacci. The underlying idea of the given research is that any topology can exist in a suspension of two variables, multidimensionally. The Goldbach Conjecture has been explored for a finite way to define its limits. All methods were authored originally to the extent that an algorithm can recheck the said logic within a formalized computer system that would solve fascinating unexplored components of Numerical Algebraic Geometry, Number Theory, and Topology. An understanding of elliptic and hyperbolic symmetry was built upon. Its programatic uses are seen in the creation of advanced architectural research. That is, research that can be molded into a more tangible connection of the already proved Soul Theorem.
Category: General Mathematics

[178] viXra:1912.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 04:01:16

The Time Evolution Operator

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we have devised a simpler alternative solution to the operator equation for the usual time evolution operator. This is based on an interesting commutator relation which has been derived valid subject to a weak condition that two specific operators should not be simultaneously non invertible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[177] viXra:1912.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 04:23:59

On the Ramanujan’s Equations: New Mathematical Connections with Various Parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 82 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some parameters of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Number Theory

[176] viXra:1912.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 05:26:41

Spin on Perovskite Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The spin-filters developed here are another component of perovskite-based spintronic applications. [21] Perovskites may be the next material to get the full 2D makeover, according to studies by a team of researchers at Nanjing University in China and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and University of California, Irvine, in the US. [20] A new joint Tel Aviv University (TAU) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) study published in Nature Communications on February 28 demonstrates remarkable continuous lasing action in devices made from perovskites. [19] Efficient near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes of perovskite have been produced in a laboratory at Linköping University. The external quantum efficiency is 21.6 percent, which is a record. The results have been published in Nature Photonics. [18] Very recently, an NTU team lead by Assoc. Prof. Wang Hong, demonstrated high light extraction efficiency of perovskite photonic crystals fabricated by delicate electron-beam lithography. [17] A quasiparticle is a disturbance or excitation (e.g. spin waves, bubbles, etc.) that behaves as a particle and could therefore be regarded as one. Long-range interactions between quasiparticles can give rise to a 'drag,' which affects the fundamental properties of many systems in condensed matter physics. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission-a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[175] viXra:1912.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 06:01:19

Abrikosov Superconducting Vortices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated the possibility of detecting Abrikosov vortices penetrating through a superconductor-ferromagnet interface. [30] An international team led by researchers at Princeton University has directly observed a surprising quantum effect in a high-temperature iron-containing superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[174] viXra:1912.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 06:33:09

Radiation Damping of a Rotating Dipole

Authors: Radi. I. Khrapko
Comments: 7 Pages. Optik. In Press. Other journals rejections included

Jefimenko's generalization of the Coulomb and Bio-Savard laws is used to calculate the reaction of the radiation on the rotating electric dipole. It is found that the energy taken from the dipole is equal to the recognized value of the radiated energy. At the same time, it is confirmed that the angular momentum flux exceeds the generally accepted value by the spin radiation not seen before.
Category: Classical Physics

[173] viXra:1912.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 06:28:02

Microscopy of Single Nanocrystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

The first detection of quantum dots using this approach has been outstanding. [32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[172] viXra:1912.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 07:43:45

Charge Transport in Quantum Regime

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Caltech scientists for the first time have developed a way to predict how electrons interacting strongly with atomic motions will flow through a complex material. [18] An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire-the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[171] viXra:1912.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 08:02:12

X17 Factor Solve Dark Matter Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of scientists in Hungary recently published a paper that hints at the existence of a previously unknown subatomic particle. [23] In an international collaboration between Japan and Sweden, scientists clarified how gravity affects the shape of matter near the black hole in binary system Cygnus X-1. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[170] viXra:1912.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 08:34:39

Electrons Flowing like Water

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel have imaged electrons flowing viscously through a nanodevice, just like water flowing through a pipe. [19] Caltech scientists for the first time have developed a way to predict how electrons interacting strongly with atomic motions will flow through a complex material. [18] An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire-the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[169] viXra:1912.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 10:00:44

Accelerators Clean the Environment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

All that was needed was some intrepid scientist or engineer to come up with an accelerator that was cost-effective, compact and user-friendly enough to clean wastewater on an industrial scale. [43] Electrical engineers in the accelerator physics group at TU Darmstadt have developed a design for a laser-driven electron accelerator so small it could be produced on a silicon chip. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[168] viXra:1912.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 10:18:15

Quantum Squeezing Gravitational Wave Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Quantum squeezing has been used to increase the sensitivity of the LIGO and Virgo interferometers, making them better at detecting gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[167] viXra:1912.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 09:50:09

Thnksgiving, Relationships, Odds and Goods

Authors: Diego Liberati
Comments: 4 Pages.

exemplification about the title terms are used to implicitly infer a vision about human interactions, mainly in italian
Category: Social Science

[166] viXra:1912.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 09:59:19

Series and Functions

Authors: Viola Maria Grazia
Comments: 1 Page.

I talk about functions in particular I speak when the serie diverges and so when a function tends to infinity.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[165] viXra:1912.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 11:43:58

Properties of Quadratic Anticommutative Hypercomplex Number Systems

Authors: Katheryn Menssen
Comments: 30 Pages. Professor Karen Shuman was my faculty advisor for this research project, which I did as an undergraduate. Although she helped greatly with editing throughout the process, all the research is my own ideas.

Hypercomplex numbers are, roughly speaking, numbers of the form x_1 + i_1x_2 + … + i_nx_{n+1} such that x_1 + i_1x_2 + … + i_nx_{n+1} = y_1 + i_1y_2 + … + i_ny_{n+1} if and only if x_j = y_j for all j in {1,2,…,n}. I define a quadratic anticommutative hypercomplex numbers as hypercomplex numbers x_1 + i_1x^2 + … + i_nx_{n+1} such that i_j^2 = p_j for all j (where p_j is a real number) and i_ji_k = - i_ki_j for all k not equal to j. These numbers have some interesting properties. In particular, in this paper I prove a generalized form of the Demoivre’s formula for these numbers, and determine certain conditions required for a function on a Quadratic Anticommutative Hypercomplex plane to be analytic—including generalizations of the Cauchy-Riemann equations.
Category: General Mathematics

[164] viXra:1912.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 11:50:51

Quantum Effect in Water

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers at EPFL have discovered that the viscosity of solutions of electrically charged polymers dissolved in water is influenced by a quantum effect. [30] In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29] Engineers at MIT and Penn State University have found that under the right conditions, ordinary clear water droplets on a transparent surface can produce brilliant colors, without the addition of inks or dyes. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[163] viXra:1912.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 12:44:11

Stock Price Trend Forecasting and Stock Selection using Supervised Learning Methods

Authors: Priyanshi Bhola, Garima
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we are going to present and review a more feasible method to predict the stock movement with higher accuracy. The first thing we have taken into account is the dataset of the stock market prices from the previous year. The dataset was pre-processed and tuned up for real analysis. Stock market prediction is an act of trying to determine the future value of a stock other financial instrument traded on a financial exchange. This paper explains the prediction of a stock using Machine Learning. The technical and fundamental or the time series analysis is used by most of the stockbrokers while making the stock predictions. The programming language is used to predict the stock market using machine learning is Python. In this paper, we propose a Machine Learning (ML) approach that will be trained from the available stocks data and gain intelligence and then uses the acquired knowledge for an accurate prediction. In this context this study uses a machine learning technique called Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict stock prices for the large and small capitalizations and in the three different markets, employing prices with both daily and up-to-the-minute frequencies.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[162] viXra:1912.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 13:01:42

Proton-Hydrogen Collision Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

The motions of plasmas may be notoriously difficult to model, but they can be better understood by analysing what happens when protons are scattered by atoms of hydrogen. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] “Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[161] viXra:1912.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 18:04:35

Gema

Authors: Ldl
Comments: 41 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a concept which leads to an intuitive and symmetrical interplay between charged and neutral bodies. The concept of directional space. The link between gravitational, charged and magnetic fields will be discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[160] viXra:1912.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-11 15:15:56

Einstein's E=mc2 and Dark Energy

Authors: Milan D. Nešić
Comments: 11 Pages.

Aristotle, Ptolemy, and geocentrism. Copernicus, Kepler and heliocentrism. Newton, the real estate stars and the universe ether. Einstein, Lemaitre and the “big bang”—homocentrism, hidden geocentrism. One has to decide: either at once all the mass of the world was created and so large one, or the mass is variable and the measure of inertia is c2=const, whatever being energy from all over the universe. The article shows that today, when we know that there are quasars moving away from us at a speed and 95% of the speed of light, Einstein's energy E=mc2 should be considered as differential dE=c2dm. So since the corresponding binomial series for v→c is divergent, along with the solution of this differential equation goes an indefinite integration constant of infinite energy wherever we take the mass of rest m0 as coordinate origin. This is where the dark energy lies. And when Perlmutter writes that “it has long been assumed that there must be some underlying symmetry that precisely cancels the vacuum energy” at least 1055 times greater than required by astrophysical data, Maxwell Newton's postulate imposes by itself, while the unity of mass and vacuum could be shown by mathematical passage through the singularity of Planck's black body radiation, that is, of particles without mass, into Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocities now of particles with mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[159] viXra:1912.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 21:14:39

Special Value of Riemann Zeta Function and L Function, Approximate Calculation Formula of ζ(N), L(N)

Authors: Takamasa Noguchi
Comments: 8 Pages.

I made an approximate formula. In the formula, when N is small, the accuracy is very bad, but as N increases, the accuracy also improves.
Category: Number Theory

[158] viXra:1912.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 23:19:38

A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Four-Potential

Authors: James Conor O'Brien
Comments: 43 Pages.

This paper applies the Wheeler-Feynman time-symmetric theory to the electromagnetic four-potential and derives a wave equation that puts Matter on the same foundation as Maxwell's electromagnetic equation for Light waves. Applying the Wheeler-Feynman summation it derives the various physical properties for matter of mass, charge, spin, momentum, phase, electromagnetic mass, Hamiltonian action, and gives an explicit derivation of Cramer's Quantum Handshake as a standing wave of the advanced and retarded electromagnetic four-potentials. The Wheeler-Feynman summation is then applied to the derive the lepton masses of the Standard Model, this leads to the suggestion that the masses, charges and spins of all charged leptons are based on different configurations of the electromagnetic four-vector potential. Mach principle appears as a natural consequence of the free potentials of the Wheeler-Feynman summation acting on the resultant particle's charge. Gaussian units are used throughout.
Category: Quantum Physics

[157] viXra:1912.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 23:40:44

Refutation of Diversity, Dependence. and Independence

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the seminal first definition as not tautologous which thereby denies the axioms for diversity, dependence, and independence. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[156] viXra:1912.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 03:06:41

Both Newton & Einstein Are Wrong

Authors: Mahesh Khati
Comments: 50 Pages.

This paper proves that Newton’s inertial frame concept & Special theory of relativity of Einstein are both wrong & requires some improvement. 1)This theory solves the problem of dark energy & dark matter. 2)This can solve the problem of dual nature of particle. 3)This gives answer for mass less photon. 4)This gives answer to difference between space & vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[155] viXra:1912.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 04:51:42

Blue Light Activates Antibodies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[154] viXra:1912.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 05:09:33

Molecular Graphenoids Spin Centers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

This is the finding of researchers in the UK and Germany who made the dots, or “graphenoids”, using a bottom-up chemical process rather than the top-down methods usually employed to create such nanostructures. [49] The Graphene Flagship brought together top European researchers and companies to discuss the most disruptive ways graphene could enhance composites used in the aerospace, automotive and energy industries. [48] Contrary to what is believed, monolayer graphene (a sheet of carbon just one atomic layer thick) has 3D mechanical properties and they can now be properly measured and meaningfully described thanks to high-pressure Raman spectra measurements on the material. [47]
Category: Condensed Matter

[153] viXra:1912.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 05:59:21

Supermassive Black Holes Grow Fast

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Based on observations from telescopes on Earth and in space, we know that some black holes grew to be a billion times the mass of the sun just one billion years after the Big Bang. [30] Further investigation of how nuclear star clusters form and evolve will be needed to determine how frequently phase transitions of this kind occur in nature. [29] A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28] Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[152] viXra:1912.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 08:04:51

The Pulse of the Universe

Authors: T H Ray
Comments: 5 Pages.

All life has a pulse.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[151] viXra:1912.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 08:06:04

New Antiviral Treatments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages. 49

A team of molecular and structural biologists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore), has found a potential new route to disabling respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) after elucidating the structure of one of its key components. [36] Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27]
Category: Physics of Biology

[150] viXra:1912.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 08:31:50

Quantum States in Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

After decades of miniaturization, the electronic components we've relied on for computers and modern technologies are now starting to reach fundamental limits. Faced with this challenge, engineers and scientists around the world are turning toward a radically new paradigm: quantum information technologies. [50] Researchers have successfully used sound waves to control quantum information in a single electron, a significant step towards efficient, robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. [49] Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48] Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47] As reported in Nature Physics, a Berkeley Lab-led team of physicists and materials scientists was the first to unambiguously observe and document the unique optical phenomena that occur in certain types of synthetic materials called moire; superlattices. [46] Physicists at the University of Basel have now shown for the first time the combination with a third layer can result in new material properties also in a three-layer sandwich of carbon and boron nitride. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[149] viXra:1912.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 12:44:14

Санация комплексного исчисления

Authors: Райков Александр Геннадьевич
Comments: 4 Pages. Язык русский. Лекция-презентация является фрагментом печатного издания «ТОМ ТРЕТИЙ»

Настоящее просветительское издание подготовлено для ознакомления широких кругов общественности и научного сообщества с переводом Комплексного Исчисления на язык объективно-статусного описания качественно-количественных форм и причинно-следственных периодических процессов материи, на основе разработанного автором принципиально нового операционно-аналитического (математического) аппарата философии диалектического материализма в качестве универсального языка научной коммуникации. Лекция-презентация является фрагментом печатного издания «ТОМ ТРЕТИЙ»
Category: General Mathematics

[148] viXra:1912.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 13:45:09

The Origin of Life, Cybernetic Theory of Evolution and Oxygen Catastrophe.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 56 Pages.

The process of the origin of life is analyzed on the basis of "self-assembly" of DNA and RNA molecules. The minimum amounts of various DNA/RNA molecules that are necessary for the nucleation and evolution of the biosphere as a whole are calculated, since life is an integral property. A cybernetic theory of evolution is presented, which considers DNA as a genetic program of an organism written in a binary system. The stages of evolution of the biosphere are given, with the calculation of the number of all species at each stage. It is shown that oxygen catastrophe is the main cause of the evolution of the biosphere and global glaciation. Moreover, the evolution of the biosphere inevitably leads to mass extinctions, which are a simple restructuring of the biosphere according to new conditions on the planet.
Category: Biochemistry

[147] viXra:1912.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 13:53:21

Solid Strips Configurations

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 12 Pages.

We introduce the idea of Solid Strip Configurations which is a way of describing 3-dimensional compact manifolds alternative to Delta-complexes and CW complexes. The proposed method is just an idea which we believe deserve further formal mathematical investigation.
Category: Topology

[146] viXra:1912.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 14:15:12

Consequences of the Gravitational Red Shift of a Moving Gravity Well on The Electric Permittivity of the free space

Authors: Rayd majeed Al-Shammari
Comments: 21 Pages.

To explor the effect of the gravitational red shift of a gravity well on the electric permittivity of the free space then to expand this towards the collaboration between schwarzschild metric and lorentz transformation on electric permittivity of the free space under the unflonce of a moving gravity well .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[145] viXra:1912.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-09 14:13:38

Orbiting Explains Gravity

Authors: Hans van Kessel
Comments: 10 Pages.

This manuscript identifies the cause of gravity. Based on this cause the gravitational force is quantified. This leads to a correction of Newton’s gravitational equation for the (very) short distance: instead of an ever growing strength –up to infinity when the distance between two objects approaches 0- we will actually find a finite repelling force instead. This manuscript concludes with 2 case studies that support the here presented outcome for gravity, and with a third case study that may allow verification.
Category: Classical Physics

[144] viXra:1912.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-08 21:38:41

A proof of Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 9 Pages.

I proved the Twin Prime Conjecture. The probability that (6n -1) is a prime and (6n+1) is also a prime approximately is slightly lower than 4/3 times the square of the probability that a prime will appear in. I investigated up to 5$\times10^{12}$.\\ All Twin Primes are produced in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number).\\ The production of Twin Primes equal the existence of Twin Primes.\\ When the number grows to the limit, the primes to be produced rarely, but since Twin Primes are slightly lower than 4/3 times the square of the distribution of primes, the frequency of production of Twin Primes is very equal to 0.\\ However, it is not 0. Because, primes continue to be produced. Therefore, Twin Primes continue to be produced.\\ If the Twin Primes is finite, the primes is finite.\\ This is because slightly lower than 4/3 times the square of the probability of primes is the probability of Twin Primes. This is contradiction. Because there are an infinite of primes.\\
Category: Number Theory

[143] viXra:1912.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 18:23:13

(Schemasuplimptfumatori Version 1.0 9.12.2019 1 a4 Page) Schema DE Suplimente Alimentare Pentru Sustinerea Corpului Fumatorilor Adulti si Copii cu Varsta DE Peste 12 Ani Care nu au Vointa Necesara sa Renunte la Fumatul Activ (Romanian Version Prepri

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 1 Page. http://dragoii.com/ALDragoi_SCHEMA_SUPLIMENTE_PT_FUMATORI_latest.pdf

Dedicatie. Cu multumiri pentru provocarea si motivarea de a scrie acest articol doamnei asistente Monica Tichie din Sectia de recuperare neuromotorie copii din Gura Ocnitei (Adanca) a Spitalului Judetean de Urgenta Targoviste (SJUT). Motto: "NU-ti poti iubi aproapele ca pe tine insuti daca NU stii sa te iubesti in primul rand pe sine: ca sa demonstrezi iubirea de sine, trebuie sa stii sa iti pretuiesti sufletul, mintea si trupul, hranind si protejand corespunzator celulele trupului care este palatul sufletului si al mintii!" (dr. Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi, 5.12.2019)
Category: Biochemistry

[142] viXra:1912.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 18:27:47

On the Metric Coefficients

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 5 Pages.

The article considers a simple algebraic result to bring out an interesting mathematical property of the general relativity metric . This property creates limitation on its application in that it may not apply to all space time points.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[141] viXra:1912.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 20:59:36

Quantivity the Unified Theory of Everything I: Vacuum Mass/energy, and Redefining G as the Source of Negative Energy as the Counterpart of H

Authors: Sam Nassiri
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article is first of our multi-part articles covering our Unified Theory of Quantivity, which addresses the non-classical theoretical physics concepts studied in Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, and String Theory. This article has comprehensive coverage of the vacuum mass/energy We postulate that Planck mass refers to the neutral (i.e., with no charge) positive vacuum mass. This is the large mass unit (before being shared based on a sharing scheme to be covered in our future articles). This mass is combination of mass from h and G constants, which are sources of small units of positive and negative mass, respectively. For the first time here, we are referring to G as the counterpart of h, as the smallest unit of negative energy. We will show, while the Planck constant h is the source of positive mass with negative charge, while G is the source of negative mass with positive charge. We postulate that G could be behind the Dark energy/mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[140] viXra:1912.0153 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-08 07:55:05

Zero Zero Off

Authors:
Comments: Pages. Correction to first version (v1) is to replace COS with SIN in the third vector, marked as (3)

No zeta zero is off the critical line.

Riemann Hypothesis is false if and only if A, B and C are coplanar.

A and B are geometrical objects directly related to (supposed symmetric distinct) zeta roots and C is derived from A and B.

The proof shows that A, B and C are linearly independent, so not coplanar.


Category: Number Theory

[139] viXra:1912.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 01:15:44

Self-Learning Computers Versus Quantum Computers

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we answer the following extremely important questions. Why, contrary to obvious experimental facts, is it denied that quantum entanglement carries information at superluminal speed? Why quantum mechanics is an illusion? Why self-learning (mental) computers based on the classical superposition will be most creative?
Category: Quantum Physics

[138] viXra:1912.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 01:15:38

A Proof of Twin Prime Conjecture by 30 Intervals Etc.

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 8 Pages.

If (p,p+2) are twin primes, (p+30, p+2+30) or (p+60, p+2+60) or (p+90, p+2+90) or (p+120, p+2+120) or (p+150, p+2+150) ) or (p+180, p+2+180) or (p+210, p+2+210) or (p+240, p+2+240)……. is to be a twin primes.\\ There are three type of twin primes, last numbers are (1, 3)..(7, 9)..(9, 1).\\ They are lined up at intervals such as 30 or 60 or 90 or 120 or 150 or 180 or 210 or 240 or 270 or 300 etc.\ That is, it is a multiple of 30. \\ Repeat this.\\ And the knowledge about prime numbers is also taken into account.\\ That is, Twin Primes exist forever.\\
Category: Number Theory

[137] viXra:1912.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 03:21:25

Switches Conducting and Insulating States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Northwestern Engineering researchers have developed a novel design strategy to identify new materials exhibiting a metal-insulator transition (MIT), a rare class of materials categorized by their ability to reversibly switch between electrically conducting and insulating states. [44] Physicists at University of California, Riverside, have designed an experiment to explain the concept of magnetic resonance. The project was carried out by undergraduate students in collaboration with local high school teachers. [43] Magnetic reconnection, a process in which magnetic field lines tear and come back together, releasing large amounts of kinetic energy, occurs throughout the universe. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: Condensed Matter

[136] viXra:1912.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 05:10:34

Paradoxical Replacement Tissue

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[135] viXra:1912.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 06:34:20

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections with the Values of Pion Mesons and Other Baryons and Mesons.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 147 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics (values of Pion mesons and other baryons and mesons) and Cosmology
Category: Number Theory

[134] viXra:1912.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 07:35:24

High-Performance Triboelectric Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

Triboelectric generation is an energy harvesting technique that generates electricity through induction of triboelectric effects using discarded physical energy. [45] Northwestern Engineering researchers have developed a novel design strategy to identify new materials exhibiting a metal-insulator transition (MIT), a rare class of materials categorized by their ability to reversibly switch between electrically conducting and insulating states. [44] Physicists at University of California, Riverside, have designed an experiment to explain the concept of magnetic resonance. The project was carried out by undergraduate students in collaboration with local high school teachers. [43] Magnetic reconnection, a process in which magnetic field lines tear and come back together, releasing large amounts of kinetic energy, occurs throughout the universe. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: Condensed Matter

[133] viXra:1912.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 08:51:37

Negatio et Negatio Negationis

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 23 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, 2019, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved.

Objective: The relationship between the philosophical notion negation and the physical notion Lorentz factor is investigated. Methods: The axiom lex identitatis was used to explore whether there is any relationship between the philosophical notion negation and physics as such. Results: Starting with lex identitatis it was possible to provide evidence that 0/0=1. Furthermore, a general form of negation was determined. Conclusions: Overwhelming evidence suggests that the philosophical notion negation and the physical notion Lorentz factor are more or less identical. Keywords: Negatio, negatio negationis, physics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[132] viXra:1912.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 08:52:55

Graphene for Planes and Cars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

The Graphene Flagship brought together top European researchers and companies to discuss the most disruptive ways graphene could enhance composites used in the aerospace, automotive and energy industries. [48] Contrary to what is believed, monolayer graphene (a sheet of carbon just one atomic layer thick) has 3D mechanical properties and they can now be properly measured and meaningfully described thanks to high-pressure Raman spectra measurements on the material. [47] The team has turned graphene oxide (GO) into a soft, moldable and kneadable play dough that can be shaped and reshaped into free-standing, three-dimensional structures. [46]
Category: Condensed Matter

[131] viXra:1912.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 09:10:53

A Second Note on a Possible Anomaly in the Complex Numbers

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 3 Pages. Response to VRA discussion

The paper gives an additional reason why, initially, there are two different solutions associated to a quadratic equation that indicates an anomaly in complex numbers. It is demonstrated that one of the solutions is impossible but plausible \& necessary.
Category: General Mathematics

[130] viXra:1912.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 09:30:43

LIGO Instrument Extends

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO, was picking up whispers of gravitational waves every month or so. Now, a new addition to the system is enabling the instruments to detect these ripples in space-time nearly every week. Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[129] viXra:1912.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 09:44:53

Exploring the Existence of Extraterrestrial Civilizations with the Liquid Universe Model

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 12 Pages. 1 Figure; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the liquid universe model, some of our existing ideas about extraterrestrial civilizations may need to be revised to some extent. Considering that the development of biological civilization needs to last for a relatively long time, for example, from the formation of protein on the earth to the age of dinosaurs, to the emergence of humans, it has continued for billions of years. And this time beginning was shortly after the birth of the planet. Therefore, the appearance of life on a planet is closely related to the life of the entire galaxy. Considering the liquid universe model, there are two cases. One is that the center of the galaxy is a black hole, which will continuously absorb the surrounding masses. The other is a white hole, which constantly throws masses to the outside. A common feature of both cases is that the outer masses of the galaxy exists for a long time, while the inner masses of the galaxy exists for a short time. Combining the time required for the evolution of living things, it can be judged that if advanced biological civilization is to be evolved in a galaxy, the more proliferating planets should be closer to the periphery of the galaxy, the longer the development time, the higher the civilization. According to such a conclusion, it means that at least in the Milky Way, the biological civilization on Earth should be in a very advanced position. This article also briefly discusses the various ways of detecting extraterrestrial civilizations, and gives some suggestions for the detection of extraterrestrial civilizations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[128] viXra:1912.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 10:38:22

Number Pi , Bernoulli Numbers

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito, Rodrigo Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for Pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[127] viXra:1912.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 01:33:42

Superconducting Electronic Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road" for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[126] viXra:1912.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 03:23:50

Gamma-Ray Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A physicist at the University of California, Riverside, has performed calculations showing hollow spherical bubbles filled with a gas of positronium atoms are stable in liquid helium. [15] During nuclear fusion two atomic nuclei fuse into one new nucleus. In the lab this can be done by particle accelerators, when researchers use fusion reactions to create fast free neutrons for other experiments. [15] A new 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation tool developed by researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and CEA Saclay is enabling cutting-edge simulations of laser/plasma coupling mechanisms that were previously out of reach of standard PIC codes used in plasma research. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[125] viXra:1912.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 04:58:43

Magnetic Resonance Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Physicists at University of California, Riverside, have designed an experiment to explain the concept of magnetic resonance. The project was carried out by undergraduate students in collaboration with local high school teachers. [43] Magnetic reconnection, a process in which magnetic field lines tear and come back together, releasing large amounts of kinetic energy, occurs throughout the universe. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[124] viXra:1912.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 05:21:11

Artificial Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Artificial Cells Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[123] viXra:1912.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 06:05:07

Nanocontainer Drugs into Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[122] viXra:1912.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 07:16:30

Does Particle Data Depend on Its Motion? (Lorentz Transformations Analysis)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

My basic work is "Planet Data Analysis" – Specifically I try to know how planet data is created? – that's why my regular questions are – How the matter is created? Why Earth Circumference =40080 km? Why Saturn diameter =120536 km? or Why Jupiter Mass =1898 x1024 kg? I search behind the planet data to know how this data is created… Then I have discovered one important Discovery, let's refer to it in following: Puzzled Data (A/B) =1.0725 A & B are different distances in the solar system… Specially 18 distances of the solar system internal and orbital distances are rated to each other with this same rate 1.0725 i.e. 40% of all the solar system distances are rated to each other with 1.0725 ……why?? (These distances are provided in appendix no. 1 of this paper) All answers – whatsoever its form – give one meaning – (Pure Coincidences)! Simply no one knows how the planet orbital distance is defined nor why these distances are rated to each other by this same rate 1.0725! General Effect Because the rate 1.0725 is used with 18 distances which = 40% of all distances – I had to conclude that – this rate is not created by any planet effect – it's not related to any specific planet – on the contrary – this rate is a general effect found in the solar system - That means – A general force or cause effect on the whole solar system –causes this rate 1.0725. What's this general effect? At this junction I had to suppose that – the rate 1.0725 is found as Lorentz Length Contraction Rate – i.e. There are relativistic effects in the solar system (generally) and these relativistic effects caused the rate 1.0725 to be created as Lorentz Length Contraction Rate (Hypothesis) Lorentz Transformations Lorentz Transformations are 3 equations : 4 values are changing by high velocity motion Time – Distance – Particle Length – Particle Mass Einstein had used 2 values (Distance & Time) to create the space-time geometry – and he claimed that –particle space & time values are function in its motion velocity (even without explanation why?) But Einstein simply had ignored the other 2 values which are Particle Length and Mass If we follow Einstein steps in explanation – so we will reach to the conclusion that – Particle own data is a function of its motion Simply because Particle length and mass are changed with particle high velocity motion Then we had to ask the question… Is Lorentz length contraction a real phenomenon or illusion of measurements? The physics textbooks contradict each other in answer – and in appendix No.2 of this paper I provide the references which show the clear contradicting answers! After fighting we reach to the conclusion that the contraction is a real phenomenon and particle own length is changed by particle high velocity motion… Because (1)The measurements show this contraction and in physics what's measured is what's real (2)If we consider the length contraction is an illusion of measurements, that tells Particle properties correct definition is found when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle, which supposes that I'm The Universe Reference Point – that's similar to a person looks at mirror – which pushes us to refuse the claim that the contraction is an illusion of measurement Particle Mass discussion is similar to the previous one – so particle data (length and mass) is changed with high velocity motion. That creates more complex situation – because – based on this conclusion – Particle Own Data must be created as a function of this particle motion! That's why Particle own length is contracted with high velocity motion If we use this conclusion for The Solar Planet – we will have serious problem – because Based on this conclusion – Particle mass (Planet Mass) is created as a function of its motion – means the motion was found before the mass So – How Does Planet Move? Where we consider that planet motion is a result of masses gravity forces between this planet and the sun – now the mass is created based on the motion which prevent the masses gravity explanation Now let's summarize the questions in following: Question No. 1 Why does Particle Own Nature change with Particle Motion Velocity? i.e. Is Particle data a function of This Particle Motion? Question No. 2 Can Lorentz Transformations help us to know how the matter is created? Question No. 3 Are the rated distances by the same rate 1.0725 which are provided in appendix No. 1 of this paper – can be a proof that – there are relativistic effects in the solar system? Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[121] viXra:1912.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 08:25:01

Unification for Gravity and Electromagnetic Field in Kerr-Newman Solution

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism has to satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Specially solution of the unified theory is generally Kerr-Newman solution in vacuum. We finally found the revised Einstein gravity tensor equation with new term (2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product and the constant matrix) is right in Kerr Newman solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[120] viXra:1912.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 11:46:27

An Alternate Resolution of the Solar Neutrino Problem

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 7 Pages.

The solar neutrino problem for the various neutrino detectors appears to lie in not understanding and analyzing adequately how the neutrinos interact with the various detector materials. The measured data were not properly interpreted, resulting in miscalculation of the neutrino fluxes measured. This gave the appearance of the detectors not seeing fractions of the neutrinos expected. By modeling nucleons as collections of electron-like and positron-like particles, I show that the 37Cl, 71Ga, H2O and D2O detectors all saw the electron neutrino flux predicted by the Standard Solar Model.
Category: Astrophysics

[119] viXra:1912.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 12:00:41

Statins and Death Due to Any Cause – All Doubts Removed?

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 29 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, 2019, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved.

Objective: To date, it is quite common to claim that some patient groups benefit from statin therapy in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease while equally the use of higher-intensity statin therapies is emphasized. In this Review, the efficacy of statin therapy in light of the study data available is explored. Methods: All in all, 40 studies with a sample size of n = 88388 were re-analyzed. The exclusion relationship was used to test the null-hypothesis: a certain statin does exclude death due to any cause. The causal relationship k was used to test the data for causality. The level of significance was set to Alpha = 0,05. Results: The data of the studies reanalyzed provide convincing evidence that statins unfortunately do not exclude death due to any cause. An immediate statin therapy discontinuation should be considered. Conclusions: Overwhelming evidence suggests that the risk potential harmful effects of statin therapy far outweigh any real or perceived benefit. Keywords: Statins, death, causal relationship. Barukcic@t-online.de
Category: Statistics

[118] viXra:1912.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 12:11:38

Automatic Language Identification in Short Utterances

Authors: Diptanu Sarkar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Language Identification (LID) in Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the process of identifying the spoken language in speech utterances. In the last decade, the interest and functional application of speech processing systems have grown exponentially. The proliferated use of handsfree voice-operated devices, speech-to-speech translation systems requires low latency, reliable automatic speech identification systems. This article examines three different models to recognize languages automatically in speech. The first model uses Dynamic Hidden Markov Networks (DHMNet) for LID in utterances. Another model utilizes Deep Neural Network (DNN), and the third uses the recently developed Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Finally, comparing three different models, it is shown that a fusion of LSTM RNN and DNN model gives better results than the state-of-the-art models when applied to short utterances.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[117] viXra:1912.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 12:55:20

Refutation of Voqc as a Verified Optimizer for Quantum Circuits in Coq as Bivalent

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the CNOT operator, seminal to voqc in the tool Coq, as not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture that voqc is “the first fully verified compiler for quantum circuits”, and further refutes Coq as a bivalent proof assistant. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[116] viXra:1912.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-12 10:50:05

Repulsive Gravity, Gravity, and Dark Energy

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Science fiction has always wondered if there is repulsive gravity. If there is a positive and negative to elementary charge, why can’t there be positive and negative gravity. If the strong force and weak force are limited by distance, why not gravity. This paper proposes gravity is limited in its action distance. After this action distance is exceeded, then repulsive gravity takes over. This is the force that causes universe to look like it is expanding. This paper will propose that the limitations of gravity is about 18.93 million light years in radius. Islands of approximately 18.93 million light years in radius will form within the universe and then be pushed apart by repulsive gravity. This paper’s purpose is to propose a size limit to action distance of gravity. Later papers will analyze redshift, galaxy luminosities, surface brightness, and size, and determine if this repulsive gravity model correlates the information better than existing models. This model will also be used to try to model the non-linear Hubble Constant. People have tried to figure out how the universe went from a spec, to a very fast inflation. This is only necessary in a universe that has a finite age. In the spinning sphere universe, the universe is sectioned off into galaxy clusters. The universe may have a center galaxy cluster. New matter is probably created outside this center of this central galaxy cluster. This central galaxy cluster already has a size due to the universe being infinitely old. The central galaxy cluster pushes new matter away from the center of the universe. There may be a very odd and old galaxy cluster.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[115] viXra:1912.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 13:56:15

Refutation of Perfectly Parallel Fairness Certification of Neural Networks

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

e evaluate the seminal definition of causal fairness which is not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of perfectly parallel fairness certification of neural networks. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[114] viXra:1912.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-10 22:57:48

Proving the Goldbach’s Conjecture

Authors: Ninh Khac Son
Comments: 5 Pages.

Goldbach’s conjecture is one of the oldest and best-known unsolved problems in number theory and all of mathematics. It states: ”Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes”.\\ Manuscript content: Prove that Goldbach’s conjecture is correct
Category: Number Theory

[113] viXra:1912.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 17:40:20

Refutation of the Fan Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The definition of the decidable fan theorem is evaluated as not tautologous, hence refuting it and derived conjectures such as “uniform continuity theorem with continuous moduli”. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[112] viXra:1912.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-10 20:18:33

Cellular Automaton Graphics(10)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 207 Pages.

Developping a regular polyhedron on a plane, setting discrete coordinates on the development and applying a boundary condition of regular polyhedron to it, we realize a symmetrical graphics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[111] viXra:1912.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-10 20:25:34

Auxiliary Brake System(3)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 8 Pages.

To brake system, we add an auxiliary brake system in which paddle at the front of steering wheel is an input device.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[110] viXra:1912.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 01:21:50

Stable Quantum Computing Platform

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Harvard University researchers have demonstrated the first material that can have both strongly correlated electron interactions and topological properties. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[109] viXra:1912.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 02:07:40

Simple Prime Number Determination Method for Natural Numbers Including Carmichael Numbers

Authors: Takamasa Noguchi
Comments: 4 Pages. Explanation of effective prime number judgment method even for Carmichael number.

Explanation of effective prime number judgment method even for Carmichael number. This method of judgment does not give a 100% correct answer. Care must be taken especially for (n=p^k (P=Prime)) with primitive roots.
Category: Number Theory

[108] viXra:1912.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 03:22:10

Birth of Photoelectrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The creation of photoelectrons through ionisation is one of the most fundamental processes in the interaction between light and matter. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[107] viXra:1912.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 04:20:47

Non-Abelian Class Field Theory and Langlands Program

Authors: Matanari Shimoinuda
Comments: 32 Pages.

In this article, we review the local Langlands program. I hope that this article is a useful guide to understand Langlands program.
Category: Number Theory

[106] viXra:1912.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 04:42:38

The Effect of Thymus Vulgaris Extract on the Rate of Calcium Oxalate Inhibition

Authors: Yasmin Bahaa Ahmed, Noura Moustafa Maklad
Comments: 10 Pages.

We all hear about kidney stones but, actually what are kidney stones? Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. On 11 September, the Chinese central government and Ministry of Health informed that several thousands of Chinese had been diagnosed with kidney stones. About 54 000 citizens have been examined, 13 000 of them are in hospitals and four deaths have been reported so far. kidney stones are formed due to dehydration, changes in the diet, hormonal changes, and infections in kidney. They present with renal pain, blood in urine, pus in urine, and fever. If the concentration of the kidney stones increased, it leads to affecting the function of the kidney and other parts of the human body. If the concentration of the kidney stones increased, it leads to affecting the function of the kidney and other parts of the human body and sometimes leads to death. As the kidney stones are a real and series problem, several treatments were developed and found. As examples for these treatments: medication, lithotripsy, tunnel surgery, ureteroscopy and more. They all have common disadvantages as high cost, unsafety and feeling lot of pain. We made a solution that is an depends on an extraction from natural plant which is thymus vulgaris that is used to fragment the kidney stones. That is an efficient, safe and economical solution.
Category: Biochemistry

[105] viXra:1912.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:00:30

Disruptive Gravity (Corrected)

Authors: Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO
Comments: 20 pages in English. Corrected version of Disruptive Gravity (vixra:1905.0264)

Viewing gravity as a spacetime bending force instead of just a spacetime curvature, we come to the conclusion of rest mass relativity since it yields equivalent equations as General Relativity. A close analysis of the Schwarzschild metric leads us naturally to the Vacuum Apparent Energy Invariance principle from which we derive the metric equation. Applying this theory to cosmology, we can explain galaxies redshift as a delayed gravitational redshift which explains Hubble diagrams with no need for Dark Energy. This theory has the same predictive power as General Relativity for every local experimental tests of the latter since it's based on a slight modification of the Schwarzchild metric.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[104] viXra:1912.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:10:56

Strong Lasers Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

During nuclear fusion two atomic nuclei fuse into one new nucleus. In the lab this can be done by particle accelerators, when researchers use fusion reactions to create fast free neutrons for other experiments. [15] A new 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation tool developed by researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and CEA Saclay is enabling cutting-edge simulations of laser/plasma coupling mechanisms that were previously out of reach of standard PIC codes used in plasma research. [14] Researchers from Osaka University have developed a technique for improving accuracy of laser beam shaping and wavefront obtained by conventional methods with no additional cost by optimizing virtual phase grating. [13]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[103] viXra:1912.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:30:28

Undulating Relativity +§ 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 164 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + § 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[102] viXra:1912.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 06:03:47

Refutation of Duty to Warn in Strategic Games

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two axioms for duty to warn modalities: negative introspection from epistemic logic S5 and the conjecture introspection of blameworthiness. Both are not tautologous and refutations. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[101] viXra:1912.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 06:24:08

Sound Drug-Delivery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Drugs can be delivered into individual cells by using soundwaves, Melbourne researchers have discovered. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[100] viXra:1912.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 06:49:41

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections. ix

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 83 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Number Theory

[99] viXra:1912.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 07:09:54

Convulted Blood Vessels Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

A team led by Professor Sylvain Martel at the Polytechnique Montréal Nanorobotics Laboratory has developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. [38] A team of researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology has designed a new surgical tool that is maneuverable through some of the narrowest twisting networks of blood vessels to help treat stroke and aneurysm. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[98] viXra:1912.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 07:32:41

Compression Algorithm Calculating Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Now, a new Tel Aviv University study proposes a radically simple and efficient way of calculating entropy-and it probably exists on your own computer. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[97] viXra:1912.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-10 10:13:35

Why Are Gravitational Waves Detections so Close to New/full Moon?

Authors: Kovalyov, Mikhail
Comments: 11 Pages.

Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours of New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within a two-week period between the 2017/8/7 and 2017/8/21 eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away arrive to Earth so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in this paper. Of the 11 gravitational waves detections up to date, seven occurred within 43 hours of New/Full Moon or perihelion and four within a two-week period between the 2017/8/7 and 2017/8/21 eclipses. Why do the gravitational waves coming from millions of light years away arrive to Earth so close to these lunar events? The question is investigated in this paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[96] viXra:1912.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:03:36

Chip-Based Optical Sensor Detects Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have used a chip-based sensor with an integrated laser to detect very low levels of a cancer protein biomarker in a urine sample. [30] Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made a silicon chip that distributes optical signals precisely across a miniature brain-like grid, showcasing a potential new design for neural networks. [29] Researchers have shown that it is possible to train artificial neural networks directly on an optical chip. [28] Scientists from Russia, Estonia and the United Kingdom have created a new method for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of organic molecules. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts-a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[95] viXra:1912.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-06 12:30:48

Refutation of RCC Scourge of Christian Fundamentalists by Lambeth Quadrilateral (1888)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888 as minimal membership in the Historic Church. The Roman Catholic Church and Christian fundamentalists share the same non tautologous states, hence refuting claim of supremacy. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[94] viXra:1912.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:30:47

Diffusive Josephson Junctions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Understanding how microwave absorption changes the transport properties of diffusive Josephson junctions is at the forefront of interest in the quantum transport community. [43] The Josephson junction is one of the most important elements in turning quantum phenomena into usable technology. [42] The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[93] viXra:1912.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:48:18

Mathematics as Information Compression Via the Matching and Unification of Patterns

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: Now published in "Complexity", vol. 2019, Article ID 6427493, 25 pages, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6427493 (PDF, bit.ly/2LqUHIr).

This paper describes a novel perspective on the foundations of mathematics: how mathematics may be seen to be largely about "information compression (IC) via the matching and unification of patterns" (ICMUP). That is itself a novel approach to IC, couched in terms of non-mathematical primitives, as is necessary in any investigation of the foundations of mathematics. This new perspective on the foundations of mathematics reflects the idea that, as an aid to human thinking, mathematics is likely to be consonant with much evidence for the importance of IC in human learning, perception, and cognition. This perspective on the foundations of mathematics has grown out of a long-term programme of research developing the "SP Theory of Intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP Computer Model", a system in which a generalised version of ICMUP -- the powerful concept of "SP-multiple-alignment" -- plays a central role. The paper shows with an example how mathematics, without any special provision, may achieve compression of information. Then it describes examples showing how variants of ICMUP may be seen in widely-used structures and operations in mathematics. Examples are also given to show how several aspects of the mathematics-related disciplines of logic and computing may be understood as ICMUP. Also discussed is the intimate relation between IC and concepts of probability, with arguments that there are advantages in approaching AI, cognitive science, and concepts of probability via ICMUP. Also discussed is how the close relation between IC and concepts of probability relates to the established view that some parts of mathematics are intrinsically probabilistic, and how that latter view may be reconciled with the all-or-nothing, "exact", forms of calculation or inference that are familiar in mathematics and logic. There are many potential benefits and applications of the mathematics-as-IC perspective.
Category: General Mathematics

[92] viXra:1912.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:28:35

On the Nature of Time

Authors: Marc Kießling
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper describes the coherence of time, velocity and covered distance. Contrary to believe, time is not a universal property of nature but an interpretation of motion. If we observe an object 1, we can determine its velocity by putting its covered distance in relation to the covered distance of an object 2. In this case the covered distance s 2 of an object 2 equals the required time of object 2. This means that , if 2 covered distances are putt in relation, we can interpret their value as velocity of one of these objects and the covered distance in the denominator as time (s2=t). Therefore we get the equation: v1= s1/s2.
Category: Classical Physics

[91] viXra:1912.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:20:48

Atomic Music Listeners

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Atom music is a fun new way to explore the atomic world via musical synthesis techniques. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[90] viXra:1912.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:35:30

On the Nature of Atoms

Authors: Marc Kießling
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper postulates an advanced model of atoms under consideration of the research results from Marc Kießling by his paper entitled “ About the properties of energy”. There is a centered, approximately spherical area of energy. Around it there is/are approximately spherical energy value/values . The centered energy is of higher value as the surrounding spherical energy value/values. In the following the model is described with more than one outer spherical energy value. The motions of the energy values within the center and the outer energy values are synchronous. The motions of the centered energy influence the motions of the outer energy values in terms of their direction and velocity and vice versa. This occurs as a consequence of the energy values tending to the smallest amount of ∆W in their surroundings, which is on the specific ways of the synchronized motions. The motions of the centered energy area and the spherical energy values lead to an frequency pattern, which influences other energy values (particles) or other atoms. This leads to the observable effect of the wave character of energy values (particles) in double-slit experiments. Assumably under these conditions (double-slit), the frequency patterns of the atoms of the slit interfere with each other and generate a wave pattern. Therefore the energy values (particles) follow these generated patterns to the detector. Although the outer spherical energy values move on determined ways, they take variable ways within a generated space by the motions within the atom and influences from other atoms. Therefore chemical bindings are determined by the generated spaces, in which the outer energy values are located. But their specific motions within these spaces lead to another property of atoms, namely, assimilation and differentiation between atoms concerning their frequency pattern.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[89] viXra:1912.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:43:58

Neutron Insight into Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Bose-Einstein condensates are macroscopic quantum phases of matter which appear only under very particular conditions. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[88] viXra:1912.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 11:10:06

A Note on Manifolds VS Networks as Mathematics Models in Modern Physics

Authors: Lucian M Ionescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

Some stages of development of Manifold Theory are inspected, and how they evolved into the modern discrete frameworks of lattice and spin networks, with help from Topology and Homological Algebra. Recalling experimental evidence that reality is discrete, notably quantum Hall effect, includes more recent findings of quantum knots and spin-net condensates. Thus Pythagoras, Zeno and Plato were right after all: “Number rules the Uni- verse”, perhaps explaining the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics”, but not quite, why Quantum Physics’ scattering amplitudes are often Number Theory’s multiple zeta values.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[87] viXra:1912.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 14:23:18

Alternate Models of Some of the Leptons

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is shown here that the three leptons, the electron, the muon and the tau, appear to not be fundamental as declared by the Standard Model of Particle Physics, but are, instead, made of component particles. Electron-like particles here dubbed beta electrons and beta positron make up muons and free electrons. Muons are made of 103 beta electron-beta positron pairs plus a valence beta electron or beta positron surrounding a muon neutrino or antineutrino. The electron is beta electron orbiting an electron neutrino and the positron, a beta positron orbiting an electron antineutrino. The tau also appears to be beta electrons and beta positrons surrounding a tau neutrino or antineutrino; however, a definitive model is not offered here. Consequently, all three leptons and their antiparticles appear to be made of the beta electrons and positrons and their respective neutrinos or antineutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[86] viXra:1912.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 14:44:36

Solving Unsolved Problems in Neuroscience

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, applying the brain-mind resonance described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we solve the unsolved basic problems in neuroscience.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[85] viXra:1912.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 21:38:28

Refutation of Disjunction as Defined in Alternative Herbrand Functional Interpretation

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page.

For alternative formulation of the Herbrand functional interpretation, we evaluate disjunction as defined from the other connectives and quantifiers which is not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture to simplify types of witnesses in the Herbrand functional interpretation, avoiding the use of “sets of functionals”. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[84] viXra:1912.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 23:51:13

About Persistent Depressive Disorder for 16 Years After Remission by Fishing

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 6 Pages.

I experienced a depressive disorder for 16 years that has dramatically remissioned by fishing. The patient has received various treatments such as drug therapy and electric shock therapy for 16 years, but none has been effective. It was thought that uniting with nature without a heart led to remission of persistent depressive disorder. If you are enthusiastic about fishing, the annoyance of social life becomes trivial and you tend not to worry. This was thought to have greatly reduced the stress of the cases. It was thought that the modern life that departed from nature caused frequent mental disorders such as depressive disorder. It was thought that the “Ki” of the sea ameliorated the persistent depressive disorder.
Category: Mind Science

[83] viXra:1912.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 02:17:37

Equation of a Wave in Galilean Space Уравнение волны в ГП

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 11 pages in Russian

The main task of this work is a formulaic description of the wave propagation process in Galilean space (GP). The cases of isotropic wave propagation in an absolute reference system (ASO), the equation of wave propagation in inertial-term reference frame (IDF), wave propagation from moving source in its own ISO, ASO and ISO observer. Questions of Doppler effect and aberration are considered. When considering these issues, it is assumed that the source of the wave is not a point object, but is the source of a monochromatic wave that fills all space. It is also assumed that the wave source time and distance are synchronized with the GP time and distance. The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. It is this word – perhaps, the main thing in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, solid) medium – ASO, in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference, it can nahzoditsya in a state of arbitrary motion in the GP. But for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, this is the current Galilean ASO. A wave in a continuous medium (ASO) of GP can propagate only with one certain speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. They are the frequency and speed of wave propagation. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the ASO. In addition to waves, there may be non-wave objects in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. But in this work they are not considered. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent existence of the wave. Главной задачей этой работы является формульное описание процесса распространения волны в галилеевом пространстве (ГП). Рассмотрены случаи распространения изотропной волны в абсолютной системе отсчета (АСО), уравнение распространения волны в инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО), распространения волны от движущегося источника в собственном ИСО, АСО и ИСО наблюдателя. Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера и аберрации. При рассмотрении данных вопросов предполагается, что источник волны не является точечным объектом, а является источником монохроматической, заполняющей все пространство, волны. Также предполагается, что время источника волны и расстояния синхронизированы с временем и расстоянием ГП. В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – пожалуй, глав-ное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галилева метрика. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосочетаний является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, твердая) среда – АСО, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево про-странство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, она может нахзодится в состоянии произвольного движения в ГП. Но для распространяющих-ся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АСО. Волна в сплошной среде (АСО) ГП может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. Ими являются частота и скорость распространения волны. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АСО. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения которых не ограничена скоростью звука. Но в данной работе они не рассматриваются. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстрак-ции самостоятельного существования волны.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[82] viXra:1912.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 03:12:16

Teoria Simmetrica - Gas di Planck

Authors: Giuseppe Azzarello
Comments: 11 Pages.

Nell’articolo precedente, sulla Teoria Simmetrica, è stato mostrato che la particella di Planck è una particella simmetrica, nella condizione di unificazione gravi-elettro-magnetica. Il dominio di questa particella è il vacuum, in cui regna accoppiata nel dipolo positivo-negativo, costituendo il medium Planck. Proseguendo la teoria, mostreremo che il medium Planck, descritto dalle unità naturali introdotte da Planck, stabilisce il quanto di entropia , conferendo un nuovo significato alla costante dei gas . Vedremo la riunificazione energetica alla scala di Planck, da cui si potranno individuare delle relazioni importanti per il proseguo, e mostreremo come il medium Planck è identificabile con il gas ideale della teoria termodinamica. Successivamente ipotizzeremo un possibile sistema termodinamico, in cui il medium Planck costituisce un cosmic background (CBPM). L’introduzione del quanto di entropia prolunga, come consequenza logica, il concetto di quantizzazione alla termodinamica, ottenendo un quadro più aderente alla realtà fisica, nella direzione della riunificazione.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[81] viXra:1912.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 05:25:17

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections. Viii

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 133 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Number Theory

[80] viXra:1912.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 05:38:09

Law of Planetary Gravity

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Criticism of the Law of Universal Gravitation is given, the derivation of LUG from actual physical parameters, the local nature of the action of LUG corresponding to planetary interaction is determined. The non-gravitational character of stellar interactions is determined. The magnetic character of stellar interactions is updated.
Category: Astrophysics

[79] viXra:1912.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 10:25:56

Small-World Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Discovered in the field of social sciences in the 1960s, the phenomenon known as small-world networks has fascinated popular culture and science for decades. [29] "We basically combined advances in neural networks and machine-learning with quantum Monte Carlo tools," says Savona, referring to a large toolkit of computational methods that physicists use to study complex quantum systems. [28] As cosmologists and astrophysicists delve deeper into the darkest recesses of the universe, their need for increasingly powerful observational and computational tools has expanded exponentially. [27] Now, a team of scientists at MIT and elsewhere has developed a neural network, a form of artificial intelligence (AI), that can do much the same thing, at least to a limited extent: It can read scientific papersand render a plain-English summary in a sentence or two. [26] To address this gap in the existing literature, a team of researchers at SRI International has created a human-AI image guessing game inspired by the popular game 20 Questions (20Q), which can be used to evaluate the helpfulness of machine explanations. [25]
Category: Social Science

[78] viXra:1912.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 10:39:53

Snapshot of Artificial Proteins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Protein-like molecules called "polypeptoids" (or "peptoids," for short) have great promise as precision building blocks for creating a variety of designer nanomaterials, like flexible nanosheets-ultrathin, atomic-scale 2-D materials. [29] For the first time, a University of Michigan chemist has used quantum entanglement to examine protein structures, a process that requires only a very small number of photons of light. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12] Thumb through any old science textbook, and you'll likely find RNA described as little more than a means to an end, a kind of molecular scratch paper used to construct the proteins encoded in DNA. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[77] viXra:1912.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 12:14:26

The Particles Inside the Proton

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 10 Pages.

It shows here that the results of the electron-proton deep inelastic scattering experiments can be interpreted to show that the proton and the neutron are made of eight pions. The experiments also appear to show that the pions are made of electrons and positrons. Consequently, the proton appears to be made of 917 electrons and 918 positrons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[76] viXra:1912.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-12 06:34:16

Reverse-Engineered Proofs for Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 49 Pages. Reverse-engineered Rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis (and explaining the two types of Gram points) and Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures.

Mathematics for Incompletely Predictable Problems is associated with Incompletely Predictable problems containing Incompletely Predictable entities. Nontrivial zeros and two types of Gram points in Riemann zeta function (or its proxy Dirichlet eta function) together with prime and composite numbers from Sieve of Eratosthenes are Incompletely Predictable entities. Correct and complete mathematical arguments for first key step of converting this function into its continuous format version, and second key step of applying Information-Complexity conservation to this Sieve result in direct spin-offs from first key step consisting of proving Riemann hypothesis (and explaining two types of Gram points), and second key step consisting of proving Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures. We justify our Reverse-Engineered proofs and explanations.
Category: Number Theory

[75] viXra:1912.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 02:40:41

Quantum Dots for Biomedical Applications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Positioning is important especially for targeted therapies, e.g. photodynamic therapy, because it allows the drug to be released evenly in a particular environment and at the right speed. In addition, owing to the achieved ligands ordering, we are able to pack a lot of active drug particles on a small carrier," adds Professor Lewinski. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Physics of Biology

[74] viXra:1912.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 02:52:55

Nanostructure Electron Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

The researchers hope that these predictions will now also be tested experimentally and lead to the development of new nanostructures. Such systems can make important contributions to the further miniaturisation of electronics. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[73] viXra:1912.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 03:05:42

Van der Waals Interlayer Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

The researchers expect the work principle to manipulate 2-D magnetism by engineering unique spatially dependent spin textures for a variety of applications with vDW materials. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[72] viXra:1912.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 03:16:08

Закон Планетарного Тяготения

Authors: Киров
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian lang

Дана критика Закона Всемирного Тяготения, вывод ЗВТ из актуальных физических параметров, определен локальный характер действия ЗВТ, соответствующий планетарному взаимодействию. Определён негравитационный характер звёздных взаимодействий. Актуализирован магнитный характер звёздных взаимодействий.
Category: Astrophysics

[71] viXra:1912.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 04:46:56

Mathematical Connections Between Various Ramanujan’s Equations, Values of Mass and Electric Charges of Fundamental Particles and Physical Data of Kerr Supermassive Black Hole M87

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 123 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have described some mathematical connections between various Ramanujan’s equations, values of mass and electric charges of fundamental particles and physical data of Kerr Supermassive Black Hole M87. We have obtained some very interesting results concerning a possible mathematical unification between some sectors of particle and string physics and some sectors of black hole physics, through the use and development of some formulas discovered by S. Ramanujan
Category: Mathematical Physics

[70] viXra:1912.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 04:59:47

Refutation of Flow Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two theorems, one postulate, and nine examples of ZFC axioms as not tautologous. This refutes flow theory. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[69] viXra:1912.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 06:51:46

5th-Force-Particle in Vacuum Fits in New Universe Rthu-Postulate.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article refers to a 5th-force that fits a new model for the universe: Rotating Torus Hologram Universe, abbreviated as RTHU. Thereto the scale is calculated whereon negative charged quarks in the neutron of Helium4 are affected by a dark-boson X17 being the 5th-force-particle on a scale of approximately 0,3x10^-18 meter, at the moment of He4 decay in vacuum. Simultanuously the belonging dark-force is felt at a scale of approximately 0,7 millimeter in vacuum. This follows from formules used to describe the RTHU model. However, significantly the value of the dark force also appears to be equivalent to its very small dark energy of approximately 10^-88 Joule^2. The exercises given in this article postulate a duo-bit process from below the Planckborder to be the origin of X17, dark matter-force and dark energy according to the RTHU model. That model generates a materialized holographic Big Bang universe.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[68] viXra:1912.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 07:10:56

V={e, (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4),(1 4)(2 3)} is a Characteristic Subgroup of the Alternating Group of Degree 4

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

An addendum to group theory.
Category: Algebra

[67] viXra:1912.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 08:16:48

State of Solitary Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Scientists at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), working with the University of Latvia, the University of Berlin, Cambridge University and University College London, have developed a tomographic method to visualize the state of solitary electrons emitted from electron pumps. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1912.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 08:56:45

The Riemann Flow (II)

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in english

The Riemann flow is defined with help of the Riemann curvature. The Einstein-Riemann metrics are also defined.
Category: Geometry

[65] viXra:1912.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 08:57:53

Dark Matter Particles Can Travel at the Speed of Light. Special Relativity and General Relativity Are Wrong

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 464 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light. Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong “Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong” Adrian Ferent “The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent You learned from Einstein, your professors that when v = c, mass and energy goes to infinity and that’s not physically possible. In particle accelerators scientists try to accelerate electrons to the speed of light. Because the scientists do not understand what the electron is, they do not understand what they do there. In Ferent Quantum Gravity, FQG, during the electron – positron collision are created gamma rays and Dark Matter electrons. I discovered that: “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created” Adrian Ferent The electron – positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction. This means: “The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong” Adrian Ferent “The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent 279. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light 280. I am the first who discovered that the gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light 281. I am the first who discovered because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong 282. I am the first who discovered because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong 283. I am the first who discovered that in electron – positron collision, gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong 284. I am the first who discovered that the electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[64] viXra:1912.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 09:06:53

Laser Evaluate Mental States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Scientists at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) along with international colleagues have studied the biomechanics of hand movements when writing and drawing and developed a unique method to evaluate the individual properties of writing speed and pencil pressure. [40] New research from the University of Rochester will enhance the accuracy of computer models used in simulations of laser-driven implosions. [39] By using an infrared laser beam to induce a phenomenon known as an electron avalanche breakdown near the material, the new technique is able to detect shielded material from a distance. [38] The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why. [37] In a new review, researchers have described the fundamental physics that causes magnetoelectricity from a theoretical viewpoint. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[63] viXra:1912.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 09:48:26

Josephson Circuit Quantum Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Superconducting circuits, which have zero electrical resistance, could enable the development of electronic components that are significantly more energy-efficient than most chips used today. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[62] viXra:1912.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 12:21:34

How Planets are Formed, How Stars Evolve

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor
Comments: 7 Pages. transcript for youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CM0Hi0YwAJA

Earth was shaped by the same processes in operation today. Charles Lyell and James Hutton were correct, it is ancient almost beyond measure. But why? This outline should serve as an explanation to that "why." The present is key to the past and much more is written in the sky than in the rocks.
Category: Astrophysics

[61] viXra:1912.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 14:36:21

Deterministic Free Will with Resonant Decision Making

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is the obvious incompleteness in the description of quantum mechanics (QM). QM makes it impossible to find the right solutions for the greatest secrets of nature such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry, the origin of dark matter (DM) and dark energy, or the difference of mind and brain which leads to the origin of free will and decision making. Here we show that free will is compatible with determinism and that mind is a DM structure.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[60] viXra:1912.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-07 17:27:10

Antena Maxwell para VHF

Authors: Carlos Alejandro Chiappini
Comments: 9 Pages.

La parte irradiante de la antena Maxwell para VHF es un disco plano de 327 milímetros de diámetro. Un transductor especial transfiere energía entre el disco y la línea de alimentación proveniente del equipo. Entre la salida del transmisor y el disco irradiante no existe continuidad galvánica de tipo alguno. El rendimiento es plenamente satisfactorio.
Category: Classical Physics

[59] viXra:1912.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 19:07:45

Allow the Wizard of oz to Reply to His Critic

Authors: John Roach
Comments: 38 Pages.

18 articles for Science & Philosophy discussion
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[58] viXra:1912.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 19:44:01

A Maximum Entropy Approach to Wave Mechanics

Authors: Juho Leppäkangas
Comments: 9 pages. Feel free to send an email about corrections or suggestions.

We employ the maximum entropy principle, in the context of Bayesian inference by the impersonal physical interactions, together with the experimental Heisenberg's uncertainty principle for a simple construction of the general wave mechanical static state of a single, interacting mass particle with no internal degrees of freedom. Subsequently, this first principle approach allows to derive via Newtonian mechanics the dynamical equation of motion in the realm of non-relativistic wave mechanics, i.e., the Schrödinger equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:1912.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 21:16:23

Effective Range of Gravitation

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 11 Pages. 1 figure

It is generally believed that both gravitational and electromagnetic forces belong to macroscopic interactions. However, since the smallest unit of matter is impossible to be infinitely small, the gravity or electromagnetic force cannot be infinitely small too. When these two macroscopic interactions are less than a certain value, it can be considered that there is no longer any interaction. How to determine the interaction range of gravitation, this article mainly analyzes by using the Planck length as the smallest unit of spacetime. It is assumed that if the gravitational potential changes across spacetime of Planck length less than a certain energy value, it indicates that gravitational potential cannot cross the Planck length. The gravitation will disappear as a result. From this, it is inferred that the effective interaction range of the gravitational force is related to the size of the mass. According to the gravitational effective range of the sun, the gravitational effective range of the huge mass of the galaxy's center can be calculated, and then the diameter of the galaxy's core can be calculated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[56] viXra:1912.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 03:15:13

End for the Big Bang Theory, Dark Matter and Dark Energy. A New Logical, Clear and Scientific Explanation for the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 8 Pages.

The “big bang theory” was established at the end of the third decade of the past century, when astrophysicist Edwin Hubble made the very great discovery, that the Galaxies of the Universe do not have fixed positions, but they move and even move away, which means that the “Universe is expanding”. The theory of the big bang was in completely agreement with Hubble's discovery; so although it had many doubts, it was established as a cosmological theory, provided, of course, that over the time and the advancement of science, these doubts would be clarified. However, in the 1990s-2000s decade, something unexpected happened; two independent research teams, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High Z Supernova Team, trying to study more thoroughly the expansion of the Universe, discovered that this expansion is accelerated, something that did not agree with the big bang theory, which provides for the opposite; that the expansion of the Universe is, a slowed down expansion. Since then, all of the scientific community has been in turmoil, because an overthrow of the theory of the big bang will overthrow and most of the newer theoretical physics too, which is related to the big bang theory. Unfortunately, science attempting to explain the accelerated expansion, through the controversial concepts of “dark matter” and “dark energy”, –defined as strange cosmic “some-things” and nothing more–, has failed and so far, not produced any positive result. Following these developments, I thought it necessary to get out of my office drawer and restore forward once again the “theory of the chain reaction”, which explains the accelerated expansion, describes with credibility and scientific consistency the creation and operation of the Cosmos and answers to almost all the questions that do not answer the big bang and the other cosmological theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[55] viXra:1912.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 04:37:43

Laser Beams Meet Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

New research from the University of Rochester will enhance the accuracy of computer models used in simulations of laser-driven implosions. [39] By using an infrared laser beam to induce a phenomenon known as an electron avalanche breakdown near the material, the new technique is able to detect shielded material from a distance. [38] The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why. [37] In a new review, researchers have described the fundamental physics that causes magnetoelectricity from a theoretical viewpoint. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[54] viXra:1912.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:15:03

Controlling Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The success of ALPHA and ASACUSA has also inspired a new generation of antimatter experiments. [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[53] viXra:1912.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:42:16

Population Structure, Fecundity and Morphological Characteristics of M. Vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) on Lower Volta River Basin Channel, Ghana

Authors: Eniade Abiodun Adeyemi, Odedeyi Dominic Olabode, Bello-Olusoji A Oluayo, Adebayo Olabode Thomas, Agyakwah Seth Koranteng
Comments: 11 Pages.

Population structure, fecundity and morphological characteristics of M. vollenhovenii were studied around Lower Volta River, Ghana subject to dirt of information on this prawn species around the study location. The most prominent morphological characteristics already documented for identification of this species was rostrum bearing 13-15 continuous teeth dorsally and 4-5 teeth on its ventral part. These morphological traits formed the principal components for identification in this study. Results showed that morphological traits on second pereiopods such as presence of spines, spinules, teeth borne within the fingers, and dense projections of setae-like features on telson and uropod were observed relevant for identification purposes. Other results revealed that maximum total length recorded in this study (150-155mm) was higher than total length ranges (≤125mm) documented for this species in earlier studies. Consequently, two adult’s classes of prawns were identified (old adult class 81-120mm; and young adults 31-80mm) and older class was observed to be more in catches than the younger prawns. Absolute fecundity revealed that oocytes estimation varied with respect to seasons, ages of prawns and body sizes of specimens examined. In conclusion, this study observed that M. vollenhovenii fishery is operating in a sustainable manner at the time of this study around the study location.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[52] viXra:1912.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:45:08

Comparative Differential Leucocyte Count and Morphometrical Analyses of Black Rats Rattus Rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) and White Rats Rattus Norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769)

Authors: Aryadhara Das, Prafulla Kumar Mohanty
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper aims at a systematic approach to morphologically characterize of five types of white blood cells (WBC), and its nuclei from light microscopic image of blood samples. Hence, cellular and nuclei based geometric features are computed and analyzed statistically with t-test to show their discriminating potentiality among the species. In morphometry study, the length and breadth along with nucleus of leukocytes are compared between and within the species using oneway Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s pairwise comparison tests. In this study, the estimated values of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus with respect to sex were compared. A total of 20 black and white rats (05 each from males and females) were collected. Blood samples were then collected from the caudal vein of anaesthetized rats. In differential leucocyte count, the parameters namely, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil (p < 0.001) and eosinophil and basophil (p < 0.05) reveal significant difference. In morphometrical study, the cell length, breadth along with nucleus of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil (p < 0.01) and eosinophil, basophil (p < 0.05) deviates significantly between and within the species.
Category: Biochemistry

[51] viXra:1912.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:47:18

Bacteriological Quality of Kunu-Zaki Sold on the Streets of Owerri Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Anumudu I. C., Anumudu C. K.
Comments: 5 Pages.

Kunu-zaki is a nourishing non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed in Nigeria. There is no standardized method for its preparation thus production practices differ amongst retailers. This study was undertaken to evaluate the bacteriological quality of kunu drink retailed in major markets of Owerri metropolis, Nigeria. Triplicate samples were obtained from four markets in Owerri and a control sample prepared in the laboratory. Kunu drink was analysed using the standard pour plate procedure. The results obtained showed that total heterotrophic bacteria count, total coliform count and total Salmonella Shigella count ranged from 1.4 x 103 – 4.5 x 104 cfu/ml, 1.2 x 103 – 3.8 x 104 cfu/ml to 0.6 x 103 – 3.1 x 104 respectively. A total of 9 bacteria genera including Staphylococcus specie, E. coli, Enterobacter specie, Proteus specie, Citrobacter specie, Serratia specie, Lactobacillus specie, Salmonella specie and Streptococcus specie were isolated with the highest percentage frequency of occurrence recorded for Staphylococcus sp. (16.66%) indicating possible low hygiene of the kunu zaki producers. The bacteria genera isolated from kunu zaki sold in Owerri and their number constitute main concerns for public health as these can cause a variety of infections or food intoxications. Thus, there is a need to establish a system of monitoring of street vended kunu zaki to make sure that it is safe for consumption.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[50] viXra:1912.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:52:12

Comparative Cytomorphometry of Red Blood Cells of Some Fishes

Authors: Gayatri Acharya, Prafulla Kumar Mohanty
Comments: 10 Pages.

This study aims to compare the size of the red blood cells of different freshwater fishes to gain knowledge of their activity. In this study, 11 different freshwater fishes of four different order like Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes, and Osteoglossiformes were selected. For analyses of cytomorphometry of blood cells, blood was collected from caudal vein, and blood smear was prepared at the site of collection. In order to obtain size of different blood cell types, 30 cells of each cell type for each fish were photographed and dimensions of cell-like length and breadth were measured using Microscope Eyepiece Digital Camera (CatCam130 – 1.3 Mega Pixel (MP), Code No. CC130, Catalyst Biotech, Maharashtra, India, attached to Hund Wetzlar Microscope GmbH, Wetzlar-Nauborn, Germany) and computer. This study confirms the cytomorphometry of red blood cells differ significantly at p< 0.001 concerning sex and species. The study will help in diagnosis which in turn will accelerate production of fishes.
Category: Biochemistry

[49] viXra:1912.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:53:09

Investigating Genotoxicity of Eleusine Indica by Micronuclei Assay in Albino Rats

Authors: Hannah Edim Etta, Ekei Victor Ikpeme, Effiom, Helen Offiong
Comments: 8 Pages.

Genotoxicity of Eleusine indica (Nkim enang: Efik) was investigated in the Wister strain albino rat (Rattus novergicus). Nine (9) male and nine (9) female rats were randomly assigned to three (3) groups, of which two were exposed to the aqueous extract of E.indica – Group A (control-no extract)), Group B (50 mg/kg BW of E. indica) and Group C (100 mg/kg BW of E. indica). This was administered to the rats by oral gavage for 14 days after which the peripheral blood from the tail tips were collected and assayed for the presence of micronuclei, following standard procedures. Proximate analysis and phytochemical screening of the herb extract was carried out. Results obtained showed that E. indica did not cause any significant (P > 0.05) increase in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in rat peripheral blood at any of the doses administered. The polychromatic: normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE: NCE) ratio was found to be in the range of 0.50 ± 0.11 to 0.55 ± 0.02. Also, the aqueous herb extract is rich in Carbohydrates (76.17%) and Tannins (21.76%). Mean body weights (MBW) of rats showed normal distribution throughout the duration of the investigation. The results of this study demonstrate that E. indica does not confer any genotoxicity in mammals. Further in-depth study on its efficacy is recommended.
Category: Biochemistry

[48] viXra:1912.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:55:36

Quantum Entanglement in Theoretical Physics as a New Insight Into Cancer Biology

Authors: Sorush Niknamian, Spmayeh Zaminpira, Sprephanie Seneff
Comments: 12 Pages.

Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in theoretical physics that happens when pairs or groups of particles are generated in such a way that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance. Instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole. Based on the theory of cancer as an evolutionary metabolic disease (Evolutionary Metabolic Hypothesis of Cancer or EMHC), the cancerous cells are eukaryotic cells with different metabolic rate from healthy cells due to the damaged or shut down mitochondria in them. Assuming each human eukaryotic cell as a particle and the whole body as a Quantum Entangled System (QES), is a new perspective on the description of cancer disease, and this link between theoretical physics and biological sciences in the field of cancer therapies can be a new insight into the cause, prevention and treatment of cancer. Additionally, this perspective admits the Lamarckian evolution in the understanding of the mentioned disease. We have presented each human eukaryotic cell containing mitochondria as a QES, and the whole body containing healthy and normal cells as a QES as well. The difference between the entropy of the healthy cells and cancer cells has also been mentioned in this research.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[47] viXra:1912.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:56:45

Variations of Biomass and Carbon Contents in Different Traits and Components of Herbaceous Species from Tropical Grassland

Authors: Preeti Verma, R. Sagar, Hariom Verma, Abhishek Rai, Pratibha Chaturvedi, Prem Pratap Singh, Kuldeep Kumar, Sandeep Kumar Singh
Comments: 32 Pages.

Grasslands play a critical role in the global storage of atmospheric carbon (C). Precise estimation of C contents in different plant components is essential to formulate a strategy for mitigating the atmospheric C. Biomass (B) and C of different herbaceous plant components at species, functional group and site levels from tropical grassland locating on the campus of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India were estimated. For this; 117 herbaceous species just-before flowering were harvested. B and C contents for each species and component were measured and statistically analyzed. The measured C (g plant-1) across the components varied from 0.08 to 31.12. On gm-2 basis; it varied between 29 (leaf) and 49 (root). Plant components, species and functional groups in isolation caused significant differences in the measured C. In the present study; the C content of stem was greater than the leaf and root. The perennial, erect, leguminous and native traits had greater C than the others. Therefore, this observation revealed that the perennial, erect, leguminous and native plants could be a better option for reducing the atmospheric CO2 by capturing it and then converting into B through photosynthesis. Further, the fitted regression equation between the root and shoot for B and C could be used for the extrapolation of B and C of the root component based on the shoot component. The conservative field measurement methods may give precise data on B and C but are destructive to grassland, difficult, time-consuming, and costly to cover at large scale. Hence, the present work could be substantial for the estimation of root C based on shoot component.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[46] viXra:1912.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:57:47

Explaining the Benefits of Human Genome Patent

Authors: Shahima Akter Topu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Gene patenting has been facing backlash for decades now. Even Michael Crichton, science fiction novelist, as joined the bandwagon speaking against gene patent.1 Such hostility towards patents, the professional interests of academics, researchers and inventors are under the threat of losing their rights over the work they have done. The biotech industry can never be out of discoveries. With constant biological changes, new diseases are appearing and they have to dig deeper. However, not all progress is free. Rewarding the inventors is not at all unfair. This paper will demonstrate that (i) patents are a foundation of the industry. They need to innovate further progress. The reason patent law exists to protect the inventions for a limited period of time. The paper will also demonstrate that (ii) the social myths about gene patent are not really manifested in reality. It will discuss the argument against gene patenting and then will present counter arguments with empirical evidence whether the myths are really true.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[45] viXra:1912.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:58:46

Genetic and Environmental Factors in Skin Color Determination

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Rebero Samuel
Comments: 4 Pages.

The origin of skin color has been significantly a discussion of importance among human biology scientists, anthropologists and others interested in evolution of human skin color. Experience was done to chimpanzee and other primates shared almost the same characters with mankind, and this impressed scientists to know what makes difference in skin color among people. Different researches conducted to know the real cause of dark skin and light skin among people of the same origin. There are no other results found out of permanent variation happened to our ancestors based on geographical location. Environmental factors played a huge role in skin color determination. High UVR has been led to dark skin color and low production of UVR led to lightly skin. By natural selection genes responded to environmental conditions for a human to survive in his own environment. Melanin production came as a response to UVR to protect against consequence of UVR in low latitude regions. Depigmentation happened due migration from low latitude to high latitude regions and led lightly skinned color for our ancestors. Everyone has skin color due to ancestry antique geographical location.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[44] viXra:1912.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:59:43

Dormancy and Germination in Two Australian Native Species (Acacia Aneura and Rhodanthe Floribunda)

Authors: Paul Theophile Epee Misse
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the laboratory of plant physiology of the University of Queensland (Gatton Campus), a seed germination experiment was undertaken on seeds of two Australian native plant species – Rhodanthe floribundato and Acacia aneura. Most Acacia, including A. aneura exhibit a physical dormancy due to the waxy coat covering the seed. Comparably, just a few species of Rhodanthe are studied as to their dormancy. However, they are also known to present different forms of dormancy. To understand and describe these dormancy mechanisms, a seed germination experiment was conducted on Acacia aneura and Rhodanthe floribunda. This experiment will either add to the existing knowledge regarding these species’ dormancy or corroborate them. It is expected that both species display some form(s) of dormancy.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[43] viXra:1912.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:00:46

Analysis of Certain Biochemical Indices on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats Administered with Protein Isolated and Purified from Vernonia Amygdalina

Authors: Ihimire I.G., Kayode E.A., Osagie V.E.
Comments: 8 Pages.

This study investigated the effect of protein isolate from leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina in diabetic rats. Thirty (30) adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six (6) groups of five (5) each based on their body weight. Diabetes was induced with administration of alloxan, 150 mg/kg body weight (i.p). Group A served as the control and received 1 mL/kg body weight of 5% ethanol being solvent used, Group B received 1 mL alloxan containing 150 mg/kg only. Group C, D, E and F were respectively alloxanized but treated with 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% of protein isolate obtained from V. amygdalina leaves for 14 days. On the 15th day, the animals were humanely sacrificed and their liver homogenates were prepared. Standard biochemical procedures were adopted for determination of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glucose levels. Data were subjected to one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post-hoc test using Graph Pad, version 6 software. Results showed that CAT activity in alloxan-induced untreated rats (1.17 μmole H2O2) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than observed in control rats (2.10 mole H2O2). Treatment with the respective doses recorded comparable values to those observed in control rats. Similar observation was seen with SOD data. Rats treated with 7% protein isolate recorded the most significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum glucose level. The study suggests that the protein isolate possesses anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Category: Biochemistry

[42] viXra:1912.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:02:36

Autophagic Processes of Normal and Malignant Metabolic Pathways

Authors: Aurelian Udristioiu, Manole Cojocaru
Comments: 13 Pages.

Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains the homeostasis of the normal cell, but autophagic dysfunction is associated with human diseases, such as cancer. In normal cells, the initial signal to form auto-phagosomes is by the class III phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) 3 kinase complex consisting of sequence genes, Beclin1/Atg6 and class III PI3K (Vps34). This process is negatively regulated by binding of Bcl-2 family members such as Bcl-xL to Beclin1 preventing Beclin1 binding to the PI3K-III complex and thereby reducing autophagy. In cancer, the autophagy can be neutral, tumor-suppressive, or tumor-promoting in different contexts. Genomic analysis of human cancers indicates that the loss or mutation of core autophagy Atg genes, whereas oncogenic events that activate autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis have been identified in malignant diseases. Optimal combination of inductors or inhibitors of autophagy with chemo or radiotherapy in a variety of tumor type, in different phases, can be successful approaches for improve the effect of anticancer therapies.
Category: Biochemistry

[41] viXra:1912.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:04:28

The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Morinda Lucida on Haematological Parameters and Intestinal Atpases, Lactase Activity and Histopathology Studies in Lactose Induced Diarrhea in Wistar Rats

Authors: Ugbeni C.O., Idiakheua D.O.
Comments: 8 Pages.

Diarrhea remains a major health burden in developing society till date. Efforts aimed at ameliorating this condition is very imminent. In this study, the antidiarrheal effect of aqueous extracts (dried and fresh forms) of M. lucida leaves was evaluated in Wistar rats. 25% lactose enriched diet was used to induce diarrhea. 25 Wistar rats of an average weight of 150g were divided equally into five groups labeled A-E. The diet was admonished for 72 h to rats in groups B-E. Fresh aqueous extract of M. lucida, dried aqueous extract of M. lucida and loperamide were then administered to groups C-E respectively for the next seven days. The animals were then sacrificed and blood collected for lactase, intestinal ATPases, and some haematological parameters were assayed using standard laboratory procedures. Histopathological examination of the small intestine was also examined. Our results showed a significant increase in the intestinal lactase activity of diarrheic rats. However, the dried extract was able to restore parity with the control. We observed a significant increase in the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase while a decrease in the activity of Ca2+ATPase in lactose induced diarrheic rats when compared with the control. The extracts of M. lucida further increased significantly the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase when compared with the control and the untreated group. However, no significant effect of the extracts on Ca2+ATPase was observed. On haematological parameters, we observed increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin. Treatment with fresh extract and loperamide was able to reverse this increase. Furthermore results of the differential white blood cell count revealed higher lymphocyte count in the group given dried extract of M. lucida. The extracts were able to ameliorate the aberrations observed in the architecture of the intestinal lumen.
Category: Biochemistry

[40] viXra:1912.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:05:47

Salt Stress Induced Effects on Biochemical Parameters in Etiolated Maize Leaf Segments During Greening

Authors: Meeta Jain, Jayesh Vaishnav
Comments: 10 Pages.

Treatment of etiolated maize leaf segments with 0-300 mM NaCl during greening decreased the osmotic potential of leaf sap significantly. Na+ content of the leaf tissue increased significantly on supplying different concentrations of salt. Relative water content of the leaf tissue was marginally affected by the supply of NaCl. Total protein and RNA content of the maize leaf segments gradually increased when treated with lower concentrations of NaCl and subsequently decreased at higher concentrations. Decrease in DNA content was noted with increasing salt treatment in a concentration dependent manner. SDS-PAGE analysis of salt treated maize leaf tissue revealed appearance of one protein band (approx. 73 kD) in samples incubated with ≥50 mM NaCl compared to control. Protein identification performed with the Mascot search engine in NCBI database indicated extensive homology of this protein with chloroplast heat shock protein 70 of Cenchrus americanus (Protein score: 295), hypothetical proteins SELMODRAFT_267815 of Selaginella moellendorffii (Protein score: 125), VITISV_000728 of Vitis vinifera (Protein score: 118) and SELMODRAFT_230659 of Selaginella moellendorffii (Protein score: 51). The results revealed that the dark grown maize leaf segments exhibit high degree of stress due to NaCl treatment, which affects the biochemical parameters governing the metabolic activities of the leaf tissue. Further, the stress induced proteins are being synthesized in leaf tissue in response to salt stress.
Category: Biochemistry

[39] viXra:1912.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:07:48

Study of Chorioamnionitis Among Women with Preterm Birth at Ruhengeri Referral Hospital

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Jasmine Umugwaneza, Cedrick Izere, Emmanuel Munyeshyaka, Thierry Habyarimana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Background: Chorioamnionitis is the association of microorganisms infection in fetal membrane, placental membrane and amniotic fluid. About 2 to 4% of chorioamnionitis occurs in full-term deliveries, but higher than this prevalence in preterm birth. Objectives: The objective of this study was to detect the most dominant bacteria of chorioamnionitis and evaluate correlation of the presence of microorganisms infection in placental membrane, fetal membrane and amniotic fluids in women with preterm birth. Methods: It was cross section study where 20 women with preterm premature rupture of membrane, premature rupture of membrane or preterm birth. By caesarean section or without caesarean section with a group of control of 10 women with term delivery. After delivery immediately the samples swab of amniotic fluid, fetal membrane and placenta membrane sample were placed in separate sterile container (swabs Stuart plastic) in the hospital, where it was stored at temperatures ranging between 8oC-20oC. Culture technique, gram staining and biochemical test were used to identify the microorganisms in this study at INES-Ruhengeri Microbiology laboratory. At the Ruhengeri Referral Hospital and analyzed according to INES Microbiology Laboratory standard operating procedures. Results: in 20 women with preterm birth, the most dominant mircoroganism was yeast 28.4% and mould 28.4%, other infections were caused by Escherichia coli, with 9.3%, Klebsiella species with 3.7%, Streptococcus species with 9.3%, Staphylococcus species with 9.3%, Candida albican with 11.7%. Those microorganisms show the association in fetal membrane, placenta membrane and amniotic fluid, of all women suspected to have chorioamnionitis. In 10 samples of control group, for women with term birth, same microorganisms were found like in fetal membrane were (Staphylococcus species 11%, mould 33%, and Yeast 56%), in placenta membrane were (Staphylococcus species 20%, mould 30%, Yeast 50%) and Amniotic fluid were (Staphylococcus species 0%, mould 33%, Yeast 67%). Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis can be in women with preterm birth or with term birth, untreated microorganism infections will cause a big problem of chorioamnionitis in pregnant women this will conduct to preterm morbidity and mortality.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[38] viXra:1912.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:09:43

Artificial Neural Network (Ann) and Regression Model for Predicting the Albumin to Globulin (A/g) Ratio in a Serum Protein Electrophoresis Test

Authors: Akshansh Mishra
Comments: 10 Pages.

Multiple myeloma affects the several parts of bodies such as the spine, skull, pelvis and ribs. The cause of multiple myeloma is not known properly. The poor prognoses is associated with most cancers creates a sense of urgency for the brains behind healthcare Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. AI is able to detect cancer and other diseases earlier than possible through standard diagnostic methods, which could be lifesaving for future patients. The main objective of the research paper is to predict the Albumin to Globulin (A/G) ratio obtained by the electrophoresis test by developing regression model and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model. The results obtained showed that the Mean Square Error (MSE) obtained by ANN model is less than the MSE obtained by the regression model.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[37] viXra:1912.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:11:26

Susceptibility of Common Weeds and Cultivated Crops in Major Maize Growing Agroecological Zones of Uganda to Viruses Causing Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease

Authors: Mudde, B., Miano D. W., Olubayo, F. M., Asea, G., Kilalo, D.c., Kwemoi, D. B., Adriko, J., Ssekiwoko, F., Male, A., Kiggundu, A.
Comments: 14 Pages.

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is caused when maize plants become coinfected with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and potyviruses notably Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). Apart from maize, little is known about susceptibility of weed species and cultivated crop species usually growing in proximity with maize to MLN viruses in Uganda. The common weeds and crop plants were mechanically inoculated with combined sap from MCMV and SCMV infected maize plants. Samples were tested for MLN causing viruses by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) and Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The weeds that were susceptibility to MCMV were Digitaria abyssinica, Eleusine africana and Roetboellia cochinchinensis; while those susceptible to SCMV were Pennisetum purpureum, Panicum maximum and Roetboellia cochinchinensis. The cultivated crops were susceptible only to MCMV and included cassava (Manihot esculenta), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Common weeds and cultivated crops growing close to maize in Uganda have differential susceptibility to MLN causing viruses and can act as reservoirs of MLN causing viruses. It is critical to identify non MLN hosts in cultivated crops for crop rotation and early weeding to reduce on MLN virus inoculum in cropping systems.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[36] viXra:1912.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:13:08

Effect of Dietary Substitution of Maize Meal with Finger Millet Meal on Fat Deposition on Broiler Meat

Authors: Ndlovu, N., Usai, T., Usai, E., Manhokwe, S.
Comments: 9 Pages.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a finger millet-based broiler feed on the meat quality of chicken. Proximate nutrient composition was analyzed on the finger millet meal and a feed formulated with finger millet as the main energy source. The feed was formulated on percent crude protein (CP) basis using Pearson square method. An experiment was designed and conducted on Ross Hybrid chickens to determine the effect of the feed on lean tissue development. A two-tailed t-test statistical analysis was conducted at a significance level of 5% to determine the effect of the feed on fat deposition and lean tissue development in broiler muscle. The finger millet feed increased mean lean tissue mass by 3.47%. This study showed that use of finger millet feed reduced the fat deposition and favored protein deposition in broiler muscle (increased leanness). This study also showed that finger millet feed significantly enhanced broiler growth performance. We concluded that finger millet has the potential to replace maize meal in broiler feed formulation in order to produce lean and healthier meat for consumers.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[35] viXra:1912.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:14:57

Phylogenetic and Morphological Diversity of Culturable Cyanobacteria from Lake Magadi in Kenya

Authors: Ngetha Edwin, Julia Khayeli Akhwale, Romano Mwirichia
Comments: 8 Pages.

Lake Magadi is an alkaline saline Lake in Kenya, which lies on the Great Eastern Rift valley. Although the lake is characterized by extremes of salt, pH and temperature, it supports diverse groups of cyanobacteria. In this study, we used different media to isolate novel groups of cyanobacteria. We recovered 11 isolates affiliated to the orders Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales, Pleurocapsales and Nostocales. Isolates affiliated to Chroococcidiopsis species had similarity values below 90% to currently characterized taxa indicating that these could be completely new phylotypes. This taxon has not been isolated before from the soda lake indicating the power of molecular techniques in identifying novel cyanobacterial taxa. Only two of the recovered isolates had 99% similarity to known organisms. Previous studies have mainly relied on microscopic examination and identification, which can lead to misidentification and subsequent assignment of an organism to the wrong taxon. The recovered isolates are a useful resource of more studies on taxonomy and secondary metabolite production.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[34] viXra:1912.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:16:46

Comparative Growth and Survival Performance of Sea Cucumber (Holothuria Scabra) in co-Cultured Pen System with Commercial Macroalgae

Authors: Muumin I. Hamad, Augustine W. Mwandya, Renalda S. Munubi, Sebastian Chenyambuga, Heiromin A. Lamtane.
Comments: 10 Pages.

Mariculture has recently been adopted in many parts of coastal East Africa as a source of income and employment to many women and heartbroken fishermen who are the main victim of dwindling wild stock of aquatic resources. The sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra) has for long time been collected and sold as export marine product. Macroalgae (Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii) are the common cultured seaweed species that provide hope for future increase in mariculture production. An experiment was conducted along the intertidal lagoon of Unguja Ukuu village in Zanzibar to assess the survival and growth performance of sea cucumber (H. scabra) in two separate pens under co-cultured systems with E. denticulatum and K. alvarezii. Juvenile sea cucumber H. scabra with mean weight (± se) of 67.18 ± 2.06 were integrated with the two common commercial seaweed in pen system for 10 weeks. The results revealed that the growth rate and survival of H. scabra, E. denticulatum and K. alvarezii were better under integration system. The growth of H. scabra was higher (1.038 gd-1) in pen systems co-cultured with K. alvarezii compared to 0.898 gd-1 in pen systems co-culture with E. denticulatum. Survival rate of H. scabra was higher (76%) in the pen systems co-cultured with E. denticulatum compared to that (70%) observed in pen systems co-cultured with K. alvarezii. The results suggest that the best integration of sea cucumber and macroalgae is between H. scabra and K. alvarezii. However, reliable source of H. scabra juvenile is essential for the future expansion of pen co-culture system.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[33] viXra:1912.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:17:52

Influence of Mangrove Deforestation and Land Use Change on Trophic Organization of Fish Assemblages in Creek Systems

Authors: Augustine W. Mwandya
Comments: 15 Pages.

The impacts of human related activities on trophic structure of mangrove associated fish species, was investigated by sampling fish in mangrove creeks. Trophic organization and stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) of fish in undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared with clear-cut areas of mangrove and reservoirs for saltworks and fish farms constructed after mangrove clearing. Results showed significantly higher densities, species numbers, diversity (H’) and numbers of trophic groups in undisturbed sites compared to disturbed sites. Overall, omnivorous fish comprised the most abundant feeding guild, which dominated in the cleared sites followed in order by the uncleared sites and reservoirs. The zoobenthivores/piscivores was the most diverse group, with the highest species richness in the undisturbed areas. Multivariate analysis showed that assemblage structure of omnivores in the reservoirs was separated from those in uncleared and cleared sites, while zoobenthivores/piscivores differed between uncleared sites and disturbed areas. Stable isotope ratios of δ13C and δ15N values in fish muscles indicated significant diet shifts between undisturbed and disturbed mangrove creek systems, although the effects were species-specific. The findings suggest that mangrove deforestation combined with land-use changes, has a greater impact on the trophic structure of fish in mangrove creeks than mangrove deforestation only.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32] viXra:1912.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:19:20

Determination Prevalence of Cymothoid Parasite Fish Families in Iwofe (Port Harcourt) Rivers State

Authors: Gloria Wonodi, Ugbomeh A.P., Gabriel U.U.
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of this study is to provide information on the morphology of the Cymothoid parasites of Haemulidae and Elopidae from Iwofe in Port Harcourt determine physico chemical parameter of study area. To determine the percentage prevalence of Cymothoid parasite of both fish families in the study area. To determine the species of the Cymothoid parasite in the study area. To compare the structure and morphology of the different life stages of the Cymothoids. A total of seventy six (76) fishes from Iwofe landing site were examined, forty six (46) fishes were infected with a prevalence of 68%, Pomadasys perotetei had (96.7%), Pomadasys jubelini had (57.1%), Clarias arius had (50%) and none was also isolated from Mugil curema. During the period of study no Elopidae was found in this station, samples were obtained only from Haemulidae. The fishermen said they do not always have that catch because of the kind of net they use in fishing the morphology of the Cymothoid parasites of Haemulidae and Elopidae and the sampling sites was Iwofe water side . The isolated parasite that was collected was Cymothoid parasites and they Cymothoid sodwana, Cymothoid pleibeia, Cymothoid spp1, Cymothoid spp2, Nerocila acuminata, Nerocila lomatia and Nerocila orbignyi. The physical chemical parameters of the water was analyzed and the result showed that there was a significant difference in salinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) across the sampling stations. Pomadasyidae had a higher prevalence of isopods than the other fish hosts and more than one type of parasite was found in the mouth while Elopidae had the parasite on their fins and body wall and none was recorded in the mouth. The cephalon, pereomeres, pleomeres, pleotelson, eyes and marsupium was different in the Cymothoids studied. The parasite also affected the condition of the fish.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[31] viXra:1912.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:20:24

Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Among Gastritis Patients Attending Nemba District Hospital

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Ange Yvette Uwitonze, Yvonne Manizabayo, Thierry Habyarimana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a small, spiral-shaped bacterium that lives in the surface of the stomach and duodenum. More than half of the world’s population is colonized with H. pylori in the gastric mucosa which is the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and also the most important etiological factor responsible for the duodenal and gastric ulcer and has an important role in the pathogenesis leading to gastric cancer. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients at Nemba district hospital, to compare sex prevalence level of H. pylori among gastritis patients and determine the prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients according to the age of gastritis patients. Methods: This study involved 140 patients with gastritis who attended Nemba district hospital from August to October 2018. The samples were collected and H. pylori rapid test strip was performed for all patients to diagnose H. pylori among gastritis patients. Results: Findings of the study showed that the prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be significantly high among female participants than male participants. Despite high prevalence in females, the findings showed that there was no statistical significance of sex with H. pylori infection (χ2 = 0.6 and p > 0.05, p = 0.1). On basis of age, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be high among participants and the prevalence increase between young age and old age. Results show that there was statistical significance between age and H. pylori infection with χ2 = 1.2 and p > 0.05, p = 0.04. the group of individuals with that ≥ 45 years old were more affected compared to other age groups and the prevalence of H. pylori infection was increased in older patients than younger patients. Our study showed an overall prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients was (45.7% n = 140). Conclusion: H. pylori infection is terrible burden of public health and affect people of all age and sex. H. pylori infection was significantly high in females and significance was found in age group of patients. Number of people are carrier of this terrible bacterium, thus hospitals are recommended to carry out early diagnosis to avoid later complication of infection.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[30] viXra:1912.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 07:22:50

The Cosmological Redshift Falsifies Special Relativity

Authors: Dino Bruniera
Comments: The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-2 and Italian, pages 3-4

The observations show that the apparent brightness of the celestial objects with high redshift, is lower than that expected, that is calculated considering the cosmological redshift as an indicator of the expansion of space. Which shows, of course, that it cannot be this indicator. So, since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the proof that it is not so, falsifies Special Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:1912.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 09:25:07

Quantum Matrix Product Operators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

In quantum physics, scrambling is the dispersal of quantum information across a complex quantum system, such as chaotic quantum many-body systems. [28] At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1912.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 09:50:07

Cardiac Interferometry Diagnose

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

A new imaging technique developed by Biwei Yin and interdisciplinary researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School in the U.S., provides resolution at the subcellular-level to image the heart's vascular system. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27] viXra:1912.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 11:50:41

Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function Within the Critical Strip and Off the Critical Line

Authors: Jonathan W. Tooker
Comments: 22 Pages. 1 color figure

In a recent paper, the author demonstrated the existence of real numbers in the neighborhood of infinity. It was shown that the Riemann zeta function has non-trivial zeros in the neighborhood of infinity but none of those zeros lie within the critical strip. While the Riemann hypothesis only asks about non-trivial zeros off the critical line, it is also an open question of interest whether or not there are any zeros off the critical line yet still within the critical strip. In this paper, we show that the Riemann zeta function does have non-trivial zeros of this variety. The method used to prove the main theorem is only the ordinary analysis of holomorphic functions. After giving a brief review of numbers in the neighborhood of infinity, we use Robinson's non-standard analysis and Eulerian infinitesimal analysis to examine the behavior of zeta on an infinitesimal neighborhood of the north pole of the Riemann sphere. After developing the most relevant features via infinitesimal analysis, we will proceed to prove the main result via standard analysis on the Cartesian complex plane without reference to infinitesimals.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[26] viXra:1912.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 13:53:35

3n+1 Problem for a Number Which Never Land

Authors: BOUARFAOUI Saïd
Comments: 8 Pages. Some studies on the 3n+1 problem

In the present paper, we study the 3n+1 problem to know if there is a theoretical number such as the number never land on the cycle {4;2;1}and grows continually.We will specify the general formula such as the number of uneven steps (3��+1)and even steps (��/2)are equals.We want to know also the uneven number form 2^��+2^0 and its composition during ��uneven (3��+1)and even steps (��/2).The composition number 2��+20will be viewed in two ways :1. When the powers which compose the numbers are expanded. We will recognize the Pascal’s triangle.2. When the powers which compose the numbers are agglutinate. We will recognize (3^��) in base 2.
Category: Number Theory

[25] viXra:1912.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 14:14:55

Effective Asteroid Deflection Through Impulsive Influence by the Use of a High-Thrust Plasma-Propulsion Driven Platform

Authors: Danny Kirmse
Comments: 5 Pages.

One of the most significant threats from outer space is a massive celestial object with a path crossing the earth’s solar orbit. It is obvious; from a statistic point of view such an event will be rather unlikely. But it can happen, and the consequences would be dramatic. A threat is always scaled by probability and effect. And in sum it is worth to be prepared, when the probability may be low but the potential expected effect is an extensive destruction of human habitat. In general, there are two different opportunities to impact an asteroid and its orbit. One way is to try to destroy the whole asteroid by conventional or even nuclear explosives. But this procedure involves the risk that the number and sizes of the resulting pieces of the asteroid and their trajectories are almost not calculable. Therefore, it is unpredictable if one is decreasing the risk of an earth impact or even increasing it. The other way is to deflect the orbit of the asteroid and to prevent hereby a crossing with the solar orbit of the earth. Without assessing the chance of success, it seems clear that the approach of deflecting will at least not increase the threat compared with the one of destruction.
Category: Classical Physics

[24] viXra:1912.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 14:28:34

Refutation of Abstract Argumentation and the Rational Man

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the rational man in abstract argumentation. It is not tautologous, hence refuting its bounded rationality in choice. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[23] viXra:1912.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 14:49:00

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections. Vii

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 100 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Mathematical Physics

[22] viXra:1912.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 16:04:37

Kryptos - Hidden Hill Cipher

Authors: Robert Mereau
Comments: 23 Pages.

This paper is intended to provide support for those working to solve Kryptos. The hope is that the content, be it in part or complete, contains novel discoveries and mechanics that can assist the greater communities development of new approaches.
Category: General Mathematics

[21] viXra:1912.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 21:06:56

Refutation of Axiomatisability of the Class of Monolithic Groups in Nilpotent Groups

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate main theorem of the paper which is not tautologous, refuting the conjecture of axiomatisability of the class of monolithic groups in a variety of nilpotent groups. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[20] viXra:1912.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-03 16:08:59

Electric Field and Divergence Theorem

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The divergence theorem states that the surface integral of the flux is equal to the volume integral of the divergence of the flux. This is not true if there is singularity in the volume integral. One example is the electric field flux described by Coulomb's law. Another example is the gravitational force. Consequently, Gauss's flux theorem is not applicable to the divergence of the electric field.
Category: Classical Physics

[19] viXra:1912.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 23:30:36

Le Politique le Vrai Projet Militaire

Authors: Rachid ELAÏDI
Comments: 105 Pages.

Egypte, Soudan, Algéeie...en est une illustration de projet militaire dont le politique est l'élement à définir. il s'agit d'un dialogue politique d'un autre temps
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1912.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 01:20:45

Agriculture 4.0

Authors: Diego Liberati
Comments: 3 Pages.

principles and actions mutuated from Industry 4.0 are trensposed and implemented to agriculture
Category: Economics and Finance

[17] viXra:1912.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 02:09:15

Critical Mass (The End of General Relativity)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Having dispatched multiple, significant confirmations of General Relativity, it’s time to find out what went wrong and, if possible, fix it. (Spoiler: It can’t be fixed.)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1912.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 02:51:54

Neutrino Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

If it turns out that neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillate in a different way from one another, this may partially account for the present-day matter–antimatter imbalance. [21] Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1912.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 05:50:40

Kareem's Radiation

Authors: Kareem Muhammad
Comments: 2 Pages.

derive the formula which calculate the radiation power of 1 mole of a sodium atoms due to the earth motion around sun
Category: Classical Physics

[14] viXra:1912.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 07:26:24

Nanoscale Solids and Liquids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

How a liquid interacts with the surface of a solid is important in batteries and fuel cells, chemical production, corrosion phenomena, and many biological processes. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Condensed Matter

[13] viXra:1912.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 07:45:15

Controlling Solids with Acoustic Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Physicists from Switzerland, Germany, and France have found that large-amplitude acoustic waves, launched by ultrashort laser pulses, can dynamically manipulate the optical response of semiconductors. [28] Scientists at Princeton University in the US have discovered that a material known as a Weaire-Phelan foam can act as an optical filter. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[12] viXra:1912.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 10:18:48

Лекция презентация: "Механизм и таблицы периодизации химических элементов" (новая система периодизации атомов)

Authors: Райков Александр Геннадьевич
Comments: 11 Pages. Лекция презентация является фрагментом печатного издания "Том Третий"

Настоящее просветительское издание подготовлено для ознакомления широких кругов общественности и научного сообщества с новой системой периодизации химических элементов на основе универсального и всеобъемлющего механизма (закона) причинно-следственной периодичности возникновения, развития и угасания качественно-количественных форм и процессов материи. Периодизация химических элементов (атомов) выполнена на основе разработанного автором принципиально нового операционно-аналитического (математического) аппарата философии диалектического материализма. Лекция презентация является фрагментом печатного издания "Том Третий"
Category: Chemistry

[11] viXra:1912.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 12:35:41

Cosmological Redshift of the Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Cosmological Redshift has typically been calculated an effect of expansion of the universe. Currently there is debate about why the Hubble constant is different depending on the method being used to calculate the Hubble constant. This paper proposes that there are at least three different contributing factors to the cosmological redshift. These are radial redshift for the acceleration of matter in the universe, transverse redshift for the spinning of the universe, and gravitational blue shift for gravitational affects on cosmological light. There are also local affects. Perhaps our area of the universe has a gravitationally bound cosmic structure, and we observe other gravitational bound. There may also be other contributions to the gravitational redshift of the universe. There may be some difficulty in calculating cosmological redshift, because we really don’t know where in the universe we really are.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1912.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 15:49:48

Evidence for the Speed Over the Speed of Light is Equal to Imaginary Quantity

Authors: Kareem Muhammad
Comments: 2 Pages.

evidence For the speed over the speed of light is equal to imaginary quantity by the geometry of conic sections
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[9] viXra:1912.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 16:22:06

QUANTIVITY The Unified Theory of Everything Part 1: Cosmological Constants as Quantized Spacetime Parameters, Vacuum Mass/Energy, and Partial Spacetime Anatomy

Authors: Sam Nassiri
Comments: 9 Pages.

Quantivity covers the fundamental concepts due to high-energy being explored in Special Relativity(SR), General Relativity(GR) Quantum Mechanics (QM) as well as String Theory (ST), and eventually reconciles them. Through our unique reverse engineering approach, we have got the big picture, we have conceptually unraveled the glorious grand design of the Universe. Our theory strongly supports the Holographic model of the universe. We claim that all the objects measurements might be turned into dimensionless frequencies, referred by us as q (or q factor), by using relevant cosmological units. It is further postulated that nature uses the same approach for objects measurements, so these q factors are compatible with each other and are capable of seamlessly being mixed with each other in any desired equation. Additionally, we strongly confirm the existence of the hidden world as mentioned in the literature, which simultaneously communicates with our visible world. While SR and GR address our visible world, and QM addresses the hidden world, QUANTIVITY addresses both. We have a comprehensive set of findings that will be published in multiple articles. In this article, as the first article of series of our articles, we concentrate on showing that the Spacetime is quantized, by deriving its grain size, rigorously, employing the previously known constants, which then consequently reveals its inverse as the number of Spacetime grains. Going into deeper discussions, we will show that, this fixed expansion of Spacetime is due to a special built-in mechanism that inflated its size vertically, due to high builtin velocity (i.e., c) and small rest mass (i.e., vacuum pos/neg masses), causing the Spacetime excitation with high frequency (coined by us as qmax, see Fig. 1). Additionally, said Spacetime inflation has caused a series of resource shortages, making objects to obey a resource sharing scheme for resources including energy, mass, space, and time. This concept might be considered as the propagation of resources, in the (vertical) Time, additional to their propagation in the (horizontal) Space. The value of this intrinsic qmax with the value of its inverse partner (qmin, as a pair of dimensionless constants) is the glorious set of numbers: 10±38.6308177. This pair behaves similar to the parameters of a balloon, wherein the size of its inflated space competes with its thickness. Further, we show that this pair of constants are being used everywhere as ultimate sizes, as well as addressing the following issues: (1) the long being sought for Cosmological Constant, (2) the ratio between the Strong Force and the Gravitational Force, (3), and the reason behind the so-called Gravity leak and/or possibly the presence of Dark Matter/Energy. Additionally, in this and our future articles we make interesting conclusions, including a postulate stating that length and space (after redefinition of space) are inverses of each other, and the time dilation, as well as the space dilation (i.e., the length contraction), lead to extreme light motion traversing the whole Spacetime almost instantly, without violating the SR’s 2nd postulate.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1912.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 17:34:29

On Four Velocity and Four Momentum

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 6 Pages.

We derive in this article that the four dot product between two arbitrary velocities is less than the square of the speed of light in vacuum and the product of two four momenta is less than the product of the two masses involved and the square of the speed of light[in vacuuo].Based on these results we strive to show a contradiction. Flat spacetime has been considered.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1912.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 01:47:59

Gravitational Waves Debunked

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Applying the Natural Mechanics model (Taylor M 2019 Natural Mechanics http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294) to describe the decay of Binary quasar systems - necessary to forge a consensus among astrophysicists
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1912.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-08 13:11:29

The Equation of a Wave in Space of the Absolute Frame of Reference Уравнение волны в ГП

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 24 pages in Russian, A4

This work is devoted to the equations of propagation of harmonic waves in one of the ISOS of space–time, which can be taken as ASO for waves. The equations of wave propagation in the case of infinite, dimensionless spaces, cyclic and mixed spaces are derived. A practical physical model for the application (use) of the equations is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, three–dimensional) medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "continuous" me-dium is located can be taken as an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an ab-solute inertial frame of reference, but for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, it is a real Galilean AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate at only one particular speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its exist-ence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object it-self determines the AISO. Galilean space with embedded AISO allows the determination of aIso pa-rameters using wave standards. Данная работа посвящена уравнениям распространения гармонических волн в одном из ИСО пространства–времени, которое можно принять как АСО для волн. Выведены уравнения распространения волн в случае бесконечных, неограниченных размерами пространств, циклических (одно направление) и смешанных пространств. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) уравнений является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, трердая) среда, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "сплошная" среда, можно принять как пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, но для распространяющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АИСО. Волна в среде в галилеевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АИСО. Галилеево пространство с вложенной в нее АИСО допускает определение пара-метров АИСО с использованием волновых эталонов.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1912.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 02:27:47

Power Transmission Via Wire Antennas Inside Metal Case

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang
Comments: 5 Pages.

A power transfer system is designed with wire antennas inside a metal case. There are two wire antennas namely transmitter and receiver. The metal case is connected to the ground and it serves as a third electrode between transmitter and receiver. The metal case also shields the radiation from antennas to outer space. The reflected impedance to the transmitter is reduced due to the interference with the metal case.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1912.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-06 02:25:29

Searching for Waves in the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations - The Adventure

Authors: Aubery D.
Comments: 29 Pages.

This article traces a journey of discovery undertaken to search for wave phenomena in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. From the early days of my interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) used for consulting purposes, and the use of various commercial solvers eventually leading to research programs, at a number of universities, spanning a number of years. It reviews research programs at Dortmund University (Dortmund, Germany), and this author’s post-graduate study at Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok, Thailand). During the latter, it was noticed that flow solutions became unstable when certain combinations of parameters were used - especially when real-life density and viscosity were used. Clarity was needed. This author had a perception that this research could lead to an understanding of the turbulence phenomenon, Tensor calculus was used to understand the macro nature of the NS Equations, and to place them firmly into the family of wave equations. My research continued in private for some 15 years, with the occasional presentation of findings at conferences, and an internet blog. In recent months major breakthroughs have been made, and now the evidence for wave phenomena is convincingly demonstrated.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[3] viXra:1912.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-03 18:41:09

Nullification of Relativity Theory Via the Sufficiency of the Galilean Velocity Transformation

Authors: John Lawrence Duval
Comments: 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1912.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 07:44:01

Refutation of the Quaternion Based on Its Implication Truth Table

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the standard definition of the quaternion as four equations to produce its multiplication table. We then derive the implication table for the quaternion which is not tautologous, and hence refutes the quaternion. This result forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Algebra

[1] viXra:1912.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 08:14:59

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections. vi

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 136 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Mathematical Physics