Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Robert R. Caldwell, Marc Kamionkowski, and Nevin N. Weinberg, wrote a paper Phantom Energy and Cosmic Doomsday (1). They wrote an equation for the expiration date of the universe and used an example where the expiration date of the universe is 22 billion years. In spinning sphere theory, matter is created by imperfections forming in the universe. The imperfections are absence defects similar to Shottky defects in material science.(2) It is proposed that repulsive gravity pushes on these defects out to the edge of the universe. During that time of travel to the edge of the universe, stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters are formed and age. Over 22 billion years, the edge of the universe is reached and all matter goes into non-existence. New matter is continually formed on the interior of the universe. Old matter is destroyed at the edge of the universe. The following paper shows the equation for calculating the amount of time it takes for matter to be pushed out of the universe by repulsive gravity. In spinning sphere theory, the universe is about 3.018 billion light years in radius. If were to use the Hubble sphere radius of 13.8 billion years, the cosmic doomsday would be about 97.5 billion light years.
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