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1706 Submissions

[413] viXra:1706.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 13:08:02

Neutron Stars GPS

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[412] viXra:1706.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 15:05:28

Cyclic Universe E8 SymmetryTheory Predicts Early Supermassive Black Holes Were Filled Entirely With Dark Matter Higgs Particles Having Negative Mc^2

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: The recent success of cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory in predicting the ordinary and total positive mc^2 matter density of the universe is now followed by the prediction that early super massive black holes were filled entirely with dark matter H particles
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[411] viXra:1706.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 11:04:20

Quaternion Dynamics - Part 3, Pentuple Inversion

Authors: Gary D. Simpson
Comments: 11 Pages.

This text continues the development of pentuples begun in Part – 2 of these works. Matrix formulations are presented that are easily inverted. The presentation of a pentuple is similar to the form of a quaternion. A functionality is presented in Equation 4.2 that mimics wave-function collapse. Octonion multiplication is shown to be very similar irrespective of whether the complex i commutes normally or anti-commutes.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[410] viXra:1706.0571 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-31 11:41:52

Directional Control of Weight Forces in Rotating Bodies

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

The frame-dragging effect tells us that when a body rotates around itself the metric of spacetime around its surface is dragged. This occurs, for example, in the metric of the spacetime around the Earth surface, and produces the well-known phenomenon of shifting of the orbits of the satellites near the Earth. Such as the orbits of the satellites, the force lines of the gravitational field produced by rotating bodies are also affected by the frame-dragging effect. This means that the direction of a gravitational central force in a rotating body should be radially displaced, in respect to their initial position. In this work, we show that the radial displacement angle depends on the angular velocity of the rotating body, and that this fact point to the possibility of controlling the direction of these gravitational central forces, simply by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[409] viXra:1706.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 12:07:02

Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers from Disney Research, Pixar Animation Studios, and the University of California, Santa Barbara have developed a new technology based on artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning that eliminates this noise and thereby enables production-quality rendering at much faster speeds. [19] Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that they have developed an artificial synapse capable of simulating a fundamental function of our nervous system— the release of inhibitory and stimulatory signals from the same "pre-synaptic" terminal. [18] Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[408] viXra:1706.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 07:12:56

Boltzmann Constant Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

By measuring the random jiggling motion of electrons in a resistor, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have contributed to accurate new measurements of the Boltzmann constant, a fundamental scientific value that relates the energy of a system to its temperature. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[407] viXra:1706.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 07:18:06

Defining Atmospheric Depth in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The depth of a star’s atmosphere is defined in stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[406] viXra:1706.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 08:12:32

Black Holes Create Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[405] viXra:1706.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 08:58:40

A Hyperelastic-Boundary-Element Based Surgical-Simulator for Training Surgeons in a Few Eye-Hand-Coordination Tasks Related to Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Kirana Kumara P
Comments: 8 Pages. This is the complete specification for the application filed for Indian patent (the patent application filed on June 28, 2017; application number: 201741022553).

The present invention relates to a surgical simulator that may be used to train surgeons in a few tasks related to minimally invasive surgery. To be specific, the simulator can be used to train surgeons in the following tasks: eye-hand coordination, poking the computer model of a liver or a kidney on a computer screen while the deformation is observed on the screen. The simulator makes use of hyperelastic boundary-elements. Moreover, the simulator makes use of the hyperelastic boundary-element-codes developed by this inventor. The simulator consists of a computer screen, a keyboard, a mouse, and a multi-core CPU. The mouse pointer (on the computer screen) represents the tip of a surgical tool. The simulator would include the three-dimensional geometry (3D computer model) of representative human kidney and human liver. The simulator has provisions for detecting the collision between the 3D model of the liver or the kidney on the screen and the mouse pointer (tip of the surgical tool) on the screen. In addition, the simulator has provisions for interactively displaying the deformed shape of the liver or the kidney on the screen, depending on the position of the mouse pointer (tip of the surgical tool) on the screen. This patent application uses many sentences from the same inventor’s another invention titled “A surgical simulator for training surgeons in a few tasks related to minimally invasive surgery” (Indian patent application number: 201641031739, date of filing: September 17, 2016). However, the two inventions are based on two different technologies; the present invention is based on hyperelastic boundary-elements whereas the earlier invention is based on linear elastostatic boundary-elements. Moreover, the two inventions are two different and independent products. Neither of the inventions may be thought to be an improvement of the other. Of course, although they are two different products, they cater to the same customer group. Which of the two products is going to be more successful depends on whether the customer prefers the present invention or the previous invention; after selling sufficient number of products one can know which of the products is more successful. At least, extensive testing/validation is required before one can know which of the inventions is the better product.
Category: Physics of Biology

[404] viXra:1706.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 08:54:20

Momentum Paradox of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[403] viXra:1706.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 09:25:16

Probability Dynamics

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I search to obtain the general dynamic for a probabilistic system
Category: Classical Physics

[402] viXra:1706.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 10:17:26

Hybrid Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A discovery of how to control and transfer spinning electrons paves the way for novel hybrid devices that could outperform existing semiconductor electronics. In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers at Linköping University in Sweden demonstrate how to combine a commonly used semiconductor with a topological insulator, a recently discovered state of matter with unique electrical properties. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[401] viXra:1706.0561 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-21 05:48:00

Quantum Weirdness and Living Systems: A Personal Perspective

Authors: Edward J Steele
Comments: 11 Pages.

Two related issues are discussed from the point of view of a molecular-cellular immunologist of 47 years standing. The author began training as a scientist at Adelaide University in the late 1960s. Initial interests were in Immunochemistry and in antibody-mediated mechanisms involving Secretory IgA of intestinal protection against infectious diseases (Cholera). Later, in post-doctoral studies this matured through Autoimmune mechanisms to molecular mechanisms of Somatic Hypermutation in antibody diversification and immunity, and more recently in Genomics, Evolution and Cancer. Part and parcel of this thinking led to the emergence of non-Darwinian (Lamarckian) evolutionary soma-to-germline mechanisms of evolutionary progress and adaptation. More recently, he has fully accepted the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H-W) Cosmic Biology Paradigm (1970s -> ) because it is, in his opinion, a correct and precise overarching theory to explain and understand the origin of, and further evolution of, life on Earth and thus throughout the Cosmos. All other theories of Life on Earth need to play second fiddle to H-W theory and its subsidiary explanations. So this paper takes H-W thinking about life in the Universe into two further domains, both of which can indeed be studied here and now on Earth in a rigorous manner. Thus after 47 years publishing in conventional refereed journals and books, the author confronts the two big issues at the interface between Biology and Physics. He is convinced they will increasingly dominate thinking as the 21st century unfolds: a) Quantum Weirdness and Living Systems, b) Biological Transmutation (or "Cold Fusion" in Biology). Both these topics are related. Both evoke strong emotional and intellectual reactions. Both need to be confronted in a cool and rational way. Normally Physicists have purchased a mortgage on all types of rational discussions in this domain - with very few (if any) biologists daring to tread on this sacred physical ground. So I am now daring to tread into the assumed generality of Quantum Mechanics. I do this from the point of view of the biological experiences and historical perspective of the author just outlined. There will be no mathematics, just discussion and arguments in plain English prose. This essay arose when I finally addressed the question - "What do I have to lose in a reputational sense from confronting such issues"? My answer - absolutely nothing. At least nothing that is important to me at my age and stage in life.
Category: Physics of Biology

[400] viXra:1706.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 06:28:20

Solar Turbulence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists from India and Portugal recreated solar turbulence on a tabletop using a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse to excite a hot, dense plasma and followed the evolution of the giant magnetic field generated by the plasma dynamics. [19] You can't see them, but swarms of electrons are buzzing through the magnetic environment—the magnetosphere—around Earth. [18] When NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale—or MMS—mission was launched, the scientists knew it would answer questions fundamental to the nature of our universe—and MMS hasn't disappointed. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11]
Category: Astrophysics

[399] viXra:1706.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 13:12:24

The Sequence: Z(n+1)=(2+sqrt(3)+i)exp(-Z(n))

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this note we briefly explore the sequence: z(n+1)=(2+sqrt(3)+i)exp(-z(n)),z(1)=0,i=sqrt(-1),n natural number.
Category: General Mathematics

[398] viXra:1706.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 18:58:47

Allais Effect: What if Gravity Was Pushing?

Authors: Antonio Iovane
Comments: 1 Page.

Not that this is my point (*), but I propose for speculation.
Category: Classical Physics

[397] viXra:1706.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:02:24

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is a source of zinc used in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 23.18% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly decreased by 3.70%, 4.13%, and 6.13%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was increased by 4.21% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control sample was found at 512 cm-1, whereas it was significantly shifted upward to 520 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 197.6 nm and 197.1 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting temperature was decreased by 0.22%, while decomposition temperature was increased by 2.56% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (320.44 J/g) was significantly decreased by 16.70% compared with the control sample (284.67 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (952.53 J/g) was significantly increased by 122.61% compared with the control sample (427.90 J/g). Thus, the results indicated that the thermal stability of the treated zinc chloride was improved compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a thermally stable new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[396] viXra:1706.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:03:04

Influence of the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on Physicochemical, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a well-known traditional medicinal herb and its root extract have a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study aimed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physicochemical, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size distribution values of the treated sample at d10, and d50 were increased by 16.94% and 8.01%, respectively, whereas at d90 particle size value was decreased by 7.02% compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was decreased by 4.17% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.2 nm. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 1.13% in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. Similarly, the DTG analysis revealed that the maximum thermal degradation temperature in the treated sample was increased by 0.14% compared to the control the sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the vaporization temperature and the latent heat of vaporization of the treated sample were increased by 1.45% and 11.30%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, onset, peak, endset melting temperature and the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample were significantly increased by 18.90%, 18.86%, 20.18%, and 511.11%, respectively compared to the control sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[395] viXra:1706.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:03:57

Influence of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an important nutraceutical/pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed a significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -34.41% to 33.27% compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 7.85% compared with the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly reduced by 4.72%, 8.40%, and 32.33%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6.25% compared to the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 886 cm-1 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 204.6 and 204.9 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced significantly by 5.64% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (94.63°C) had very close vaporization temperature than the control sample (94.97°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was increased significantly in the treated sample by 7.06% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[394] viXra:1706.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:04:31

Evaluation of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very useful herbal medicine since from ancient time. The current study designed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural properties of the ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while other part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area % at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.3, 5.5, 6.4, 6.5, 6.8, 6.9, 7.1, 7.3, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.8, 9.0, 9.1, and 10.1 minutes were significantly reduced by 0.57% to 38.10% compared to the control sample. In addition, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.7, 6.7, and 8.1 minutes were significantly increased by 16.00%, 244.44% and 19.62%, respectively compared with the control sample. A total of 21 withanolides such as withanoside IV, coagulin Q, viscosa lactone B, withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A and withanolide sulfoxide, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, withanolide B, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 783, 569, 621, 489, 473, 767, 471, 505, 992, and 455 at retention times of 6.4, 6.5, 6.8, 7.1, 7.9, 8.1, 8.4, 9.1, and 10.1 minutes with the help of GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. There were significant changes observed in the peak intensity values at the same retention time in the Biofield Energy Treated sample in the range of -75.32% to 108.51% compared with the control sample. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[393] viXra:1706.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 03:05:52

Scalable Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[392] viXra:1706.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 03:09:09

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion {File Closing Version+2} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1] (please see the addendum of [1] as well).
Category: Statistics

[391] viXra:1706.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 11:54:34

Repulsive Van der Waals Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Van der Waals interactions between molecules are among the most important forces in biology, physics, and chemistry, as they determine the properties and physical behavior of many materials. [17] Physicists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the very weak van der Waals forces between individual atoms for the first time. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[390] viXra:1706.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 12:58:28

The Universal Unit of Time, the Age of the Universe and the Exact Calculation of the Gravitational Constant G

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is hypothesised that the Universe is not only expanding in space, but also in time (i.e. time slows down as the Universe ages). A new universal unit of time, acting as a scaling factor for the Universe, is proposed. An equation to calculate the age of the Universe and an equation to calculate the exact value of the gravitational constant G from the other fundamental constants are introduced. This hypothesis opens the way to the development of a new cosmological model and the unification of quantum mechanics with general relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[389] viXra:1706.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 13:02:16

Multi-Colored Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[388] viXra:1706.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 13:16:36

What Does it Mean to be “THE SAME”? a Biological Variant of the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Raquel del Moral, Pedro C Marijuan
Comments: 10 Pages.

A unifying principle underlies the organization of physical and biological systems. It relates to a well-known topological theorem which succinctly states that an activity on a planar circumference projects to two activities with “matching description” into a sphere. Here we ask: What does “matching description” mean? Has it something to do with “identity”? Going through different formulations of the principle of identity, we describe diverse possible meanings of the term “matching description”. We demonstrate that the concepts of “sameness”, “equality”, “belonging together” stand for intertwined levels with mutual interactions. By showing that “matching” description is a very general and malleable concept, we provide a novel testable approach to “identity” that yields helpful insights into physical and biological matters. Indeed, we illustrate how a novel mathematical approach derived from the Borsuk-Ulam theorem, termed bio-BUT, might explain the astonishing biological “multiplicity from identity” of evolving living beings as well as the logic of their intricate biochemical arrangements.
Category: Topology

[387] viXra:1706.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 14:30:30

Measurable Quantum Fingerprint

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers working in Singapore and the United States have discovered that all entangled states of two particles have a classical 'fingerprint'. This breakthrough could help engineers guard against errors and devices that don't do what they promise in quantum computing and quantum cryptography. [10] Quantum superposition has been used to compare data from two different sources more efficiently than is possible, even in principle, on a conventional computer. The scheme is called "quantum fingerprinting" and has been demonstrated by physicists in China. It could ultimately lead to better large-scale integrated circuits and more energy-efficient communication. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[386] viXra:1706.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 15:31:47

Derivation of a Transport Flux from the Fokker-Planck Equation

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 3 Pages.

DERIVATION OF A TRANSPORT FLUX FROM THE FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION AND WHERE SUCH A CURRENT DENSITY HAS FOUND APPLICATION
Category: Classical Physics

[385] viXra:1706.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 17:37:05

Spatial Segregation by Income

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 83 Pages.

Socio‐Economic Inequality [SEI] has been of fundamental importance in the birth and evolution of human societies. In essence, it alludes to the different distribution of rights and obligations [and the legitimacy of such distribution/differences] in each society. It is therefore inextricably related to Article 01 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Within the possible forms of SEI, in this text we focus on revising the one that implies the segregation in the urban space of the inhabitants according to their levels of income, usually designated as Spatial Segregation by Income [SSI]. Individualized study of SSI is interesting for architects because it is possible to act on it from almost all scales of architects’ work. From codes that regulate cities to small scale residential projects, through urban plans and different sizes of urban transformations. Our objective with this text is to propose easy indicators and procedure for assessing SSI in urban areas, so usual urban transformations can be designed in a way that always directs our cities towards optimum levels of SSI. Previously, we briefly review the state of the art in Inequality and Segregation, differentiating between general issues regarding SEI and specific issues of Space Segregation. This will allow us to know when it is necessary acting in the urban planning/architectural field and when it is more convenient to implement another type of strategies [mostly political] as limiting housing speculation; improving corporate governance; redistributive policies... Additionally, we use herein explained indicators to review 11 Spanish cities, both to validate indicators’ design and to obtain an overview of current state of Spatial Segregation by Income in Spain. This analysis allows us to propose some strategies to improve Spanish cities’ current situation and prevent non‐desired scenarios in the future.
Category: Social Science

[384] viXra:1706.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 23:55:17

The Max Nature Number

Authors: Liu Ran
Comments: 6 Pages.

Thank ancient philosopher Zeno, who brought such an interesting and meaningful paradox. It imply that the limit is reachable. Then we can deduct the infinity is about 618724203×10^26,
Category: Number Theory

[383] viXra:1706.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 01:01:09

Multifaceted Approaches to a Berkeley Problem: Part 1

Authors: Kohji Suzuki
Comments: 12 Pages.

We solve a Berkeley problem in several ways.
Category: General Mathematics

[382] viXra:1706.0541 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-16 03:11:43

"Black Hole" or "Black" Hole?

Authors: BuMe Rang
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Simple theory of "Black" Hole
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[381] viXra:1706.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 01:24:22

Creation of a Time Beam (Version 2) Issn 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Novel Technique to Create a Positive or/ and Negative Time Beam.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[380] viXra:1706.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 03:48:44

Quantum Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Liverpool have made a huge step forwards towards building a novel experiment to probe the "dark contents" of the vacuum. [31] Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe. [30] Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[379] viXra:1706.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:25:15

Quantum Communication Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Quantum physic can guarantee that a message has not be intercepted before reaching its destination. [23] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[378] viXra:1706.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:37:08

Impact on the Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of Zinc Chloride after Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important inorganic compound used as a source of zinc in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 16.31% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 were significantly decreased by 11.54%, 7.75%, and 1.34%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 8.36% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in both the control and treated samples were found at 516 cm-1. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 196.6 nm and 196.4 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were increased by 1.25% and 0.21%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (434.97 J/g) was significantly increased by 84.74% compared with the control sample (235.45 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (1241.86 J/g) was significantly increased by 307.21% compared with the control sample (304.97 J/g). So, the treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a thermally more stable new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[377] viXra:1706.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:37:52

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate After the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate was considered for the current study, which is an important nutrient used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, etc. The objective of the current study was to examine the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on the physico-chemical, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate sample was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and termed as the treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the crystallite size of the treated sample significantly altered in the range of -50.01% to 59.97% compared to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.32% compared with the control sample. The PSD analysis indicated that the particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were increased by 6.84%, 8.04%, and 3.04%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly decreased by 7.41% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 887 and 888 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching in the control and treated sample, respectively. The wavelength of maximum absorbance from the UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (205.2 nm) was increased by 0.39% compared to the control sample (204.4 nm). The TGA analysis revealed the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly reduced by 12.63% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the vaporization temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (95.14°C) was increased compared to the control sample (94.28°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was decreased significantly in the treated sample by 43.67% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate would be helpful for designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations against immunological disorders, inflammatory diseases, aging, stress, infectious diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[376] viXra:1706.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:38:34

Characterization of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate: An Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is a source of an essential nutrient selenium used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, heart diseases, viral diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, etc. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the physico-chemical, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control/untreated sample, while another part was treated with Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the treated sample. The PXRD diffractograms showed sharp and intense peaks in both the samples, indicated both the samples were crystalline in nature. The crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly altered in the range of -16.66% to 50.07% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 9.57% compared to the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly increased by 9.47%, 19.06%, and 27.81%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.16% compared to the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 888 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching. The wavelength of the maximum absorbance of the control and Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate were at 206.3 nm and 205.9 nm, respectively in UV-vis spectroscopy. TGA analysis indicated that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 0.71% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the vaporization temperature of the treated sample (94.97°C) was slightly decreased compared to the control sample (95.30°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was significantly increased in the treated sample by 45.31% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations which might offer a better therapeutic response against cancer, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, heart diseases, viral diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[375] viXra:1706.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:39:26

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate: Influence of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an inorganic nutraceutical/pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The current research article was aimed to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, spectral, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample which was received The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers. A significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample was observed in the range of -42.87% to 39.99% compared to the control sample. Consequently, the average crystallite size was significantly enhanced in the treated sample by 5.07% compared with the control sample. The particle size distribution of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly reduced by 7.68%, 9.49%, and 4.08%, respectively compared with the control sample. Subsequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 8.16% compared with the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra exhibited the sharp and strong vibration bands at 889 cm-1 and 888 cm-1, respectively for Se=O stretching. The control and treated samples displayed the maximum absorbance at 204.9 nm and 204.5 nm, respectively. A significant reduction of total weight loss by 6.11% in the treated sample indicated the improvement of the thermal stability of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The vaporization temperature of the treated sample (95.68°C) was higher with a significant reduced latent heat of vaporization by 60.80% compared to the control sample (95.29°C). Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, dissolution rate, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very suitable to design improved nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic response against several diseases such as stress, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, infectious diseases, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[374] viXra:1706.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:40:06

Characterization of the Physicochemical, Structural, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride After the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is used as a source of zinc in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 16.43% compared with the control sample. The particles size values of the treated sample at d10 was decreased by 2.42%, whereas at d50, and d90 it was increased slightly by 0.43%, and 0.57%, respectively compared to the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was increased by 1.63% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control sample was found at 511 cm-1, whereas it was shifted downward to 508 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 196.4 nm and 196.2 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting temperature was not altered significantly, while the decomposition temperature was increased by 0.45% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (402.09 J/g) was significantly increased by 29.78% compared with the control sample (309.83 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (243.13 J/g) was significantly decreased by 61.18% compared with the control sample (626.37 J/g). This indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample might be improved compared to the control sample. The current study anticipated that the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally more stable compared with the control sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against immunological disorders, inflammatory diseases, stress, aging, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[373] viXra:1706.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 05:07:49

Accurate Expression of the Mass of Charged Leptons and Neutrinos

Authors: Bingzhuo Liu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Through the long-term extensive research on the experimental data of the fundamental physical constants and the mass of elementary particles such as charged leptons and neutrinos, the present study defines the source of "generation" difference generated from leptons, which thereby allows the accurate expression of the lepton mass to be derived. It is particularly important to point out that the data at the best fitting point Δm^2_32= 1.59·10^-3 eV^2 obtained in "Study of the wave packet treatment of neutrino oscillation at Daya Bay" reached an accuracy of 96%.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[372] viXra:1706.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 05:39:25

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion {File Closing Version+1}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1] (please see the addendum of [1] as well).
Category: Number Theory

[371] viXra:1706.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 07:17:33

Distance Measurements with Thermal Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[370] viXra:1706.0529 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-22 04:41:15

On To What In The Contemporary Russia Goes On

Authors: Dainis Zeps
Comments: 47 Pages.

After writing a short note on Russia, in Russian [1], I decided to start a project named Russia. Text mostly in Russian.
Category: Social Science

[369] viXra:1706.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 09:32:55

Dark Energy and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A renewed suggestion that dark energy may not be real—dispensing with 70% of the stuff in the universe—has reignited a longstanding debate. [32] Physicists from the University of Liverpool have made a huge step forwards towards building a novel experiment to probe the "dark contents" of the vacuum. [31] Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe. [30] Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[368] viXra:1706.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 10:15:30

E8 Cohomology and Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cohomology structure of E8 represents realistic E8 Lagrangian Physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[367] viXra:1706.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 10:58:18

Undulating Relativity + § 25 Logarithmic Spiral

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 123 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know: -The dilatation of time, and -The contraction of the Lorentz Length. The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[366] viXra:1706.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 12:02:20

On the a. a. Faus Arxiv Article, the Speed of Gravity: What a Theory Says

Authors: Branko Zivlak
Comments: 6 Pages. 10 formulas

The analysis of A. A. Faus’ article: “The Speed of Gravity: What a Theory Says” [1], showing that A. A. Faus attributed superluminal speeds to the structures that have no gravitational force. The analysis discards A. A. Faus’ formula for superluminal speeds as a mathematical construction which has no rational ground.
Category: Astrophysics

[365] viXra:1706.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 07:44:08

Orbiting Supermassive Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time ever, astronomers at The University of New Mexico say they've been able to observe and measure the orbital motion between two supermassive black holes hundreds of millions of light years from Earth-a discovery more than a decade in the making. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[364] viXra:1706.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 09:17:30

Artificial Synapse for AI

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that they have developed an artificial synapse capable of simulating a fundamental function of our nervous system— the release of inhibitory and stimulatory signals from the same "pre-synaptic" terminal. [18] Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[363] viXra:1706.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 10:09:31

On Interrelation of Time and Entropy

Authors: Leonid M. Martyushev
Comments: 10 Pages.

A measure of time is related to the number of ways by which the human correlates the past and the future for some process. On this basis, a connection between time and entropy (information, Boltzmann-Gibbs, and thermodynamic one) is established. This measure gives time such properties as universality, relativity, directionality, and non-uniformity. A number of issues of the modern science related to the finding of laws describing changes in nature are discussed. A special emphasis is made on the role of evolutionary adaptation of an observer to the surrounding world.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[362] viXra:1706.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 10:03:08

New Frontiers in X-ray Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The ESRF Council, representing the 22 partner nations of the ESRF, gave the green light for the construction and commissioning of four new beamlines from 2018-2022. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[361] viXra:1706.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-01 01:02:15

Think Like a Physicist: a Practical Guide to Spirituality.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 4 Pages.

These notes are written as a practical guideline to get involved in spirituality and to activate your higher senses. The good news is that everybody has them, the bad thing is that some are better in it than others. Just as is the case with ordinary sports, practising it too much or too intensive may not be harmless and due care has to be taken here not to overdo yourself. Most people would perhaps try to utter that this is a paper for witches , but then everybody would be a witch or a wizard. Others would say that I am leading you towards the path of the Devil; alas, it is possible to do many good things with the powers of your mind. Moreover, it is quite easy to get a reliable protection against evil attacks so that one hardly gets into trouble at all.
Category: Mind Science

[360] viXra:1706.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 05:01:07

Complex Biological Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Complex biological processes such as metabolism often involve thousands of compounds coupled by chemical reactions. These process chains are described by researchers as chemical reaction networks. [18] High performance motion detection technology is critical as the 'eyes' of advanced robotic systems for applications including factory management and autonomous machines in home environments. [17] A diagnostic technique that can detect tiny molecules signaling the presence of cancer could be on the horizon. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
Category: Physics of Biology

[359] viXra:1706.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 06:04:46

Neutrons Run Enzyme's Reactivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Researchers from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and North Carolina State University used a combination of X-ray and neutron crystallography to determine the detailed atomic structure of a specialized fungal enzyme. [19] Complex biological processes such as metabolism often involve thousands of compounds coupled by chemical reactions. These process chains are described by researchers as chemical reaction networks. [18] High performance motion detection technology is critical as the 'eyes' of advanced robotic systems for applications including factory management and autonomous machines in home environments. [17] A diagnostic technique that can detect tiny molecules signaling the presence of cancer could be on the horizon. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[358] viXra:1706.0517 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-30 03:39:27

One Visible Neutrinos Aggregation Body

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing an image of a visible neutrinosaggregation body.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[357] viXra:1706.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:36:21

LC-MS and NMR Based Structural Characterization and Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is widely used pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The present study was designed to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples indicated the presence of mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min and fragmentation pattern of both samples were almost identical. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions were significantly altered in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra of the control and treated samples were found same. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 48.87% compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 29.18% compared with the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be helpful to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its altered physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[356] viXra:1706.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:37:05

Study of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important pharmaceutical/nutraceutical mineral for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks were observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample with respect to the control sample. A sharp peak at 2θ equal to 51.45°, which was observed in the control sample was disappeared in the treated sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 2.13% compared with the control sample. The size of the particles at d10, d50, and d90 was decreased by 3.36%, 7.97%, and 11.51%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.69% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control was 646 cm-1, whereas it was significantly shifted downward to 505 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the control and treated samples was at 196.4 nm. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were increased by 0.93% and 0.56%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The enthalpy of fusion of the treated sample (338.27 J/g) was increased significantly by 33.84% compared with the control sample (252.75 J/g). The enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample was increased by 3.78% compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[355] viXra:1706.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:38:01

Evaluation of Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of the Biofield Energy Healing Treated Sodium Selenate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -49.99% to 50.01% compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 0.72% compared with the control sample. Overall, the crystal morphology of the treated sample was different from the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly decreased by 3.71%, 6.72%, and 26.17%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6% from the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 886 cm-1 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 204.8 and 204.9 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 4.93% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (95.10°C) had higher vaporization temperature than the control sample (94.80°C). The latent heat of vaporization was increased significantly in the treated sample by 14.68% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[354] viXra:1706.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:38:47

Effects of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physical, Spectroscopic, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract contains lot of biologically active metabolites, which have a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were decreased by 8.41%, 0.51%, and 7.88%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.3 and 205.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.65% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the onset, peak, and endset vaporization temperature of the treated sample were significantly increased by 41.97%, 23.51%, and 8.82%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The latent heat of vaporization (∆H) of the treated (239.96 J/g) sample was significantly increased by 39.84% compared with the control (171.60 J/g) sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The current findings suggested that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[353] viXra:1706.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:39:34

Characterization of Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of the Consciousness Healing Treated Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a source of zinc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. A sharp peak at 2θ equal to 16.58° was observed in the control sample, but it was disappeared in the treated sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 21.31% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 were significantly decreased by 8.15%, 6.28%, and 5.26%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.14% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample were found at 510 cm-1 and 511 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the control and treated samples was at 196 nm. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were decreased by 0.29% and 0.28%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (370.48 J/g) was increased significantly by 97.71% compared with the control sample (187.39 J/g). This results indicated that zinc chloride need more heat energy to undergo the process of melting after Biofield Energy Treatment. The enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 15.40% compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable and latent heat of fusion compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[352] viXra:1706.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 03:55:57

Clear Local Realism Advances Bell's Ideas, Demystifies QM, Etc.

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 17 Pages.

Negating the classical/quantum divide in line with Bell's hidden-variable ideas, we resolve Bell's ‘action-at-a-distance' dilemma in accord with his hopes. We identify the resultant theory as clear local realism (CLR), the union of Bohr's ‘measurement' insight, Einstein locality and Bell beables. Our method follows: (i) consistent with Bohr's insight, we replace EPR's elements of physical reality with Bell's beables; (ii) we let Bell's beable λ denote a pristine particle's total angular momentum; (iii) validating Malus' Law in our quantum-compatible equivalence relations, we deliver the hopes of Bell and Einstein for a simple constructive model of EPRB; (iv) we then derive the correct results for CHSH and Mermin's version of GHZ; (v) we thus justify EPR's belief that additional variables would bring locality and causality to QM. In short, advancing Bell's ideas in line with his expectations: we amend EPR, resolve Bell's dilemma, negate nonlocality, endorse Einstein's locally-causal Lorentz-invariant worldview, demystify the classical/quantum divide, etc. CLR: clear via Bohr's insight, local via Einstein locality, realistic via Bell beables.
Category: Quantum Physics

[351] viXra:1706.0510 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-24 05:17:16

Preons, Gravity and Black Holes

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 19 Pages. Published in Open Access Library Journal, 4: e3784. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103784

A previous preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is completed to provide a model of Planck scale gravity and black holes. Gravity theory with torsion is introduced in the model. Torsion has been shown to produce an axial-vector field coupled to spinors, in the present case preons, causing an attractive preon-preon interaction. This is assumed to be the leading term of UV gravity. The boson has an estimated mass near the Planck scale. At high enough density it can materialize and become the center of a black hole. Chiral phase preons are proposed to form the horizon with thickness of order of Planck length. Using quantum information theoretic concepts this is seen to lead to an area law of black hole entropy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[350] viXra:1706.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 07:04:52

Bacterial Robotic Vision Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

High performance motion detection technology is critical as the 'eyes' of advanced robotic systems for applications including factory management and autonomous machines in home environments. [17] A diagnostic technique that can detect tiny molecules signaling the presence of cancer could be on the horizon. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[349] viXra:1706.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 07:33:39

3D Matrix Ring with a “Common” Multiplication

Authors: Orgest ZAKA
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, starting from geometrical considerations, he was born with the idea of 3D matrices, which have developed in this article. A problem here was the definition of multiplication, which we have given in analogy with the usual 2D matrices. The goal here is 3D matrices to be a generalization of 2D matrices. Work initially we started with 3×3×3 matrix, and then we extended to m×n×p matrices. In this article, we give the meaning of 3D matrices. We also defined two actions in this set. As a result, in this article, we have reached to present 3-dimensional unitary ring matrices with elements from a field F.
Category: Algebra

[348] viXra:1706.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 22:57:25

Creation of a Time Beam. Issn 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research investigation the author has presented a novel technique of creation of a Time Beam.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[347] viXra:1706.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:34:12

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate has the wide application for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 minutes with almost similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were observed almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the percentage of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly increased in treated sample by 80.38%, compared with the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly increased compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[346] viXra:1706.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:35:20

An Impact of Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 13 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a potent antioxidant used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesia. The current research was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -37.52% to 180.14% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was reduced in the treated sample by 0.11% compared with the control sample. PSD analysis revealed that the particle sizes in the treated sample at d10 and d50 values were significantly decreased by 11.36% and 8.25%, respectively, while the particle size at d90 was increased in the treated sample by 2.43% compared with the control sample. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly increased by 9.54% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed the four steps thermal degradation of the both samples and the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 2.32% compared with the control sample. This result indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was improved compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting temperature of the treated sample (171.05°C) was decreased by 0.17% compared with the control sample (171.34°C). The latent heat of fusion was decreased by 1.16% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[345] viXra:1706.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:36:28

Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min with almost similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) were significantly decreased in the treated sample by 35.97% and 66.77%, respectively compared with the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly reduced compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[344] viXra:1706.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:37:27

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is an organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The objective of the current research work was to examine the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the alteration in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably altered from -63.63% to 80.14% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly reduced by 22.14% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The particle size values in the treated sample at d10 and d50 values were significantly decreased by 4.41% and 8.67% respectively, whereas at d90 value was increased by 3.99% compared to the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.21% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that structure of the magnesium gluconate remained identical in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis shown four steps thermal degradation of both the samples and the total weight loss of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 4.29% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the control and treated samples were 171.02°C and 170.93°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion was significantly increased by 32.33% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA and DSC analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was significantly improved compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable along with improved thermal stability compared with the untreated compound. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[343] viXra:1706.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:38:58

Evaluation of the Impact of the Trivedi Effect® -Energy of Consciousness on the Structure and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a magnesium ion source for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples indicated the presence of mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min and fragmentation pattern of the both sample were almost similar. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions were significantly changed in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were observed almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 17.51% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 79.44% compared to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[342] viXra:1706.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 02:13:08

Simultaneity and Translational Symmetry

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Simultaneity Symmetry

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the same time after moving the same distance. If both stopwatches were started at the same time, there will be no time difference between these two stopwatches after both stopwatches have elapsed the same time. Both stopwatches will continue to show no time difference under identical acceleration. Therefore, both stopwatches show identical time in an accelerating reference frame if both stopwatches were restarted at the same time in a stationary reference frame. Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Translational Symmetry in its motion demonstrates that two simultaneous events in one reference frame should be simultaneous in another reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[341] viXra:1706.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 02:58:55

An Application of Finite Affine Plane of Order $n$, in an Experiment Planning

Authors: Orgest ZAKA, Kristaq FILIPI
Comments: 4 Pages. https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v6i6/ART20174592.pdf

In this paper we present an application possibility of the affine plane of order $n$, in the planning experiment, taking samples as his point. In this case are needed $n^2$ samples. The usefulness of the support of experimental planning in a finite affine plane consists in avoiding the partial repetition combinations within a proof. Reviewed when planning cannot directly drawn over an affine plane. In this case indicated how the problem can be completed, and when completed can he, with intent to drawn on an affine plane.
Category: Geometry

[340] viXra:1706.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 03:22:26

Maxwell's Theory of Electrostatic is the Basis of Mathematics Establishing a Unified Field Equation

Authors: Xiao Jun, Wuanding
Comments: 10 Pages. It is believed that gravitation is a kind of surplus of electric field force, so as to achieve the purpose of unifying gravity and electromagnetic force.

This article is based on the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory ,by the introduction of virtual particle cloud , and strict mathematics and physics verification ,firstly get the conclusion of gravitation field, nuclear power field and weak field all are result of the electrostatic field’s different forms effect, and unify this four field force in an equation. This is the only unified field theory including gravitation at present.
Category: Classical Physics

[339] viXra:1706.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 04:26:24

The Proton Problem & Proton Spin Crisis :The Color Confinement Mathematical Mechanism for the Existence of the Hadrons.

Authors: Yazzed Al-Harbi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Proving that the existence of the hadrons duo to the physical. consequences of the spinning quarks in the Higgs field, creating spherical color charged waves of the Higgs bosons carrying gluons as a function of the Planck length. This model explains and predict all the physical interactions with the expiremental data, QCD, the proton measured values of the radius and the proton spin crisis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[338] viXra:1706.0493 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-27 08:21:04

Building Deductive Networks

Authors: Ameet Sharma
Comments: 9 Pages.

This article builds on ideas in [3]. We propose enhancing journal papers with XML to facilitate the creation of deductive networks[3] (DNs).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[337] viXra:1706.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 04:42:18

Spintronics Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[336] viXra:1706.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 05:46:48

Quantum Cancer Diagnostic

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A diagnostic technique that can detect tiny molecules signalling the presence of cancer could be on the horizon. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[335] viXra:1706.0490 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-10 03:34:43

The Origin of “Dead” Galaxies.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 15 Pages.

The origin of “dead” galaxies according to Quantum FFF Theory, is assumed to be based on very stable external dark matter black hole configuration with a growing internal central dark matter black hole, growing by smaller super nova black hole mergers (not by Fermion merger mass) and absence of neighboring galaxy merger potential. According to Quantum FFF Theory, early Galaxies have growing potential by the number and size of external primordial dark matter black holes initially formed as big bang splinters able to pair into Quasars with stars-galaxies in between the dual black hole hotspots, called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs) which can merge with other galaxy-systems into complex spirals and elliptical. Irregular galaxies and Dwarf galaxies are supposed to be the result of secondary star forming interaction between GABHs after a merging process.. Later after Supernova black hole production these smaller black holes are able to pair as hotspots or “bow shocks” into Herbig Haro open star cluster systems,. If no galaxy merger candidates are available in the neighborhood, the galaxy will soon reach a maximum size and die. Some Elliptic galaxies die also by reaching maximum merger potential. Also according to Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) Theory, all star forming molecular clouds are the result of one or more Herbig Haro systems, equipped with so called dual hotspots which are assumed to be the result of dual new physics “electric dark matter black holes” in contrast with general accepted black hole theories. .
Category: Astrophysics

[334] viXra:1706.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 12:03:10

Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 1 & Basics (in Chinese)

Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin
Comments: 10 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

This article is part 1 in the "Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics", which is to lay the foundation for the full text. First, it should be clearly pointed out that a particle moving at the value c of the light speed in vacuum, its static mass can only be equal to 0, but doesn't exist in reality. Therefore, it is vital that how can we correctly make a distinction between the speed of light in vacuum and that in reality. Then, by the aid of the law of conservation of mass-energy, we know that the energy convergence phenomena of high-speed electrons are the result of the binding energy inside them to be lost gradually in the form of electromagnetic radiation. So, according to the related electromagnetic theories and the kinetics formulas of the special relativity theory, the study concluded that the charge of a moving electron will follow along with its static mass to be lost synchronously, and its charge-mass ratio whose value remains unchanged. Since an electron can be further broken down, then there should be a kind of more fundamental particles, the electro-ultimate particles, which can compose electrons and whose charge-mass ratio should be equal to the electronic physical constant. Besides, if nature's background (ether) is also composed of the electro-ultimate particles, Maxwell's electromagnetic theory should be true. A corollary is that all photons radiating from the electrons in a storage ring are composed of the electro-ultimate particles. Then, combining with de Broglie's matter wave formula, it is pointed out that the energy convergence phenomena of high-speed particles are the primary factor causing the spectrum redshift. And through this formula, the average force suffered by a high-speed particle moving along the direction of its wavelength can be obtained. Thus, according to Newton's third law to make a judgment, the ether must exist. Finally, point out the essence of so-called wave-particle duality: No matter where, as long as there is energy, there must be mass. And vice versa. The two as a unity of opposites present in front of us in the form of wave. They must exist at the same time, carry each other, be short of one cannot. In reality, both values can be close to zero, but never equal to zero.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[333] viXra:1706.0488 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-27 07:52:04

Golden Ratio Axioms for Time and Space

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 23 Pages.

This sequel to “Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics” will more closely examine the process of time as the Golden Ratio equation when applied to space, more than developing electrodynamic wavefunction equations, but setting an axiomatic base for the Golden Ratio as time when applied to space. Through this process we shall derive π, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light, while also confirming through these independent equations the idea of the Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Entanglement. More specifically, three fundamental things to be demonstrated here using the Golden Ratio algorithm of time will be deriving the dipole of magnetism, the electrical monopole field, and their relation to the Golden Ratio in creating the basis for the Fine Structure Constant, charge of the electron, the speed of light, and the subatomic multi-traits of the elementary particles. In confirming the need to explain the reason for the upgraded axioms for time and space, a general criticism of contemporary physics’ current use of space and time and its limitation given the entirely hypothetical nature of the resultant cosmic modelling theory regarding a multiverse and its endless possibilities is presented. The solution to this problem is explained using a more solid definition for time as the Golden Ratio, more thoroughly presented here in the context of the initial paper “Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics” [1]; the first paper was a general overview of the new a-priori for time, while this second paper examines all the generalisations and assumptions presented in the first paper, reaching ultimate theoretical axioms for time in the context of space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[332] viXra:1706.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 07:13:48

Exotic Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[331] viXra:1706.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 07:39:28

Superconductor Quadrupole Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

While the LHC is at the start of a new season of data taking, scientists and engineers around the world are working hard to develop brand new magnets for the LHC upgrade, the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35]
Category: Condensed Matter

[330] viXra:1706.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 08:04:24

Artificial Iris like the Human Eye

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

An artificial iris manufactured from intelligent, light-controlled polymer material can react to incoming light in the same ways as the human eye. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a ground-breaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[329] viXra:1706.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 09:40:51

Electrocaloric Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Researchers have built an electrocaloric refrigerator the size of a beverage coaster that can generate a temperature difference of about 2 K between the hot and cold ends of the device. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a ground-breaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[328] viXra:1706.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 10:21:28

Ferroelectric Domain Wall Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A team of researchers from institutions in Australia, the U.S. and China has developed a functional prototype nonvolatile ferroelectric domain wall memory. [27] Researchers have built an electrocaloric refrigerator the size of a beverage coaster that can generate a temperature difference of about 2 K between the hot and cold ends of the device. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[327] viXra:1706.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 06:11:49

Gravitational Constant of Cubic Lattice Universe

Authors: Tufail Abbas
Comments: 8 Pages.

Starting with the basic assumptions that all physical parameters are properties of a background Cubic Lattice Frame as introduced in paper , “Cubic Lattice Structure of the Universe” this paper discusses the implication of C4 Cubit (or Mass Cubits) on Gravitation Constant. After discussing related concepts of Cubic Lattice Universe, Value of G have been derived as G = H0cRu^2/Mu = 6.674078 x10-11 m3 kg-1 s-1 and G=H0(3/2πcco)(h^2/mo^3) = 6.699946 x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-1, later being not a precise values but very close to accepted value of G which is 6.67408 x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-1. Motivated by this result, the derivation is followed by a subjective narration describing Gravitation as a local anisotropic reactionary force caused due to Hubble Expansion itself. Contrary to current understanding about Hubble Expansion being caused by so called Dark Energy, it is proposed that expansion of Universe is caused by locally anisotropic emission of space by fundamental mass ( i.e.say electron) which travels through the Cubic Lattice to interact and cause isotropic expansion of the Universe, of which Gravitation is a local anisotropic effect.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[326] viXra:1706.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 14:01:08

A Short Monograph on Lightning and the EARTH’S Changing Magnetic Field

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 2 Pages.

Could the changing magnetic field of the earth lead ultimately to more powerful lightning bolts?
Category: Classical Physics

[325] viXra:1706.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 18:25:20

The Search for New Physical Principles a Short Monograph on the Strange Consequences of Zero Inertia

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 2 Pages.

Three very strange consequences of zero inertia are deduced by very simple reasoning.
Category: Classical Physics

[324] viXra:1706.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 18:25:43

Factored Closed-Form Expressions for the Sums of Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

Authors: Kunle Adegoke
Comments: 11 Pages.

We obtain explicit factored closed-form expressions for Fibonacci and Lucas sums of a certain form.
Category: Number Theory

[323] viXra:1706.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:39:13

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Sodium Selenate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is a common ingredient in nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals as a source of selenium. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of The Trivedi Effect® Treated sodium selenate using various analytical methods such as PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, DSC, and TGA. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis of the treated sample showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size in the range of -16.63% to 42.9% compared with the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sodium selenate was increased by 1.01% compared with the control sample. The particle sizes d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 6.14%, 16.56%, and 18.82%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 10.52% compared with the control sample. Both control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 888 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated sodium selenate were at 204.8 and 204.9 nm, respectively. The TGA of the control and treated samples exhibited two steps of thermal degradation, and the total weight loss was slightly increased by 1.16% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The DSC thermograms showed the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was significantly elevated by 6.37% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness (Biofield Energy Healing) might generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which could be more soluble, thermally more stable, and higher absorption rate compared with the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design the various forms of nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceutical formulation which might be providing a better therapeutic response against heart disease (i. e. Atherosclerosis), viral diseases (i. e. Hepatitis), infectious diseases (i. e. Dermatitis, Psoriasis), Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[322] viXra:1706.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:40:09

A Comprehensive Physical, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract possesses a broad range of pharmacological activities. The aim of current study was to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the control and The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10 and d50 of the treated sample were decreased by 4.66% and 6.02% and at d90 slightly increased by 0.99% compared with the control sample. The average surface area of the treated (0.130 m2/g) sample was increased by 4.84% compared with the control (0.124 m2/g) sample. The FT-IR results suggested that the force constant of O-H (stretching), and C-O (stretching) functional groups of the treated sample were reduced compared with the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.4 nm and 205.6 nm, respectively. The TGA thermograms exhibited three steps of the degradation process, and the total weight loss of the treated (86.45%) sample was increased by 1.44% compared with the control (85.22%) sample. The DSC analysis revealed that melting point of the treated (201.67°C) sample was reduced by 0.87% compared with the control (203.43°C) sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated (6.77 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 21.82% compared to the control (8.67 J/g) sample. Hence, the treated sample would be more advantageous for the better therapeutic responses compared to the control sample. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, dissolution, absorption, and bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various forms of pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[321] viXra:1706.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:41:51

Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (Energy of Consciousness) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The LC-MS analysis of the control and treated samples showed a very close retention time (Rt), indicated that the polarity of the phytoconstituents present in the root extract are same. The numbers of peaks observed in the total ion chromatograms were 28 and 29 in the control and treated samples, respectively. The change in the peak height% of the phytoconstituents in the treated sample was altered significantly within the range of -50.91% to 118.12% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the change in the peak area% of most of the phytoconstituents in the treated ashwagandha was significantly altered within the range of -54.95% to 66.95% compared with the control sample. An additional peak was appeared in the treated sample at Rt of 5.72 minutes, which was not found in the control sample. The LC-MS spectra indicated the presence of possible withanolides like -hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-withanolide F, withanolide A, withaferine A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, thiowithanolide, etc. in both the samples. The peak are percentage (%) was altered in the identified withanolides, but withanolide sulfoxide was increased significantly by 12.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. These results indicated that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have an impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract. This could be the probable cause of alteration in the peak height, peak area, and appearance of a new peak in the treated sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, ulcer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[320] viXra:1706.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:43:06

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on Withania Somnifera Root Extract Using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using GC-MS and NMR. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The GC-MS data indicated that the peak height and peak area of The Trivedi Effect® treated sample were found to be altered compared with the control sample. The peak height of the phytoconstituents present in the treated ashwagandha sample was altered significantly in the range of -8.32% to 89.25% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the peak area of the treated sample was altered significantly in the range of -4.28% to 216.30% compared with the control sample. Overall, the change in the peak area% of the treated sample was significantly altered in the range of -18.29% to 170.18% compared with the control sample. The GC-MS and NMR analysis results identified the presence of withanolides such as glyco-withanolides, alkaloids, and sugars in the root extract in both the sample. The peak area of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazine (1), methyl ethyl sulfoxide (2), 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-4(H)pyran-3,4-dione (4), diethoxy-2-methyl-propane (5), 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-tetrahydro-pyran (6), and 3,4-dimethyl-2(3H)-furanone (7) were significantly increased by 170.18%, 58.21%, 7.74%, 139.50%, 23.16%, and 45.63%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of 2-hydroxy--butyrolactone (3) was decreased by -14.96% in the treated ashwagandha compared with the control sample. From the results, it can be hypothesized that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have the impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract and responsible for the alteration in the relative peak height/area of treated sample compared with the control sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents assumed to be increased in treated sample compared with the control sample. This treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[319] viXra:1706.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:44:10

Characterization of Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a potent antioxidant and widely used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesia. The current research was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from -24.96% to 99.98% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 7.79% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. PSD analysis revealed that the particle sizes in The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample at d10, d50/ and d90 values were decreased by 5.36%, 11.35% and 0.90%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly increased by 7.48% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed four steps thermal degradation of both the samples and the total weight loss of Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.12% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis demonstrated that the melting temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (171.29°C) was increased by 0.18% compared with the control sample (170.99°C). The latent heat of fusion was significantly increased by 27.09% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. The Biofield Treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[318] viXra:1706.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 07:02:21

Strange Phenomena in Space-Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Mathematicians have created a new theory that could explain how universal disturbances move through space and time. This field pattern theory could explain how gravitational waves move and answer seemingly unanswerable questions in quantum mechanics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[317] viXra:1706.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 07:55:56

Correlation Between Solar and Seismic Activity: Prognosis of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions Based on Daily Solar Indexes

Authors: A. M. Eigenson
Comments: 55 Pages.

Large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are compared with the epochs of minima of 11-year cycles of solar activity. We use the data from 405 earthquakes with magnitude 7 and more and 71 volcanic eruption during 260 years. Close correlation between years of these terrestrial events and years of minima of solar activity is shown. We also use also daily solar indexes SSp and compare them with terrestrial events, constituting the main novelty of this work. Here we use the data of earthquakes between December 856 and January 2016, as well as data of volcanic eruptions in the same period. We subsequently compare daily indexes SSp during 2016 and 4 months of 2017 with earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. An important results is demonstrated: as soon as solar activity curve begins to go down, on the same day or some days after the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. Evidently, this circumstance could be used for prognosis of these terrestrial events for several days in advance. In all cases considered our prognosis is confirmed. This is the main result of this article.
Category: Geophysics

[316] viXra:1706.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 08:35:27

Quantum Machine Learning Computer Hybrids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Creative Destruction Lab, a technology program affiliated with the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management in Toronto, Canada hopes to nurture numerous quantum learning machine start-ups in only a few years. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[315] viXra:1706.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 10:31:28

Weak AI, Strong AI and Superintelligence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Should we fear artificial intelligence and all it will bring us? Not so long as we remember to make sure to build artificial emotional intelligence into the technology, according to the website The School of Life. [16] Creative Destruction Lab, a technology program affiliated with the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management in Toronto, Canada hopes to nurture numerous quantum learning machine start-ups in only a few years. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[314] viXra:1706.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 05:30:44

A Proposed Experiment to Test Theories of the Flyby Anomaly

Authors: C. K. Raju
Comments: 12 pages, 3 tables, 6 graphs

We use Lorentz covariant retarded gravitation theory (RGT), without simplifications, to validate the earlier calculations for the flyby anomaly as a gravitational effect of Earth's rotation at the special relativistic (v/c) level. Small differences persist between the theoretical predictions of RGT and the data reported by Anderson et al. That reported data, however, is not direct observational data but consists of un-modeled residues. To settle doubts, we propose a 3-way experimental test to discriminate between RGT, Newtonian gravitation (no flyby anomaly), and Anderson et al.'s formula. This involves two satellites orbiting Earth in opposite directions in the equatorial plane in eccentric orbits. For these orbits, Earth's rotation should not affect velocity on (1) Newtonian gravitation and (2) the formula of Anderson et al. However, (3) on RGT, one satellite gains and the other loses velocity, by typically a few cm/s/day, which is easily measurable by satellite laser ranging.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[313] viXra:1706.0466 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-05 11:47:27

The Principle of Multiple Orbiting Objects in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

According to stellar metamorphosis, the more massive the star the more the objects that can orbit it or have orbited it. This means at one point all stars have or had many other objects orbiting them. Further elaboration of the principle is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[312] viXra:1706.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 00:08:53

The Critical Analysis of the Foundations of Statistical Physics. 1. Boltzmann Distribution

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract. Modern analysis of the Boltzmann distribution on the basis of probability theory and of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution is proposed. It is shown that the Boltzmann distribution function is neither a reliable result of probability theory nor a consequence of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution. Conclusion is that the Boltzmann distribution function has no statistical and physical meaning, and the concept “Boltzmann distribution” should be abolished.
Category: Classical Physics

[311] viXra:1706.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 00:12:38

The Critical Analysis of the Foundations of Statistical Physics. II. the Theory of Photon Gas

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 16 Pages.

The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of theory of photon (quantum) gas are proposed. The principle of the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis of the analysis. The new results – the correct quantum-statistical foundations – obtained within the framework of the formulated master equation taking into consideration both the quantum states of the radiating molecule and the quantum states of the photon gas in the isolated macroscopic systems “molecule + molecular gas + monochromatic photon gas” are as follows: (a) Planck’s, Einstein’s, and Bose’s works on the theory of photon (quantum) gas contain logical errors; (b) photon (quantum) gas being born by radiating molecule obeys “Gibbs statistics”: equilibrium photon (quantum) gas is described by Gibbs quantum canonical distribution; (c) Planck function (“Bose’s distribution”) is an consequence of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution; (d) Einstein coefficients (i.e. the coefficients of spontaneous emission, induced emission and absorption) are equal to each other.
Category: Quantum Physics

[310] viXra:1706.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 00:16:24

The Critical Analysis of the Foundations of Classical Thermodynamics

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 8 Pages.

The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of classical thermodynamics is proposed. The principle of the unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is a methodological basis of the analysis. The main result is as follows: the foundations of classical thermodynamics (i.e., the first and second laws, equation of state, concepts of internal energy, of heat energy, of entropy, of temperature) contain logical errors. The existence of logical errors is irrefutable proof of incorrectness of thermodynamics. The correct statistical foundations are proposed.
Category: Classical Physics

[309] viXra:1706.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 02:34:26

Brain-Inspired Supercomputing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

IBM and the Air Force Research Laboratory are working to develop an artificial intelligence-based supercomputer with a neural network design that is inspired by the human brain. [28] Researchers have built a new type of "neuron transistor"—a transistor that behaves like a neuron in a living brain. [27] Research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[308] viXra:1706.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 11:30:26

The Triple-Quasar is an Optical Image of Milkyway, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies – Implies Expansion in the Direction of Dark Flow

Authors: Jose P. Koshy
Comments: Six pages

Based on the concept that light follows a circular path of radius 2.5 billion light-years, here I show that the triple-quasar LBQS 1429-008 is the 10.5 billion years old image of 'Milkyway, Andromeda and Triangulum' galaxies. From this, the position of our galaxy at two different times can be ascertained, and the direction of expansion of the universe can be estimated. The 'surprise finding' is that the direction thus obtained is in agreement with the direction of so-called 'Dark flow', implying the possibility that the expansion is due to actual motion of bodies, and hence LCDM model is wrong.
Category: Astrophysics

[307] viXra:1706.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 11:32:14

Symmetry of Covariance & Exchange: The Two Body Electron Equation

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. June 24th, 2017

Proceeding from arguments of the eigenstate and eigenvector condition and that of the Pauli Exclusion Principle; it is formulated that a spin gauge connection need be introduced to correct for coordinates and that this non anomalous term in correcting for the energy momentum introduces a discrepancy leading to bosonization in systems in which electrons are confined to strong exchange interactions; for an energy momentum lowering and gap pair potential; explaining superconductivity and Yang Mills by local and global symmetries; their breaking; and photon renormalization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[306] viXra:1706.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 04:11:34

Atomic Imperfections

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

An international team led by the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering has discovered how to manipulate a weird quantum interface between light and matter in silicon carbide along wavelengths used in telecommunications. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[305] viXra:1706.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 13:07:08

Symmetry of Covariance & Exchange

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. Simplicity is requisite in the interpretation of local and global symmetries.

This paper aims at a dissection of the Yang Mills problem by simple aspects of exchange; arriving at an elegant solution to the local and global isosymmetry and symmetry problem of statistics of Fermionic nature with electrons under the provisions of adherence to the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the eigenvector eigenvalue formalism; ultimately explaining the pairing energy mass gap as a consequence of photonic energy momentum lowering and the electron four energy momentum commutation and anticommutation relationship.
Category: Quantum Physics

[304] viXra:1706.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 13:24:49

Question 935 : An Integral for Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we present an integral for the constant pi:pi=3.1415926535...
Category: Number Theory

[303] viXra:1706.0456 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-28 10:38:15

The Theory of the Transcendent Reality (TTR)

Authors: Mauro Bernardini
Comments: 45 Pages. this version corrects some accidental writing errors of the previous loaded version.

This is a brief summary of the Theory of Transcendent Reality (TTR), which describes the main postulates and mathematics used to describe and support the rationality of the Alef's model as unique and absolute being container of all the existences. This first issiue allow to describe the real physical composition of all the parallel universes contained in Alef's body. Universes that are logically and rationally constituted exclusively by Particles of Existence with a mass equal to that of a Proton and which generate an "apparent" existence since they are interpreted as existent only by the under-dimensional beings they generate in each single universe. Highlighting therefore that the Particles of Existence present in every universe are in fact 11 dimensional body slices of the Points of Alef, which, in turn, are the only real components of Alef's body: and, therefore, Particles of Existence that never really born nor died.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[302] viXra:1706.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:33:11

Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties Analysis in Magnesium Gluconate: An Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is an organometallic pharmaceutical/nutraceutical used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases caused by the low level of magnesium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physicochemical, thermal, structural, and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate using powder PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-visible, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as the control, while the another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited the significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly altered from -39.99% to 62.57% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 9.71% compared with the control sample. Particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 value was significantly increased by 5.36%, 23.10% and 11.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.76% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structural characteristic of the magnesium gluconate remained same in the treated sample compared with control sample. The TGA data revealed that the weight loss of the treated sample in the first and third steps of degradation was increased by 31.58% and 5.94%, respectively, whereas in the second step of degradation, the weight loss was decreased by 7.57% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the melting point of the control and treated samples were at 170.29°C and 169.76°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample was increased by 4.18% compared with the control sample. The current study evaluated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to a new polymorphic form of the magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble, powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Hence, the Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[301] viXra:1706.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:34:14

Evaluation of Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated (The Trivedi Effect®) Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The current research work was designed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) by using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of the both control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 min with similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 34.33% compared with the control sample. Subsequently, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 64.08% as compared to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[300] viXra:1706.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:35:18

Evaluation of Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 13 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic salt used for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The objective of the current research was to explore the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -69.99% to 71.40% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 13.61% compared with the control sample. Particle size analysis revealed that the particle size in the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 value was significantly decreased by 5.19%, 26.77%, and 18.22%, respectively compared with the control sample. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly enhanced (12.82%) compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed the four steps thermal degradation of the both samples and the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.55% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting temperature of the treated sample (171.72°C) was increased by 0.21% compared with the control sample (171.36°C). The latent heat of fusion was increased by 4.66% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. This result indicated that the thermal stability of treated sample was improved compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[299] viXra:1706.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:36:45

Investigation of Physicochemical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Sodium Selenate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is used for the prevention and treatment of various disorders like cancer, diabetes, inflammation diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate using various analytical methods such as PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any treatment and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -36.36% to 133.24% as compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 8.31% as compared to the control sample. Overall, the crystal morphology of the treated sample was different from the control sample. The particle sizes d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 3.40%, 9.75%, and 8.52%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.26% from the control sample. Both the control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 887 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of both the control and treated samples were at 204.1 and 204.0 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 1.24% as compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (588.77°C) had higher melting point than the control sample (588.60°C). The latent heat of fusion was reduced in the treated sample by 8.01% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing might lead to generate a new polymorphic (enantiotropic) form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[298] viXra:1706.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:41:51

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on Physical, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Properties of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract and their active metabolites possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study aimed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle sizes at d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 12.23%, 10.97%, and 1.25%, respectively with respect to the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 14.29% as compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.8 and 206.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.70% in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the melting point of the treated sample (190.48°C) was decreased by 4.91% than the control sample (203.45°C). The latent heat of fusion of the treated (4.94 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 42.96% compared with the control (8.66 J/g) sample. The current findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and finally, bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[297] viXra:1706.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:42:50

LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural characterization of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control, without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area% at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.35, 5.55, 5.94, 6.25, 6.63, 6.76, 7.92, 8.04, 8.60, 8.73, and 9.31 min were significantly reduced by 6.15% to 60.67% compared with the control sample at Rt of 5.43, 5.65, 5.95, 6.29, 6.76, 6.85, 8.03, 8.14, 8.68, 8.78, and 9.30 min. Consequently, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 7.25, 7.30, 8.27, and 8.47 min were significantly increased by 26.32%, 7.99%, 16.93% and 7.97% compared with the control sample at Rt of 7.37, 7.41, 8.36, and 8.55 min, respectively. A total of 13 withanolides were proposed with their structure from the deduced molecular mass at m/z 470, 472, 488, 504, 782, and 991 through LC-MS, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR analysis of both the control and treated samples. Viscosa lactone B, 27-hydroxy withanolide A, (20S, 22R)-α, 6α-epoxy-β, 5β, 27-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-24-enolide, (20S, 22R)-4β, 5β, 6α, 27-tetrahydroxy-1-oxo-with-2, 24-dienolide were proposed in the control and treated samples at Rt of 6.85 and 7.30 min, respectively. Dihydrowithanolide D was only identified in the control sample at Rt of 7.41 min, whereas withanoside IV or withanoside VI was only present in the Biofield Treated sample at Rt of 6.76 min. Withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A and withanolide sulfoxide were found in both the control and treated samples. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[296] viXra:1706.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 02:44:34

The Harmony Mathematical Structure of the Hadrons :The Existence of the Hadrons Duo to the Higgs-Gluons Fields Spherical Waves Fluctuations Via Spinning Quarks

Authors: Yazzed T.Al-Harbi
Comments: 10 Pages.

As we know that all the baryons [ a type of the hadrons] are consist of an odd number of fundamental particles called quarks, like a proton consist of three quarks, or maybe more than three [2], and all the quarks have a quantization spin state with 1/2ħ. And now let's imagine the spacetime is a vacuum and the Higgs field is everywhere, Higgs bosons are attracting with the quarks ( 2 ups and 1 down ), since this attracting is the mechanism of the mass source, and the particle reaches its maximum mass by reaching the equilibrium state of the attracting, the quarks have an Intrinsic property (the spin) that's quantitative property consuming energy to establish a differentiation in the spacetime vacuum, and since we know that quarks have an "excited versions", or kinetic energy by its movement and the probability density, it's very hard to calculate [3]. furthermore, we don't know how effective this on the Higgs field with the intrinsic property (the spin) and according to the Higgs field energy, it's energy is unknown. this maybe causes a difference in the equilibrium state of .the attracting with higgs field. And as we say, this difference can't be calculated. and in this paper we will prove the color confinement phenomenology mathmaticaly and the particles Behavior.
Category: Quantum Physics

[295] viXra:1706.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 12:54:04

The Hypothesis of the Virtual Reality World; According to Astrophysical and Mathematical Presumption I. Overviewing the Creator's Mind

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 6 Pages.

Context. This paper suggests a hypothesis that the world is a simulation of a digital world done by a creator who is the ruler of the highest civilization. As this creator can control the cosmic distances and so he used his science and arts in a simulation called life, this life is based upon the creator strategies and those strategies are simple as your computer, you turn on your computer so the life began, but in the highest civilization computer there is no shut down, but a timer set according to the highest civilization order.It's because we are controlled by a higher civilization that we cannot go beyond them because they are at a higher dimension than ours, and mostly they are at the highest dimension that can get over all the dimensions of the hyperspace, Science is a dynamic process of questioning, hypothesizing, discovering, and changing previous ideas based on what is learned. Scientific ideas are developed through reasoning and tested against observations. Scientists assess and question each other's work in a critical process called peer review. Our understanding about the universe and our place in it has changed over time. New information can cause us to rethink what we know and reevaluate how we classify objects in order to better understand them. New ideas and perspectives can come from questioning a theory or seeing where a classification breaks down Aims. The aim of this paper is to over viewing the data that the creator used to shape the hyperspace and ruling the life we live in and this incredible data is connected to achieve the main goal of life. Methods. Collecting data and analyzing then connecting them Results. A creator from a higher civilization made this hyperspace of multi-verse by using a special kind of programming
Category: Astrophysics

[294] viXra:1706.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 12:52:46

Dark Matter Annihilation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe. [30] Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[293] viXra:1706.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 07:18:05

Exotic Quantum Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

New research by physicists at the University of Chicago settles a longstanding disagreement over the formation of exotic quantum particles known as Efimov molecules. [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[292] viXra:1706.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 07:43:57

Molecular Sunscreen Response

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

In experiments at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists were able to see the first step of a process that protects a DNA building block called thymine from sun damage: When it's hit with ultraviolet light, a single electron jumps into a slightly higher orbit around the nucleus of a single oxygen atom. [25] Scientists at the University of York have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates. [24] When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[291] viXra:1706.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 09:51:28

Magnetic Vortex Theory of Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, mathematical physicist Paul Sutcliffe at Durham University in the UK has theoretically shown that nanoparticles called magnetic skyrmions can be tied into various types of knots with different magnetic properties. [16] A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[290] viXra:1706.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 17:54:32

Possible Mechanism for the Generation of a Fundamental Unit of Charge (Long Version)

Authors: J. P. Lestone
Comments: 46 Pages.

Various methods for calculating particle-emission rates from hot systems are reviewed. Semi-classically derived photon-emission rates often contain the term exp(-e/T) which needs to be replaced with the corresponding Planckian factor of [exp(e/T)-1]^{-1} to obtain the correct rate. This replacement is associated with the existence of stimulated emission. Simple arguments are used to demonstrate that black holes can also undergo stimulated emission, as previously determined by others. We extend these concepts to fundamental particles, and assume they can be stimulated to emit virtual photons with a cross section of pi x lambda_bar^2, in the case of an isolated particle when the incident virtual-photon energy is < 2pimc^2. Stimulated-virtual photons can be exchanged with other particles generating a force. With the inclusion of near-field effects, the model choices presented give a calculated fundamental unit of charge of 1.6022x10^{-19} C. If these choices are corroborated by detailed calculations then an understanding of the numerical value of the fine structure constant may emerge. The present study suggests charge might be an emergent property generated by a simple interaction mechanism between point-like particles and the electromagnetic vacuum, similar to the process that generates the Lamb shift.
Category: Quantum Physics

[289] viXra:1706.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 23:58:44

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic salt used for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The objective of the current research was to explore the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, thermal and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -33.33% to 66.65% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was increased in the treated sample by 6.13% compared with the control sample. Particle size analysis revealed that the particle size at d10 value was significantly reduced in the treated sample by 13.20% compared with the control sample, although the particle size at d50 and d90 values were increased in the treated sample by 2.75% and 3.72%, respectively. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly enhanced (6.96%) compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of magnesium gluconate remained similar in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed that the weight loss of the first and second degradation steps in the treated sample was significantly decreased by 2.89% and 8.43%, respectively compared with the control sample, whereas at the third degradation step, the weight loss was enhanced by 14.80% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting point of the control and treated samples were 170.23°C and 170.25°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion was significantly decreased by 6.15% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[288] viXra:1706.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 00:00:41

Structural and Natural Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) Using LC-MS and NMR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research article was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The liquid chromatogram of the control sample showed two peaks at Rt of 1.81 and 2.06 min, whereas the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample displayed these peaks at Rt of 1.79 and 2.03 min. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and the Trivedi Effect® Treated samples revealed the presence of the mass for magnesium gluconate ion in two forms at m/z 447 (adduct form with methanol) and 415 (protonated ion) in positive ionization mode. But, it showed the mass for the gluconate ion at m/z 195 in the negative ionization mode. The fragmentation pattern of magnesium gluconate in the treated sample was notably altered as compared to the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in two magnesium gluconate ion forms at m/z 447 and 415 in treated sample was significantly decreased by 59.82% and 55.44%, respectively compared with the control sample. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) was remarkably decreased in the magnesium gluconate ion at m/z 447 in the treated sample by 78.26% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) in gluconate ion in the treated sample was significantly increased by 37.35% with respect to the control sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergies, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The treated magnesium gluconate might be helpful to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[287] viXra:1706.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 00:02:16

A Comprehensive Analytical Evaluation of the Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the Physical, Structural, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Zinc chloride has an importance in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, and thermal properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while other part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant change of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample with respect to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 41.22% compared with the control sample. The size of the particles at d10, d50, and d90 was increased by 8.33%, 6.27%, and 1.83%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was decreased by 5.90% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample were at 511 and 507 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance of both the control and treated samples were at 196.4 and 196.3 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis exhibited that weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 13.98% and 2.43% in the 1st and 2nd steps of degradation, respectively. Consequently, the DSC analysis revealed that the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of the treated sample (489.06°C) was significantly increased by 15.75% compared with the control sample (422.50°C). Moreover, a significant increase in the enthalpy of decomposition was noticed in the treated sample (ΔHdecomp = 131.40 J/g) by 137.10% compared with the control sample (ΔHdecomp = 55.42 J/g). The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which could have better powder flowability and thermal stability. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[286] viXra:1706.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:16:46

Stored Electromagnetic Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[285] viXra:1706.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:18:06

Evaluation of the Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride has the importance in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical industries for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on physical, structural, and thermal properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any, while the other part was defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample, which received the Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis revealed that the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks significantly altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was decreased by 4.19% compared with the control sample. The particle size at d10 and d50 of the Biofield Energy Treated sample decreased by 4.72% and 2.70%, respectively compared with the control sample. But, the particle size of the treated sample increased at d90 by 0.83 compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area was increased by 3.22% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample was at 520 cm-1 and 521 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that the wavelength of the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples was at 196.4 and 196.2 nm, respectively. The TGA thermograms revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and the weight loss of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 22.54% in the 1st step of degradation compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the enthalpy of decomposition was significantly increased by 34.9% in the treated sample (89.17 J/g) compared with the control sample (66.10 J/g). Overall, DSC and TGA analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was increased compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, stable, and higher absorption rate compared with the control sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride could be very useful to design the various forms of nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical formulation which might be providing a better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[284] viXra:1706.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:19:12

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio and Structural Properties of Magnesium Gluconate After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research work was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the another part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The total ion chromatogram of the control sample showed two peaks at Rt of 1.81 and 2.06 min, whereas the treated sample displayed peaks at Rt of 1.79 and 2.04 min. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and the treated samples revealed the presence of the mass for magnesium gluconate ion in two forms at m/z 447 (adduct form with methanol) and 415 (protonated ion) in positive ionization mode. But, it showed the mass for the gluconate ion at m/z 195 in the negative ionization mode. The fragmentation pattern of magnesium gluconate in the treated sample was notably altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and treated samples. The LC-MS based isotopic abundance ratio analysis indicated that the PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in the treated magnesium gluconate ion at m/z 415 was significantly decreased by 79.24% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) in the gluconate ion was decreased by 6.62% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated magnesium gluconate might be beneficial in the nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical industries for designing various forms of formulations, which could be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated magnesium gluconate would be more helpful for understanding the enzymatic reactions as well as assist in the designing of the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by applying its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[283] viXra:1706.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 02:06:48

Optomechanical Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[282] viXra:1706.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 02:28:23

Spin Waves Propagation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Assistant Professor Taichi Goto at Toyohashi University of Technology elucidated the noise generation mechanism of the spin wave (SW), the wave of a magnetic moment transmitted through magnetic oxide, and established a way to suppress it. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[281] viXra:1706.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 06:26:37

DNA Copying

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists at the University of York have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates. [24] When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[280] viXra:1706.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 06:57:24

AI and Robots can Help Patients

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

McMaster and Ryerson universities today announced the Smart Robots for Health Communication project, a joint research initiative designed to introduce social robotics and artificial intelligence into clinical health care. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[279] viXra:1706.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 11:18:27

Genome Sequencing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

It's mind-blowing that we are able to routinely sequence patients' genomes when just a few years ago this was unthinkable. [28] "DNA's chiral spine of hydration," published May 24 in the American Chemical Society journal Central Science, reports the first observation of a chiral water superstructure surrounding a biomolecule. [27] Living cells must constantly process information to keep track of the changing world around them and arrive at an appropriate response. [26] A research team led by Professor YongKeun Park of the Physics Department at KAIST has developed an optical manipulation technique that can freely control the position, orientation, and shape of microscopic samples having complex shapes. [25] Rutgers researchers have developed a new way to analyze hundreds of thousands of cells at once, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of illnesses, including tuberculosis and cancers. [24] An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[278] viXra:1706.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 07:48:07

Topological Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[277] viXra:1706.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 08:32:36

Magnetic Analog of Liquid Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Reinitzer had inadvertently discovered liquid crystals. In this cloudy-looking phase, intermittent between a solid and a liquid, the molecules are at random positions but nonetheless break rotational symmetry. [17] In many ways, magnets are still mysterious. They get their (often powerful) effects from the microscopic interactions of individual electrons, and from the interplay between their collective behavior at different scales. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[276] viXra:1706.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 05:16:29

Two Methods of Physical-Mathematical Derivation for Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation)

Authors: Fang Zhou
Comments: 37 pages in Chinese

Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) is the only objectively existing in nature transformation of space (the co-ordinates of material points) and time (the parameter of events) for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity, and actually underlies the theoretical and methodological basis for the motion observation theory.The article presents two methods of physical-mathematical derivation for Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation).One method relies on algebra means, and the other on vector analysis as well.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[275] viXra:1706.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 05:38:58

On the Michelson-Morley Experiment

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 3 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment would be due to that the electric field is contracted in the line of motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[274] viXra:1706.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 06:27:34

Modified Dynamics Due to Forehead Collisions of Bodies with Gravitons: Numerical Modeling

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov, Adelya S. Narkevich, Polina S. Shenets
Comments: 6 Pages.

The numerical modeling of a non-relativistic modification of dynamics due to forehead collisions of bodies with gravitons in the model of low-energy quantum gravity is performed. We have found too big instability of trajectories in the central field by the anomalous deceleration $w \simeq - H_{0}c$. Perhaps, the most probable source of that may be backhead collisions of bodies with gravitons, not taken into account in this model up to now.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[273] viXra:1706.0426 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-23 01:31:52

Immortality and Resurrection Thru Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages.

Doctors, nurses and hospitals are in the business of taking good care of us. So I imagine the goal of healthy, eternal life (as well as the goal of resurrecting the dead to such life) interests them if it can be shown to have a scientific explanation. This article is a mixture of present ideas regarding physics, cosmology, computer science and mathematics that have been extrapolated to their possible state centuries from now. These multidisciplinary ideas are necessary to describe how immortality and resurrection will be achieved through science. In a few sentences, how can resurrection be possible? The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - which governs progress from the order of life to the disorder (entropy) of disease and death - must first be overcome. Apparently, the only way this can be done is if the universe is a computer simulation that can be refreshed or reloaded. The other requirement is that time not exclusively follow a straight line from past to future, because that condition would just mean more and more decay for the body. Einstein's General Relativity says time is curved and warped, meaning the future overcoming of entropy and disorder - the final part of this article identifies the overcoming of entropy with what a recent science paper calls "negative temperature" - can be made to follow a curve from any future century back to a time when any long-deceased person was alive and healthy (future medical advances will be able to correct any physical or mental problems - and some of the resurrected will live elsewhere, sparing the limited area on Earth). I may lack the skills necessary to convince you of eternal life and resurrection. But if you have the misfortune to die someday, I have no doubt that you'll be convinced of their reality after that event.
Category: Physics of Biology

[272] viXra:1706.0425 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-25 00:33:05

The Moment-Generating Function of Normal Variate Functionals Using the Star Probability Measure

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 15 Pages.

The motivation of this study is to investigate new methods for the calculation of the moment-generating function of the lognormal distribution. Taylor expansion method on the moments of the lognormal suffers from divergence issues, saddle-point approximation is not exact, and integration methods can be complicated. In the present paper we introduce a new probability measure that we refer to as the star probability measure as an alternative approach to compute the moment-generating function of normal variate functionals such as the lognormal distribution.
Category: Statistics

[271] viXra:1706.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 18:41:57

Total Radiated Light Per Frequency from the Cooled Black Body with Zero Chemical Potential

Authors: Kadir Aydogdu
Comments: 13 Pages.

To understand the relation between temperature and black body radiation which is continuous photon radiation, we are using the Planck’s Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law, to model the heat transfer. Moreover to find the total energy of the free vacuum we are using the radiation constant which is only dependent to the temperature and the volume. However in this project to understand the mechanism behind the vacuum energy, our aim is to find the total radiated light from the black body until it lost all the energy. By deriving this function we will be able to speak about the total radiation potential of non-zero temperature free space. We will start with analyzing Planck’s Law and its temperature dependency then we will write our function as a time dependent integral. Afterwards, we will try to solve it with numeric analysis and series solution to find the function we need.
Category: Quantum Physics

[270] viXra:1706.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-09 05:21:56

The ElementaryParticle and Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a catalog of articlesrelated elementaryparticlesandatomic nucleus.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[269] viXra:1706.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-16 17:14:02

The Physical Basis of Spirituality.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 33 Pages.

Spirituality is often seen as a part of religion, it is about rules for dealing with the spirits from the point of view of God the almighty, the creator of our universe. Of course, these rules have been written down by humans which are accepted to be so-called inspired and speaking the words of that same God. Whereas the point of view these rules are taking has to do with eternal good and bad, the morality and dangers of dealing with spirits and engaging with deamons; the point of view expressed in this book is a scientic one. It tries to descipher rules spirits have to obey and it lays down the foundations for behavioral psychology, devoid of good and evil, from the point of view of physical charges. I wish to advocate the point of view that nobody is good or evil, we can all do things which many people accept to be good or evil, but there is no such thing as intrinsically good or bad people. There are on the other hand, strong and weak ones, those with grand visions and small ones, quick and slow thinkers and so on.
Category: Quantum Physics

[268] viXra:1706.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 03:57:24

Mass in Motion According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 8 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Polarized propeller shaped Fermions (Nuclear Quarks) are supposed to be the origin of non accelerated motion through the resistive oscillating vacuum (Axion) Higgs field. Recent observations in the LHC do support the idea of Fermion polarization into a constant specific space based direction, which could support the idea of a constant battle between a resistive vacuum and polarized spinning propeller shaped Fermions pushed forward by the same vacuum at the same time to compensate the resistance. Even a so called Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction seem to be the logic result, which was described by John Bell in his essay: “How to Teach Special Relativity” The recently observed Axial symmetric pear shaped atom Barium nuclei ( LHC) are an extra support for the atomic interaction with a new massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum reference frame postulated by Quantum FFF Theory. John S. Bell was Right: “How to Teach Special Relativity” and atomic pear shaped contraction
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[267] viXra:1706.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 12:49:53

Shrink Digital Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Chemists at Case Western Reserve University have found a way to possibly store digital data in half the space current systems require. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[266] viXra:1706.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 07:30:10

Superconducting Undulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials -- evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[265] viXra:1706.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 09:12:37

Erratum: Functions of Multivectors in 3D Euclidean Geometric Algebra Via Spectral Decomposition (For Physicists and Engineers)

Authors: Miroslav Josipović
Comments: 1 Page.

There is an erroneous formula in the article Functions of multivectors in 3D Euclidean geometric algebra via spectral decomposition (for physicists and engineers).
Category: Mathematical Physics

[264] viXra:1706.0415 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-21 11:13:29

The Hypergeometrical Universe - Supernova and SDSS Modeling

Authors: Marco Pereira
Comments: 107 Pages.

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's Gravitational Law, Gauss' Electrostatics Law and Biot-Savart's Electromagnetism Law are derived from first principles. Gravitational Lensing and Mercury Perihelion Precession are replicated within the theory. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces. A 4D Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented. Newton's and Einstein's Laws of Gravitation and Dynamics, Gauss Law of Electrostatics among others are challenged when HU presents Type 1A Supernova Survey results. HU's SN1a results challenge current Cosmological Standard Model (L-CDM) by challenging its Cosmological Ruler d(z). SDSS BOSS dataset is shown to support a new Cosmogenesis theory and HU proposal that we are embedded in a 5D Spacetime. The Big Bang Theory is shown to be challenged by SDSS BOSS dataset. Hyperspherical Acoustic Oscillations are demonstrated in the SDSS BOSS Galaxy density. A New de-Broglie Force is proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[263] viXra:1706.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 05:00:47

Forty Inedited Sequences of Integers Involving Primes and Fermat Pseudoprimes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 20 Pages.

A selection of forty sequences regarding primes and Fermat pseudoprimes from my yet unpublished papers, presented in "OEIS style", with definition of the terms of a sequence, examples, few first terms, notes and conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[262] viXra:1706.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 05:27:17

Magnetic Monopole Test to Demonstrate the Existence of a Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Current in a Wire.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 12 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic photon particle based waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs field particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder patterns close to direct currents in a wire, it is assumed that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel only locally parallel to each other without a magnetic field effect inside the Higgs field. This in contrast with the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field. .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron filing atoms. As a consequence, this is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric direct current wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimization is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet plating with spiraling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone. Three circular anti-Maxwell propulsion systems in triangle configuration, should be enough to create stable piloting and flight Experiments with coiled magnetized iron tubes has already shown this new physics reaction less propulsion effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[261] viXra:1706.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 05:33:09

Runaway Fusion Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

When the electrons collide with the high charge in the nuclei of the ions, they encounter resistance and lose speed. [10] More than seven years later, that collaboration could result in an inexpensive tabletop device to detect elusive neutrinos more efficiently and inexpensively than is currently possible, and could simplify scientists' ability to study the inner workings of the sun. [9] Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US $66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[260] viXra:1706.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 06:45:08

Arrangement of Skyrmions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[259] viXra:1706.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 00:28:19

Primes Obtained Concatenating the Numbers S(p)-D(k), Where S(p) is the Sum of Digits of a Prime P and D(1),...,d(k) the Digits of P

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: There exist an infinity of primes p having the property that concatenating s(p) – d(1) with s(p) – d(2) and repeatedly up to s(p) – d(k), where s(p) is the sum of digits of p and d(1),...,d(k) are the digits of p, is obtained a prime q. Example: such prime p is 127 because concatenating 9 (= 10 – 1) with 8 (= 10 – 2) and with 3 (= 10 – 7) is obtained a prime q = 983.
Category: Number Theory

[258] viXra:1706.0409 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-28 01:37:22

The Symplectic Dirac Operator

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 4 pages, written in french

The symplectic Dirac operator is defined over a spin Kaehler manifold. The corresponding Schrödinger-Lichnerowicz formula is proved.
Category: Geometry

[257] viXra:1706.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 02:28:55

A New Sufficient Condition by Euler Function for Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Choe Ryong Gil
Comments: 12 pages, 2 tables

The aim of this paper is to show a new sufficient condition (NSC) by the Euler function for the Riemann hypothesis and its possibility. We build the NSC for any natural numbers ≥ 2 from well-known Robin theorem, and prove that the NSC holds for all odd and some even numbers while, the NSC holds for any even numbers under a certain condition, which would be called the condition (d).
Category: Number Theory

[256] viXra:1706.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 02:30:07

An Upper Bound for Error Term of Mertens' Formula

Authors: Choe Ryong Gil
Comments: 27 pages, 6 tables

In this paper, it is obtained a new estimate for the error term E(t) of the Mertens' formula sum_{p≤t}{p^{-1}}=loglogt+b+E(t), where t>1 is a real number, p is the prime number and b is the well-known Mertens' constant. We , first, provide an upper bound, not a lower bound, of E(p) for any prime number p≥3 and, next, give one in the form as E(t)<logt/√t for any real number t≥3. This is an essential improvement of already known results. Such estimate is very effective in the study of the distribution of the prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[255] viXra:1706.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 11:52:06

Atomic Resonance-Based Method

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Scientists develop innovative, atomic resonance-based method to measure electric fields. [25] Australia's fastest camera has revealed the time it takes for molecules to break apart. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[254] viXra:1706.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 08:42:54

Black Holes, or Just "Grey Objects"? Hypothesis.

Authors: Richard Palkovac
Comments: 4 Pages.

In 2003, I was thinking about would happen if we pushed two fundamental particles of matter into ourselves (in the same location in space, in the same point). My intuition told me that it could not be mass anymore and therefore gravity would cease to have an effect. After I developed this idea, I also found the cause for the expansion of the universe and, ultimately, its acceleration. The basic idea of my hypothesis is: "Gravitational mass is being lost in black holes (Grey Objects)." It is clear to me that the physical definition of the term "black hole" is something other than what I use in this hypothesis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[253] viXra:1706.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 08:49:38

Soliton Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of Burgundy in France has shown that solitons can vibrate like real molecules when paired. [18] Excitons are formed when light is absorbed by molecules or crystals. But they can also emit light, after they are created electrically in things like light-emitting diodes (LEDs). [17] For the first time, engineers and scientists at Caltech have been able to directly observe the ultrafast motion of electrons immediately after they are excited with a laser—and found that these electrons diffuse into their surroundings much faster and farther than previously expected. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[252] viXra:1706.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 09:19:19

Electron Localisation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Australia's fastest camera has revealed the time it takes for molecules to break apart. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[251] viXra:1706.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 10:02:53

Neuron Transistor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers have built a new type of "neuron transistor"—a transistor that behaves like a neuron in a living brain. [27] Research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[250] viXra:1706.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 10:30:41

Does the One-Way Speed of Light Depend on the Distance Between the Emitter and Absorber?

Authors: Robert D. Bock
Comments: 6 Pages.

We present a simple model of light propagation that allows for the one-way speed of light, or equivalently, the simultaneity convention, to depend on the distance between the emitter and the absorber. This is distinct from variable speed of light (VSL) theories that assume the two-way speed of light is variable. We show that this model predicts wavelength shifts that are consistent with wavelength shifts measured from light propagating on astrophysical scales, thus eliminating the need to propose ad hoc mechanisms, such as dark matter, dark energy, and cosmological expansion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[249] viXra:1706.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 13:18:30

The Number s : Formulas and Fractals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 14 Pages.

Some formulas and fractals related with the number s.
Category: General Mathematics

[248] viXra:1706.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 17:52:24

The Nature of Reality: A Christian Perspective.

Authors: Richard A. Stovall
Comments: 20 Pages.

Part One delineates the history of science and its primacy as to the nature of reality and addresses issues that need to be resolved concerning quantum theory and, to a lesser extent, relativity theory. Part Two delineates a modified form of idealism as a possible solution to the relevant theories. Part Three investigates the theological implications of said solution. Part Four advocates Christian mysticism as a practical method of personal confirmation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[247] viXra:1706.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 17:52:53

The Origin of the Moon in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The moon is a dead star vastly older than the Earth. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[246] viXra:1706.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 19:53:32

Quantum Relativity

Authors: Andrew Cox
Comments: 10 Pages.

Quantum Relativity logically extends Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by incorporating quantum mechanics. It is effectively the “Theory of Everything,” which solves quantum gravity, black hole mechanics, dark matter, dark energy, and the Big Bang -- by showing that the fourth spatial dimension (hyperspace) operates as one stand-alone spatial dimension with no dimension for time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[245] viXra:1706.0396 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-30 23:23:19

Why Michelson and Morley Expected the Wrong Result from Their Experiment

Authors: Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[244] viXra:1706.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 20:20:08

The Runway Problem

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 3 Pages.

Using Quattro Pro Optimizer in order to assist in calculating the dimensions of a to be built military runway, given only the area of the runway, as part of a bid challenge to supposed government contractors!
Category: Classical Physics

[243] viXra:1706.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 21:20:19

The Precession of Mercury’s Perihelion and the Free Fall

Authors: Azzam K I Almosallami
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper I study the precession of Mercury’s perihelion and the free fall from the point of view of the field theory and retardation. SRT and GR do not support the field theory and retardation, that is because They consider the reality in physics is observer independent according to the Minkowski Geometry of space-time continuum. According to that SRT and GR must be understood from the point of view of the field theory and thus the reality must be observer dependent and in this case the mathematics that describe the physical reality will be different.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[242] viXra:1706.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 12:17:08

A Review of Five Approaches of Quantum Potential Including Madelung Hydrodynamics Formulation

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper is prepared as contribution for a book project: "Old problems, New horizons in World Physics."

It has been long known that a year after Schrodinger published his equation, Madelung also published a hydrodynamics version of Schrodinger equation. But it is often misinterpreted by many contemporary physicists, especially after the famous Bohmian quantum potential. In this paper we will review quantum potential by five different approaches, including Madelung hydrodynamics, complex Madelung, and also Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics approach. In the last section we will also discuss a new expression of quantum potential based on complex Riccati equation. It is our hope that these methods can be verified and compared with experimental data. But we admit that more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Quantum Physics

[241] viXra:1706.0392 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-22 19:39:43

DNA May Store Information with Base Pair and Communicate by uv

Authors: DU Lin
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper,UV is suggested to be a medium of information transmission in DNA. DNA bases can certainly absorb UV. They also have a typical structure to emit UV. And the stacking way of base pairs in DNA can accelerate the luminescence efficiency. Electrical signaling information from UV could be stored in base pair, in ways such as change of π conjugated electrons. The evaluation and calculation of information in DNA may base on quantum effect of π conjugated electrons and photon entangling. A hypothesis about origin of this UV communication and origin of life is also proposed here, which involve in the irradiation of the circular polarization light and self-organization of aromatic N-heterocycles.The hypotheses can explain some biological phenomena.
Category: Physics of Biology

[240] viXra:1706.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 08:45:12

Exciton Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Excitons are formed when light is absorbed by molecules or crystals. But they can also emit light, after they are created electrically in things like light-emitting diodes (LEDs). [17] For the first time, engineers and scientists at Caltech have been able to directly observe the ultrafast motion of electrons immediately after they are excited with a laser—and found that these electrons diffuse into their surroundings much faster and farther than previously expected. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[239] viXra:1706.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 04:15:18

Artificial Intelligence Health Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[238] viXra:1706.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 04:53:08

The Quantum Statistical Mechanics in the Analysis of the Context Dependence in Quantum Cognition Studies: May a Quantum Statistical Analysis Connect the Science of Complexity ?

Authors: Elio Conte, Ferda Kaleagasioglu, Rich Norman
Comments: 16 Pages.

Quantum probability fields are involved during processing of human perception and cognition with a wave function that mathematically is articulated in a proper Hilbert space and conceptually represents the space of all the potential alternatives at a semantic and semiotic level. Each subject has developed a unique mind within his/her correspondent context, hence his/her own wave function requires to be displayed as a complex-valued probability amplitude. Reaction time as well as the time of observation / decision / measurement also represent important variables contributing to our cognitive response and having also proper neurological correlates. Mind is a so complex abstract entity so that we can certainly retain that, generally speaking, the observer and the observed system enter in the domain of what technically are considered to be un-complete specified systems . An elementary wave function remains insufficient to represent a mental state, whereas a quantum wave function, which exhibits intrinsic indetermination and fluctuation of the basic probability amplitudes, may be implemented. In this paper, along with von Neumann’s postulate for non-existing dispersion-free ensembles, a new quantum statistical approach is elaborated to elucidate the peculiar quantum mechanical feature of the context dependent dynamics of human cognitive conceptual processing. In the framework of the present quantum statistical elaboration we introduce for the first time the possibility of using the Pareto distribution as a probability density function. This result links quantum statistical mechanics with the science of complexity .
Category: Mind Science

[237] viXra:1706.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 04:54:30

K-Eye Face Recognition System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A research team led by Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo of the Department of Electrical Engineering has developed a semiconductor chip, CNNP (CNN Processor), that runs AI algorithms with ultra-low power, and K-Eye, a face recognition system using CNNP. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[236] viXra:1706.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 05:27:00

Experimental Designs to Approach the Internal Relation of Lorentz Force law and Faraday’s Flux Rule

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, two experimental designs are proposed to approach the internal relation of Lorentz Force law and Faraday’s Induction Law. In the two experiments, when a part of a conductor loop moves in a uniform magnetic field, there is only one of the two mechanisms working (either Lorentz Force Law or Faraday’s Flux Rule). By the experimental results, the deeper relation of the two laws could be further revealed.
Category: Classical Physics

[235] viXra:1706.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 06:44:28

Photon-Photon Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[234] viXra:1706.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 07:08:00

The Principle of Atmospheric Thinning and Chthonian Planets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 screenshots, 1 illustrative diagram

Chthonian planets as previous gas giants are observed all over the galaxy, regardless if their evidence for existence is hypothetical inside of the dogma. They are not hypothetical objects in stellar metamorphosis, because they are observed and can be directly experimented on. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[233] viXra:1706.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 19:03:08

Breaking a Multi-Layer Crypter Through Reverse-Engineering, a Case Study Into the Man1 Crypter

Authors: Jason Reaves
Comments: 8 Pages.

Crypters and packers are common in the malware world, lots of tech- niques have been invented over the years to help people bypass security measures commonly used. One such technique where a crypter will use multiple, sometimes dynamically generated, layers to decode and unpack the protected executable allows a crypter to bypass common security mea- sures such as Antivirus. While at the end of this paper we will have con- structed a working proof of concept for an unpacker it is by no means meant as a production level mechanism, the goal is simply to show the reversing of routines found in a crypter while using a reverse-engineering framework that is geared towards shellcode analysis to our benefit for malware analysis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[232] viXra:1706.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 22:43:41

Diophantine Equation Bicar

Authors: Lahcen Aghray
Comments: 5 Pages.

We obtain a parameterization of a Diophantine equation of degree 4
Category: Number Theory

[231] viXra:1706.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 23:13:05

Diophantine Equation Third Degre

Authors: Lahcen Aghray
Comments: 2 Pages.

The resolution of a Diophantine equation by calculating the intersection of a curve of degree 3 with a line
Category: Number Theory

[230] viXra:1706.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 00:46:33

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion {File Closing Version}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1] (please see the addendum of [1] as well).
Category: Statistics

[229] viXra:1706.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 11:30:48

Superfluid Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[228] viXra:1706.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 09:19:10

Dissecting the Dyre Loader

Authors: Jason Reaves
Comments: 8 Pages.

Dyre or Dyreza, is a pretty prominent figure in the world of financial malware. The Dyre of today comes loaded with a multitude of mod- ules and features while also appearing to be well maintained. The first recorded instance of Dyre I have found is an article in June 2014 and the sample in question is version 1001, while at the time of this report Dyre is already up to version 1166. While the crypters and packers have varied over time, for at least the past 6 months Dyre has used the same loader to perform it’s initial checks and injection sequence. It is the purpose of this report to go through the various techniques and algorithms present in the loader, and at times reverse them to python proof of concepts.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[227] viXra:1706.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-13 09:20:01

An Approach for Analysing Time Dilation in the TSR

Authors: Per Hokstad
Comments: 17 Pages.

Abstract. We investigate time dilation in the theory of special relativity, and discuss some basic questions and controversies. Starting out from the Lorentz transformation, we stress that the location of clocks used for time readings is essential for the magnitude of the observed time dilation. We focus on three observational principles: 1) A reference frame may apply a single clock (SC); 2) It may apply multiple clocks (MC); or 3) There is a completely symmetric situation between the two reference frames. We specify two types of simultaneity. First, there can be a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions, (‘basic simultaneity’). Further, there is simultaneity ‘in the perspective’ of any reference frame. By also using an auxiliary reference frame – in combination with symmetry considerations – we also define ‘simultaneity at a distance’; becoming an essential concept in our investigations. Throughout there is a focus on symmetry. A main statement is to stress that the Lorentz transformation has a fully symmetric solution with respect to the two reference frames: We will always observe that a single clock on any reference frame goes slower than the passing clocks on the other frame. This is mutual for both frames. We use the obtained framework to give a thorough discussion of the travelling twin paradox, and arrive at a conclusion regarding the twins’ ages, which deviates from the prevalent view regarding this example.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[226] viXra:1706.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 15:30:21

Defining the Chemical Equilibrium of Dead Stars in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

: It is explained in stellar metamorphosis that in order for a star to be classified as dead, it absolutely must be in static chemical equilibrium. Perfect chemical equilibrium is impossible though, as interactions with asteroids and hotter stars can change the chemistry of the dead star.
Category: Astrophysics

[225] viXra:1706.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 02:32:42

Liquid Light at Room Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

This matter is both a superfluid, which has zero friction and viscosity, and a kind of Bose-Einstein condensate-sometimes described as the fifth state of matter-and it allows light to actually flow around objects and corners. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[224] viXra:1706.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-07 16:32:56

Newton’s E = mc^2 Two Hundred Years Before Einstein? Newton = Einstein at the Quantum Scale

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein. As we will see, the speed of light (which is equal to the speed of gravity) was hidden within Newton’s formula.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[223] viXra:1706.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 10:37:06

Black Holes Are Ferent Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 66 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Ferent matter is matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent Graviton momentum > Photon momentum “Because the electromagnetic waves, the photons, can not escape from a black hole, this means the gravitons momentum emitted by the black hole is higher than the momentum of the photons” Adrian Ferent The gravitational force exerted by a black hole on a planet is much higher than the gravitational force exerted by a planet on a black hole. Newton’s third law is wrong: The energy of the gravitons emitted by a black hole, the frequency of the gravitons emitted by a black hole ν > 4.176 ×10^71 Hz, is much higher than the energy of the gravitons emitted by a planet, than the frequency of the gravitons emitted by a planet ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz. “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[222] viXra:1706.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 16:38:23

Condensate Structure of Higgs and Spacetime

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 9 Pages.

For the Higgs as a Fermion-AntiFermion condensate, the most massive fermions, the Truth Quark - AntiQuark pairs would be so dominant that the Higgs could be effectively considered as a condensate of Truth Quark - Truth AntiQuark pairs. As to Spacetime in the E8 physics model ( viXra 1602.0319 ), consider a generalized Nambu Jona-Lasinio model in which 8-dim Classical Lagrangian Spacetime is a condensate of Geoffrey Dixon’s 64-dim Particle spinor T = RxCxHxO = Real x Complex x Quaternion x Octonion and its corresponding 64-dim AntiParticle spinor Tbar. The T - Tbar pairs of the condensate form the 128-dim part of E8 that lives in the Cl(16) Real Clifford Algebra as 248-dim E8 = 120-dim bivector D8 + 128-dim half-spinor D8. Each cell of E8 Classical Lagrangian Spacetime corresponds to 65,536-dim Cl(16) which contains 248-dim E8 = 120-dim D8 bivectors +128-dim D8 half-spinors. Human Brain Microtubules 40 microns long have 65,536 Tubulin Dimers and so can have Bohm Quantum Resonance with Cl(16) Spacetime cells.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[221] viXra:1706.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 01:25:47

Entry in Cancelled Nasa Competition

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

Subtitle - New Time Dimension, New Space-time Travel, & Computers of Unlimited Power In early May, I wrote the following entry for a competition being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Today I received a disappointing email advising me that the competition has been cancelled. Here's part of what it said regarding the competition's purpose and the reasons for cancellation: "NASA Cancels its High Performance Fast Computing Challenge: After careful deliberation, NASA has decided to cancel the competition it announced six weeks ago that was designed to solicit the public’s help in speeding up its Pleiades supercomputer software. Called the High Performance Fast Computing Challenge, the contest was designed to reward qualified contenders who could change the agency’s FUN3D design software so that it could run 10 to 1,000 times faster without a decrease in accuracy. The extremely high number of applicants, more than 1,800, coupled with the difficulty in satisfying the extensive vetting requirements to control the public distribution of the software made it unlikely we would achieve the challenge’s original objectives in a timely manner." My submission does not include lines of programming for the simple reason that no coding beyond that currently being used is necessary. Since NASA was looking for coding to update its Pleiades supercomputer software, I am well aware that they undoubtedly wouldn't have even considered my entry. I don't want to waste my efforts to explain new programming (and new space-time travel), however. So I'll post my entry here.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[220] viXra:1706.0367 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 11:11:04

The Speed of Light

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is only one speed in nature where you cannot add a speed to it, that is the transfer speed of a medium (an internal speed).
Category: Quantum Physics

[219] viXra:1706.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 07:03:24

Nickel for High-Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[218] viXra:1706.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 07:22:11

Creating Different Sized Earths in Stellar Metamorphosis, the Trappist-1 System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Nature creates Earths. Here is an explanation of one aspect of how she does it by ripping away their atmospheres at different rates. We can explain the different sizes of the Trappist-1 evolved stars using stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[217] viXra:1706.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 08:10:58

The Big Mistake in the Derivation of Friedmann Equation

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Friedmann Equation which is often described as the most important equation in cosmology can be derived from Newtonian gravity without General Relativity. However, it is shown here that this derivation is mathematically incorrect and cannot even be a good approximation specifically because of invalid application of the shell theorem. Derivations from general relativity and Machian derivation are also without foundation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[216] viXra:1706.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 08:12:45

Solid-State Excited Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For the first time, engineers and scientists at Caltech have been able to directly observe the ultrafast motion of electrons immediately after they are excited with a laser—and found that these electrons diffuse into their surroundings much faster and farther than previously expected. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[215] viXra:1706.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 08:45:02

Zeno Effect of a Qubit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[214] viXra:1706.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 00:54:28

Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani
Comments: 5 Pages.

The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[213] viXra:1706.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 00:55:59

Estimation of the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) of Rock Joints by Vector Similarity Measures

Authors: Rui Yong, Jun Ye, Qi-Feng Liang, Man Huang, Shi-Gui Du
Comments: 15 Pages.

Accurate determination of joint roughness coefficient (JRC) of rock joints is essential for evaluating the influence of surface roughness on the shear behavior of rock joints. The JRC values of rock joints are typically measured by visual comparison against Barton’s standard JRC profiles. However, its accuracy is strongly affected by personal bias. In the present study, a new comparison method is proposed for JRC evaluation to overcome the drawback of conventional visual comparison methods based on vector similarity measures (VSMs). The feature vectors are obtained by analyzing the angular variation of line segments of both standard JRC profiles and test profiles obtained from three kinds of natural rocks with a sampling interval of 0.5 mm.
Category: General Mathematics

[212] viXra:1706.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 00:58:09

Evaluation of Efficiency of Torrential Protective Structures With New BF-TOPSIS Methods

Authors: Simon Carladous, Jean-Marc Tacnet, Jean Dezert, Deqiang Han, Mireiile Batton-Hubert
Comments: 8 Pages.

Decision-Aid Methods (DAMs) such as the CostBenefit Analysis (CBA) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) help decision-makers to rank alternatives or to choose the best one among several potential ones. The new Belief Function based Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (BF-TOPSIS) methods have been recently developed for Multi-Criteria Decision-Making problems. In this paper, we compare CBA, AHP and BF-TOPSIS methods through an actual application case to natural risks in mountains. The CBA is the most used approach but is limited. Classical Multi-Criteria Decision-Aid methods (MCDAs) such as the AHP help to go further. The BF-TOPSIS methods notably show a robustness to rank reversal problems in the problem under concern, with a tractable complexity. Moreover, some steps of these new methods can be included in other MCDAs developed under the belief function theory framework.
Category: General Mathematics

[211] viXra:1706.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 00:59:00

Exponential Operations And aggregation Operators Of interval Neutrosophic Sets And their Decision Making Methods

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 18 Pages.

An interval neutrosophic set (INS) is a subclass of a neutrosophic set and a generalization of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set, and then the characteristics of INS are independently described by the interval numbers of its truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership, and falsity-membership degrees. However, the exponential parameters (weights) of all the existing exponential operational laws of INSs and the corresponding exponential aggregation operators are crisp values in interval neutrosophic decision making problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[210] viXra:1706.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 01:19:15

Further Research of Single Valued Neutrosophic Rough Set Model

Authors: Yan-Ling Liu, Hai-Long Yang
Comments: 21 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets (NSs), as a new mathematical tool for dealing with problems involving incomplete, indeterminant and inconsistent knowledge, were proposed by Smarandache. By simplifying NSs, Wang et al. proposed the concept of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and studied some properties of SVNSs. In this paper, we mainly investigate the topological structures of single valued neutrosophic rough sets which is constructed by combining SVNSs and rough sets. Firstly, we introduce the concept of single valued neutrosophic topological spaces.
Category: General Mathematics

[209] viXra:1706.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 01:38:39

Generalized Inverse of Fuzzy Neutrosophic Soft Matrix

Authors: R.Uma, P. Murugadas, S.Sriram
Comments: 16 Pages.

Aim of this article is to find the maximum and minimum solution of the fuzzy neutrosophic soft relational equation = and = , where and are fuzzy neutrosophic soft vector and is a fuzzy neutrosophic soft matrix.
Category: General Mathematics

[208] viXra:1706.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 01:39:34

Generalized Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

Authors: A. Hassan, M. A. Malik
Comments: 9 Pages.

The generalization of the concept of single valued neutrosophic hypergraph (SVNHG), strong SVNHG by considering SVN-Vertex instead of crisp vertex set and interrelations between SVN-Vertices and family of SVN-Edges are introduced here. A few properties and operations of such graphs are established here.
Category: General Mathematics

[207] viXra:1706.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:00:44

Information Fusion of Conflicting Input Data

Authors: Uwe Mönks, Helene Dörksen, Volker Lohweg, Michael Hübner
Comments: 37 Pages.

Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data.
Category: General Mathematics

[206] viXra:1706.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:14:15

Interval Neutrosophic Muirhead mean Operators and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

Authors: Peide Liu, Xinli You
Comments: 32 Pages.

In recent years, neutrosophic sets (NSs) have attracted widespread attentions and been widely applied to multiple attribute decision-making (MADM). The interval neutrosophic set (INS) is an extension of NS, in which the truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership degree are expressed by interval values, respectively. Obviously, INS can conveniently describe complex information.
Category: General Mathematics

[205] viXra:1706.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:15:06

Interval Neutrosophic finite Switchboard State Machine

Authors: Tahir Mahmood, Qaisar Khan
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we introduced the concept of interval neutrosophic finite state machine, interval neutrosophic finite switchboard state machine using the notion of interval neutrosophic set. We also introduced the concept of homomorphism and strong homomorphism of interval neutrosophic finite state machine.
Category: General Mathematics

[204] viXra:1706.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:16:12

Interval Neutrosophic Fuzzy Stochastic Multi-Criteria Decision-making Methods Based on MYCIN Certainty Factor and Prospect Theory

Authors: Chenchen Liu
Comments: 7 Pages.

For the stochastic multi-criteria decision-making problem, in which the information on criteria's weights is incomplete and the indices value of alternatives are in the form of interval neutrosophic fuzzy numbers, an interval neutrosophic random decision-making approach based on WYCIN certainty factor and prospect theory is proposed. According to the score function of interval neutrosophic fuzzy numbers and prospect theory, the MYCIN certainty factors of different alternatives in different indices are obtained. And the trust degrees of different indices are determined by using the grey incidence analysis. Then, the certainty factor fusion method in different indices is deduced to get the optimal alternative. And the best alternative is got by using the method. Finally, an example shows the feasibility and validity of this method.
Category: General Mathematics

[203] viXra:1706.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:16:13

Second Physical & Mathematics Theoretical Analysis of Special Relativity, Albert Einstein

Authors: Valentin Ibanez Fernandez
Comments: 84 Pages.

Abstract The paper is the second part of PHYSICAL & MATHEMATICS THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY, Albert Einstein. It presents a deep theoretical analysis of the historical overview to the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity violated the basic principle of relativity. The wrong development of processing of experiments affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[202] viXra:1706.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:17:06

Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Competition Graphs

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Maryam Nasir
Comments: 18 Pages.

We first introduce the concept of interval-valued neutrosophic competition graphs. We then discuss certain types, including k-competition interval-valued neutrosophic graphs, p-competition interval-valued neutrosophic graphs and m-step interval-valued neutrosophic competition graphs. Moreover, we present the concept of m-step interval-valued neutrosophic neighbouhood graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[201] viXra:1706.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:17:58

Interval Valued Q-Fuzzy Multiparameterized Soft Set and its Application

Authors: Fatma Adam, Nasruddin Hassan
Comments: 21 Pages.

Molodtsov’s soft set theory is a newly emerging mathematical tool for handling uncertainty. However, classical multiparameterized soft sets are not appropriate for imprecise and Q-fuzzy parameters.
Category: General Mathematics

[200] viXra:1706.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:20:10

Introduction to Neutrosophic Nnearrings

Authors: S. A. Akinleye, E .O. Adeleke, A. A. A. Agboola
Comments: 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of neutrosophic nearrings. The concept of neutrosophic N-group of a neutrosophic nearring is introduced. We study neutrosophic subnearrings of neutrosophic nearrings and also neutrosophic N-subgroups of neutrosophic N- groups. The notions of neutrosophic ideals in neutrosophic nearrings and neutrosophic N-groups are introduced and their elementary properties are presented. In addition, we introduce the concepts of neutrosophic homomorphisms of neutrosophic nearrings and neutrosophic N-homomorphisms of neutrosophic N-groups and also, we present neutrosophic quotient nearrings and quotient N-groups.
Category: General Mathematics

[199] viXra:1706.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:30:08

Jaccard Vector Similarity Measure of Bipolar Neutrosophic Set Based on Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Mehmet Şahin, İrfan Deli, Vakkas Uluçay
Comments: 8 Pages.

The main aim of this study is to present a novel method based on multi-criteria decision making for bipolar neutrosophic sets. Therefore, Jaccard vector similarity and weighted Jaccard vector similarity measure is defined to develop the bipolar neutrosophic decision making method. In addition, the method is applied to a numerical example in order to confirm the practicality and accuracy of the proposed method.
Category: General Mathematics

[198] viXra:1706.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:34:39

Majority-Consensus Fusion Approach for Elderly Iot-Based Healthcare Applications

Authors: Faouzi Sebbak, Farid Benhammadi
Comments: 15 Pages.

Nowadays, tremendous growth of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is seen in smart environments such as medical remote care applications which are crucial due to the general aging of the population.
Category: General Mathematics

[197] viXra:1706.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 02:36:25

Measure Distance Between Neutrosophic Sets: an Evidential Approach

Authors: Jiawei Zou, Yong Deng, Yong Hu, Ge Lin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Due to the efficiency to handle uncertainty information, the single valued neutrosophic set is widely used in multicriteria decision-making. In MCDM, it is inevitable to measure the distance between two single valued neutrosophic sets. In this paper, an evidence distance for neutrosophic sets is proposed. There are two main contributions of this work. One is a new method to transform the single valued neutrosophic set into basic probability assignment. The other is evidence distance function between two single valued neutrosophic sets. The application in MCDM is illustrated the efficiency of the proposed distance.
Category: General Mathematics

[196] viXra:1706.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 03:36:52

Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Based on Generalized Prioritized Aggregation Operators Under Simplified Neutrosophic Uncertain Linguistic Environment

Authors: Zhang-peng Tian, Jing Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Jian-qiang Wang
Comments: 17 Pages.

A simplified neutrosophic uncertain linguistic set that integrates quantitative and qualitative evaluation can serve as an extension of both an uncertain linguistic variable and a simplified neutrosophic set. It can describe the real preferences of decision-makers and reflect their uncertainty, incompleteness and inconsistency.
Category: General Mathematics

[195] viXra:1706.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 04:00:23

Aristotle’s Answer on Russell’s Paradox

Authors: Nikolay Dementev
Comments: 9 Pages.

An attempt of resolving Russell’s paradox with the help of Aristotle’s ideas is presented.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[194] viXra:1706.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 05:14:56

Metodos de Certificacion de la Sostenibilidad en Proyectos Urbanos

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 110 Pages. In Spanish

En los últimos años, se han tratado de dar respuesta a la necesidad de una mayor sostenibilidad en los proyectos urbanos, desde distintas perspectivas o mediante la creación de determinados instrumentos. Uno de estos instrumentos, son las herramientas de certificación de la sostenibilidad, con ya una cierta tradición en su aplicación a los edificios aisladamente, pero que todavía están dando sus primeros pasos en su aplicación desde la escala urbana. El objetivo de este trabajo es, partiendo de la revisión, análisis comparativo, y compilación de los contenidos y metodologías de algunas de estas herramientas que se han considerado relevantes, llegar a una propuesta de los contenidos que debería tener una herramienta de estas características para su aplicación en el contexto español. Para ello, se ha realizado un análisis comparativo exhaustivo de las dos herramientas y métodos con mayor difusión en la actualidad (y de aplicación en entornos con características similares al español) LEED for Neighbourhood Development y BREEAM for Communities. También se han revisado otras herramientas, con menor implantación o de carácter más local, pero que plantean enfoques complementarios o interesantes. A partir del análisis y las revisiones, se ha realizado una enumeración y estructuración de los aspectos que sería necesario considerar en el contexto español, no limitándose a los contenidos (lo que se ha llamado ‘herramienta’), sino también proponiendo la manera en que estas herramientas pueden integrarse en los procesos proyectuales y administrativos (lo que se ha llamado ‘método’). Por último, dado que el análisis y propuesta se realiza fundamentalmente desde la perspectiva de los proyectos de nueva creación, se ha considerado necesario destacar, mediante algunas reflexiones acerca de esta cuestión, la mayor eficiencia de las actuaciones planteadas sobre la ciudad existente, por cuanto además de implicar ahorros en consumo de materiales, suelo e infraestructuras, pueden servir para dar respuesta a la necesidad natural de actualización y renovación de las ciudades con el paso del tiempo. In recent years, there have been different attempts to respond to the need for more sustainable urban projects from different perspectives or through the creation of certain instruments. One of these instruments is the Sustainability Assessment Methods, which have been already implemented on buildings for a while, but are still taking their first steps in its implementation to the urban project scale. The aim of this research work is, based on the review, comparative analysis, and compilation of contents and methodologies of some of these methods that have been deemed relevant, reach a proposal of the contents that should have a method of these characteristics to be applied to the Spanish urban context. In order to elaborate this proposal, a thorough comparative analysis has been undertaken of the tools and methods more widely used at present (in environments similar to Spanish) which are LEED for Neighbourhood Development and BREEAM for Communities. Also other tools have been revised, with lower uptake or more local, but which pose interesting or complementary approaches. Based on this analysis and review, a compilation and proposal of the issues that should be addressed in the Spanish context, not limited to content (which is considered 'tool'), but also proposing ways in which these tools can be integrated into project and administrative processes (what is considered 'method'). Finally, as the analysis and proposal are mainly from the perspective of new projects, it has been considered necessary to highlight, by some reflections on this issue, the greater efficiency of projects located on the existing city, as this will also involve savings in material consumption, land and infrastructure, and can serve to meet the natural need of renovation and renewal of cities over time.
Category: Social Science

[193] viXra:1706.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 05:23:42

Proyecto Haz[Otea].

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 84 Pages. In Spanish

desde hace ya tiempo es frecuente oír hablar del gran potencial de la ‘puesta en carga’ de las azoteas urbanas no utilizadas para incrementar la sostenibilidad de las ciudades, generalmente aludiendo a su habilitación como azoteas verdes o para ubicar elementos generadores de energía renovable. Sin embargo, por varios motivos resulta difícil valorar en qué grado son correctas dichas afirmaciones: La información disponible de diferentes soluciones de azoteas describe cuestiones técnicas e impactos focalizados en aspectos muy concretos de la realidad (aislamiento térmico, retención de agua de lluvia…) difícilmente relacionables con el efecto global sobre las áreas urbanas de habilitar las azoteas. El efecto de un diseño/solución técnica es diferente en áreas urbanas diferentes. Las azoteas pueden ser destinadas a numerosos usos y antes de afirmar el mayor o menor interés de cada uno de ellos es necesario compararlos entre sí. Para ayudar en este debate, en este texto tratamos de aportar una estimación más completa del potencial de transformar la ciudad mediante la actuación sobre las azoteas de los edificios, incorporando dos cuestiones frecuentemente ausentes: revisaremos tanto las soluciones frecuentemente denominadas ‘sostenibles’ como un rango amplio de otras transformaciones posibles que seleccionamos a partir de una revisión extensa de ejemplos actuales y pasados de aprovechamiento de azoteas en todo el mundo. Paralelamente, realizaremos una estimación del impacto previsible de habilitar todas las azoteas de un área urbana existente, lo que nos permitirá valorar impactos globales que solo es posible apreciar al incrementar la escala de análisis. Para ello, estimaremos el impacto previsible de la posible transformación de un área urbana existente (el barrio Palos de Moguer en Madrid) utilizando el modelo Meta[S] propuesto por el autor (Alvira, 2015). La evaluación nos permite poner de manifiesto tres cuestiones fundamentales: no todas las transformaciones posibles de las azoteas producen el mismo beneficio sobre las ciudades, maximizar el beneficio de poner en carga las azoteas requiere el análisis particularizado de cada área urbana, y la cantidad de usos que es posible implantar y la facilidad de dicha implantación se incrementan si se introducen cambios en la normativa. Estas dos últimas cuestiones nos permiten afirmar el interés no solo de actualizar las normas estatales de edificación, sino también de que los ayuntamientos regulen las condiciones y utilización de los espacios de azotea, y en las conclusiones enumeramos algunas cuestiones que consideramos deberían contemplar o incorporar las diferentes normativas en relación a las azoteas. For some time now, it has become increasingly common hearing about the great potential transforming urban rooftop spaces poses for increasing cities’ sustainability, in a speech usually encouraging their adaptation into green roofs or use for locating renewable energy generators. However, it is currently extremely difficult assessing to what extent these statements are correct: • Available information and assessments of these rooftops’ types describe technical issues and/or focus on specific aspects of their impact on reality [thermal insulation, rain water retention ...] being hardly relatable to the impact a general transformation of an urban area’s rooftops would imply for the area’s overall state. • The impact of some technological solution/design may be different in different urban areas. • Rooftops may host several uses, yet we have found no document providing an extensive comparison of the impact of each of them. To assist in this debate, in this text we estimate the expected impact of the hypothetical transformation of all available rooftops in an existing urban area: Palos de Moguer neighborhood in Madrid. In order to do so, we use Meta[S] model proposed by the author as PhD Thesis project, which assesses 64 dimensions of urban reality. The assessment allows us to highlight three key issues: • Not all possible rooftops transformations produce the same benefit for cities/urban areas, and in urban consolidated environments rooftop transformations that allow people’s use may pose higher collective benefit. • Rooftops transformations benefit maximization requires individual analysis of each urban area, relating its particular needs with available rooftop surface characteristics. • The number of different rooftops possible uses and their ease of implementation can be greatly increased if some previsions are incorporated in Urban Planning/Building Codes These last two issues allow us to state the interest of both updating national Building & Design Codes and that municipalities regulate the conditions and use of rooftop spaces. In the Conclusions we list some issues we believe should be incorporated by different rooftops’ regulations.
Category: Social Science

[192] viXra:1706.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 07:17:52

Quantum Manipulating Nanomagnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[191] viXra:1706.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:05:20

Molecular Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[190] viXra:1706.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:50:34

Multi-lead Fusion Detection of T-Wave Alternans Using Dezert-Smarandache Theory

Authors: Changrong Ye,Guojun Li, Yang Bao, Jinliang Qiao, Deping Zhang
Comments: 10 Pages.

T-Wave alternans (TWA) is a cardiac phenomenon regarded as an index of high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Although a number of methods have been proposed for TWA detection, their final decision always fully depends on one single lead which is usually picked out for its strongest TWA detection result among all the other leads. That is to say that lots of useful information have been unused and wasted. To our best knowledge, no method that fuses TWA detection results independently obtained by each lead to do comprehensive decision has been introduced. In this paper, a novel multi-lead method for TWA fusion detection is proposed.
Category: General Mathematics

[189] viXra:1706.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:53:27

Multi-objective Optimal Model of Two-sided Matching

Authors: Yan Gao
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on the interval neutrosophic numbers, a new multi-objective optimal model of two-sided matching is researched. Through integrating interval neutrosophic information of each subject, the relative closeness degree of uncertainty evaluation information and positive and negative ideal is calculated by the approximate method, which can be expected as the satisfaction of the matching subjects. According to these, a multi-objective optimal model of two-sided matching is constructed, and applied to the leisure industry technology demand and supply. Finally a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.
Category: General Mathematics

[188] viXra:1706.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 08:59:42

Quantum Nature of Electronic Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[187] viXra:1706.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 09:23:32

Neutrosophic AHP Multi Criteria Decision Making Method Applied on the Selection of Learning Management System

Authors: Nouran M. Radwan, M. Badr Senousy, Alaa El Din M. Riad
Comments: 11 Pages.

Learning management systems (LMSs) are used today to assist in the designing, delivery and management of learning resources for learners. There are hundreds of LMS available in the marketplace. Selecting the most suitable LMS that meets specific requirements is a problem of decision making. Many studies in learning management system selection are implemented under complete information, while in the real world many uncertainty aspects do exist. As these systems were described by decision makers with vague, imprecise, ambiguous and inconsistent terms, it is understandable that traditional multi criteria decision making methods may not be effective.
Category: General Mathematics

[186] viXra:1706.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 09:35:41

Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cotangent Function and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, cotangent similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set is proposed and some of its properties are studied. Finally, using this refined cotangent similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic set, an application on educational stream selection is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[185] viXra:1706.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 09:36:42

On Neutrosophic Semi-Open sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: P. Iswarya, K. Bageerathi
Comments: 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to define the product related neutrosophic topological space and proved some theorems based on this. We introduce the concept of neutrosophic semi-open sets and neutrosophic semi-closed sets in neutrosophic topological spaces and derive some of their characterization. Finally, we analyze neutrosophic semi-interior and neutrosophic semi-closure operators also.
Category: General Mathematics

[184] viXra:1706.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 04:26:24

Programa Analizador de Retrovirus

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 3 Pages. Spanish

En el presente artículo se va a mostrar un programa, que sirve para realizar una serie de análisis a partir de secuencias provirales de retrovirus.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[183] viXra:1706.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 04:35:19

Scientific Breakthrough at Sub-Atomic Level

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Chinese scientists have pulled off a major feat with one of the sub-atomic world's weirdest phenomena: photons that behave like twins and experience the same things simultaneously, even over great distances. [23] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[182] viXra:1706.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 05:25:45

One Step Forecasting Model (Advanced Model - Version 5)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented an Advanced Forecasting Model.
Category: Statistics

[181] viXra:1706.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 05:46:25

Improved Message Delivery Scheme for UAVs Tracking The Moving Target

Authors: Yu Yunlong, Ru Le
Comments: 4 Pages.

Aiming at the special circumstance in which UAVs swarm are used in the mode of battlefield extending, a message delivery scheme called AWJPMMD (ARIMA-WNN Joint Prediction Model based Message Delivery) is proposed. In this scheme, the LET (Link Expiration Time) of the center node and the proxy node is calculated by high precision GPS information, then the LET at next moment is predicted by ARIMA-WNN (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model - Wavelet Neural Network) Joint Prediction Model. Finally, the process of message delivery is affected by the predicted value of LET and other parameters. The target information is sent to the UAVs ground station in form of store-and-forward by the message delivery process. Simulation shows that this scheme can provide higher message delivery ratio and this scheme is more stable.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[180] viXra:1706.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 06:05:08

Computers Reason Like Humans

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[179] viXra:1706.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 13:17:39

Universe and Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime was infinite at the big bang. In fact, at this point all mathematical tools fail, and the theory breaks down. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[178] viXra:1706.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 13:59:41

The Religious Naturalism of the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 5 Pages.

The self-empowerment and self-actualization of the federation of industrial economy and the internationalist model.
Category: Social Science

[177] viXra:1706.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 17:15:55

Algo Mas Acerca DE la Gravedad

Authors: Norberto Meyer Roberto Morales
Comments: 4 Pages. "COMPLEMENTA EL ARTÍCLO "ACERCA DE LA GRAVEDAD"

Writing “G” with the help of “m1”, we find that gravity is function of the negative setting energy of a mass. With the hydrogen atom we found that he negative rest-energy can be the (negative) binding energy of a mass
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[176] viXra:1706.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 07:32:46

Charge Density Wave in Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[175] viXra:1706.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 07:46:58

On Fermat's Last Theorem - An Elementary Approach

Authors: Gang Li
Comments: 14 Pages.

An attempt of using elementary approach to prove Fermat's last theorem (FLT) is given. For infinitely many prime numbers, Case I of the FLT can be proved using this approach. Furthermore, if a conjecture proposed in this paper is true (k-3 conjecture), then case I of the FLT is proved for all prime numbers. For case II of the FLT, a constraint for possible solutions is obtained.
Category: Number Theory

[174] viXra:1706.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 08:00:25

Evidence for Quantum-Interference Phenomena in the Femtometer Scale of Baryons. Part II: Inclusion of all Baryon Octet and Decuplet Particles

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 figure

This work supplements the paper vixra: 1706.0040. It contains a single Figure in which quantum interference is demonstrated for all particles of the octet and decuplet, through the joint analysis of their rest energy and magnetic moments data. Some tendency for alignment on Shapiro step-like structures is also present. This analysis serves as a proof of the importance of dominating electromagnetic effects in the nuclear scale of particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[173] viXra:1706.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 08:48:10

Quantum Dot Neurons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A transistor that simulates some of the functions of neurons has been invented based on experiments and models developed by researchers at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) in São Paulo State, Brazil, Würzburg University in Germany, and the University of South Carolina in the United States. [15] For certain frequencies of shortwave infrared light, most biological tissues are nearly as transparent as glass. Now, researchers have made tiny particles that can be injected into the body, where they emit those penetrating frequencies. The advance may provide a new way of making detailed images of internal body structures such as fine networks of blood vessels. [14] The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[172] viXra:1706.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 09:10:50

Further Investigation on Faraday’s Law of Induction

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, Faraday’s law of induction was further investigated. The purpose is to see that besides there is the change of magnetic flux through the region enclosed by a conductor loop, if the magnetic flus change inside the wire of the loop is also required to generate an induction current in the conductor loop. An experiment is design and performed. The result shows that it is also a necessary condition that there is magnetic flux change inside the wire of the loop to generate an induction current in the conductor loop.
Category: Classical Physics

[171] viXra:1706.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 09:54:27

Satellite-Based Quantum Encryption Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

In a new study, researchers demonstrate ground-based measurements of quantum states sent by a laser aboard a satellite 38,000 kilometers above Earth. This is the first time that quantum states have been measured so carefully from so far away. [23] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[170] viXra:1706.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 10:07:21

Why does the Impossible Thrust work

Authors: J.R. Croca, P. Castro, M. Gatta, L. Gurriana
Comments: 14 Pages.

Scientific literature refers to a strange observed phenomenon, “impossible” according to traditional physics. The authors have called it an Impulsive Thrust from a Closed Radio-Frequency Cavity in Vacuum. Here we present a possible explanation for the observed thrust based on the conceptual framework of Eurhythmic Physics, a macroscopic non-linear pilot-wave theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[169] viXra:1706.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 12:18:33

Neutrosophic Subalgebras of Bck/bci-Algebras Based on Neutrosophic Points

Authors: A. Borumand Saeid, Young Bae Jun
Comments: 10 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic set (NS) developed by Smarandache is a more general platform which extends the concepts of the classic set and fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set.
Category: General Mathematics

[168] viXra:1706.0279 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-28 09:11:45

Statistical Characterization of the Time to Reach Peak Heat Release Rate for Nuclear Power Plant Electrical Enclosure Fires

Authors: Raymond H.V. Gallucci
Comments: 10 Pages.

Since publication of NUREG/CR-6850 (EPRI 1011989), EPRI/NRC-RES Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities in 2005, phenomenological modeling of fire growth to peak heat release rate (HRR) for electrical enclosure fires in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has typically assumed an average 12-minute rise time. [1] One previous analysis using the data from NUREG/CR-6850 from which this estimate derived (Gallucci, “Statistical Characterization of Cable Electrical Failure Temperatures Due to Fire, with Simulation of Failure Probabilities”) indicated that the time to peak HRR could be represented by a gamma distribution with alpha (shape) and beta (scale) parameters of 8.66 and 1.31, respectively. [2] Completion of the test program by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for electrical enclosure heat release rates, documented in NUREG/CR-7197, Heat Release Rates of Electrical Enclosure Fires (HELEN-FIRE) in 2016, has provided substantially more data from which to characterize this growth time to peak HRR. [3] From these, the author develops probabilistic distributions that enhance the original NUREG/CR-6850 results for both qualified (Q) and unqualified cables (UQ). The mean times to peak HRR are 13.3 and 10.1 min for Q and UQ cables, respectively, with a mean of 12.4 min when all data are combined, confirming that the original NUREG/CR-6850 estimate of 12 min was quite reasonable. Via statistical-probabilistic analysis, the author shows that the time to peak HRR for Q and UQ cables can again be well represented by gamma distributions with alpha and beta parameters of 1.88 and 7.07, and 3.86 and 2.62, respectively. Working with the gamma distribution for All cables given the two cable types, the author performs simulations demonstrating that manual non-suppression probabilities, on average, are 30% and 10% higher than the use of a 12-min point estimate when the fire is assumed to be detected at its start and halfway between its start and the time it reaches its peak, respectively. This suggests that adopting a probabilistic approach enables more realistic modeling of this particular fire phenomenon (growth time).
Category: Statistics

[167] viXra:1706.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 20:37:12

Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization (v4) Russian Edition

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 120 Pages.

Бессмертие - это голубая, вековая, самая большая мечта и самое большое желание любого человека. В книге покaзaно (см. список в концe), что с точки зрeния компьютeрныx нaук чeловeк eсть биологичeский логичeский прибор для обрaботки информaции. Нaшa головa - xрaнилищe информaции, взглядов, привычeк, пaмяти и прогрaмм, нaкоплeнныx и вырaботaнныx чeловeком в тeчeнии eго жизни. Нaш мозг - логичeский прибор, пeрeрaбaтывaющий эту информaцию. Глaзa, уши, кожa и другиe оргaны чувств - дaтчики информaции об окружaющeм мирe, a руки и ноги - исполнитeльныe оргaны прикaзов нaшeго мозгa. Отсюдa срaзу слeдуeт вывод, что eсли мы нaучимся соxрaнять информaцию, нaкоплeнную и вырaботaнную чeловeком в тeчeнии eго жизни, зaписaв ee нa болee стойкиe носитeли (нaпримeр, чипы), то соxрaним eго кaк личность (душу) вeчно. Если жe снaбдим eго дaтчикaми приeмa, нe подвeргaeмой цeнзурe информaции, то позволим eму свободно рaзвивaться кaк личности. А eсли снaбдим eго исполнитeльными оргaнaми, то он получит возможность aктивно воздeйствовaть нa внeшний мир (жить вeчно). В книге покaзaно, что проблeмa бeссмeртия можeт быть рeшeнa кaрдинaльно только зaмeной биологичeской оболочки чeловeкa нa искусствeнную. Тaкой бeссмeртный чeловeк из чипов и свeрxпрочныx мaтeриaлов (или Е-сущeство, кaк он нaзвaн в книге), будeт имeть огромныe прeимущeствa пeрeд биологичeскими людьми. Издание дополнено новыми достижениями в науке о бессмертии (гл.11 и др.).
Category: Physics of Biology

[166] viXra:1706.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:01:46

Novel Single-Valued Neutrosophic Aggregated Operators Under Frank Norm Operation and Its Application to Decision-Making Process

Authors: Nancy, Harish Garg
Comments: 15 Pages.

Uncertainties play a dominant role during the aggregation process and hence their corresponding decisions are made fuzzier. Single-value neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) contain the three ranges: truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership degrees, and are very useful for describing and handling the uncertainties in the day-to-day life situations. In this study, some operations of SVNNs such as sum, product, and scalar multiplication are defined under Frank norm operations and, based on it, some averaging and geometric aggregation operators have been developed. We further establish some of its properties. Moreover, a decision-making method based on the proposed operators is established and illustrated with a numerical example.
Category: General Mathematics

[165] viXra:1706.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:19:47

An Unusual Hole in Mars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the image.
Category: Astrophysics

[164] viXra:1706.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:42:22

On Neutrosophic Feebly Open Set In Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: P. Jeya Puvaneswari, Dr.K.Bageerathi
Comments: 8 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to introduce the concept of Neutrosophic point, Neutrosophic quasi coincident, Neutrosophic feebly open sets and Neutrosophic feebly closed sets in Neutrosophic Topological spaces. Also we analyse their characterizations and investigate their properties. This concept is the generalization of intuitionistic topological spaces and fuzzy topological spaces. Using this neutrosophic feebly open sets and neutrosophic feebly closed sets, we define a new class of functions namely neutrosophic feebly continuous functions. Further, relationships between this new class and the other classes of functions are established.
Category: General Mathematics

[163] viXra:1706.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:44:55

On Neutrosophic Soft Lattices

Authors: Vakkas Uluçay, Mehmet Sahin, Necati Olgun, Adem Kilicman
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this study, using the neutrosophic soft definitions, we define some new concept such as the neutrosophic soft lattice, neutrosophic soft sublattice, complete neutrosophic soft lattice, modular neutrosophic soft lattice, distributive neutrosophic soft lattice, neutrosophic soft chain then we study the relationship and observe some common properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[162] viXra:1706.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:47:43

Operations on Complex Multi-Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Yousef Al-Qudah, Nasruddin Hassan
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the concept of complex multi-fuzzy sets (CMkFSs) as a generalization of the concept of multi-fuzzy sets by adding the phase term to the definition of multi-fuzzy sets. In other words, we extend the range of multi-membership function from the interval [0,1] to unit circle in the complex plane. The novelty of CMkFSs lies in the ability of complex multi- membership functions to achieve more range of values while handling uncertainty of data that is periodic in nature. The basic operations on CMkFSs, namely complement, union, intersection, product and Cartesian product are studied along with accompanying examples. Properties of these operations are derived. Finally, we introduce the intuitive definition of the distance measure between two complex multi-fuzzy sets which are used to define δ-equalities of complex multi-fuzzy sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[161] viXra:1706.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:49:16

Operations on Single-Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Gulfam Shahzadi
Comments: 26 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic sets can be utilized as a mathematical tool to deal with imprecise and unspecified information. In this paper, we apply the concept of single-valued neutrosophic sets to graphs. We introduce the notion of single-valued neutrosophic graphs, and present some fundamental operations on single-valued neutrosophic graphs. We explore some interesting properties of single-valued neutrosophic graphs by level graphs. We highlight some flaws in the definitions of Broumi et al. [10] and Shah-Hussain [18]. We also present an application of single-valued neutrosophic graphs in social network.
Category: General Mathematics

[160] viXra:1706.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:50:25

Optimized PROMETHEE Based on Interval Neutrosophic Sets for New Energy Storage Alternative Selection

Authors: Zheng Wang, Lin Liu
Comments: 9 Pages.

New energy storage alternative selection is a hot research issue that involves multiple-criteria decision-making process. In view of the existing deficiencies of multiple-criteria decision-making methods, an optimized method of PROMETHEE was proposed based on interval neutrosophic sets that has the advantage in describing fuzzy decision-making information.
Category: General Mathematics

[159] viXra:1706.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:53:04

Performance Еvaluation of Тracking Аlgorithm Incorporating Attribute Data Processing Via DSmT

Authors: J. Dezert, A. Tchamova, L. Bojilov, P. Konstantinova
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the quality of attribute data source on the performance of a target tracking algorithm. An array of dense scenarios arranged according to the distance between closely spaced targets is studied by different confusion matrices. The used algorithm is Generalized Data Association (GDA-MTT) algorithm for multiple target tracking processing kinematic as well as attribute data. The fusion rule for attribute data is based on Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT). Besides the main goal a comparison is made between the cited above algorithm and an algorithm with Kinematic based only Data Association (KDAMTT). The measures of performance are evaluated using intensive Monte Carlo simulation.
Category: General Mathematics

[158] viXra:1706.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:59:56

Power Aggregation Operators of Simplified Neutrosophic Sets and Their Use in Multi-attribute Group Decision Making

Authors: Chunfang Liu, Yuesheng Luo
Comments: 10 Pages.

The simplified neutrosophic set (SNS) is a useful generalization of the fuzzy set that is designed for some practical situations in which each element has different truth membership function, indeterminacy membership function and falsity membership function. In this paper, we develop a series of power aggregation operators called simplified neutrosophic number power weighted averaging (SNNPWA) operator, simplified neutrosophic number power weighted geometric (SNNPWG) operator, simplified neutrosophic number power ordered weighted averaging (SNNPOWA) operator and simplified neutrosophic number power ordered weighted geometric (SNNPOWG) operator.
Category: General Mathematics

[157] viXra:1706.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:01:25

Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic

Authors: José Luis Usó-Doménech, Josué Antonio Nescolarde-Selva, Lorena Segura-Abad
Comments: 11 Pages.

Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been defined to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition. The application of these rules to qualitative opposition, and, in particular, its neuter, demonstrated that a synthetic logic allows the truth of some contradictions. This synthetic logic is dialectical with a multi-valued logic, which gives every proposition a truth value in the interval [0,1] that is the square of the modulus of a complex number. In this dialectical logic, contradictions of the neuter of an opposition may be true.
Category: General Mathematics

[156] viXra:1706.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:20:03

Representation of Graphs Using Intuitionistic Neutrosophic Soft Sets

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Sundas Shahzadi
Comments: 23 Pages.

The concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft sets can be utilized as a mathematical tool to deal with imprecise and unspecified information. In this paper, we apply the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft sets to graphs. We introduce the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft graphs, and present applications of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft graphs in multiple-attribute decision-making problems. We also present an algorithm of our proposed method.
Category: General Mathematics

[155] viXra:1706.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:22:50

Robust and False Positive Free Watermarking in Iwt Domain Using SVD and Abc

Authors: Irshad Ahmad Ansari, Millie Pant, Chang Wook Ahn
Comments: 12 Pages.

Watermarking is used to protect the copyrighted materials from being misused and help us to know the lawful ownership. The security of any watermarking scheme is always a prime concern for the developer.
Category: General Mathematics

[154] viXra:1706.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:26:07

Rough Neutrosophic Set in a Lattice

Authors: I. Arockiarani, C. Antony Crispin Sweety
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we examine the relationship between rough fuzzy neutrosophic sets and lattice theory. We introduce the notion of Rough fuzzy neutrosophic set and Rough fuzzy neutrosophic lattice (resp Rough fuzzy neutrosophic ideals). Further, we discuss about fuzzy neutrosophic rough set corresponding to a rough set and define the terms and conditions for fuzzy neutrosophic rough lattice.
Category: General Mathematics

[153] viXra:1706.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:35:50

Clarkson Syndrome Approached

Authors: Anna Lunghi, Davide Mapelli, Alessandro Rizzi, Clara Tacconi, Diego Liberati
Comments: Pages.

the Systemic Capillary Leakage Syndrome is approached by both deepening data found in literature investigation and compare data by a patient and two healthy females leaving together. A five day period in capillary leakage evident in the untreated patient may also be present, even with less amplitude and less precise period, in the last two weeks of the recorded month for the two healthy subjects, letting to hypnotize that SCLS could be the pathological amplification of a physiologic attitude. Genders could express in a different proportion light chains K or Lambda in the monoclonal immunoglobulin usually expressed in patients.
Category: Physics of Biology

[152] viXra:1706.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:49:46

Self Additive Inverse Elements of Neutrosophic Rings and Fields

Authors: T.Chalapathi, R.V.M.S.S.Kiran Kumar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Algebraic Neutrosophic theory is an abstract branch of modern mathematics that originated from classical algebra through the composition of Neutrosophic theory. Its development started few years ago, and now a days Neutrosophic analytic methods and results are important in various fields of engineering science and applied mathematics with its applications.
Category: General Mathematics

[151] viXra:1706.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:51:57

Quantum Secure Direct Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[150] viXra:1706.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:55:36

Simplified Neutrosophic Linguistic Multi-criteria Group Decision-Making Approach to Green Product Development

Authors: Zhang-peng Tian, Jing Wang, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang
Comments: 31 Pages.

For many companies, green product development has become a key strategic consideration due to regulatory requirements and market trends. In this paper, the life cycle assessment technique is used to develop an innovative multi-criteria group decision-making approach that incorporates power aggregation operators and a TOPSIS-based QUALIFLEX method in order to solve green product design selection problems using neutrosophic linguistic information.
Category: General Mathematics

[149] viXra:1706.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:56:50

Single-Valued Neutrosophic Planar Graphs

Authors: Muhammad Akram
Comments: 11 Pages.

We apply the concept of single-valued neutrosophic sets to multigraphs, planar graphs and dual graphs. We introduce the notions of single-valued neutrosophic multigraphs, single-valued neutrosophic planar graphs, and single-valued neutrosophic dual graphs. We illustrate these concepts with examples. We also investigate some of their properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[148] viXra:1706.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:58:57

Single Valued Neutrosophic Signedgraphs

Authors: Seema Mehra, Manjeet Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

Motivated by the notion of single valued neutrosophic graphs defined by Broumi, Talea, Bakali and Smarandache[2] and notion of intuitionistic fuzzy signed graphs defined by Mishra and Pal[8], we introduce the concept of single valued neutrosophic signed graphs and examine the properties of this new concept and examples.
Category: General Mathematics

[147] viXra:1706.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:01:12

Some Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Uncertain Linguistic Bonferroni Mean Aggregation Operators and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Peide Liu, Fei Teng
Comments: 41 Pages.

Interval-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy uncertain linguistic set (IVNHFULS) has the advantages of both neutrosophic numbers and interval-valued hesitant fuzzy uncertain linguistic variable. In this paper, we firstly introduce the definition, the operational laws, and the score function of IVNHFULS.
Category: General Mathematics

[146] viXra:1706.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:02:47

Deep Learning with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members,
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[145] viXra:1706.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:03:21

Special Types of Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: M. A. Malik, A. Hassan
Comments: 13 Pages.

Neutrosophic theory has many applications in graph theory, interval valued neutrosophic graph (IVNG) is the generalization of fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy graph and single valued neutrosophic graph. In this paper, we introduced some types of IVNGs, which are subdivision IVNGs, middle IVNGs, total IVNGs and interval valued neutrosophic line graphs (IVNLGs), also discussed the isomorphism, co weak isomorphism and weak isomorphism properties of subdivision IVNGs, middle IVNGs, total IVNGs and IVNLGs.
Category: General Mathematics

[144] viXra:1706.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:07:07

Supervised Pattern Recognition Using Similarity Measure Between Two Interval

Authors: Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar
Comments: 8 Pages.

F. Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set in 1995 and P. K. Maji introduced the notion of neutrosophic soft set in 2013, which is a hybridization of neutrosophic set and soft set. Irfan Deli introduced the concept of interval valued neutrosophic soft sets. Interval valued neutrosophic soft sets are most efficient tools to deals with problems that contain uncertainty such as problem in social, economic system, medical diagnosis, pattern recognition, game theory, coding theory and so on. In this article we introduce similarity measure between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets and study some basic properties of similarity measure. An algorithm is developed in interval valued neutrosophic soft set setting using similarity measure. Using this algorithm a model is constructed for supervised pattern recognition problem using similarity measure.
Category: General Mathematics

[143] viXra:1706.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:08:19

Survey On: Categorization Techniques on the Basis of on Evidential Reasoning

Authors: Priyanka Deshpande, A.N.Banubakode
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is studied in this paper that the arrangement of inadequate examples is an extremely testing assignment in light of the fact that the article (inadequate example) with distinctive feasible estimations of missing qualities may yield particular arrangement results. The insecurity (equivocalness) of grouping is for the most part brought about by the absence of data of the missing information.
Category: General Mathematics

[142] viXra:1706.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:09:20

Survey Paper on Aircraft Recognition for Satellite Image

Authors: D.PonJenifer, Y.R.Packia Dhas
Comments: 4 Pages.

Aircraft recognition plays an important role in image processing. Recognition processor is used to extract the shape of aircraft. Recognition is done using various algorithms. In this paper eight types of recognition algorithm are discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

[141] viXra:1706.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:15:51

The Category of Neutrosophic Crisp Sets

Authors: K. Hur, P. K. Lim, J. G. Lee, J. Kim
Comments: 12 Pages.

We introduce the category NCSet consisting of neutrosophic crisp sets and morphisms between them. And we study NCSet in the sense of a topological universe and prove that it is Cartesian closed over Set, where Set denotes the category consisting of ordinary sets and ordinary mappings between them.
Category: General Mathematics

[140] viXra:1706.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:20:44

Three Hierarchy Map Building Based on Artificial Label

Authors: Wu Hao, Tian Guohui, Pan Chunwei, Wang Xin, Yu Jinshan
Comments: 8 Pages.

When service robots carry on mission planning and execution, they not only need structural information about the environment to navigation and localization, but also need to possess deeper knowledge to endow a robot with higher degrees of autonomy and intelligence.
Category: General Mathematics

[139] viXra:1706.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:25:24

Transformation Method of Decision-Making Probability Based on Correlation Degree

Authors: ZHAO Yu-xin, JIA Ren-feng, LIU Chang, SHEN Zhi-feng
Comments: 7 Pages.

To slove the problem in the transformation of basic probability assignment to decision-making probability, this paper proposed a novel transformation method based on correlation degree.
Category: General Mathematics

[138] viXra:1706.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:26:26

Transparency of Accounting Information in Achieving Good Corporate Governance. True View and Fair Value

Authors: Mariana Man, Maria Ciurea
Comments: 21 Pages.

One of the key factors affecting the efficient use of resources, the increase of shareholders confidence in the managers of the company, the success in achieving objectives and economic efficiency is the system of corporate governance by which a company is managed and controlled.
Category: General Mathematics

[137] viXra:1706.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:29:56

Unification of Evidence Theoretic Fusion Algorithms: A Case Study in Level-2 and Level-3 Fingerprint Features

Authors: Mayank Vatsa, Richa Singh, Afzel Noore
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper formulates an evidence-theoretic multimodal unification approach using belief functions that takes into account the variability in biometric image characteristics. While processing non-ideal images the variation in the quality of features at different levels of abstraction may cause individual classifiers to generate conflicting genuine-impostor decisions.
Category: General Mathematics

[136] viXra:1706.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 02:31:16

Use of Neutrosophic Logic in Defining River Water Quality of Yamuna

Authors: Srijit Biswas, FIE Sonal Bhugra
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study we present a methodology of neutrosophic logic in defining river water quality of Yamuna, one of the most important river of Delhi. The laboratory test results of water quality parameters are not always found to be same in all locations of the river rather varies with wide range of interval daily, monthly and seasonally. For an engineer it is very difficult to define the water quality with degree of certainty.
Category: General Mathematics

[135] viXra:1706.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 05:25:56

Method of Precision Increase by Averaging with Application to Numerical Differentiation

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 19 Pages.

If several independent algorithms for a computer-calculated quantity exist, then one can expect their results (which differ because of numerical errors) to follow approximately Gaussian distribution. The mean of this distribution, interpreted as the value of the quantity of interest, can be determined with better precision than what is the precision provided by a single algorithm. Often, with lack of enough independent algorithms, one can proceed differently: many practical algorithms introduce a bias using a parameter, e.g. a small but finite number to compute a limit or a large but finite number (cutoff) to approximate infinity. One may vary such parameter of a single algorithm and interpret the resulting numbers as generated by several algorithms. A numerical evidence for the validity of this approach is shown for differentiation.
Category: General Mathematics

[134] viXra:1706.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 07:13:31

Electrodeless Spacecraft Propulsion Engine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The universe is made up of plasma, which is easily influenced by magnetic fields and forces, leading to complex behavior. [18] Measuring small fast electron populations hidden in a sea of colder "thermal" electrons in tokamak plasmas is very challenging. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science - and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[133] viXra:1706.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 09:26:28

Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 1 & Basics

Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin
Comments: 14 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

This article is part 1 in the "Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics", which is to lay the foundation for the full text. First, it should be clearly pointed out that a particle moving at the value c of the light speed in vacuum, its static mass can only be equal to 0, but doesn't exist in reality. Therefore, it is vital that how can we correctly make a distinction between the speed of light in vacuum and that in reality. Then, by the aid of the law of conservation of mass-energy, we know that the energy convergence phenomena of high-speed electrons are the result of the binding energy inside them to be lost gradually in the form of electromagnetic radiation. So, according to the related electromagnetic theories and the kinetics formulas of the special relativity theory, the study concluded that the charge of a moving electron will follow along with its static mass to be lost synchronously, and its charge-mass ratio whose value remains unchanged. Since an electron can be further broken down, then there should be a kind of more fundamental particles, the electro-ultimate particles, which can compose electrons and whose charge-mass ratio should be equal to the electronic physical constant. Besides, if nature's background (ether) is also composed of the electro-ultimate particles, Maxwell's electromagnetic theory should be true. A corollary is that all photons radiating from the electrons in a storage ring are composed of the electro-ultimate particles. Then, combining with de Broglie's matter wave formula, it is pointed out that the energy convergence phenomena of high-speed particles are the primary factor causing the spectrum redshift. And through this formula, the average force suffered by a high-speed particle moving along the direction of its wavelength can be obtained. Thus, according to Newton's third law to make a judgment, the ether must exist. Finally, point out the essence of so-called wave-particle duality: No matter where, as long as there is energy, there must be mass. And vice versa. The two as a unity of opposites present in front of us in the form of wave. They must exist at the same time, carry each other, be short of one cannot. In reality, both values can be close to zero, but never equal to zero.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[132] viXra:1706.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 11:45:22

Neural Networks and Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Specifying a number for each connection and mathematically forgetting the hidden neurons can produce a compact representation of many interesting quantum states, including states with topological characteristics and some with surprising amounts of entanglement. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[131] viXra:1706.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 13:41:27

Complex Continued Fractions , Numbers , Sequences , Number Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this note we recall some formulas related with continued fractions , numbers , sequences and the constant pi.
Category: Number Theory

[130] viXra:1706.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 13:45:55

The Quintic :Z^5+z^4-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this note we briefly explore the equation: z^5+z^4-1=0
Category: Number Theory

[129] viXra:1706.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 14:06:09

Comment on "Estimating the Extent of Antarctic Summer Sea Ice During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration" by Tom Edinburgh and Jonathan J. Day, the Cryosphere, 10, 2721–2730, 2016.

Authors: Krzysztof Sienicki
Comments: 2 Pages.

No Abstrect
Category: Geophysics

[128] viXra:1706.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 02:57:15

Neutral Electron Instead of Neutrino: a New Beta-Decay Model

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 29 Pages.

With the disintegration of the neutron, or -decay (d), a proton, a  ray and a third particle, the neutrino (), are emitted. Their mass and high kinetic energy compensate for the amount of energy and mass which the  ray is not able to fully take away, "when at least" according to Fermi, "we do not want to admit with Pauli the existence of a hypothetical particle, electrically neutral and having mass of the order of magnitude of the electronic mass." The requirements asked by Pauli and Fermi for the , or third particle of the d, are: it must be electrically neutral and have the same mass and spin of the electron. Why not to think of a neutral electron (e°)? All requests would be satisfied, the energy balance would be restored and all Conservation Laws would be safeguarded, without having to invent a new family of particles. Every time it was considered that the  had been detected, they were always indirect detection thanks to traces left by a ghost particle never detected de visu, never directly identified. It is the detection of the impacts’ effects, such as the Cherenkov Effect (CE), to prove the existence of , although it might be another particle to induce the CE. In Nature the CE is only elicited by electrons. The electrons of the atmospheric molecules, hit by cosmic rays at high altitude, are accelerated at very high speed so emitting the Cherenkov Light. No wonder it is still an electron, now without electric charge, to induce the various CEs highlighted during all the surveys carried out. If we considered that the  may coincide with an e°, the gap left by the enigma of Dark Matter and Missing Mass would be filled, so modifying the fate of the Universe: making it conform to Friedmann's first model. The e° is not antithesis with the Grand Unification Theory, since it envisages a  of some mass. In the Supersymmetric Model, the e° could be identified with the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may correspond to a self-conjugated Majorana stable fermion, since the latter, as well as the e° fully identify with their antiparticle (except spin: antiparallel): e°↓ ≡ ē°↑ .
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[127] viXra:1706.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 04:38:29

Superconducting Nanowire Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Developing a superconducting computer that would perform computations at high speed without heat dissipation has been the goal of several research and development initiatives since the 1950s. Such a computer would require a fraction of the energy current supercomputers consume, and would be many times faster and more powerful. Despite promising advances in this direction over the last 65 years, substantial obstacles remain, including in developing miniaturized low-dissipation memory. [33] NIST scientists have devised a novel hybrid system for cooling superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) – essential tools for many kinds of cutting-edge research – that is far smaller than those previously demonstrated and that eliminates the need for conventional cryogens-such as liquid helium. [32] The research team recently succeeded for the first time in precisely controlling the transition temperature of superconducting atomic layers using organic molecules. [31] For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[126] viXra:1706.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 06:13:56

An Exact GR-Solution for the Relativistic Rotator

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 20 Pages.

A relativistic rotator is a pair of black-holes moving around their center-of mass (com) on GR-orbits in their own gravitational field. First we present a GR-solution in the com-frame for non-rotating (Schwarzschild) black-holes in the usual spherical coordinates (t,r,theta,phi) using a complex transformation of the radius r . with the condition that for r→∞ the resulting orbit equations must be the Newtonian equations. We analyze the solution and show examples of orbits. In a second step we generalize it to the case of rotating (Kerr) black-holes
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[125] viXra:1706.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 07:12:16

Magnets Are Still Mysterious

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In many ways, magnets are still mysterious. They get their (often powerful) effects from the microscopic interactions of individual electrons, and from the interplay between their collective behavior at different scales. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[124] viXra:1706.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 08:06:29

Robot Write and Play its own Music

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology’s impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[123] viXra:1706.0197 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-28 09:57:27

Why Are Odd Bernoulli Numbers Equal to Zero?

Authors: Ryan Zielinski
Comments: 4 Pages. Version 2 is an extended version of the original paper. Both works are licensed under the CC BY 4.0, a Creative Commons Attribution License.

In this note we will use Faulhaber's Formula to explain why the odd Bernoulli numbers are equal to zero.
Category: Number Theory

[122] viXra:1706.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 15:11:32

Elegant Formulas for the Natural Logarithm

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois
Comments: 2 Pages.

J present two algorithms for calculating the natural logarithm of any real number. The first is an algorithm obtained by the method of Archimedes for the calculation of pi and the second the product of a succession of rad icals.
Category: Number Theory

[121] viXra:1706.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 15:14:46

Emdrive and Momentum Conservation

Authors: Elio Proietti
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this short article we use the notoriety of the EmDrive to get more attention to the important theoretical paper ''Momentum conservation in electromagnetic systems'' (removed by the moderators of arxiv). \\
Category: Classical Physics

[120] viXra:1706.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 21:49:08

Uranus is a Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

According to establishment dogma, Uranus is an “ice giant”, which is based on poor theory. Uranus is not “ice” nor is it the actual giant size it was in its past. It is a highly evolved star probably even older than Neptune according to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Reasoning is provided to replace the outdated dogma.
Category: Astrophysics

[119] viXra:1706.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-15 21:47:18

Lesson 9: Navier-Stokes Equations Solved Simply

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 19 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Coincidences. The US Supreme Court consists of nine members, one of whom is the Chief Justice of the Court. So also, a one-direction Navier-Stokes equation consists of nine members, one of which is the indispensable gravity term, without which there would be no incompressible fluid flow as shown by the solutions of the N-S equations (viXra:1512.0334). Another coincidence is that numerologically, the number, 9, is equivalent to the 1800's (1 + 8 + 0 + 0 = 9) time period during which the number of the members of the Supreme Court became fixed at 9, while the formulation of the nine-term N-S equations was completed. Also, another coincidence is that the solutions of the N-S equations were completed (viXra:1512.0334) by the author in the year, 2016 (2 + 0 +1+ 6 = 9). Using a new introductory approach, this paper covers the author's previous solutions of the N-S equations (viXra:1512.0334). In particular, the N-S solutions have been compared to the equations of motion and liquid pressure of elementary physics. The N-S solutions are (except for the constants involved) very similar or identical to the equations of motion and liquid pressure of elementary physics. The results of the comparative analysis show that the N--S equations have been properly solved. It could be stated that the solutions of the N-S equations have existed since the time the equations of motion and liquid pressure of elementary physics were derived. A one-direction Navier-Stokes equation has also been derived from the equations of motion and liquid pressure of elementary physics. Insights into the solutions include how the polynomial parabolas, the radical parabolas, and the hyperbolas interact to produce turbulent flow. It is argued that the solutions and methods of solving the N-S equations are unique, and that only the approach by the author will ever produce solutions to the N-S equations. By a solution, the equation must be properly integrated and the integration results must be tested in the original equation for identity before the integration results are claimed as solutions
Category: Mathematical Physics

[118] viXra:1706.0192 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-04 17:51:05

The End of FLT

Authors: Leszek W. Guła
Comments: 6 Pages.

1. The proper proof of The Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT). 2. The proof of the theorem - For all n∈{3,5,7,…} and for all z∈{3,7,11,…} and for all natural numbers u,υ: z^n≠u^2+υ^2.
Category: Number Theory

[117] viXra:1706.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 02:21:37

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion {Latest Super Ultimate Version}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1] (please see the addendum of [1] as well).
Category: Statistics

[116] viXra:1706.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 03:22:48

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion {Latest Correct Version}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1] (please see the addendum of [1] as well).
Category: Statistics

[115] viXra:1706.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 03:48:11

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion {Latest Newest Ultimate Correct Version}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1] (please see the addendum of [1] as well).
Category: Mathematical Physics

[114] viXra:1706.0188 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-24 22:38:17

宇宙是大爆炸而来吗?

Authors: Liu Ran
Comments: 11 Pages.

大爆炸理论有很多合理成分,但也有不完备的地方,任何人都有完备它的权利,只要你能证明它。科学是为充满好奇心的人而生,而非名利之徒。 宇宙诞生于一个卵,和所有生命的诞生都一样。
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[113] viXra:1706.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 11:14:01

A Decision Making Method by Combining Topsis and Grey Relation Method Under Fuzzy Soft Sets

Authors: Selim ERASLAN, Naim ÇAĞMAN
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this study, we first introduce the fuzzy sets, soft sets, fuzzy soft sets and their related properties. We then present the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) that is one of classical Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methods. We also present the Grey Relation Method. In the main part of this study, we extend the TOPSIS method on the fuzzy soft set theory to construct a decision making method to deal with problems that contain uncertainties. To make it we combine the TOPSIS and The Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) under fuzzy soft sets. We finally give an illustrative application for drug selection.
Category: General Mathematics

[112] viXra:1706.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 11:16:34

A Framework of Collaborative Change Detection with Multiple Operators and Multi-Source Remote Sensing Images

Authors: Xi Chen, Jing Li, Yunfei Zhang, Liangliang Tao, Wei Shen
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposes a framework of change detection with multi-source remote sensing images through collaboration of multiple operators. Firstly, pre-processed images are distributed to different operators. Then the images are classified by the operators independently. Finally, with uploaded classification results, change detection result can be derived through evidential fusion based on PCR5 rule in the server. By making use of complementary and redundant information in the images, the framework can solve the problems of information loss, imprecision, inconformity or conflict in multi-source data.
Category: General Mathematics

[111] viXra:1706.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 11:17:57

Aggregation Operators Of neutrosophic Linguistic Numbers For multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 11 Pages.

Based on the concept of neutrosophic linguistic numbers (NLNs) in symbolic neutrosophic theory presented by Smarandache in 2015, the paper firstly proposes basic operational laws of NLNs and the expected value of a NLN to rank NLNs. Then, we propose the NLN weighted arithmetic average (NLNWAA) and NLN weighted geometric average (NLNWGA) operators and discuss their properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[110] viXra:1706.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 11:21:03

LCT: A Lightweight Cross-domain Trust Model for the Mobile Distributed Environment

Authors: Zhiquan Liu, Jianfeng Ma, Zhongyuan Jiang, Yinbin Miao
Comments: 22 Pages.

In the mobile distributed environment, an entity may move across domains with great frequency. How to utilize the trust information in the previous domains and quickly establish trust relationships with others in the current domain remains a challenging issue. The classic trust models do not support cross-domain and the existing cross-domain trust models are not in a fully distributed way. This paper improves the outstanding Certified Reputation (CR) model and proposes a Lightweight Cross-domain Trust (LCT) model for the mobile distributed environment in a fully distributed way.
Category: General Mathematics

[109] viXra:1706.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 11:22:58

Alliance Based Evidential Reasoning Approach with Unknown Evidence Weights

Authors: Shengqun CHEN, Yingming WANG, Hailiu SHI, Meijing ZHANG, Yang LIN
Comments: 39 Pages.

In the evidential reasoning approach of decision theory, different evidence weights can generate different combined results. Consequently, evidence weights can significantly influence solutions. In terms of the “psychology of economic man,” decision-makers may tend to seek similar pieces of evidence to support their own evidence and thereby form alliances.
Category: General Mathematics

[108] viXra:1706.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 11:25:17

A Method for Recognizing Fatigue Driving Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory and Fuzzy Neural Network

Authors: WenBo Zhu, Huicheng Yang, Yi Jin, andBingyou Liu
Comments: 10 Pages.

This study proposes a method based on Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) and fuzzy neural network (FNN) to improve the reliability of recognizing fatigue driving.
Category: General Mathematics

[107] viXra:1706.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 11:34:03

A Multi-Valued Neutrosophic Qualitative flexible Approach Based on Likelihood for Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Problems

Authors: Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Wu-E.Yang
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems based on the qualitative flexible multiple criteria method (QUALIFLEX), in which the criteria values are expressed by multi-valued neutrosophic information, are investigated. First,multi-valued neutrosophic sets(MVNSs),which allow the truth-membership function,indeterminacy-membership function and falsity-membership function to have a set of crisp values between zeroand one, are introduced.
Category: General Mathematics

[106] viXra:1706.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 11:36:53

An Agent-based Integrated Self-evolving Service Composition Approach in Networked Environments

Authors: Dayong Ye, Qiang He, Yanchun Wang, Yun Yang
Comments: 13 Pages.

Service composition is an important research problem in service computing systems, which combines simple and individual services into composite services to fulfill users’ complex requirements. Service composition usually consists of four stages, i.e., service discovery, candidate selection, service negotiation and task execution. In self-organising systems, there is the fifth stage of service composition: self-evolution.
Category: General Mathematics

[105] viXra:1706.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 12:25:59

A New Modified Neutrosophic Set Segmentation Approach

Authors: Eser Sert
Comments: 17 Pages.

Segmentation is paramount to 3D video systems employing multi-view video-plus-depth data (MVD) to implement free-viewpoint navigation and comfortable 3D viewing, modeling, and comprehension.
Category: General Mathematics

[104] viXra:1706.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 12:31:29

A New Weighted Average Operator Based on Simplified Neutrosophic and Its Application

Authors: Rui Hu, Mengjin Wei, Hongchun Sun
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, a new simplified neutrosophic weighted average operator is presented, which is named as the simplified Neutrosophic Weighted Maclaurin Mean (NWMM). At the same time, the aggregated formula of NWMM is also established and showed in detail, and some properties of NWMM are researched. Finally, a practical application in E-commerce of the developed method is given.
Category: General Mathematics

[103] viXra:1706.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 12:35:24

An Extension of the Electre Approach with Multi-Valued Neutrosophic Information

Authors: Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Xiao-hui Wu
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, an extension Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) method is introduced to handle multi-valued neutrosophic multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[102] viXra:1706.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 12:40:02

An Improved Score Function for Ranking Neutrosophic Sets and Its Application to Decision-Making Process

Authors: Nancy, Harish Garg
Comments: 9 Pages.

The neutrosophic set (NS) is a more general platform which generalizes the concept of crisp, fuzzy, and intuitionistic fuzzy sets to describe the membership functions in terms of truth, indeterminacy, and false degree. Under this environment, the present paper proposes an improved score function for ranking the single as well as interval-valued NSs by incorporating the idea of hesitation degree between the truth and false degrees. Shortcomings of the existing function have been highlighted in it. Further, the decision-making method has been presented based on proposed function and illustrates it with a numerical example to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.
Category: General Mathematics

[101] viXra:1706.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 12:45:31

An Interval-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Multigranulation Rough Set Over Two Universes Model for Steam Turbine Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Chao Zhang, Deyu Li, Yimin Mu, Dong Song
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the field of mechanical engineering, steam turbine fault diagnosis is a difficult task for mechanical engineers who are confronted with challenges in dealing with copious amounts of uncertain information.
Category: General Mathematics

[100] viXra:1706.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 12:46:33

An Introduction to Fuzzy Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Y. Veereswari
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduce fuzzy neutrosophic topological spaces and its some properties. Also we provide fuzzy continuous and fuzzy compactness of fuzzy neutrosophic topological space and its some properties and examples.
Category: General Mathematics

[99] viXra:1706.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 07:17:05

Einstein Equivalence Principle for Quantum Superpositions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Mathematician and physicist Albert Einstein described the principle last century and it became known as 'Einstein's equivalence principle' for atoms whose mass is in a quantum superposition state. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[98] viXra:1706.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 07:47:04

Classical and Quantum Machine Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[97] viXra:1706.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-11 04:17:02

Super Distance Communication with Quantum Entanglement

Authors: Yuan Kai
Comments: 9 pages. Both English and chinese version encluded.

Super distance communication with quantum packet selection and grouping plus interval correction. The first step is to group the light quantum, 2 pairs of entangled quantum constitute a group,so the group include 4 light quantum. The second step will be compiled for each of the 3 groups of quantum,we call the 3 groups as a round. By observe a round(6 light quantems) we determine valid round and invalid round.By valid round and interval we could send or receive message.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] viXra:1706.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-10 07:33:25

Polariton Transistors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[95] viXra:1706.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-10 08:47:50

Skyrmion Breathing Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[94] viXra:1706.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-10 10:12:01

Seeing Through Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

With yogurt and crushed glass, University of Michigan researchers have taken a step toward using visible light to image inside the body. Their method for focusing light through these materials is much faster and simpler than today's dominant approach. [26] A research team led by Professor YongKeun Park of the Physics Department at KAIST has developed an optical manipulation technique that can freely control the position, orientation, and shape of microscopic samples having complex shapes. [25] Rutgers researchers have developed a new way to analyze hundreds of thousands of cells at once, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of illnesses, including tuberculosis and cancers. [24] An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[93] viXra:1706.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-25 05:42:38

Process Linked to Gravity Affecting Mass-Energy

Authors: Santiago Lopez Ugarte
Comments: 37 Pages.

The proposal assumes that the distortion of space-time due to relative velocity (Special Relativity), and the distortion of space-time produced by gravitational fields (General Relativity) are linked to changes of state that affect to mass-energy. The hypothesis proposes the existence of a process linked to gravity, this phenomenon would affect mass-energy. It would be required to add an additional condition (being a more restrictive scenario) keeping the field equations that define space-time curvature, but by adding the condition linked to the proposed phenomenon, the trajectory that would follow mass-energy in that curved space-time, changes with respect to the established by the officially accepted model. The effect is negligible if the distortion of space-time caused by a gravitational field does not have a significant value. The hypothesis proposed allows to calculate mathematically the discrepancy that would exist with respect to the current model. In case of being correct, the proposal would have important implications in diverse areas of science and its effect would be determinant in the study of black holes or questions related to Cosmology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[92] viXra:1706.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 15:55:11

Calculating Breit-Wigner Width of Hadrons

Authors: M. J. Germuska
Comments: 47 Pages.

This paper shows how Breit-Wigner width of hadrons may be calculated using Vir Theory of Particles. The theory provides formulas for the relationship between mass and spin as well as for width and spin. The width of over 150 particles are calculated with such accuracy that the errors from the actual width are entirely attributable to the width measurement errors. The particles come from 16 families including the lightest family N and the heaviest family Y.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[91] viXra:1706.0137 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-14 12:16:22

Exact Gibbs Statistical Mechanics of a System of Quadratic Liénard Type Oscillators

Authors: Marcellin Nonti, Fernando Y. J. Kpomahou, Jean Akande, Damien K. K. Adjaï, Lucas H. Koudahoun, Marc D. Monsia
Comments: 4 pages

Hamiltonian dynamics and exact Gibbs statistical mechanics of a system of quadratic Liénard type oscillators have been investigated. The work has shown that the canonical ensemble for the harmonic oscillator is a particular case of the Gibbs ensemble theory developed in this paper.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[90] viXra:1706.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 11:07:48

Tweezers to Nuclear Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Bochum have developed numerical "tweezers" that can pin a nucleus in place, enabling them to study how interactions between protons and neutrons produce forces between nuclei. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[89] viXra:1706.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-10 03:13:32

Principle of Mach: the Cosmic Origin of the Inertial Mass

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 66 Pages. Spanish

We understand the principle of Mach as the assertion that the inertia of a body is not an intrinsic quality of matter, but is the effect of the action of the whole Universe. The forces of inertia act when a body is accelerated. But if we assume that is the Universe that is accelerated, it will generate a gravitational inductive force on the body, which can be understood as the force of inertia. In this research we calculated the gravitational induction produced on a body by the accelerated movement of the whole of the Universe. We used the linearized theory of General Relativity, therefore the results are approximate, but sufficient to give us an idea of how the Universe conforms the inertia of the bodies.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[88] viXra:1706.0134 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-23 17:13:00

Series Representation of Power Function

Authors: Kolosov Petro
Comments: 15 pages, 5 figures, 1 table, results generalized, references revised, Mathematica codes in Application 1 rearranged, comments are welcome

In this paper described numerical expansion of natural-valued power function x^n, in point x=x_0 where (n, x_0) - natural numbers. Applying numerical methods, that is calculus of finite differences, namely, discrete case of Binomial expansion is reached. Received results were compared with solutions according to Newton’s Binomial theorem and MacMillan Double Binomial sum. Additionally, in section 4 exponential function’s e^x representation is shown.
Category: Number Theory

[87] viXra:1706.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 07:34:42

3-D Measurements of Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A team of researchers from Uppsala University, China and Germany have substantially extended the possibilities of an experimental technique called EMCD, that is used for measuring magnetism in materials. [23] Three teams working independently have found a nearly identical way to boost the resolution of quantum magnetic sensors, allowing frequency measurements with far higher precision than previous techniques. [22] The 'quantized magneto-electric effect' has been demonstrated for the first time in topological insulators at TU Wien, which is set to open up new and highly accurate methods of measurement. [21] In a recent experiment at EPFL, a microwave resonator, a circuit that supports electric signals oscillating at a resonance frequency, is coupled to the vibrations of a metallic micro-drum. [20] Researchers at the Institute of Solid State Physics map out a radically new approach for designing optical and electronic properties of materials in Advanced Materials. [19] Now MIT physicists have found that a flake of graphene, when brought in close proximity with two superconducting materials, can inherit some of those materials' superconducting qualities. As graphene is sandwiched between superconductors, its electronic state changes dramatically, even at its center. [18] EPFL scientists have now carried out a study on a lithium-containing copper oxide and have found that its electrons are 2.5 times lighter than was predicted by theoretical calculations. [17] Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons - thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature - to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[86] viXra:1706.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 08:44:29

On e-mu-Tau Universality

Authors: Cvavbc Chandra Raju, C.prudhvi Raju
Comments: 3 Pages. recent experiments at CERN indicate non-universality

using e-mu universality and with the help of mixing parameters obtained from e-mu masses,the masses of the charged W(R) boson and the neutral D-boson are shown to be73.39 GeV and 86.16 GeV respectively.The weak interaction constant of the tau-lepton and its neutrino is shown to be related to the Fermi constant through an angle of 5.6 degrees, which also happens to be the angle with Cabibbo type of mixing among leptons
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[85] viXra:1706.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 08:53:05

Quantum Spin Liquids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Neutron scattering has revealed in unprecedented detail new insights into the exotic magnetic behavior of a material that, with a fuller understanding, could pave the way for quantum calculations far beyond the limits of the ones and zeros of a computer's binary code. [10] An international team of scientists, led by Attila Geresdi at QuTech has now demonstrated a new technology enabling more reliable characterization for future control of Majorana particles. [9] On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[84] viXra:1706.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 10:33:57

Linear Equations with Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Physicists have experimentally demonstrated a purely quantum method for solving systems of linear equations that has the potential to work exponentially faster than the best classical methods. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[83] viXra:1706.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 05:00:49

Spin Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[82] viXra:1706.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 16:09:05

The Scientific Definition of Time

Authors: Bill Gaede
Comments: 12 Pages.

Different cultures around the world have independently discovered time in antiquity and developed calendars and clocks to measure this mysterious unknown. We say ‘mysterious’ because to this day no one has defined what ‘time’ is or means. Yet Mathematical Physics, particularly Special and General Relativity, are founded on time; neither can do without this strategic term. Time dilation is one of the three pillars of Special Relativity and the dimension of time is the fourth leg of General Relativity’s ubiquitous space-time. What is it that theoreticians are stretching? What are they warping? Is time a dimension? Is it legal to replace height with time on a Cartesian chart and turn it into a Feynman diagram? And if time was born at the Big Bang, what is it that came to life? What does the babe look like? A closer analysis reveals that time is not a dimension. We discover that time cannot do without an observer. More fundamentally, we discover that unless we define this enigmatic word we will never understand what anyone who uses it is talking about.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[81] viXra:1706.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 16:12:47

How a Magnet Physically Attracts Another from a Distance

Authors: Bill Gaede
Comments: 12 Pages.

There is a set of properties that a theory must address in order to explain the magical, invisible, action-at-a-distance phenomenon of attraction and repulsion between two magnets. Here we show that of the entities proposed to date only the Rope Hypothesis can physically simulate all of them.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[80] viXra:1706.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 01:26:59

On Proton-Neutron Indistinguishabilty and Distinguishability in the Nucleus

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 10 Pages.

There is a fundamental duality in as to how protons and neutrons are treated as formimg the nucleus. A nucleus can be described well in an SU (2) I model (where (p-n) are indistinguishable) and in another independent picture where the pair (p-n) is treated as made up of distinguishable proton and netron fermions. Both of these apparently provide successful equivalent descriptions of the nucleus. How this is possible is the focus of this paper. Starting with the Standard Model and the SU(3)-flavour quark models, we look at the microssopic basis for this duality. Chirality and anomaly cancellation and its matching, play a basic role in our work.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[79] viXra:1706.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 01:36:02

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion (Latest Ultimate Version)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1] (please see the addendum of [1] as well).
Category: Mathematical Physics

[78] viXra:1706.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-13 15:07:37

The Composition of the Mechanical Force

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the synthesis of the Newtonian mechanical force and its counter part the inertial force. It is shows that the Newtonian mechanical force splits into two counter forces when it is act upon a rigid body. The paper is also shows the derivation of the momentum and the kinetic energy that occur due to the presence of the inertial force.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[77] viXra:1706.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 11:21:19

Quantum Internet by Distillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[76] viXra:1706.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 11:51:46

Quantum Communication Toolbox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[75] viXra:1706.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 12:42:51

Close Correlation Between Solar and Seismic Activities

Authors: A. M. Eigenson
Comments: 16 Pages.

Large earthquakes in the last 260 years are compared with the epochs of minima of 11-year cycles of Solar activity. We use the data from 352 earthquakes of magnitude 7 and larger. Close correlation between earthquakes and the minima of solar cycles is shown, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9998. Maximal number of earthquakes shows 11-year periodicity. The number of earthquakes increases with time and reaches its currently largest number in the last Solar cycles, corresponding to the decrease of Solar activity in cycle 23. Furthermore, we analyse the data of large volcanic eruptions in the last 400 years. Similarly to earthquakes, the volcanic eruptions show the correlation with the minima of Solar activity, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The volcanic eruptions also tend to increase with time, corresponding to the decrease of Solar activity. The found correlation between solar and seismic activities opens the possibility of prognosis because the Solar activity may be predicted for many years forward.
Category: Geophysics

[74] viXra:1706.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 09:39:38

Superfluid Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[73] viXra:1706.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 10:28:14

Microwave Spectrometer for the Majorana Quest

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

An international team of scientists, led by Attila Geresdi at QuTech has now demonstrated a new technology enabling more reliable characterization for future control of Majorana particles. [9] On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[72] viXra:1706.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 10:55:28

Quantum Satellite Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1706.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 05:41:56

Research Proposal for Secure “Double Slit Experiment”

Authors: Sandeep Cheema
Comments: 11 Pages.

The key objective of this research proposal is to resolve or advance with the “measurement problem”. A new architecture has been designed for the “Double slit experiment” using techniques and technology that have been recently developed. The design ensures there would not be a speck of proof left in the universe that can be recovered for determining a specific detector state. Quantum key based “One time pad” encryption and “Self-destructing” circuits are implemented to secure the information from being eavesdropped. Only the sum of states would be accessible to the experimenter thus eliminating any theoretical or implied way to recover what the detectors measured. By looking at the sum it can be concluded whether the detectors measured waves, particles or combination of both.
Category: Quantum Physics

[70] viXra:1706.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-07 13:27:02

Finding Charge-Parity Violation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

The different rates of neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations recorded by an international collaboration of researchers in Japan—including from Kavli IPMU—is an important step in the search for a new source of asymmetry in the laws that govern matter and antimatter.[12] Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[69] viXra:1706.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-07 14:51:48

On the Quantum Differentiation of Smooth Real-Valued Functions

Authors: Kolosov Petro
Comments: 12 pages, 6 figures, arXiv:1705.02516

Calculating the value of $C^{k\in\{1,\infty\}}$ class of smoothness real-valued function's derivative in point of $\mathbb{R}^+$ in radius of convergence of its Taylor polynomial (or series), applying an analog of Newton's binomial theorem and $q$-difference operator. $(P,q)$-power difference introduced in section 5. Additionally, by means of Newton's interpolation formula, the discrete analog of Taylor series, interpolation using $q$-difference and $p,q$-power difference is shown. Keywords: derivative, differential calculus, differentiation, Taylor's theorem, Taylor's formula, Taylor's series, Taylor's polynomial, power function, Binomial theorem, smooth function, real calculus, Newton's interpolation formula, finite difference, q-derivative, Jackson derivative, q-calculus, quantum calculus, (p,q)-derivative, (p,q)-Taylor formula, mathematics, math, maths, science, arxiv, preprint
Category: Number Theory

[68] viXra:1706.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-07 19:48:40

On the Link Between Finite Difference and Derivative of Polynomials

Authors: Kolosov Petro
Comments: 12 pages, 1 figure, arXiv:1608.00801

The main aim of this paper to establish the relations between forward, backward and central finite (divided) differences (that is discrete analog of the derivative) and partial & ordinary high-order derivatives of the polynomials. Keywords: finite difference, divided difference, high order finite difference, derivative, ode, pde, partial derivative, partial difference, power, power function, polynomial, monomial, power series, high order derivative, mathematics, differential calculus, math, maths, science, arxiv, preprint, algebra, calculus, open science, differential equations
Category: Number Theory

[67] viXra:1706.0110 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-07 13:19:22

How to Determine Initial Starting Time Step with an Initial Hubble Parameter H = 0 After Formation of Causal Structure Leading to Investigation of the Penrose Weyl Tensor Conjecture

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 24 Pages. Accepted for JHEPGC, by Christian Corda(this version) plus its rendition in a September Meeting in Kiev,

Detailed supposition setting up for a future Weyl Tensor vetting of the Penrose supposition of its vanishing in the site of a singularity. Paper lays out precursors to a detailed future calculation, on this, in four dimensions, and lays open what may be investigated in higher dimensions, as a window into early universe gravitational wave production.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[66] viXra:1706.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 02:53:44

Relativistic Doppler Effect Versus Time Dilation: Critical Inconsistency

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 3 pages

The period of a light wave emitted by an oscillating electron in a “stationary” reference frame was determined in a relatively moving frame using the Lorentz transformation applied on different event intervals; one being between two events on the wave propagation path, and the other between two co-local events on the oscillating source path. A critical inconsistency in the Special Relativity was revealed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[65] viXra:1706.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 03:04:51

Momentum Conservation in Electromagnetic Systems

Authors: Elio Proietti
Comments: 8 Pages.

Newton's third law doesn't apply to electromagnetic systems. Nevertheless a relativistic dissertation, directly founded on Maxwell's equations and on relativistic dynamics, allows us to establish rigorously the law of total momentum for such systems. Some undervalued details about the role of internal forces in isolated systems are emphasized. The laws governing momentum in systems subject to electromagnetic forces are consistent in every situation. There are no reasons to postulate the existence of a hidden momentum to avoid non-existent paradoxes in the case of static fields.
Category: Classical Physics

[64] viXra:1706.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-07 11:14:26

Quantum Fluctuations in Exotic Phases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Many fascinating phenomena with promising technological applications in areas such as superconductivity are linked to quantum phase transitions, but the role of quantum fluctuations in such transitions remains unclear. [29] By precisely measuring the entropy of a cerium copper gold alloy with baffling electronic properties cooled to nearly absolute zero, physicists in Germany and the United States have gleaned new evidence about the possible causes of high-temperature superconductivity and similar phenomena. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[63] viXra:1706.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-07 12:16:44

The Principle of Energy Transformations in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution (planet formation) is presented to further clarify the star sciences and make them coherent.
Category: Astrophysics

[62] viXra:1706.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 11:10:53

Primes Obtained Concatenating P∙q∙r-P with P∙q∙r-Q with P∙q∙r-R Then with P∙q∙r Where p, q, R Primes of the Form 6k+1

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper is inspired by one of my previous papers, namely “Large primes obtained concatenating the numbers P - d(k) where d(k) are the prime factors of the Poulet number P”, where I conjectured that there are an infinity of primes which can be obtained concatenating the numbers P - d(1); P - d(2); ...; P – d(k); P, where d(1), ..., d(k) are the prime factors of the Poulet number P. Because some of these Poulet numbers are 3-Poulet numbers of the form (6k + 1)*(6h + 1)*(6j + 1) I extend in this paper that idea conjecturing that for any prime p of the form 6k + 1 there exist an infinity of pairs of primes [q, r], of the form 6h + 1 and 6j + 1, such that the number obtained concatenating p*q*r – p with p*q*r – q with p*q*r – r then with p*q*r is prime.
Category: Number Theory

[61] viXra:1706.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 11:11:34

New Solution to EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) Paradox and Bell’s Theorem Using HPT and One Hidden Variable T. HPT – Hoszowski Paul Theory.

Authors: Paul Hoszowski
Comments: 17 Pages

This theory (HPT) gives a simple explanation to the observed coincidences during experiments with entangled photons obtained by using BBO. HPT works without the problematic interactions between these twin photons after the act of emission.In HPT theory all interactions are local. Measurement outcomes are determined by features of objects present at the site of measurement. HPT is based on the introduction of factual polarization angle T. Value T is being determined at the moment of generation of twin photons i.e. only at the moment of reaching the state of their entanglement.This additional parameter T is locally separately connected with each particle. This work proves that it is possible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[60] viXra:1706.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 11:18:14

Nowe Rozwiązanie Paradoksu EPR (Einsteina-Podolsky'ego-Rosena) I Twierdzenia Bella za Pomocą HPT Oraz Zmiennej Ukrytej T. HPT – Hoszowski Paul Theory.

Authors: Paul K. Hoszowski
Comments: 17 Pages, in Polish

Teoria HPT daje proste wytłumaczenie obserwowanych koincydencji w czasie prowadzenia doświadczeń z fotonami uzyskanymi za pomocą BBO (tzw. splątanych fotonów – ang. twin photons). HPT działa bez wprowadzania problematycznych oddziaływań pomiędzy tymi splątanymi fotonami już po akcie emisji. W Teorii HPT wszystkie oddziaływania są lokalne. Wyniki pomiaru są określone przez własciwości obiektów obecnych w miejscu pomiaru. HPT opiera się na wprowadzeniu tzw. faktycznego kąta polaryzacji T. Wartość kąta T jest określana jednorazowo, w trakcie oddziaływania cząstek w momencie ich generacji, to znaczy tylko w momencie uzyskiwania stanu ich tzw. splątania. Ten dodatkowy parametr fizyczny T - kąt faktycznej polaryzacji Hoszowskiego - jest związany lokalnie z każdą cząstką oddzielnie. Ta praca udowadnia, że jest to możliwe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[59] viXra:1706.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 08:26:26

The Higgs Boson in a Physical Reality Perspective.

Authors: W.Berckmans
Comments: 2 Pages.

As goes for any elementary particle, a Higgs boson's properties as observed by Physics and the equivalent hypothetical values logically deduced within a valid Physical Reality (PhR) model must correspond.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[58] viXra:1706.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 09:05:48

Inertial Motions and Time Paradoxes

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper an elaboration of the physical concept of inertia is presented and it leads to a definition of the Generalized Principle of Inertia and of inertial motions in the order of a wider view that considers also the presence of the gravitational field. At last the paper terminates with the examination of a few paradoxes of time that certainly represent evident contradictions inside theories that prove the existence of relativistic effects of time that would be generated by imaginary changes of spacetime due to the inertial speed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[57] viXra:1706.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 04:10:22

Primes Obtained Concatenating P∙q-P with P∙q-Q Then with P∙q Where p, Q Primes of the Form 6k+1

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper is inspired by one of my previous papers, namely “Large primes obtained concatenating the numbers P - d(k) where d(k) are the prime factors of the Poulet number P”, where I conjectured that there are an infinity of primes which can be obtained concatenating the numbers P - d(1); P - d(2); ...; P – d(k); P, where d(1), ..., d(k) are the prime factors of the Poulet number P. Because some of these Poulet numbers are 2-Poulet numbers of the form (6k + 1)*(6h + 1) I extend in this paper that idea conjecturing that for any prime p of the form 6k + 1 there exist an infinity of primes q of the form 6h + 1 such that the number obtained concatenating p*q – p with p*q – q then with p*q is prime.
Category: Number Theory

[56] viXra:1706.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 05:58:08

"Anonyma: Eine Frau in Berlin": Ein Historisches Dokument Der Autorin Marta Hillers

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 3 Pages. in German language

Im April und Mai 1945 wurden 100.000 Frauen in Berlin von Soldaten der Roten Armee vergewaltigt. Von ihnen waren 65.000 im gebärfähigen Alter, 13.000 wurden schwanger. Die meisten Frauen haben abgetrieben, etwa 1.200 dieser Kinder wurden geboren [1-4]. Autobiographisch beschrieben wurden diese Vergewaltigungen in "Anonyma: Eine Frau in Berlin" [5]. Das Buch erschien zuerst 1954 in englischer Übersetzung [6], wurde 1959 in deutscher Sprache veröffentlicht und erst in der Neuauflage von 2003 ein Bestseller. Im Jahr 2008 wurde das Buch verfilmt, mit Nina Hoss in der Hauptrolle. Hier belege ich, dass diese Autobiographie kein Roman ist, wie oft behauptet, sondern ein historisches Dokument.
Category: Linguistics

[55] viXra:1706.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-10 14:39:11

The Mystery Behind the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper examines various alternatives for what the fine structure constant might represent. In particular, we look at an alternative where the fine structure constant represents the radius ratio divided by the mass ratio of the electron, versus the proton as newly suggested by Koshy [5], but here derived and interpreted based on Haug atomism (see [7]). This ratio is remarkably very close to the fine structure constant, and it is a dimensionless number. We also examine other alternatives such as the proton mass divided by the Higgs mass, which also appears as a possible candidate for what the fine structure constant might represent.
Category: Quantum Physics

[54] viXra:1706.0093 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-22 11:14:26

KIC 8462852—Physical Modelling of its Occulting Objects and the Growing Mystery Surrounding its Cyclic Fluctuations: A New Assessment

Authors: Andrew Collins, Rodney Hale
Comments: 18 Pages. This is a completely updated and revised form of the paper uploaded on June 05, 2017

KIC 8462862, an F-type main sequence star in the constellation of Cygnus, was found to be experiencing strange light fluctuations during the initial Kepler mission. Recorded data showed that the flux dropped by as much as 16 percent on one occasion in 2011 and 22 percent on another occasion in 2013. Various other major and minor light dimming episodes occurred across the entire Kepler mission, with an eclectic series of theories being offered to account for them. Experimental attempts are made to physically model the occulting objects behind the drops in flux to try and determine their line of sight profile, and through this their nature and appearance. The Kepler data for KIC 8462852 is re-examined to better understand the 0.88-day, 24.2-day and 48.4-day periodicities noted in connection with the star’s light dimming events. These reveal cyclic patterns that seem almost mechanical in nature, as well as recurring number sequences that warrant further investigation.
Category: Astrophysics

[53] viXra:1706.0092 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-12 15:13:52

Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles Due to Special Relativity

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 23 Pages.

That electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity has been confirmed by an exact mathematical result. Due to special relativity, rotation results in a difference velocity which has a maximum value. The maximum difference velocity, transformed by special relativistic effects, is the significant factor in an equation that produces the fine structure constant. The result exactly matches the 11 significant digits of the fine structure constant value recommended by CODATA. The maximum difference velocity is instrumental to quantization of angular momentum and energy. The maximum difference velocity also enables finding the radius of the electron from its known angular momentum. The electron velocity and radius scaled by the square root of the electron-proton mass ratio give the angular velocity and radius of the proton. The proton and electron characteristics thus calculated when applied to structural models lead to the measured neutron and deuteron masses recommended by CODATA within reported uncertainty. The proton g factor also follows from the proton model. Electron and proton are similar in structure, consisting of three mutually orthogonal rotating rings of mass.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[52] viXra:1706.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 00:33:27

An Holomorphic Study Of Smarandache Automorphic and Cross Inverse Property Loops

Authors: Temotope Gbolahan Jayeola
Comments: 9 Pages.

By studying the holomorphic structure of automorphic inverse property quasigroups and loops[AIPQ and (AIPL)] and cross inverse property quasigroups and loops[CIPQ and (CIPL)], it is established that the holomorph of a loop is a Smarandache; AIPL, CIPL, K-loop, Bruck-loop or Kikkawa-loop if and only if its Smarandache automorphism group is trivial and the loop is itself is a Smarandache; AIPL, CIPL, K-loop, Bruck-loop or Kikkawa-loop.
Category: General Mathematics

[51] viXra:1706.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 00:34:47

A Pair of Smarandachely Isotopic Quasigroups and Loops Of The Same Variety

Authors: Temotope Gbolahan Jayeola
Comments: 10 Pages.

The isotopic invariance or universality of types and varieties of quasigroups and loops described by one or more equivalent identities has been of interest to researchers in loop theory in the recent past. A variety of quasigroups(loops) that are not universal have been found to be isotopic invariant relative to a special type of isotopism or the other. Presently, there are two outstanding open problems on universality of loops: semi automorphic inverse property loops(1999) and Osborn loops(2005). Smarandache isotopism(S-isotopism) was originally introduced by Vasantha Kandasamy in 2002.
Category: General Mathematics

[50] viXra:1706.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 00:47:27

Generalized Fibonacci Sequences in Groupoids

Authors: Hee Sik Kim, J Neggers, Keum Sook So
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the notion of generalized Fibonacci sequences over a groupoid and discuss it in particular for the case where the groupoid contains idempotents and pre-idempotents. Using the notion of Smarandache-type P-algebra, we obtain several relations on groupoids which are derived from generalized Fibonacci sequences.
Category: General Mathematics

[49] viXra:1706.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 00:49:39

Labeled Graph - A Mathematical Element

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 35 Pages.

The universality of contradiction and connection of things in nature implies that a thing is nothing else but a labeled topological graph GL with a labeling map L.
Category: General Mathematics

[48] viXra:1706.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 00:53:01

Modern Picture of the World and the Creator

Authors: Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, Yu. A. Ryabov
Comments: 65 Pages.

The present article discuses the problems of new Unitary Quantum Theory in its applications to the different aspects of the reality. There are spectacular examples of such applications. The Modern science cannot explain origin of life's.
Category: General Mathematics

[47] viXra:1706.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 01:02:44

On the Photon’s Identity: Implications for Relativity and Cosmology

Authors: Ogaba Philip Obande
Comments: 9 Pages.

Light is investigated with simple harmonic motion formalism; the procedure reveals the photon’s physicalcharacteristics but fails to provide its exact identity.
Category: General Mathematics

[46] viXra:1706.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 01:04:16

On the Smarandache-Pascal Derived Sequences of Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

Authors: Zhengang Wu, Jianghua Li, Han Zhang
Comments: 8 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is, using the elementary method and the properties of the third-order linear recurrence sequence, to unify the above results by proving the following theorem.
Category: General Mathematics

[45] viXra:1706.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 01:06:41

On the Universality of Some Smarandache Loops of Bol-Moufang Type

Authors: Temotope Gbolahan Jayeola
Comments: 15 Pages.

A Smarandache quasigroup(loop) is shown to be universal if all its f; g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f; g-principal isotopes. Also, weak Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type such as Smarandache: left(right) Bol, Moufang and extra loops are shown to be universal if all their f; g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f; g-principal isotopes.
Category: General Mathematics

[44] viXra:1706.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 01:10:09

Role Creator in the Origin Universe and Unitary Quantum Theory

Authors: Leo G. Sapogin, Dzhanibekov V A, Yu. A. Ryabov
Comments: 29 Pages.

The present article discuses the problems of new Unitary Quantum Theory in its applications to the different aspects of the reality. There are spectacular examples of such applications. The Modern science cannot explain origin of life's.
Category: General Mathematics

[43] viXra:1706.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 01:11:10

Shared Multi-Space Representation for Neural-Symbolic Reasoning

Authors: Edjard de S. Mota, Yan B. Diniz
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper presents a new neural-symbolic reasoning approach based on a sharing of neural multi-space representation for coded fractions of first-order logic. A multi-space is the union of spaces with different dimensions, each one for a different set of distinct features.
Category: General Mathematics

[42] viXra:1706.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 01:23:26

Smarandache Isotopy Of Second Smarandache Bol Loops

Authors: Temotope Gbolahan Jayeola
Comments: 14 Pages.

The study of the Smarandache concept in groupoids was initiated by W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy. In her book and first paper on Smarandache concept in loops,she defined a Smarandache loop(S-loop) as a loop with at least a subloop which forms a subgroup under the binary operation of the loop.
Category: General Mathematics

[41] viXra:1706.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 01:32:12

The Repeated Divisor Function and Possible Correlation with Highly Composite Numbers

Authors: Sayak Chakrabarty
Comments: 8 Pages.

We found this problem in a paper by Florentin Smarandache. This is the 18th unsolved problem in his paper.
Category: General Mathematics

[40] viXra:1706.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 01:34:57

The Smarandache Curves on

Authors: Murat SAVAS, Atakan Tugkan YAKUT, Tugba TAMIRCI
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this study, we give special Smarandache curves according to the Sabban frame in hyperbolic space and new Smarandache partners in de Sitter space. The existence of duality between Smarandache curves in hyperbolic and de Sitter space is obtained. We also describe how we can depict picture of Smarandache partners in de Sitter space of a curve in hyperbolic space. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate our main results.
Category: General Mathematics

[39] viXra:1706.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 02:38:42

Non Velocity Interpretation of the Cosmic Redshift – Cosmological Implications

Authors: Laszlo A. Marosi
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, I reconsider the interpretation of Hubble’s Law as recession velocity of distant galaxies, in association with novel theories of the physical properties of the quantum vacuum, by assuming thermalization of starlight into a homogeneous black-body energy distribution. I present scientific theories and experimental results supporting the assumption that the proposed equilibration process might take place without any material mediator. The equilibration follows from the interaction between quantum states of the excited spacetime entity, and therefore, energy equilibration has to be looked at as a natural quantum physical process, instead of as a physically unlikely one. Cosmological implications of the presented theory are discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[38] viXra:1706.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 12:22:33

Introduction to Quantum Physics and Quantum Computers

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 70 Pages.

In the first part of this science lecture we take Richard Feynman famous words about nobody understanding quantum mechanics as a challenge to be overcome a the level of a typical sophomore college students. As a second part we examine the principles of quantum computers and run Shor algorithm as an example.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[37] viXra:1706.0042 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-05 14:44:43

Freefall Through a Timelike Dimension

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 11 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The model gives a vacuum solution where the center of gravity is an infinitely dense point in time rather than space. The internal metric is dynamic and describes two phases. In the first phase, space starts off infinitely sparse and then collapses to infinite density in a finite proper time measured by an inertial observer. In the second phase, the space expands out from this infinitely dense state (the temporal center of gravity) back to the zero density state. The geodesics remain well defined when traversing this infinitely dense state. It is shown that the second phase corresponds to current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[36] viXra:1706.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 07:44:56

Non Gravitational Deflection of Light in Special Relativity

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar
Comments: 1 Page.

We show that even Special Relativity predicts, as a consequence of length contraction, a kind of light’s deflection for an observer having a relativistic speed relative to the source.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[35] viXra:1706.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 07:52:21

Evidence for Quantum-Interference Phenomena in the Femtometer Scale of Baryons.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 2 figues and 10 pages

In a series of papers we have shown that through the imposition of gauge invariance conditions to the wavefunctions representing each particle, it is possible to relate rest energy to magnetic moment for the baryons. A key point of this model is the requirement that the magnetic flux linked through the region covered by the particle be quantized in units of hc/e, which converges to the inverse dependence of mass with the fine structure constant alpha, as reported in the literature. Our most accurate results however display deviations from the strict integer numbers of flux quanta, which requires an explanation. The objective of the present paper is to show that such deviations can be precisely associated to the flux dependence of the phase differences of interfering currents flowing through Josephson Junctions in the DC mode. In the same way as in macroscopic Josephson Junctions between superconductors, quantum interference between the constituents of baryons takes place when constituents superpose, which gives rise to squared sinusoidal undulations observed in a plot of the flux confined for each baryon against the respective magnetic moments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[34] viXra:1706.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 10:08:54

(Version 3.2 13 Pages 5.06.2017) on a Plausible Triple Electro-Gravito-Informational Significance of the Fine Structure Constant and Its Implications in the Four Fields Unification and the Existence of Life Forms in Our Universe

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 13 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 power law (Fürth, 1929; Eddington, 1938; Teller, 1948; Salam, 1970; Bastin, 1971; Sirag, 1980, 1983; Sanchez, Kotov and Bizouard, 2009, 2011, 2012; Kritov, 2013). This paper brings to attention a plausible triple electro-gravito-informational significance of the fine structure constant, with its implications in the four fields unification and the existence of life forms in our universe: this triple significance is based on the existence of a unifying global scaling factor of nature which appears in a hypothetical fine tuning of all the non-zero rest masses of the all the elementary particles in the Standard Model. Furthermore, this paper also proposes dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH) stating that the 3D appearance of space (or the 4D nature of spacetime) may be actually explained by the relative magnitude of the photon momentum quanta (and the hypothetical graviton momentum quanta respectively) and this global scaling factor (GSF): DRH also includes a generalized electrograviton model (EGM) for any hypothetical graviton. This paper also proposes a set of strong (and very strong) gravity constants and a gravitational field varying with the energy (and length) scale, all with potential importance in the unification of the four fundamental fields. Keywords: fine structure constant with triple electro-gravito-informational significance; unifying global scaling factor of nature; the four fields unification; the Standard Model of particle physics; dimensional relativity hypothesis; electrograviton model; life forms
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33] viXra:1706.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 10:41:49

On the Broader Sense of Life and Evolution: Its Mechanisms, Origin and Probability Across the Universe

Authors: Alexey V. Melkikh, Diego S. Mahecha
Comments: 48 Pages.

We consider connection between the mechanisms of evolution of life and the existence of conditions suitable for life in the universe. In particular we review the problem of calculating the number of civilizations that might exist in the universe. We conclude that to solve this problem, the different mechanisms involved in the evolution of life should be taken into account in addition to well-known factors, such as mechanisms involved in star formation in galaxies, mechanisms leading to the self-destruction of civilizations, self-organization processes in planetary atmospheres and other factors. However, realistic times of existence and evolution of life (civilizations) can only be obtained under the assumption that evolution is partially directed. On this basis, a mechanism for the evolution of life in the universe – which contains the evolution of life on Earth as a special case – is proposed.
Category: Physics of Biology

[32] viXra:1706.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 05:55:08

Large Primes Obtained Concatenating the Numbers P-D(k) Where D(k) Are the Prime Factors of the Poulet Number P

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there are an infinity of primes which can be obtained concatenating the numbers P - d(1); P - d(2); ...; P – d(k); P, where d(1), ..., d(k) are the prime factors of the Poulet number P. Example: using the sign “//” with the meaning “concatenated to”, for the Poulet number 129921 (= 3*11*31*127), the number (129921 – 3)//(129921 – 11)//(129921 – 31)//(129921 – 127)//129921 = 129918129910129890129794129921 is prime. Note that such primes are obtained for 10 from the first 90 Poulet numbers!
Category: Number Theory

[31] viXra:1706.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-04 16:36:31

Planck Dimensional Analysis of The Speed of Light

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: Pages.

This is a short note to show how the speed of light c can be derived from dimensional analysis from the Gravitational constant, the Planck constant and the Planck length.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1706.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 01:20:05

Theoritical Study of Fine Structure of Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Kang, Daehyeon
Comments: 7 Pages.

The new spin-orbit coupling function and the modified electrical potential are used to describe the finestructure of hydrogen atoms. We need to go through more verification, but I think it will succeed
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1706.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 02:03:41

Quaternions and Elliptical Space (Quaternions et Espace Elliptique)

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Georges Lemaitre
Comments: 13 Pages. Lemaitre's 1948 paper translated from original French, ACTA, Vol. XII, No. 8, pp. 57-80

The author applies the notion of quaternions, as practiced by Klein in the Erlangen program, to determine the fundamental properties of elliptical space.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[28] viXra:1706.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-04 11:53:02

Primes Obtained Concatenating the Numbers 30-D(k) Where D(1),...,d(k) Are the Digits of a Square of a Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: for many squares of primes (I conjecture that for an infinity of them) the numbers obtained concatenating 30 – d(1), 30 – d(2),..., 30 – d(k), where d(1),..., d(k) are the digits of a square of a prime, are primes. Example: for 1369 (= 37^2) the number obtained concatenating 29 = 30 – 1 with 27 = 30 – 3 with 24 = 30 – 6 with 21 = 30 – 9, i.e. the number 29272421, is prime. Note that for 35 from the first 200 squares of primes the numbers obtained this way are primes!
Category: Number Theory

[27] viXra:1706.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-04 12:51:12

Primes Obtained Concatenating the Numbers 30-D(n) Where D(1),...,d(n) Are the Digits of a Poulet Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following observation: for many Poulet numbers (I conjecture that for an infinity of them) the numbers obtained concatenating 30 – d(1), 30 – d(2),..., 30 – d(n), where d(1),..., d(n) are the digits of a n-digits Poulet number, are primes. Example: for 8911 the number obtained concatenating 22 = 30 – 8 with 21 = 30 – 9 with 29 = 30 – 1 with 29 = 30 – 1, i.e. the number 22212929, is prime.
Category: Number Theory

[26] viXra:1706.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-04 10:44:55

La Visión Y Planes Geopolíticos de Simón Bolívar Análisis Original Y Documentado

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 8 Pages.

Sin asumir de entrada las usuales ideas preconcebidas acerca de Simón Bolívar, su obra y sus objetivos, este trabajo de investigación histórica se basa no en arengas de campos de batalla, o comunicaciones diplomáticas, etc, sino mayormente en cartas entre Bolívar y sus colaboradores de su mayor confianza. La razón de ello es que creemos que son en esos escritos donde se puede encontrar mejor lo que Bolívar realmente pensaba y planeaba. Todo eso es analizado en el contexto de la geopolítica, global y de la incipiente Latinoamérica, de los principios del siglo XIX.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1706.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-04 06:25:09

The Pulga Constellation

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page.

Like stars in the universe so are freckles and moles on the body. In the universe one can see constellation but on a certain persons body there is a Pulga Constellation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[24] viXra:1706.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-04 02:09:22

Trigonometric Functions Extension and Mathematic Constances

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois, Essomba Essomba Dieudonne Gael
Comments: 24 Pages.

Introduction of new trigonometric functions and mathematical constants. The same mathematical equation connects the circle to the square, the sphere to the cube, the hyper-sphere to the hyper-cube, another also connects the ellipse to the rectangle, the ellipsoid to a rectangular parallelepiped, the hyper-ellipsoid To the rectangular hyper-parallelepiped.
Category: Number Theory

[23] viXra:1706.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-03 12:18:13

Alternative Cosmological Model Without ad Hoc Elements and Without Modifications in GR or QM

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 26 Pages.

A new simple cosmological model is shown to be able to overcome all major problems of modern cosmology without using ad hoc elements and without any modification in general relativity or quantum mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:1706.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-04 00:36:15

Illustration of the Emergence of Fundamental Forces

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we illustrate and describe briefly the emergence of fundamental forces.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] viXra:1706.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 13:57:12

The Heisenberg Principle of Temporary Violation of Energy Conservation

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 7 Pages.

This work discusses the differences between the energy-time Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the temporary violation of energy conservation counterpart. Based on this counterpart, the meaning of the Planck energy, reduced Planck energy, Planck mass and reduced Planck mass are discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1706.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 15:56:12

On the Origin of Sexual Preference

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 29 Pages.

Current science is inadequate for describing the complex framework for the origin of sexual preference because science has not had until now either a comprehensive model of living systems or ‘consciousness’ able to delineate the correspondence between biophysics and the noetic effect of the 3rd regime of unified field mechanics. This work begins reviewing aspects of psychology, biology and cognitive science, then develops an anthropic telergic teleology of mind-body interaction (physically real Cartesian interactive dualism) as the context for developing a pragmatic scientific model for the fundamental origin of sexual preference. The model utilizes archetypes originating in Jung’s concept of a collective unconscious which are also presumed to be physically real elements of ‘mind’. This so-called Noetic Theory (relying on spirit (chi, prana) as an inherent self-organized aspect of a ‘vital field’, as a physically real action principle) predicts a prenatal stressor acting during a key stage of embryonic development typically under a panoply of one or both parents exhibiting a threshold (gradient of severity) personality disorder(s). The resultant action of this ‘noetic effect’ orients the anima and animus archetypes as they are coupled into the biophysical substrate of the psyche (soul) and reverses, for the case here, the normal orientation hierarchy of the noetic field within the individuals ‘psychosphere’. Initially, because of conceptual similarity, the periodic reversal of the Earth’s geomagnetic field by the force of solar wind on the dynamo at the Earth’s core is utilized as a metaphor to axiomatically illustrate inversion of the Jungian anima and animus. This scenario is followed by a more technical and experimentally testable scientific description utilizing pertinent new principles related to the discovery of physics of awareness.
Category: Mind Science

[19] viXra:1706.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 17:11:50

Introduction to Conscious-Quantum Computer Musicology: New Genres, Technology and Ontology of Experience

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 9 Pages.

Quantum computing (QC) is imminent; can it add to the seasoned fields of electronic and computer music? After all, it seems unwarranted to requisition time on a massively parallel peta FLOP (1015, quadrillion calculations per second) supercomputer like the Chinese Sunway TaihuLight, the world's fastest, reaching 93.015 pFLOPS. There is however, something QCs will be able to do that will remain impossible on even a putative yottaFLOP (1024) Turing machine if Cartesian interactive dualism is the correct solution to the problem of awareness/consciousness. A special, 2nd generation class of conscious-QC modeled after the mind-body interface will be able to transduce physically real stored (extracellular) elements of mind (qualia): thought, mood, feelings, emotion directly into the awareness of the subject in a manner breaking down the so-called 1st person - 3rd person barrier. The theoretical model introduced, a paradigm shift in terms of current thinking in Cognitive Science (mind = brain) or cognitive musicology, is sufficiently mature to be experimentally testable suggesting that conscious-QC music may only be a couple of decades away.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1706.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-04 16:51:38

General Trigonometry of Rounded Geometric Figures

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois, Essomba Essomba Dieudonne Gael
Comments: 25 Pages.

The same mathematical equation connects the circle to the square, the sphere to the cube, the hyper-sphere to the hyper-cube, another also connects the ellipse to the rectangle, the ellipsoid to a rectangular parallelepiped, the hyper-ellipsoid To the rectangular hyper-parallelepiped. The understanding of these equations has taken us very far in a universe so familiar to mathematicians, the universe of periodic functions, and that of geometric forms with rounded ends revealing an infinity of new mathematical constants associated with them.
Category: Geometry

[17] viXra:1706.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 20:57:12

An Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 12 Pages. Science Lecture

An introduction to artificial neural networks at college sophomore level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1706.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-03 02:58:58

Isomerism in Quantum Dots: Geometries, Band Gaps, Dipole Moments, Ionization Energies and Heats of Formation

Authors: ssor Vitaly V. Chaban
Comments: 6 Pages.

Quantum dots (QDs) are applied in a variety of fields ranging from photovoltaics to biomedical imaging. Even the smallest QDs present a complicated potential energy surface characterized by a large set of stationary points. Each local minimum is an isomer of QD of given composition. An established theoretical methodology is hereby employed to obtain geometries of the QD isomers (Cd16S16, Cd16Se16, Zn16S16, Zn16Se16) and predict their fundamental electronic and thermodynamic properties. Significantly scattered heats of formation, with a difference of up to 1304 kcal mol-1 between the most and least thermodynamically stable isomers (Cd16S16), were found. The most shallow transition points can unlikely be observed in the experiments at finite temperature, since they are able to transform into more stable isomers upon thermal motion. Dipole moment is the most sensitive property to the QD isomer geometry. A global energy search technique was demonstrated to be an efficient tool to systematically identify isomers of QDs.
Category: Chemistry

[15] viXra:1706.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-03 03:28:17

Rotating Universe and Simultaneous Existence of Red and Blue Shifted Galaxies in Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 30 Pages. This paper is prepared for answering David Pinyana question on Mar. 18, 2017 @ 10:52 GMT in FQXi, topic 2925

Abstract: According to Dynamic Universe Model, our Universe is a Rotating Universe. In this model, electrons rotate about nucleus; Moons rotate about planets; Planets, asteroid and comets etc., rotate about stars; stars rotate about Galaxy center; Galaxies rotate about common center of local systems; and similarly Systems rotate in Ensembles, Aggregate, Conglomerations and Galaxy Clusters and so on and so forth. Galaxies coming near are Blue shifted and going away are red shifted. There are many blue shifted Galaxies in our universe. Here in this paper we will see different simulations to make such predictions from the output pictures formed from the Dynamic Universe model. There are some old and a few new simulations where different point masses are placed in different distances in a 3D Cartesian coordinate grid; and are allowed to move on universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. The output pictures depict the three dimensional orbit formations of point masses after some iterations. In an orbit so formed, some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted). In this paper the simulations predicted the existence of a large number of Blue shifted Galaxies, in an expanding universe, in 2004 itself. Over 8,300 blue shifted galaxies have been discovered extending beyond the Local Group, was confirmed by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations in the year 2009. Thus Dynamic Universe model predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1706.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-03 04:27:45

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion (New Version 4)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1].
Category: Statistics

[13] viXra:1706.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 11:17:25

The Origin of Gravity

Authors: Hubert J. Veringa
Comments: 49 Pages.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in de derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made, on the historical context into which it should be placed, how it affects the ordering of our immediate environment and how it works out works out on a cosmological ale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction. This contribution is therefore related to cosmological parameters and will be further elucidated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1706.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 11:38:28

From a Point to the Whole World: Quantum Model and Physical Quantity

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 3 Pages.

How is the world made up? So far, there is no good explanation. Based on the point model of the world, the quantum model is made by logical reasoning. Several thought experiment about perception are made to explain how physical quantities such as time and space emerge. Here we show that a dividing, decaying, and rotating point can build a colorful world.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1706.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 11:44:07

Newton Force is not Real Force: Analysis of Quantum Dynamics

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Quantum mechanics, classical mechanics and relativity mechanics are still in disunity, which is a problem in modern physics.The author establish a quantum model which can explain the cause of movement and force. Here we show that F=MV and Newton Force is the change rate of force. According to this new discovery, dynamics and electrics can be unified and calculating formulas of four forces are made.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1706.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 11:49:52

Planck Mass is Wrong: Recalculation of Quantum Measurement

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 1 Page.

Planck mass, length and time calculated by Planck constant are not unified in magnitude. According to my quantum model and formula system, I recalculate quantum mass, length and time, and achieve the unify of quantum measurement. Here we show that formula system of classical physics is wrong.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1706.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 09:38:09

How to Hack a Quantum Communication Chinese Satellite.

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 2 Pages.

A rule in Physics that is believed or set is stone is that a quantum satellite can’t be hack. If a Peek can be made to see the spins in a system that is entangled then the entanglement in a Chinese Quantum Satellite can be Peeked at (Active Quantum Measurement Proposal).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[8] viXra:1706.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 10:10:31

The World is a Point:Physical Application of the Law of Identity

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 3 Pages.

When we research the essence of the world, antinomy is found, which goes against the law of identity. In fact, antinomy shows the contradiction between experience and essence, and the law of identity is the most important tool to research the essence of the world. According to antinomy we can establish the incompleteness theorem in physics, which requires that the world model cannot contain any physical difference. According to identity we can get homoorganicity theorem, which requires that any part of the world is same with the whole. Here we show that the world can only be a point.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[7] viXra:1706.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-01 15:48:08

Possible Demonstratio of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Wilson Torres Ovejero
Comments: 12 Pages.

In mathematics, today there are six problems that take up to 200 years without solution, one of them is the demonstration of the Riemann hypothesis; Today I present a possible demonstration of this hypothesis that has spent 10 years of my life in its possible demonstration and I hope to have achieved it.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[6] viXra:1706.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-04 11:02:41

On the Mass Quantization of Black Holes

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 15 Pages.

Black holes are relatively simple cosmic objects that are characterized by their mass, their angular momentum and their electric charge. However, the laws that govern them are laws that we do not yet fully know. We can only sketch what really happens inside or around them. This paper tries to discover some of its secrets such as its minimum size and the law of the quantification of its mass. Finally, the “myth” of the Planck mass is busted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1706.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-01 17:59:21

Equivalence Between Reflective and Refractive Telescopes

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 4 Pages.

An attempt to obtain an ideal refractive surface
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1706.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-01 12:32:16

On the "Mysterious" Effectiveness of Mathematics in Science

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: 25 Pages.

This paper notes first that the effectiveness of mathematics in science appears to some writers to be "mysterious" or "unreasonable". Then reasons are given for thinking that science is, at root, the search for compression in the world. At more length, several reasons are given for believing that mathematics is, fundamentally, a set of techniques for compressing information and their application. From there, it is argued that the effectiveness of mathematics in science is because it provides a means of achieving the compression of information which lies at the heart of science. The anthropic principle provides an explanation of why we find the world - aspects of it at least - to be compressible. Information compression may be seen to be important in both science and mathematics, not only as a means of representing knowledge succinctly, but as a basis for scientific and mathematical inferences - because of the intimate relation that is known to exist between information compression and concepts of prediction and probability. The idea that mathematics may be seen to be largely about the compression of information is in keeping with the view, supported by evidence that is outlined in the paper, that much of human learning, perception, and cognition may be understood as information compression. That connection is itself in keeping with the observation that mathematics is the product of human ingenuity and an aid to human thinking.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1706.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-06 10:45:42

On the "Mysterious" Effectiveness of Mathematics in Science

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: 44 Pages.

This paper notes first that the effectiveness of mathematics in science appears to some writers to be "mysterious" or "unreasonable". Then reasons are given for thinking that science is, at root, the search for compression in the world. At more length, several reasons are given for believing that mathematics is, fundamentally, a set of techniques for information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP), and their application. From there, it is argued that the effectiveness of mathematics in science is because it provides a means of achieving the compression of information which lies at the heart of science. The anthropic principle provides an explanation for why we find the world -- aspects of it at least -- to be compressible. ICMUP may be seen to be important in both science and mathematics, not only as a means of representing knowledge succinctly, but as a basis for scientific and mathematical inferences -- because of the intimate relation that is known to exist between information compression and concepts of prediction and probability. Since ICMUP is a key part of the "SP theory of intelligence", evidence presented in this paper strengthens the already-strong evidence for the SP theory as a unifying principle across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, human learning, perception, and cognition, and neuroscience. The evidence and ideas in this paper may provide the basis for a "new mathematics for science" with potential benefits and applications in science and science-related areas.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1706.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-01 07:17:09

Neptune is a Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrative graphs

According to establishment dogma, Neptune sized objects should be rare. This is the complete opposite of the predictions made by stellar metamorphosis, which shows that Neptune objects will be quite common. Explanation is provided with a simple graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1706.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-01 03:24:26

Hypothesis of the Principle of Particle Pulsation. (Original in 1980)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

Hypothesis of the principle of particle pulsation. (Original in 1980) Elementary particles repeat the divergence and contraction of self-energy. The spontaneous breaking from the symmetry of the vacuum space is repeated at a very high speed. It is an energy aggregate that changes the degree of self-mass at a moment. The vacuum space is filled with energy, and the energy acts as a repulsive force to each other and holds the symmetry. The energy atmosphere is the vacuum itself. The vacuum space has a symmetry that the energy density of the energy atmosphere is the storage amount. The increase or decrease in the energy density from the vacuum level is a breach of the symmetry to the positive or negative, causing the mass to become a distortion of the space. Particle and wave conversion is repeated at a very high speed by alternating the symmetry breaking of the positive and the negative with the pulsation with the particle. In the mass extinction process of the particle pulsation, the whole mass of the particles is converted into energy and released into the field. Subsequently, it becomes mass generation stroke by the reaction, an equivalent amount of energy containing the information of the field is absorbed, the mass of the equivalent is formed again particles.
Category: Astrophysics