[195] **viXra:1303.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-04 07:28:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Using the Oblique-Length Contraction Factor, which is a generalization of Lorentz Contraction
Factor, one shows several trigonometric relations between distorted and original
angles of a moving object lengths in the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[194] **viXra:1303.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-07 00:13:28*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper presents a principle of relativity, which states that the laws of physics should only have the same form in all non-rotating reference frames.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[193] **viXra:1303.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-01 08:49:44*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 2 page poster for the Moriond 2013 conference in March 9-16 2013 . Very high phenomenology in the universe section. Assumes restricted SUSY space which would change early universe generation of HFGW

We investigate the relationship between gravitons and gravitinos with a revision of SUSY assuming a massive graviton, this leads to an entrophy value for the electroweak era. Further consequences including the value of the weak fermi scale occur naturally

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[192] **viXra:1303.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-31 23:27:08*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The concept of an "oil curse" has been widely debated in the literature. Two clear camps have emerged: (1) those that favor the basic hypothesis or a modified version thereof, and (2) those that find little generalizable empirical evidence for the negative impacts of oil and gas development on the political, socio-economic, and/or environmental trajectories of oil and gas producing nations relative to their non-oil and gas producing counterparts. Overall, we find no significant evidence to support a generalizable concept of an oil curse. In general, our results do not seek to dismiss concerns regarding the potential impacts of oil and gas development on some regions, but rather to illustrate that any such impacts do not appear to be universal in either their direction or magnitude. Similar to what other groups have found, we see evidence that - in some cases - increased oil and gas development appears to correlate with improved socio-economic indicators. In other cases, the evidence is ambiguous at best in light of the large numbers of confounding variables that are effectively impossible to rigorously account for in order to obtain clear and unequivocal negative causal mechanisms between oil and gas development and the status of a society.

**Category:** Social Science

[191] **viXra:1303.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-31 06:59:17*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

SUMMARY
Geometric Gravitation Theorem:
The centre of gravitational force of masses surrounding symmetrically a geometric centre Z
affects a nearby object at a position A as though all masses were concentrated at a point
o u t s i d e of the centre Z.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[190] **viXra:1303.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-31 22:17:14*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** 2 pages, mburns92003@yahoo.com

This is verifiable by inspection of the geometry of gravitational fields that have been constructed expressly to behave as electromagnetic fields and their sources would. This geometry consists of a field of red partitions and a field of blue partitions that are orthogonal everywhere. These red and blue partitions are derived in my paper, “Draw the metric!”. The sources for the two Kaluza-Klein component fields are two dilation horizons, that are at Cartesian right angles to each other (in a diagram including the ct axis), and both almost at light speed in opposite directions. These sources are conserved by the Bianchi identities, that apply to them as a matter of definition. The orientations of the field of blue partitions and of its source are both necessarily slightly superluminal, and also almost orthogonal - but the orientations are parallel by hyperbolic angle - and with the superluminal dilation horizon being almost parallel to the surface of the blue partitions. And the red partitions and their source are slightly subluminal. Together these components present a small gravitational field to spacetime objects that are not like Kaluza-Klein fields, but a very large magnitude of field is apparent to other Kaluza-Klein fields. Furthermore, in the presence of other Kaluza-Klein fields, the Kaluza-Klein fields and sources polarize in a push-me-pull-you manner so that the response of a Kaluza-Klein charge is far in excess of what external spacetime curvature justifies. Neglecting vacuum physics still allows a Kaluza-Klein emulation of an electron to be very close to Planck scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[189] **viXra:1303.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-31 01:15:24*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

I wrote to Professor Misner (the coauthor of the 1957 article which I'm taking another look at) over a year ago for information about his article with John Wheeler regarding Albert Einstein’s Unified Field Theory. His reply was very helpful indeed. I wrote a short piece at the time, which turned out to be just a basic outline of my present article. I’ve spent 14 months filling it with more and more detail. I still think Professor Misner was correct. I’ve tried to reconcile Einstein’s theory with modern concerns like dark matter, dark energy and the nuclear forces. The ideas I came up with are very unusual sometimes, but they were necessary to fit in with the unified theory being correct. Despite most of the world considering Einstein's unified field to be a failure, it's interesting that his work is making my heart beat a little faster more than 80 years after he started work on it. As my article shows, the unified field is based in mathematics but will prove to have remarkable consequences not just for maths, but also for the physical world. I therefore chose to write it in the form of an essay (there is mathematics, but no equations) that uses concepts like planetary motion, revised gravitation, and string theory to arrive at a theory of everything. In "A Brief History of Time" by Stephen Hawking, it was stated "If a complete unified theory was discovered, it would only be a matter of time before it was digested and simplified ... and taught in schools, at least in outline. We should then all be able to have some understanding of the laws that govern the universe and are responsible for our existence." The essay I've written might therefore be valuable in the education of a young teenager living in the second part of this century.
Keywords –
Unified Field Theory; Theory of Everything; gravitation; electromagnetism; nuclear weak force; nuclear strong force; graviton; photon; dark matter; dark energy; Einstein; Maxwell; Wheeler; Misner; Rainich; Penrose; binary digits; Mobius loop; Figure-8 Klein bottle; Poincare conjecture; string theory; fractal geometry; irrational numbers; transcendental numbers; pi; e; quantum mechanics; computer science; time; wave packets; cosmic wormhole; cosmic string; tides; falling bodies; Kepler; planetary motion; Bell; Rubin; matrices; time travel; Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe; hidden variables; virtual particles; Aharonov; Cramer; retrocausality; backward causality; quantum entanglement; 5th dimensional hyperspace; space-time; moon; evolution; Earth; mass increase; time dilation; General Relativity; Special Relativity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[188] **viXra:1303.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-14 01:44:08*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Portuguese

We built the Virtual Special Relativity which is a generalization of Einstein's Special Relativity.Moreover, this theory predicts the expansion and contraction of the time, which is not provided by Einstein's Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[187] **viXra:1303.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-30 08:06:54*

**Authors:** Maikel Leyva-Vazquez, Karina Perez-Teruel, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Martí, el más universal de los cubanos, fue un autor preocupado y con fe en la
utilidad de la virtud. En este aspecto merece especial atención su artículo
Maestros Ambulantes publicado en Nueva York, mayo de 1884 [1]. En el
presente trabajo se presenta una propuesta para facilitar el análisis de su obra
haciendo uso de los mapas cognitivos neutrosóficos (MCN) [2].

**Category:** Linguistics

[186] **viXra:1303.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-21 14:43:33*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 6 Pages. published in the Hadronic Journal, 36(2) 2013

This paper examines Einstein’s derivations of the mass-energy
relationship E=mc2 using the Lorentz transformations applied to a slowly
accelerating charge of mass m, and also applied to a moving system
emitting photons in opposite directions. In the first case, it is shown that
Einstein’s use of the transformations is inconsistent with the classical
definition of electrostatic force, F= qE, and that the expression given by
Einstein for the kinetic energy of the charge due to its motion relative to
the stationary system must be interpreted as a modification of the
classical electrostatic interaction. In the second case, it is shown that
Einstein’s conclusion does not follow from his example, and that the
Lorentz transformations give no information about the kinetic energy of
the excitation energy of a system due to its motion relative to a stationary
coordinate system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[185] **viXra:1303.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-29 19:48:06*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

If light is coming from the atomic matter of the galaxy, then the observed redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic matter ‘light emission mechanism’. Clearly speaking redshift may not be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. The proposed basic idea is - during cosmic evolution, as age of the hydrogen atom increases, emitted photon energy increases. If so current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. At any given cosmic time, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. By highlighting the six major shortcomings of modern cosmology, in this paper an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. The four possible assumptions are : 1) Reduced Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and Hubble’s constant being the angular velocity, universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) Atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant and 4) Atomic gravitational constant or the classical gravitational constant shows discrete behavior. This may be the root cause of discrete nature of revolving electron’s angular momentum. With reference to the present atomic and nuclear physical constants, obtained Hubble’s constant is (67.88 to 71.75) km/sec/Mpc and is very close to the recommended value. This is a remarkable coincidence and seems to play a vital role in future unified physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[184] **viXra:1303.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-29 10:42:24*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Amal, K. Kandasamy

**Comments:** 146 Pages.

School dropouts in Indian scenario is ever increasing among the rural poor. It is due to poverty and lack of steady income. We analyzed the problem using newly constructed fuzzy models.

**Category:** Social Science

[183] **viXra:1303.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-29 02:50:40*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 10

It is well accepted that the Hubble redshift is a sign for Universal expansion.
However despite this fact I argue that the opposite also could be the case if we postulate that
Dark Matter is related to Black Holes and Dark Energy is related to the oscillating energy of a
super dense but massless Higgs vacuum.
These two choices are also reason to extend the standard model with ideas like particle Form
as information for particle Function and entropy decrease around black holes.
I call it Quantum Function Follows Form Theory. (Q-FFF Theory)

**Category:** Astrophysics

[182] **viXra:1303.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-28 10:02:50*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 4 Pages. his report is part of a series I am doing on science which will later be published into a book. This is part 2.

This guide is provided by Andrew Nassif, and is part of a series explanatory on science. This guide will include real life examples of Colligative properties in Chemistry as well as define them.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[181] **viXra:1303.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-28 04:10:29*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 11 relations, 1 figure

This paper is about relations between the mass of universe and mass of some elementary particles. Important is only the diagram in Figure 1, which you can understand in any language if you know the language of mathematics and physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[180] **viXra:1303.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-17 12:42:34*

**Authors:** Kamal L Rajpal

**Comments:** 5 Pages; Name change forTitle of Paper

This article conjectures that, more energetic than the cosmic gamma photons, there should exist dark photons and Planck photons. Also, similar to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), there should exist a ‘cosmic dark photons background’ (CDB). Dark photons may be the particles of the elusive dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[179] **viXra:1303.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-27 04:02:38*

**Authors:** Ningombam Bupenda Meitei

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The paper aims to expound on the issue of science being different from non science or prescience in the form of the scientific methodology used. Popper’s method of falsifiability ensures the aim of science to be successful. The aim of science which also needs a critical attitude, can enable scientific progress by rejecting inductivism as its scientific methodology. Popper’s view on what the aim of science is and why and how inductivism fails in the case of science, along with examples from history of science besides its impact on philosophical foundations of science, has been stressed in the paper.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[178] **viXra:1303.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-26 16:21:45*

**Authors:** Ningombam Bupenda Meitei

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper intends to zoom in and find a uniqueness in human language by narrowing down the range of cognitive domains to human computational mind having a property of recursion which is exclusively unique to human and not in any other species in animalia kingdom.This notion of recursion is the centrality of the paper. There has been an opposition to the notion of recursion being only unique to human and the paper makes an attempt to reply to such arguments using experimental findings from modern neuroscience. The existing controversies over the proposed minimalist language and its future remains open to the future of modern neuroscience and modern physics.

**Category:** Linguistics

[177] **viXra:1303.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-07 00:11:47*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper presents an alternative classical mechanics, which can be applied in any reference frame (rotating or non-rotating) (inertial or non-inertial) without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[176] **viXra:1303.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-26 16:10:09*

**Authors:** Kimihiro OKUYAMA, Mohd ANASRI, Florentin SMARANDACHE, Valeri KROUMOV

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

移動ロボットのナビゲーションを行うにはロボットが
十分に現在位置と周囲の環境を認識する必要がある。そ
のために、ロボットにレーザーレンジスキャナや超音波
センサ、カメラ、オドメトリ、GPS (Global Positioning
System) 等のセンサを搭載することで、ロボットは現在
位置・姿勢、周囲の様子、移動距離、周囲の物との距離
等を知ることができるようになる。しかし、センサか
らの情報には誤差が含まれており、移動している環境
や搭載しているセンサにより生じる誤差が累積される
ことで、現在の位置がわからなくなり、走行経路から
外れて、目的地へたどりつけなくなることがある。正
しい位置を認識するには、定期的に誤差を解消し、位
置の校正を行う必要がある。位置校正を向上させるた
めに、ロボットにSLAM (Simultaneous Localization and
Mapping)[1] アルゴリズムやKalman Filter[2] などの制
御技術が導入される。

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[175] **viXra:1303.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-26 10:38:12*

**Authors:** Kamal L Rajpal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Photons or electromagnetic waves are self propagating. After being produced, the magnetic and electric fields have existence independent of the source. This is possible only if the two fields are in phase quadrature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[174] **viXra:1303.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-26 11:45:33*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In their article, Arnot and Mackay [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42, 4648-4654] use 200 chemicals from the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL) to illustrate a model that integrates persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and quantity information for a specific substance to assess chemical exposure, hazard, and risk. The authors claim that the DSL chemicals used in their study are not expected to appreciably ionize at environmental pH. In contrast, a number of the compounds in this study have ionizable functional groups with environmentally relevant pKa values, meaning the corresponding partitioning properties are highly pH dependent, thereby rendering the modeling approach applied by these authors subject to a fatal conceptual and practical flaw. In addition, several compounds in the authors' dataset are expected to hydrolyze rapidly in aquatic systems, resulting in negligible environmental persistence.

**Category:** Chemistry

[173] **viXra:1303.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-26 12:51:25*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This report is part of a series I am doing on science which will later be published into a book. This is part 1.

Henry Louis Le Chatelier was one of the most influential chemists of all time. This paper will guide you to his greatest discovery in the world of physics and chemistry.

**Category:** Chemistry

[172] **viXra:1303.0197 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-01 10:13:18*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose guidelines to construct workable and calculable models of society in which essential features are disentangled from gratuite desires emanating from the personal morality of its author. This is not to say that the model at hand should not contain a moral aspect, but that the specific form of the latter is a necessary byproduct bounded in time.

**Category:** Social Science

[171] **viXra:1303.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-25 22:26:30*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In Canada, as in many other developed nations, natural resource development projects meeting certain criteria are required to undergo an environmental assessment (EA) process to determine potential human and ecological health impacts. As part of the Canadian EA process, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency generally considers submissions by members of the public and experts. While the allowance of external submissions during EA hearings forms an important component of a functional participatory democracy, little attention appears to have been given regarding the quality of such EA submissions. In particular, submissions to EA hearings by prominent individuals and/or groups may be weighted more heavily in the overall decision making framework than those from non-experts. Important questions arise through the allowance and consideration of external submissions to EAs, such as whether inaccuracies in any such submissions may misdirect the EA decision makers to reach erroneous conclusions, and if such inaccuracies do result in sub-optimal EA processes, how the issues should be addressed. In the current work, a representative recent external submission from a prominent public individual and group to the Shell Canada Jackpine Mine Expansion (JPME) Project EA hearings was examined. The case study submission to the JPME EA hearings appears to contain a number of significant scientific errors and/or ambiguities, demonstrating that the EA process in Canada appears to allow potentially flawed submissions from prominent individuals and/or groups, and these problematic submissions may result in unnecessary delays, expenses, or even erroneous decisions. From a public policy perspective, it is desirable that the Canadian EA process be reformed to minimize contributions that may not result in an accurate assessment of the underlying science for the project(s) under consideration.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[170] **viXra:1303.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 05:17:11*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Generalization of Lucas-Lehmer-Riesel primality test is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[169] **viXra:1303.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-25 08:28:03*

**Authors:** Richard Ruquist

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Most theories of everything (TOEs) like string theory are based on physics. But there are as well TOEs based on "mathematics" being fundamental to a reality based on science. In particular, one math-TOE is based on the discrete natural numbers famously used by Godel to derive his Incompleteness Theorems. Such math computational theories (math-comp) assume that the comp-machine has an infinite computation space. Our approach proposes that string cosmology limits comp-space as measured by the Bekenstein Bound/Lloyd Limit of available bits of information in a finite holographic universe.
We conjecture that the cubic lattice of Calabi-Yau (CY) compact-manifolds, which pervade the space of each universe, is an arithmetic comp-machine (due to the compact manifolds being enumerable) and furthermore, that its comp-power is limited by the effective holographic size of the universe. Moreover, we conjecture that our universe's comp-machine is insufficiently precise, because of its limited size, to compute physical particles; and for that, a collection of all universes in an effectively infinite metaphysical space called the Metaverse, is necessary. A Metaverse comp-machine in such a large space is effectively complete and consistent.
We further argue that all CY computations are instantaneous from a human perspective. These conjectures make possible Mind and Body consciousnesses in a Single-World Universe and a cosmic rebirth loop based on Smolin's Fecund Cosmology with Super-Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) giving birth to Metaverses.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[168] **viXra:1303.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-25 09:37:46*

**Authors:** Kamal L Rajpal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Thomas Young’s interference experiment (1803) is very simple to perform but, even after more than 200 years is one of the most difficult to understand. Quantum physics offers a mathematical model for the observed wave-particle dualism. This article gives a physical model for the wave-particle duality nature of photons.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[167] **viXra:1303.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-22 12:53:25*

**Authors:** Liu Ran

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Any NP problem can reduce to P problem, any P problem can reduce to instructions. If NP=P, it violate information entropy principle.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[166] **viXra:1303.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-19 13:39:42*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Generalizations of Wilson's theorem and Kilford's theorem are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[165] **viXra:1303.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-12 06:52:14*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Prime number generating recurrences are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[164] **viXra:1303.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-13 14:49:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

At the beginning of the inflation there was the liquid-like Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating tachyons. During the inflation, such superluminal Higgs field partially transformed into the Einstein spacetime that is composed of the luminal neutrino-antineutrino pairs so there is the two-component spacetime. The stable neutrinos are the lightest gravitational masses that acquire their gravitational mass because of their interactions with the non-gravitating Higgs field - it is the Higgs mechanism. All particles more massive than neutrinos are built of the confined and/or entangled neutrino-antineutrino pairs and/or neutrinos and they are the Principle-of-Equivalence relativistic particles. The gravitational fields are the gradients produced by masses in the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field, whereas the massive Standard-Model particles are built of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components and/or neutrinos. The very different properties of the Higgs field and Einstein spacetime cause that unification of Gravity and Standard Model within the same methods is impossible. Emphasize that the unification is impossible also because time is going in different way in General Relativity and Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[163] **viXra:1303.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-28 04:15:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

During the inflation, to eliminate turbulences in the created spacetime, there appeared the four-fermion/quadrupole symmetry. It caused that the two-component spacetime (the non-gravitating Higgs field plus luminal Einstein spacetime) is globally perfectly symmetrical. Here we described physical meaning of the fundamental symmetries. The CPT symmetry is incomplete so wrongly understood. Symmetry-breaking is characteristic for the components of the quadrupoles because of their internal helicity. The matter-antimatter asymmetry is due to the fourth phase transition of the Higgs field, not due to a CPT-symmetry violation. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we calculated the decay-rate asymmetry for decays of the kaon-long (0.003346) and B mesons (0.7126). These results are close to experimental data. The C, P and T violations follow from the fact that inside the bare fermions there is a torus with internal helicity and that such tori (and loops) produce the weak half-jets in the two-component spacetime and fields. The half-jets are very weak so the asymmetry is very small as well. Due to these half-jets, there appears an asymmetry between parallel and antiparallel orientation of spin and velocity of fermions and their antiparticles (there is more fermions with parallel orientation and more antifermions with antiparallel orientation). But there is the second reason of asymmetries: simultaneously with creation of the dark matter (it can have a residual left-handed internal helicity) there appeared in our Universe the additional electron-antineutrinos that have the left-handed internal helicity so symmetry of the Einstein spacetime inside the Universe is not perfect. We as well motivate why the nuclear strong interactions are CP-invariant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[162] **viXra:1303.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 21:33:11*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Around 45 odd signs out of the total number of Harappan signs found make up almost 100 percent of the inscriptions, in some form or other, as said earlier. Out of these 45 signs, around 40 are readily distinguishable. These form an almost exclusive and unique set. The primary signs are seen to have many variants, as in Brahmi. Many of these provide us with quite a vivid picture of their evolution, depending upon the factors of time, place and usefulness. Even minor adjustments in such signs, depending upon these factors, are noteworthy. Many of the signs in this list are the same as or are very similar to the corresponding Brahmi signs. These are similarities that simply cannot arise from mere chance. It is also to be noted that the most frequently used signs in the Brahmi look so similar to the most frequent Harappan symbols. The Harappan script transformed naturally into the Brahmi, depending upon the factors channelizing evolution of scripts.

**Category:** Archaeology

[161] **viXra:1303.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 22:59:30*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In 2006, Friedman wrote an influential and widely cited article in Foreign Policy magazine [May/June (2006) 28-36] stating The First Law of Petropolitics. This law held that the quality of governance in oil-rich petrolist states is inversely correlated with a causative relationship from increasing oil prices. In contrast, we find no generally consistent governance patterns among oil-rich petrolist states related to the price of oil that support any claims for a First Law of Petropolitics.

**Category:** Social Science

[160] **viXra:1303.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 23:08:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Wang, Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 1 Page. May distribute with author credits and ABSOLUTELY NO derivatives of this article allowed unless with express consent sent by jeffwang16@gmail.com or nasirgermain@gmail.com

The updated and proven black hole and Big Bang hypothesis that mainly explains what HAPPENS to black holes and its mass that "disappears".

**Category:** Astrophysics

[159] **viXra:1303.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-25 00:50:21*

**Authors:** Franklin Hu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A new atomic model is described which builds atoms out of alternating protons and electrons. Unlike the currently accepted planetary atomic model developed by Bohr and Rutherford, the nucleus is not a compact sphere of protons and neutrons which are surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Rather, the atoms are built up like Lego bricks into octahedral shapes. These shapes give rise to locations on the atoms for other atoms to dock and form molecules. These shapes also explain many of the observed properties of the atoms such as the observed ionization energies, spectra, fission fragments and the allowed isotopes for an atom. This model eliminates the need for the strong force and significantly simplifies our understanding of how atoms are constructed using only the electrostatic force.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[158] **viXra:1303.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 04:26:14*

**Authors:** Keith Hodebourg

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

On the particular distribution of prime numbers is a case to be treated in several parts. In the
first place, I will treat the prime identity Δ, which is the method that allows one to discern
with certainty prime numbers γ, of strong non-prime numbers ω, and non-prime numbers μ,
amongst the series of natural wholes A, as in :.....................

**Category:** Number Theory

[157] **viXra:1303.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 04:28:16*

**Authors:** Keith Hodebourg

**Comments:** 01 Pages.

The german mathematician Christian Goldbach, in a letter dated 1742 to Leonhard Euler,
announced a conjecture which affirm that any even number greater than or equal to 4 is the
sum of two prime numbers........................

**Category:** Number Theory

[156] **viXra:1303.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 04:30:33*

**Authors:** Keith Hodebourg

**Comments:** 01 Pages.

In 1937 the Swedish mathematician Harald Cramer put forth the hypothesis that there always
exists a prime number between X and X (InX)2, I respons in this way :..............

**Category:** Number Theory

[155] **viXra:1303.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 04:33:02*

**Authors:** Keith Hodebourg

**Comments:** 01 Pages.

The twin prime numbers conjecture announces the hypothesis that there exists an infinite of
twin prime numbers, I respond in this way :.........

**Category:** Number Theory

[154] **viXra:1303.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 06:29:49*

**Authors:** Kamal L Rajpal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Circular (or elliptical) polarized light acts as a magnet upon interaction with matter. This is the ‘inverse Faraday effect’ (IFE). This behavior can be explained with the help of a mathematical analysis. This article explains it using a simple graphical approach.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[153] **viXra:1303.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-24 08:03:15*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. including 2 figures

An explanation is proposed that probabilistic factors cause the existence of the stable planetary
and electronic orbits. It is confirmed by means of construction of the frequency distributions corresponding to virials. (Существование устойчивых планетных и электронных орбит объясняется вероятностными факторами, что подтверждается построением частотных распределений соответствующих вириалов).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[152] **viXra:1303.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-23 21:55:23*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their article, Qin et al. [Mol Divers (2010) 14:67-80] construct a quantitative structure-property relationship model to predict the bioconcentration factors of purportedly nonpolar organic compounds. A number of the compounds examined by these authors are not nonpolar as claimed, but instead have associated pKa values that would render the molecules significantly, and - in some cases - effectively entirely, ionized under conditions relevant for bioconcentration in freshwater and/or marine aquatic systems.

**Category:** Chemistry

[151] **viXra:1303.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 12:50:01*

**Authors:** Kamal L Rajpal

**Comments:** 14 pages, 24 figures

No light passes through two crossed polarizers. However, if a third polarizer is inserted, at let’s say 45 degrees, in between the two crossed polarizers then, light does go through the three polarizers in series. This behavior can be explained with the help of a mathematical analysis. This paper explains it using a simple graphical approach. A graphical derivation of Malus Law is given and the EPR paradox has been made clear in a graphical manner.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[150] **viXra:1303.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-22 20:51:12*

**Authors:** Shreyak Chakraborty

**Comments:** 11 Pages. THIS PAPER SHOWS HOW MACROSCOPIC MONOPOLAR STRUCTURES MAY EXIST WHEN FERROMAGNETS(PERMANENT MAGNENTS) ARE "PARTIALLY DEACTIVATED"!

We discuss the general features and details of a Polar Deactivation
Theory for ferromagnets. We formulate its basis using a semi classical
approach towards ferromagnetic phenomena. We also present a
strong set of applications of the PDT in various areas by using specific
simulations and model designs.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[149] **viXra:1303.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-22 20:54:42*

**Authors:** Ton Kloks, Yue-Li Wang

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Let G and H be two cographs.
We show that the
problem to determine whether H is a retract of G
is NP-complete.
We show that this problem is fixed-parameter tractable when
parameterized by the size of H.
When restricted to the class of threshold graphs or
to the class of
trivially perfect graphs, the problem becomes tractable
in polynomial time. The problem is also
solvable in linear time
when one cograph is given as an induced subgraph
of the other. We characterize absolute retracts
for the class of cographs. Foldings generalize retractions.
We show that the problem to fold a
trivially perfect graph onto a largest possible clique is
NP-complete. For a threshold graph this folding number equals
its chromatic number and achromatic number.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[148] **viXra:1303.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-22 23:12:34*

**Authors:** Kamal L Rajpal

**Comments:** 61 Pages. The article helps bridge the gap between classical and quantum physics in a non-mathematical conceptual manner.

Physical objects from quarks to planets have wavelike attributes. Quantum theory offers a mathematical model for the observed wave-particle dualism. This article gives a physical model for the wave-particle duality nature of photons, electrons, protons, neutrons, atoms and molecules. It explains the non-thermal, simple harmonic motion, intrinsic electromagnetic inertia, resonance Compton frequency, oscillation nature of atomic and subatomic particles.
The article conjectures that a photon is a magnetic dipole. It gives a physical interpretation of wave mechanics, two-slit interference, the Faraday effect, the inverse Faraday effect (IFE) and the photon string theory. It predicts the existence of Planck photons, dark photons and zero point photons. Also given is an explanation for the magnetic field of a black hole, neutron star and the Sun.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[147] **viXra:1303.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-09 13:11:17*

**Authors:** Ivo Van Der Rijt

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A complete new proposal to all of nuclear physics.
It is a starting model of continuous flow within the universe as an explanation to mass,fusion,gravity and time.
All feedback will be apreciated as i like to test this model where it is wrong so i can work on it further.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[146] **viXra:1303.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-22 15:28:17*

**Authors:** Yingqiong Gu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is a hot topic about how to trade a stock/group of stocks in a non-news day. Author tries to design safe, profitable automated stock trading agents using evolutionary algorithms[2].
In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory[4] is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one. The idea is to start with a simple system for which a mathematical solution is known, and add an additional "perturbing" Hamiltonian representing a weak disturbance to the system. If the disturbance is not too large, the various physical quantities associated with the perturbed system (e.g. its energy levels and Eigen states) can, from considerations of continuity, be expressed as 'corrections' to those of the simple system. These corrections, being 'small' compared to the size of the quantities themselves, can be calculated using approximate methods such as asymptotic series. The complicated system can therefore be studied based on knowledge of the simpler one.
In Stock Market, for a non-news trading day, stock prices will mostly depend on the initial price at given time, and bid-ask spread.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[145] **viXra:1303.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-15 16:53:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

At Temperature / Energy above 3 x 10^15 K = 300 GeV: the Higgs mechanism is not in effect so there is full ElectroWeak Symmetry and no particles have any mass from the Higgs. Questions arise: 1 - Can we build a collider that will explore the Massless Phase ? 2 - How did our Universe evolve in that early Massless Phase of its first 10^(-11) seconds or so ? 3 - What do physical phenomena look like in the Massless Phase ? A - ElectroWeak Particles behave more like Waves than Particles. B - Conformal Gravity Dark Energy whose GraviPhotons might be accessible to experiments using BSCCO Josephson Junctions based on Segal-Beck-Mackey 2-phase Universe: Minkowski/Photon phase and Conformal/GraviPhoton phase. V2 corrects inadvertent omission of credit to Jack Sarfatti and adds viXra number. V3 discusses some specific structural configurations. V4 describers use of Jitterbug transformation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[144] **viXra:1303.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-22 08:32:27*

**Authors:** Shreyak Chakraborty

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We formulate the origin of a spacetime from a naked singularity using
elementary set theory and modal logic. This leads to the proof of the
existence of statements/results which govern the initial state of any
universe originating from a ?big bang-like? event. We provide a qualitative
description of the dynamics and mechanism of spacetime formation.
We use certain assumptions and axioms which may be related to the
statements in G?del?s Ontological Proof [1.] and can be further used in the
FaTe Model of Hyperspace [2.]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[143] **viXra:1303.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-08 08:52:52*

**Authors:** V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In the №12 (2012) of journal Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk Professor Aleshkevich V.A. out Moscow State University (MSU) wrote an article about how the experiments of the 20th century on the relativistic particles (note – with a particles) prove absolute correctness of relativistic physics in comparison with of her classical interpretation. Conscientiously collected experimental data gives worthy rebuff to all "adversaries relativism", which calling for back to the classics. But why do not keeps on giving anti-relativistic mood among physicists, receiving education in universities, which more than 100 years old them instill "without-etherial specialization of" SRT, professor MSU could not explain. The mention of ethical problems birth SRT in 1905, very an unexpected for apologetics of SRT, explains nothing. Recognize same, that only merit Einstein in 1905 was the failure from aether, in the almost finished of aether-dynamic theory of relativity (ADTR) Lore ntz and Poincaré, in which remained only to overcome the "latent unobservability of aether", apologetics SRT even today still is not ready.
"Without-aether" Lorentz's contraction and "relativistic mass growth" were declared "seeming", and same isotropism "emptiness" and "the negativity of" the Michelson's experiment become seeming "as obvious". Such a "without-etherial specialization of" in physics for many very liked, and his began to study in the universities of world. But discordant criticism of the "without-etherial" SRT does not cease. Professor of MSU offers a "improved" teaching SRT based on the latest experiments on the "hard" of relativistic particles, ignoring criticism of Abraham, Minkowski, Brillouin, and others on the "non-applicability" of vacuum transformations SRT of ideal world without particles (n=1.) to the real world with particles (n>1). A true a invariant of inertial of system, suitable and for the abstract world (with n=1.) and for real world (with n>1) with the observed rates of c */c=1/n < 1, hitherto "not open". To access it, we have to admit aether and develop the teaching ADTR instead of SRT.
Comments:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[142] **viXra:1303.0163 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-22 09:27:22*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Draft version.

In this simple Math exercise we show a property of Pascal's Triangle. More precisely, we show that if $a$ is any positive odd integer, then $\binom{a}{1}-\binom{a}{2}+\binom{a}{3}-\binom{a}{4}+\dots+\binom{a}{a}=1$. Moreover, we prove that if $b$ is any positive even integer, then $\binom{b}{1}-\binom{b}{2}+\binom{b}{3}-\binom{b}{4}+\dots+\binom{b}{b-1}-\binom{b}{b}=1$.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[141] **viXra:1303.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 22:19:09*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their article, Endo and Goss [Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2011, 24, 2293-2301] claim to measure the bovine serum albumin water partition coefficients for 83 structurally diverse neutral organic chemicals and correlate the resulting values against corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients and polyparameter linear free energy relationship models based on descriptors for the neutral forms of each compound. However, several compounds in the authors' dataset would be significantly ionized under the experimental conditions being modeled against, and such ionization must be accounted for in any serum albumin binding modeling efforts.

**Category:** Chemistry

[140] **viXra:1303.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 23:04:06*

**Authors:** Yigao Liang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We argue that invariance under continuous 4 dimensional space-time transformations is in conflict with
determinism in physics due to the existence of families of smooth structures. We speculate that quantum
uncertainty emerges as a result, suggesting a new way to unify gravity and quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[139] **viXra:1303.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 13:43:05*

**Authors:** Nasir Germain, Jeffrey Wang

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Nasir Germain and Jeffrey Wang discuss their black hole theories

**Category:** Astrophysics

[138] **viXra:1303.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 13:48:12*

**Authors:** Ovidiu Racorean

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

For a simple closed FRW minisuperspace model the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is
arranged in the form of a dimensionless quantum harmonic oscillator like equation. Solving
this equation is trivial and give equally spaced quantized levels for the volume of the universe
and the set of wave functions for this bound states of the Universe. A series of philosophical
implications of the above scenario, like quantum jumps, impossibility of an inflationary
phase and the problem of “absence” of time for the quantum Universe are further briefly
discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[137] **viXra:1303.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-19 16:20:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

A correct version of star evolution is presented with definitions, pictures, explanations, diagrams and the like. It is explained that star evolution is planet formation itself and the vast majority of all accepted astrophysics/geophysics is horrendously incomplete and inconsistent. The Big Bang and Nebular Hypothesis are fully replaced in this tour de force.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[136] **viXra:1303.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 05:33:29*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we try to motivate the possibility of information transmission
by means of individual complex photons. The characteristic features of the
transfer, in particular, its large penetration and weak determination are
considered. Assumptions are made about the approaches to experimental
verification of the phenomenon
Key words: photon, angular momentum, projection of the momentum,
the wave function, information, quantum, spectrum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[135] **viXra:1303.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 07:51:58*

**Authors:** Yadrin Alexander

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This article was discussed at PHD Russian- German seminar

This article briefly discusses the modern problem of commercial banks in the fund's formation. It has basic definition and characteristics of the portfolio investment in the banking.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[134] **viXra:1303.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 04:22:55*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Point , which is nothing and has not any Position , may be anywhere in Space , therefore the Primary point A , being nothing also in no Space , is the only Point and nowhere i.e. Primary Point is the only Space and from this all the others , so then this primary point A to exist at a second point B somewhere else , point A must move at point B , where then A ≡ B . Presupposition for Unit AB = ds means an Impulse P removes point A to B and since in each Restrained System (S) the Work done ( W ) by Impulse P on a Virtual displacement ( ds > 0) is zero , and then W = ∫ A-B [ P.ds ] = 0 → [ ds .( PA+P B ) = 0 ] and Point A is in Space [S] and point B is in Anti-Space [aS] which are self created and are Property and Essence from the same Unit AB, therefore these are also a Restrained System(S). Since the only two Elements of Universe are ds and P and are connected by Virtual Work Principle and since Unit AB = ds is a quantized dimension,so Impulse is also quantized.Quantization of Points becomes through Vector Unit dš = ÃB which is the first dimensional Unit [ Zenon Paradox 13]and this because Vector has Position and Direction .Quantization of Energy is done in bound States ( loops ) because bound states [11-16] withhold diffusion ( flow ) .The two fundamental dimensions
( quanta of Points (ds) and quanta of Energy (dP) , are connected on Primary dipole and on any dipole AiBi . [PNS] is self created and consists a space (x,y,z) Scalar field Sp which constructs a vector field Sa = Ñ.Sp . The position of dipole in the equilibrium Space Anti-Space keeps charge = momentum ( Energy→ the difference of primary Work which is bounded on edge points ) and Angular momentum ( Spin → angular momentum is the intrinsic twist of Space , Anti-Space ) which inextricably unify geometry of Space and motion . On any Dipole AB of [PNS] with dš = ( [J,E,B] and content © ) ,where motion occurs only as (+) → (-) Source (+) → Drain (-) ,Conservation State of Work exists on magnitude |dš| = √ J² + E² + B² of vector ř ( J,E, B ) ( which is the Sub-Space of AB ) and on the two perpendicular Fields Ê = Ñx J , B = Ñx Ê ( which are the two diffused equilibrium Spaces and Anti -Spaces of AB , Ñx Ê = 0 , Ñ x B = 0 ) . Since,Source (+) →Drain (-) , in [PNS] is the equilibrium of Space [S] and Anti-Space [aS] , therefore the only magnitude for motion is J , while E and B are produced , as this happens in the Magnetic fields where lines ( loops ) close in themselves and this because no sources exist ↑→ ® for magnetic fields B and so the two models [ the B-field Pole and Amperian loop ] are explained. Solving equation ds.( PA+ PB ) = 0 then ds.PA = - ds.PB and since , dš , is constant for Primary dipole , so the Work conserved on every point in Spaces is constant and equal to [ dš .Impulse P = constant ] . i.e. The applied Work [ Wi → 1 → ∞ ] = ( charge ± P ) on every point of the three , Spaces , Anti–Spaces and Sub–Spaces , which coexist in [PNS] is conserved on Points , meaning that every point of [PNS] consist the fundamental ± Scalar Field with variables the Constraint Forces and Angular momentum [ Spin = Wij →1→ ∞] , and is conserved always in [PS] , [ PaS] or, The two elements [Vector dš = AB (matter) , ± dP ,Work p , Spin = momentum ] of the Infinite Dipole Vectors [AB] = [ ĀB – PA , PB ] build Particles with Identity Card , the Constant Product → dš . p = constant …(k) ← so , the Possible Energy Range (m) Scales , of the two fundamental and quantized dimensions [ ds , - P , + P ] are the three Layers ,
(- i ) ↔ (0 ) = - P → [ ds , - P , ] → Black Holes Scale = k 1 → ds 1. dP 1 = k 1
(-i ) ↔ (+i) = 7 P → [ ds , - P , + P ] → Planck Scale Matter = k 2 → ds 2. dP 2 = k 2
(+i ) ↔ (0 ) = + P → [ ds , + P , ] → Dark Matter Scale = k 3 → ds 3. dP 3 = k 3
For any single particle of wavelength λ = ds and dP = Charge → momentum ( p ) exists :
dš.dP = λ . p = constant = h → is the reduced Planck constant in Planck Scale Matter . For ds near zero and P = ∞ , is needed a new Type of Light to see what is happening below Planck length Level , Layer 10¯35 m .Primary Vector monad and Vector monads are , either Static ( equilibrium ) or Dynamic ( are moving ) , and keep their Conservation of State ( The Total work is equal to zero ) in the three equilibrium and perpendicular monads [ J , E , B ] which are in Subspaces , Spaces , Anti-Spaces ( and thus , not turn
to non-existence ) and are interchanged by Pythagoras conservation law of Volume.
The geometric concepts of [PNS] as two dimensional field is that , the third dimension represents the amplitude of the potential S . Considering x-y Plane as the base and the vertical (z) is the potential S , then contours of constant potential altitudes of [PNS] are Cylindrical or Solenoidal and for Position 0 ( which is the equilibrium Horizon of Space and anti-Space) is Sphere , therefore [PNS] with the included Space [S] and Anti-Space [aS] may be Sphere and Solenoidal simultaneously.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[133] **viXra:1303.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-20 13:28:21*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Authors made an attempt to highlight the 6 major shortcomings of modern cosmology. Observed cosmic redshift can be considered as a measure of age difference of our galaxy and observed galaxy. It can be suggested that - during cosmic evolution, as age of the hydrogen atom increases, emitted photon energy increases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[132] **viXra:1303.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-20 14:07:39*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In their article, Charif et al. [J. Mol. Struct. THEOCHEM 818 (2007) 1] used the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) density functional level of theory to estimate gas phase standard state (298.15 K, 1 atm) free energies of acid dissociation (ΔacidG°(g)) for 21 carbon acids. These authors then examined correlations between their B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) ΔacidG°(g) values and corresponding experimental aqueous pKa measurements. Large errors are evident between experimental values and the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculated ΔacidG°(g) for propanedioic acid, diethyl ester, dimedone, isopropylidene malonate, barbituric acid, and toluene from this study. The findings call into question the generality of the correlation between ΔacidG°(g) and aqueous experimental pKa values for carbon acids proposed by Charif et al., and also highlight the need for additional studies to investigate what other carbon acid moieties may be outliers. In the present case, either the experimental aqueous pKa of toluene in the literature is incorrect, or the quantitative structure-property relationship proposed in Charif et al. is subject to large outliers that greatly diminish its broad applicability.

**Category:** Chemistry

[131] **viXra:1303.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-21 02:17:27*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Einstein had failed to formulate a unified field theory which will give a complete picture of the universe. The author here describes a way of viewing the universe a la the unified field theory, which may also be regarded as a theory of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[130] **viXra:1303.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-20 10:08:12*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In their article, Montero-Campillo et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 114 (2010) 10148-10155] use the B3LYP density functional with the 6-311+G(d,p) basis set to calculate the relative thermodynamic stabilities of the 89 linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers in their molecular acid and dissociated anionic forms for the gas phase and aqueous and n-octanol solvent phases. A substantial body of work over the past decade has clearly demonstrated the inability of the B3LYP functional (and the majority of other widely employed density functionals) to accurately represent the relative thermodynamic stabilities of linear and branched alkanes (including perhydro, poly- and perhalogenated, and other functionalized derivatives). It has been specifically demonstrated using a range of theoretical methods (semiempirical, Hartree-Fock [HF], various density functionals, and second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory) that the B3LYP branching error for perhydroalkane isomerizations also applies to perfluoroalkanes, and particularly to classes of compounds such as the 89 PFOS isomers, as well as the perfluoroalkanoic acids and perfluoralkyl sulfonyl/acyl fluorides in their acid and (where applicable) anionic forms. Consequently, the relative thermodynamic stabilities of the molecular acid and anionic PFOS isomers at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory put forward by Montero-Campillo et al. are in substantial error, and the authors and readers are referred elsewhere to more accurate calculations.

**Category:** Chemistry

[129] **viXra:1303.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-20 05:22:21*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A more careful consideration of the recently introduced "Grossone Theory" of Yaroslav Sergeev, [1], leads to a considerable enlargement of what can constitute possible legitimate mathematical theories by the introduction here of what we may call the {\it Syntactic - Semantic Axiomatic Theories in Mathematics}. The usual theories of mathematics, ever since the ancient times of Euclid, are in fact axiomatic, [1,2], which means that they are {\it syntactic} logical consequences of certain assumed axioms. In these usual mathematical theories {\it semantics} can only play an {\it indirect} role which is
restricted to the inspiration and motivation that may lead to the formulation of axioms, definitions, and of the proofs of theorems. In a significant contradistinction to that, and as manifestly inspired and motivated by the mentioned Grossone Theory, here a {\it direct} involvement of {\it semantics} in the construction of axiomatic mathematical theories is presented, an involvement which gives semantics the possibility to act explicitly, effectively, and altogether directly upon the usual syntactic process of constructing the logical consequences of axioms. Two immediate objections to what appears to be an unprecedented and massive expansion of what may now become legitimate mathematical theories given by the {\it syntactic - semantic axiomatic theories} introduced here can be the following : the mentioned direct role of semantics may, willingly or not, introduce in mathematical theories one, or both of the "eternal taboo-s" of {\it
inconsistency} and {\it self-reference}. Fortunately however, such concerns can be alleviated due to recent developments in both inconsistent and self-referential mathematics, [1,2]. Grateful recognition is acknowledged here for long and most useful ongoing related disccussions with Yaroslav Sergeev.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[128] **viXra:1303.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-19 09:37:22*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 3 Pages. n/a

WORKING IN m theory the most fundamental article in string theory and physics in whole.i tackle climate change ,especially global warming caused by increased co2 levels

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[127] **viXra:1303.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-12 10:14:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Banks

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Assume a light pulse is emitted from the origins of two frames, F and F’ that are in
relative motion, when the origins are common. Based on the relativity and light
postulates of special relativity (SR), all light beams travel at c. Therefore, the light pulse
expands spherically from the origin of F if and only if it expands spherically from the
origin of F’. However, by using the derivative, this paper will report a mathematical
violation of this logic. Additionally, it will be proven SR predicts one spherical light
wave (SLW) moves two different directions along a single line.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[126] **viXra:1303.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-19 09:40:19*

**Authors:** Muteru Michael

**Comments:** 3 Pages. n/a

i take a critical look at climate change and the simplest means to solve it at th same time to our benefit

**Category:** Climate Research

[125] **viXra:1303.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-19 11:08:41*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** Pages.

In their work, Hu et al. [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45, 3635-3642] investigate the oxidation of three antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, lincomycin, and trimethoprim) by potassium permanganate in buffered solutions at pH 7. The authors propose detailed mechanistic pathways for the oxidation of these substrates, but apparently do not consider the acid/base behavior of the compounds under consideration, resulting in erroneous mechanistic interpretations throughout the manuscript.

**Category:** Chemistry

[124] **viXra:1303.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-19 11:46:07*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In his article, Gharagheizi [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012, 51, 2797-2803] claims to develop a novel three-parameter equation for the calculation/prediction of the diffusion coefficient of nonelectrolyte organic compounds in water at infinite dilution. In contrast, many of the compounds investigated in this work are electrolytes in pure water at infinite dilution. Consequently, the molecular modeling efforts on the non-ionized molecular speciation of each compound were - in many cases - conducted on species that would not be dominantly present under the experimental conditions the modeling efforts are being developed against.

**Category:** Chemistry

[123] **viXra:1303.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-19 11:53:30*

**Authors:** Hans W Giertz

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The study displays that a gravitational singularity generates enormous amount of synchronized, low frequency photons. Electric dipoles in atoms create resonance with these photons and they are then re-emitted to dipoles in other atoms. The mutual flow of synchronized low frequency photons between dipoles creates mutual force of attraction, i.e. gravity. The study also displays that these photons consist of a positive elementary charge loosely coupled to a negative elementary charge. The photon propagates with the speed of light and simultaneously the charges rotate with a rotational speed equal to the photon’s frequency. This implies that many components of our galaxy can be described by the laws of electromagnetism. These laws describe electromagnetic fields and forces created by configuration of charges (dipoles and photons), their position, motion and acceleration. The study describes a model, based on the laws of electromagnetism, where the big bang, dark energy, dark matter, expanding space, black hole, gravitational lensing and redshift is explained.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[122] **viXra:1303.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-19 16:37:14*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This thesis describes the phenomenon of Extraordinary Optical Transmission using an electromagnetic field paradigm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[121] **viXra:1303.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-19 09:43:28*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Copyright © 2013 - Super Principia Mathematica - The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

This paper is a mathematical treatise and historical perspective of Karl Schwarzschild’s original 1916 solution and description of a Non-Euclidean Spherically Symmetric Metric equation. In the modern literature of the Schwarzschild Metric equation, it is described as predicting an output of a “Coordinate Singularity” anomaly located at the surface of the Black Hole Event Horizon. However, in Schwarzschild’s original 1916 metric solution there is not a “Coordinate Singularity” located at the Black Hole Event Horizon, but there is an actual quantitative value for space and time, that is predicted there. This paper and work compares the Schwarzschild Spherically Symmetric Metric equation original 1916 results with the results predicted by the modern literature on the Schwarzschild Metric. This work also describes conceptually the physics behind the Gaussian Distance Curvature and Reduction Density equation that Schwarzschild used to eliminate and avoid a “Coordinate Singularity”. This work reveals that Schwarzschild’s original 1916 solution, predicts that the Inertial Mass Volume Density, Escape Velocity, and gravitational field acceleration is reduced at all points in the inhomogeneous gradient gravitational field. This reduced Schwarzschild Gaussian density also reduces the gravitational tangential velocity, and acceleration in the inhomogeneous gradient gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[120] **viXra:1303.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-19 02:44:31*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Physics depends on ”physical intuition”, much of which is formulated in terms of Mathematics. Mathematics itself depends on Logic. The paper presents three latest novelties in Logic which have major consequences in Mathematics. Further, it presents two possible significant departures in Mathematics itself. These five departures can have major implications in Physics. Some of them are indicated, among them in Quantum Mechanics and Relativity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[119] **viXra:1303.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-19 02:43:19*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Though the method of concatenation has it’s recognised place in number theory, is rarely leading to the determination of characteristics of an entire class of numbers, which is not defined only through concatenation. We present here a property related to concatenation that appears to be shared by a large subset of Carmichael numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[118] **viXra:1303.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-18 12:13:37*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

New gravity-physics and -mathematics produce calculations of dark matter-accelerations and prove we live in a Double Torus Universe, which recalculates Quantum Gravity in vacuum. The set of equations to do that, prove the (new) dark energy force formula in the Double Torus Hypothesis is correct. The formula has been developed step by step and described in my Vixra-papers. It is an alternative for still unknown dark energy used in Big Bang cosmology. It is a tool for the awareness that the universe is not a universe that started with a Big Bang. The universe is a Double Torus, which uses + and - dark matter force to change quantum-gravity. The formula shows clearly a new view on the universe to be necessary. This paper shows theoretical predictions through calculations that match the experimental values of dark matter-accelerations in galaxies, the Pioneer-satellites (1 and 2) and produces the lowest limit for Newton-gravitational force. This Newton limit-acceleration matches the laboratory-experiments and moreover sets the limit to a slightly theoretical lower limit-acceleration of 2.8659 x 10^-14 [m/s2]. There is no other theory that predicts this limit. The conditions of the formula show, that quantum-gravity is related to a dark matter force. Dark energy-time from below the Planck-time is applied to the dark matter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[117] **viXra:1303.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-18 08:18:17*

**Authors:** M.E.Hassani

**Comments:** 6 pages, 1 table, 5 references

In a recent paper of D.S. Hajdukovic (Astrophys. Space Sci. 343, 505, 2013), it is hypothetically claimed that “the quantum vacuum induces a retrograde precession of the perihelion and the Newton’s force of gravity might be accompanied with a tiny radial force that is a signature of the quantum vacuum”. However, the present paper argues that the quantum vacuum cannot really be the causal origin of the extra-gravitational effects and the additional radial acceleration and force are in fact a sort of the gravitational induction due to the relative motion of the test-body in the vicinity of the principal gravitational source.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[116] **viXra:1303.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-18 02:19:33*

**Authors:** Kapil Chandra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We proposed a new expression for force to estimate the numerical amount of nuclear force, this is the most fundamental forces of nature and its gives us the theoretical mass of proton and electron, followed by the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Through it, we also determined the size of nucleus, we believe, this work be helpful to understand the evolution of first atom after the Big-Bang

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[115] **viXra:1303.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-14 05:43:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 21 Pages. To appear in the Russian Journal of Gravitation and Cosmology

A continuous family of static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equations with a $spatial$ singularity at the origin $ r = 0 $ is found. These solutions are parametrized by
a real valued parameter $ \lambda$ (ranging from $ 0 $ to $ \infty$) and such that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $) as $ \lambda $ increases. In the limit $ \lambda \rightarrow \infty$, the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ leading to a $null$ singularity. In this extreme case, any infalling observer hits the null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the fire wall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. Another salient feature of these solutions is that it leads to a modification of the Newtonian potential consistent with the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) associated to a minimal length. The field equations due to a delta-function point-mass source at $ r = 0 $ are solved and the Euclidean gravitational action corresponding to those solutions is evaluated explicitly. It is found that the Euclidean action is precisely equal to the black hole entropy (in Planck area units). This result holds in any dimensions $ D \ge 3 $. The study of the Nonperturbative Renormalization Group flow of the metric $ g_{\mu v} [ k ] $ in terms of the momentum scale $ k $ and its relationship to these family of metrics parametrized by $ \lambda$ deserves further investigation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[114] **viXra:1303.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-17 17:44:41*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 4 pages

By means of geometrical problem of how many points can you find on the (half) parabola, such that the distance between any pair of them is rational, we construct some parametric equations.

**Category:** Geometry

[113] **viXra:1303.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-18 07:01:38*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This thesis proposes the Big Bang model is inaccurate and based on faulty assumptions. It
describes the exaggerated use of redshifted light as an erroneous supporting argument.
Arguments using hard evidence are made against the Big Bang model. It is concluded the
continuation of the Big Bang model is an effort to support popular reductionistic.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[112] **viXra:1303.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-17 10:53:37*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We study general deformation structures on path spaces defined on manifolds and specialioze to those with memory. Furthermore, we highlight the construction of local operators on path space relatively compact to some position operator. The idea of this rather elementary work is to engage in the study of how perturbative string theory could be seen as a representation of a non commutative geometry. The latter is acessible to direct physical interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[111] **viXra:1303.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-17 12:48:41*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Authors made an attempt to highlight the 6 major shortcomings of modern cosmology. Suggested solution is - During cosmic evolution, growing Hydrogen atom emits energetic photon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[110] **viXra:1303.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-12 13:37:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Most fruitful method to formulate a perfect theory should start from induction and via deduction lead to reduction if necessary. To eliminate the dichotomy of infinity i.e. the infinity understood as both a simple continuum without any boundaries or the ever-increasing sequence, we must introduce pieces of space. Infinity as a number has no sense and leads to incoherent theories. Applied mathematics should be defined as mathematical methods starting from pieces of space placed in the infinite nothingness. Since in such theory, information is not lost so such theory is mathematically coherent, simple and reversible. There do not appear physical singularities and infinities. Our cosmos, and many others, appeared due to inelastic collision of two or more very big pieces of space composed of smaller pieces. Only granular/discrete and kinetic geometry can be the foundations of coherent description of Nature. Here are formulated the fundamental axioms as the foundations of ontology. Entanglement of the Einstein-spacetime components leads to both psychology and particle physics. Due to the very different properties of fields associated with Gravity and Standard-Model/Quantum-Physics, unification of these two basic theories within the same methods is impossible.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[109] **viXra:1303.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-16 18:20:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper one generalizes the Lorentz Contraction Factor for the case when the
lengths are moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. One shows
that the angles of the moving relativistic objects are distorted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[108] **viXra:1303.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-16 18:23:07*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We have parameterized Einstein’s thought experiment with atomic clocks, supposing
that we knew neither if the space and time are relative or absolute, nor if the speed of
light was ultimate speed or not. We have obtained a Parameterized Special Theory of
Relativity (PSTR), first introduced in 1982. Our PSTR generalized not only Einstein’s
Special Theory of Relativity, but also our Absolute Theory of Relativity, and introduced
three more possible Relativities to be studied in the future. After the 2011 CERN’s
superluminal neutrino experiments, we recall our ideas and invite researchers to deepen
the study of PSTR, ATR, and check the three new mathematically emerged Relativities
4.3, 4.4, and 4.5.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[107] **viXra:1303.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-15 17:14:29*

**Authors:** J.S.Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We show that the free propagation and interactions of all fundamental particle fields can be derived from arithmetic summations over a suitably parametrized null-cone. Our approach represents a considerable simplification of the path integral formalism and leads to essentially identical results as those obtained from conventional procedures, but without using i) differential operators, ii) the principle of least action or iii) explicit gauge symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[106] **viXra:1303.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-15 19:01:05*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages, Portuguese.

When we conduct a thought experiment, in which the observer moves and can see the model for Schroedinger wave equation of atom with one electron, we create a wave function and calculate its wave eigenfunction acceptable, in spherical coordinates.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[105] **viXra:1303.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-15 22:24:01*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

It is my belief that Charles Misner and John Wheeler were correct in 1957 when they said, in the “Annals of Physics”, that Albert Einstein’s latest equations united gravitation and electromagnetism, and demonstrated the unified field theory. In January 2012, I wrote a little article called “Misner/Wheeler correct about Einstein's Unified Field Theory being successful”. That was just a summary of this present article, sketching its basic outline and the points that needed to be filled in. I’ve spent the following 14 months developing what I believe are satisfactory answers to UFT’s problems. The first point of debate is – it has been argued that the gravitational fields, if known everywhere but only for a limited time, do not contain enough information about their electromagnetism to allow the future to be determined, so Einstein's unified theory fails. Physicists also argue that a unified "theory of everything" must now include not just gravity and electromagnetism, but also the weak and strong nuclear forces plus dark matter and dark energy. I address all these concerns in detail. But I do so in the form of an essay (there is mathematics, but no equations) that uses concepts like planetary motion, revised gravitation, and string theory to arrive at a theory of everything. The essay might be suitable for a young teenager living in the second part of this century. Why is it written this way? "If a complete unified theory was discovered, it would only be a matter of time before it was digested and simplified ... and taught in schools, at least in outline. We should then all be able to have some understanding of the laws that govern the universe and are responsible for our existence." ("A Brief History of Time" by Stephen Hawking, Introduction by Carl Sagan) So the article/essay is entirely unsuitable for any maths or science journal.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[104] **viXra:1303.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-15 14:06:18*

**Authors:** John R Mcwhinnie

**Comments:** 25 Pages. please check the dates these 3 papers were first posted - the theory paper - the program paper - the results paper and adjust the dates accordingly -remember ther are 3 in total - the theory-the progtram-the rewsults

The theory behind the development of the theory for the F particle which is accompanied by a computer program that can be compiled and ran to produce the mass of the proton

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[103] **viXra:1303.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-15 14:09:47*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Thirty Four Pages

Dr. Roger A. Rydin joins us in this issue writing about Special Relativity and other topics, as well as your Editor, Glenn A. Baxter, P.E., both authors in disagreement with Dr. Albert Einstein’s Relativity theories, the foundations of 21st century physics. Dr. Rydin’s doctorate from MIT places him on our ever growing list of highest level “credentialed” physicists who openly and convincingly disagree with Dr. Einstein. Physcist Roger Anderton also joins us with his just published book, THE FIRST UNIFIED FIELD THEORY WAS BY BOSCOVICH IN THE 18th CENTURY.
The Belgrade Lakes Institute For Advanced Research Foundation is greatly expanding its Physics Colloquium program to invite and fund all travel expenses for leading world-wide scientists to visit and present their newest papers/lectures at selected universities in the United States. If you or your university are interested, e-mail Institute@k1man.com.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[102] **viXra:1303.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-23 10:48:26*

**Authors:** Carol He, Bo He, Jin He

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 1 Figure. The new gravity generalizes Newtonian theory and gives a unified explanation to both discrete and smooth natural structures. It is the inevitable truth if gravity must satisfy divergence theorem and galaxies must be rational structure.

New Universal Gravity: To any point on a rational structure, there correspond three proportion surfaces which pass the point and are orthogonal to each other. To any proportion surface there exists the corresponding component of the gravitational force at the point whose direction is normal to the surface (pointing to the larger matter density) and whose magnitude is proportional to the Gaussian curvature of the surface at the point and proportional to the total mass contained in the closed surface. The new gravity generalizes Newtonian theory and gives a unified explanation to both discrete and smooth natural structures (i.e., Solar system and galaxies). It is the inevitable truth of nature if gravity must satisfy divergence theorem and galaxies must be rational structure.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[101] **viXra:1303.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-15 09:39:12*

**Authors:** M. MADANI Bouabdallah

**Comments:** 07 Pages. French language

The set of (6n - 1,6n +1)is an abelian group for n rational integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[100] **viXra:1303.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-10 15:48:37*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 24 Pages; 4 Tables; 1 Figure; 37 References. This work is accepted for publication in Galilean Electrodynamics Journal

In previous papers relating to the concept of Combined Gravitational Action (CGA) we have established the CGA-theoretical foundations as an alternative gravity theory that already allowed us to resolve -in its context- some unexpected and defiant problems occurred inside and outside the Solar System. All that has been done without exploring fully the CGA-formalism, hence, the main purpose of the present paper is to explore and exploit profoundly the CGA-equations in order to investigate, among other things, the secular perigee precession of the Moon; the secular perihelion advance of the planets; the CGA-effects in the non-compact and compact stellar objects.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[99] **viXra:1303.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 15:19:18*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Two spaceships, A and B, are in motion relative to each other. Their motion relative to the empty space they are in is undefined and undefinable. We can consider ship A to be stationary relative to space and ship B to be moving or vice versa. The two situations are entirely equivalent. Each ship’s motion relative to the other is symmetric. Relative to a clock in either ship, an identical clock in the other ship appears to tick more slowly. This reciprocity paradox, also termed the twin paradox, is unresolvable in a geometric analysis. The history of which ship accelerated to produce their velocity difference is irrelevant and offers no solution to the paradox. If the two ships are brought together, motionless relative to each other, their clocks will tick at the same rate and neither clock will have lost time relative to the other. The symmetry of their motion relative to each other is inviolable. Both clocks cannot tick more slowly than their counterparts. Therefore, neither clock can tick more slowly than the other. The reciprocity paradox is an illusion. The motion between two reference frames in a space without properties that yields the inviolable symmetry of the reciprocity paradox tells us that geometric relationships cannot govern the physics of time dilation. The motion that violates this symmetry must be motion relative to a space with properties. This space must contain something that can be used to reckon motion. This something is a field that supports the propagation of photons and other force particles. This field is identified as the temporal-inertial (TI) field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[98] **viXra:1303.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 16:19:26*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

This paper challenges the possibility of electromagnetic waves might be reflected differently by moving mirrors in comparison to resting mirrors following a logic conclusion on Huygens principle, thus the common law upon which the incident angel would equal the reflected angle would be not valid on such systems. A modified static ether concept will be tested on the assumption that angles will be deflected in correlation of relative velocities of the transversal movement of the observation setup against the emerging center of one particular light wave front. Further on it will be demonstrated that reflection angles from any ray emerging from sources laying at the focal point of a parabolic mirror then will not be reflected parallel to the parables axis but on a distinct differing angle that proves to be identical with the resultant angle of both velocity components of ray and mirror at any transversal movement of source and observer. Moreover it will be shown that this applies on multiple reflection between two parabolic mirrors with congruent focal point as in principle being used for laser arrays as well. Based on the results thereof and based on a modified static ether concept a possible approach to explanation of terrestrial and stellar aberration will be shown, as well as an alternative solution for the results of the Michelson- Moreley- experiment without stressing special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[97] **viXra:1303.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 17:52:41*

**Authors:** Edigles Bezerra Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages

We discovery some formulas for the divisor function, derived from a Vinogradov’s formula and definitions these function, including the Ramanujan’s sum. As well, we have developed a formula asymptotic, using the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula.

**Category:** Number Theory

[96] **viXra:1303.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 18:57:01*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dark Matter, according to Theoretical Physics and Quantum Physics, is believed to be matter that composes a large amount of mass in our universe. Dark Matter can not be see with telescopes and it is believed to not emit light or electromagnetic radiation at any level. My hypothesis on Dark Matter is that it is that every thing is composed of it but dark matter can be different at some accounts. For example the matter that we are composed off are many atoms and particles that make up the cells of life. However the matter that the universe is composed off can be made out of different subatomic particles such as ones of lighter and ones heavier depending on the object or element that dark matter is composed off. I also think that trying to characterize everything as a composition of a single type of dark matter is scientifically incorrect.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[95] **viXra:1303.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 20:09:45*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The main idea in this paper is that physicists should have either explored the universe to discover a ‘solar system’ in which Newton’s law of gravitation applied exactly or should have explained the discrepancy between the implication of the simple Newton’s law of gravitation (circular orbits) and actual observation (non circular or ‘elliptic’) orbits, with sound logical consistency and validity. Discrepancies between a theory and actual observation should never be tolerated or given ad hoc explanations and carried forward. The discrepancy between Newton’s law of gravitation and actual observation turned out to be of fundamental importance as presented in my previous paper:
“ ‘Elliptic’ Orbits and Mercury Perihelion Advance as Evidence for Absolute Motion ”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[94] **viXra:1303.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 13:02:25*

**Authors:** John R. McWhinnie

**Comments:** 24 Pages. ANYONE TRYING TO RUN THE PROGRAM AND NEEDS HELP SHOULD CONTACT ME ON JOHNM@MACSOFT-FIRMWARE.COM

Following on from the two part series of documents entitled The Origin of Matter, in this paper we calculate, using the latest version of the theories , the properties of the proposed F particle and later the mass of the F particle and the proton as it is used in complex particle construction.
THE RESULTS OF THE PROTON PRODUCED ARE EXACT PROOVING THE THEORY AND THAT THE WHOLE QUARK BASED THEORIES ARE NOT CORRECT NOT EVEN CLOSE.
I FORECAST THAT THIS THEORY IS A REVOLUTION INPHYSICS AND MANY THINGS WILL CHANGE.
ALSO i HAVE INCLUDED A WORKING PROGRAM WRITTEN DIRECTLY FROM THE THEORY THAT PRODUCES THE PROTON MASS EXACTLY.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[93] **viXra:1303.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 11:07:48*

**Authors:** Mircea Eugen Selariu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

EXIS TĂ O LEGATURĂ ÎNTRE PARABOLA CA POVESTIRE Ş I PARABOLA DIN
MATEMATICĂ ?
“ Exis tă ! Există şi între parabolele centrice şi parabolele excentrice sau excentricele parabolice !

**Category:** Geometry

[92] **viXra:1303.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-14 09:47:34*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their article, Wong and Wania [J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 1569-1578] claim to estimate the partitioning properties (air-water partition coefficients and soil organic carbon-water partition coefficients) of twenty neutral organic chemicals using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships. Five of the 20 compounds in this study have ionizable functional groups with environmentally relevant pKa values, meaning the corresponding partitioning properties are highly pH dependent, thereby rendering the modeling approach applied by these authors subject to a fatal conceptual and practical flaw.

**Category:** Chemistry

[91] **viXra:1303.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-13 19:12:12*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 1 illustration, 1 picture

The objects that cause charge separation are labeled by mainstream scientists as “pulsars”, by the author as “embryonic galaxies” and by plasma cosmologists as “plasmoids”. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that the formation of new galaxies/charge separation/fusion occurs in objects called “pulsars/embryonic galaxies/plasmoids”. A borrowed illustration is connected to an actual picture of natural phenomenon. Fusion does not occur in stars, fusion occurs during galaxy birth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[90] **viXra:1303.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-13 10:09:59*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A correct time translation operator must have an unbounded spectrum. Here we propose that there
exists a mass operator with this property that replaces the conventionally used Hamiltonian. Simple consequences are a negative gravitational mass for anti-particles, a zero-energy vacuum and a prospect of benign modifications of quantum field theory, including a quantum theory of gravitation. The advent of negative gravitational mass might help to overcome some of the most fundamental problems in cosmology, but it also questions whether General Relativity is the appropriate theory of gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1303.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-14 10:35:37*

**Authors:** K. Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This is first part of eight parts of lecture notes on Real Analysis. This notes is well designed and useful to all Undergraduate, Graduate and postgraduate in their regular study. Apart from this, the problems discussed in exercise will increase the readability of readers and they love Number Theory as well as analysis without any doubts. Also, some problems presented in the exercises of this part as well as coming parts will create motivation towards research and development.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[88] **viXra:1303.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-15 00:23:22*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s revised gravity field equation (add the cosmological term), discover the spherical solution of the cosmology. In this time, the cosmology constant is concerned about the Hubble’s constant. In this case, the general relativity theory only treats the present universe because the Hubble’s constant is the inverse of the present universe’s age.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[87] **viXra:1303.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-13 11:51:39*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Accepted to be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D

In a previous paper (part I), the mathematical properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum which presents oscillations were discussed. Here, we discuss the physical interpretation: a power spectrum with oscillations is a rather normal characteristic expected from any fluid with clouds of overdensities that emits/absorb radiation or interact gravitationally with the photons, and with a finite range of sizes and distances for those clouds. The standard cosmological interpretation of "acoustic" peaks is just a particular case; peaks in the power spectrum might be generated in scenarios within some alternative cosmological model that have nothing to do with oscillations due to gravitational compression in a fluid.
We also calculate the angular correlation function of the anisotropies from the WMAP-7yr and ACT data, in an attempt to derive the minimum number of parameters a polynomial function should have to fit it: a set of polynomial functions with a total of 6 free parameters, apart from the amplitude, is enough to reproduce the first two peaks. However, the standard model with six tunable free parameters also reproduces higher order peaks, giving the standard model a higher confidence. At present, while no simple function with six free parameters is found to give a fit as good as the one given by the standard cosmological model, we may consider the predictive power of the standard model beyond an instrumentalist approach (such as the Ptolemaic astronomy model of the orbits of the planets).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1303.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-13 05:15:35*

**Authors:** Kapil Chandra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract We derived the gravity through the quantum form of force and shown, it will not have Planck constants in this scenario. We found an expression to relate the mass of body to its corresponding gravitational wave’s wavelength, which leads us a new expression for force which is just inverse of classical gravity. Inverse in the sense, force is directly proportional to square of distance and inversely proportional to square of mass. It has been shown that this inverse gravity is responsible for Hawking radiation and particle creations by black holes, probably this force leads to the explosions of black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1303.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-15 11:16:34*

**Authors:** Elias Gonzalez, Laszlo B. Kish, Robert S. Balog, Prasad Enjeti

**Comments:** 24 Pages. updated, polished

We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[84] **viXra:1303.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-12 22:54:13*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their article, DeBruyn and Gobas [2007. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:1803-1808] claim to "present a compilation and meta-analysis of published data to estimate the relative sorptive capacities of animal proteins and lipids for neutral organic chemicals." However, the dataset of these authors contains compounds that would be effectively entirely ionized at physiological pH values, rendering the assumption of neutrality and any subsequent analyses based thereupon incorrect.

**Category:** Chemistry

[83] **viXra:1303.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-29 09:20:46*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 5 Pages. I'm just including the final version published on Journal of Nuclear and Particle Physics 2013, 3(4), 72-76

Considering the model in which the effective interaction between any two quarks of a baryon can be approximately described by a simple harmonic potential, and making use of the expression of the energy obtained in Cartesian coordinates for the above mentioned model, we find a general expression for the radii of baryons. We then apply the expression to some baryons and find very consistent values for the radii of baryons and an experimental confirmation for the ground state of chi minus.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[82] **viXra:1303.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-14 15:25:42*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 2 pages, 3 figures

This article shows how the gravitational force is conservative only in ideal models of small
size. It is shown as strictly mathematical generally is not conservative. From it you can get energy by asymmetric systems.
Spanish: En este artículo se muestra como la fuerza gravitatoria sólo es conservativa en modelos ideales de pequeño tamaño. Se demuestra con rigor matemático como, en general,
no es conservativa. De ella se puede obtener energía mediante sistemas asimétricos.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[81] **viXra:1303.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-12 03:24:32*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 413 Pages.

1.Foudations of Santilli isonumber theory.I:isonumber theory of the first kind;2.Santilli isonumber theory.II:isonumber theory of the second kind;3.Fermat last theorem and its applications;4.the proofs of binary Goldbach theorem using only partial primes;5.Santilli isocryptographic theory.Disproofs of Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[80] **viXra:1303.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-14 10:19:58*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper probes further into the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1303.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-11 20:50:49*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

According to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, the speed of light always remains constant at 186,000 miles per second regardless of whether it is gauged from a stationary reference point, a moving reference point or any other reference points, no object could travel faster than 186,000 miles per second (the speed of light itself) because the mass of the object would then be so great (infinitely great) that it could not accelerate anymore, on approaching the speed of light a moving object contracts in length in the direction of motion while a clock gauging the time slows down, at the speed of light the length of the moving object contracts to zero while the clock (and time) becomes at a standstill, and, importantly, the mass of an object multiplied by the square of the speed of light gives energy (E = MC2), i.e., mass could be converted to energy and vice versa; on approaching the speed of light the brain and bodily functions of a person slow down; observers do not agree on the simultaneity of events - two simultaneous events for one observer might not be simultaneous for another; in the Special Theory time-travel (in the space-time continuum) is an apparent possibility. A deeper look at the Special Theory of Relativity is presented in this paper, employing some strong, subtle and important mathematical reasoning in the process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[78] **viXra:1303.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-11 20:57:12*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity postulates that the speed of light always remains constant at 186,000 miles per second at all inertial frames. This paper describes an anomaly in the standard computation pertaining to the constancy of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1303.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-11 13:38:33*

**Authors:** Mosayyeb Fakhreslam

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we offer a solution to the unexpected examination paradox by introducing the unexpected examinationless day paradox.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[76] **viXra:1303.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-13 15:11:40*

**Authors:** Wes Hansen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We explore the deductive implications of the hypothetical definition of mysticism as intimacy with death.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[75] **viXra:1303.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-12 12:05:02*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 3 p.

It is shown that the dimensions of electrical units (ampere, coulomb, etc.) are surplus.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[74] **viXra:1303.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-11 07:14:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Though they are a fascinating class of numbers, there are very many properties of Carmichael numbers still unstudied enough. I have always thought there is a connection between these numbers and the sum of their digits (few of them are also Harshad numbers). I try here to highlight such a possible connection.

**Category:** Number Theory

[73] **viXra:1303.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-11 12:25:57*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The concept of relativity of motion was first introduced by Galileo. In his principle of invariance he stated that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames. He used the Galileo’s ship thought experiment in his argument, among other arguments. This principle of invariance was then modified by Einstein (special relativity), which included the speed of light to be invariant in all inertial frames. Therefore, the relativity theory we know today is based on Galileo’s principle of invariance. There is no sound argument yet in support of relativity of motion. Simply because an observer hasn’t been able to identify between illusion of motion and real motion cannot be taken as a sound argument to support relativity of motion. In the usual arguments for relativity of motion, such as an observer closed inside a ship that is moving steadily on the sea , an observer flying in an aircraft steadily with windows closed, etc. to detect absolute motion is difficult. Detection of absolute motion requires a more fundamental approach, and not just looking through the windows. Absolute motion can be detected by observing change of the law of gravitation in our reference frame. Despite the advance of physics, the cause for the ‘elliptic’ shape of planetary orbits is unknown at a fundamental level todate. Newton’s law doesn’t predict the perihelion advance exactly and the discrepancy is said to have been corrected by Einstein’s general relativity and this is one of the evidences claimed to confirm Einstein’s general relativity. The finding in this paper shows that redefinition of Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation with respect to an absolute reference may solve the problem, without the need of Einstein’s general relativity.
In this paper, a sound argument against Galileo’s principle of invariance will be presented, which will prove the notion of absolute motion to be correct and disprove relativity of motion, both Galileo’s and Einstein’s. Elliptic orbits are a result of absolute motion of the solar system in space, where as Mercury perihelion advance is a result of absolute centripetal acceleration of the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1303.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-10 17:06:05*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 15 references

It is understood that stars cool and shrink to become what are called “planets”, as they are the same objects. This understanding holds the ability to reason that the determination of “gravitation” being caused by “mass” is in doubt. Out of the box reasoning to explain gravitation is also provided in this short paper, and an explanation as to what does NOT cause gravitation as believed by 20th century Black Hole/Big Bang/Einstein/Hawking Scientism.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[71] **viXra:1303.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-29 17:10:18*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

World – Universe Model is based on three primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the electrodynamic constant c. The Universe serves as an unlimited source of energy that continuously enters into the World from the boundary.
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World.
3) Two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-Structure Constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
The World – Universe Model explains experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology over the last decades: the size and age of the World; critical energy density and the gravitational parameter; temperatures of the cosmic microwave background radiation and black body radiation of cosmic dust; fractal structure of the World and its evolution; observed expansion of the World and cosmological redshift. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles, photons, axions, and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak) and the fundamental physical parameters of the World; gives a new “low density small white dwarf” model of Ball Lightning and dineutrino model of Extreme Ball Lightning based on super weak interaction; explains “Pioneer Anomaly”; and resolves paradoxes like “Matter – Antimatter Asymmetry” and “Faint Young Sun”. The Model proposes to introduce a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values for calculating time dependent parameters of the World.
Keywords: World – Universe Model, Fractal Cosmology, Fine-Structure Constant, Dark Matter, Microwave Background Radiation, Maxwell-Lorentz Equations, Dirac’s Equations, Fractal Particle Structure, Grand Unified Theory, Ball Lightning, CODATA

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1303.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-10 15:53:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

On 3/10/2013 Andrew decided to explain the believed ideas and solutions to the top three questions in physics. He included an explanation on the origins of the universe proved through creationism rather then just a dimensional parameter of naturally accoring events. Andrew also explained why Quantum Gravity helps explain the origins of the universe and why it is in harmony with both the theory of creationism and the theory of atomism. Andrew also took time to explain the potential lifetime of a proton being unstable and impossible to calculate, as well as some protons may have the ability to have different lifespans then others due to difference in amounts in typical locations of an element or existance of particles. Andrew also explained how it is likely possible to get a full calculation on the average lifetime of a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[69] **viXra:1303.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-16 14:43:06*

**Authors:** Alon Retter

**Comments:** 8 Pages. a minor correction in Table 2 (add a minus sign at the right end of the 4th line)

It is a known fact that like people, some stars are singles, many others tend to couple in binaries, and fewer are in triples etc. The distribution of multiplicity in the 4559 brightest nearby stars was matched with that of human adults in house-hold in six countries, in which this information could be dug and estimated. A strong resemblance between the two curves is evident. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that this result is significant at a confidence level higher than 98%. Apparently, there should be no connection between the two populations, thus this striking result may supply some clues about the way Nature works. It is noted that extended versions of this work were proposed three years ago, and two predictions of this absurd model have already been verified.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[68] **viXra:1303.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 16:56:18*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 65 Pages.

Prevailing science itself tells us the electric force (which fully rules the motion of an electron around a proton, in a hydrogen atom H, for instance, is enormously stronger than the gravitational one, which, on the contrary, fully rules the motion of galaxies and that of the Universe, as well, more generally. But now, we cannot avoid to see that the dimensions of atoms are, by the same token, enormously smaller than those of the Universe and, more consistently, than those of my Universe.
On the basis of all that, do you think it’s all about a coincidence? Come on!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[67] **viXra:1303.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 20:47:12*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their article, Bhhatarai and Gramatica [Water Res. 45, 2011, 1463-1471] employ a quantitative structure-property relationship approach to model the physico-chemical properties of compounds they refer to as benzotriazoles, and to subsequently screen these compounds for environmental partitioning behavior. A substantial number of these compounds are not benzotriazoles and do not have similar properties as benzotriazoles. Consequently, it appears that the approach, assumptions, and results in this work must be viewed as potentially fundamentally flawed.

**Category:** Chemistry

[66] **viXra:1303.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-15 19:27:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages. submitted to IAT 2013

In the present paper we discuss Gödel’s incompleteness theorem(s) and plausible implications to artificial intelligence/life and human mind. Perhaps we should agree with Sullins III, that the value of this finding is not to discourage certain types of research in AL, but rather to help move us in a direction where we can more clearly define the results of that research. Gödel’s incompleteness theorems have their own limitations, but so do Artificial Life (AL)/AI systems. Based on our experiences so far, human mind has incredible abilities to interact with other part of human body including heart, which makes it so difficult to simulate in AI/AL. However, it remains an open question to predict whether in the future AI research including robotics science can bring this gap closer or not. In this regard, fuzzy logic and its generalization –neutrosophic logic- offer a way to improve significantly AI/AL research.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[65] **viXra:1303.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 22:03:28*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their study, Bhhatarai et al. [Mol. Inf. 2010, 29, 511-522] develop quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for the inhibition of HIV protease by 158 so-called 4-OH cycloalkyl-pyranones. A number of compounds termed 4-OH cycloalkyl-pyranones in this work do not appear to be cycloalkyl-pyranones.

**Category:** Chemistry

[64] **viXra:1303.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 14:53:05*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In their article, Yemis and Mazza [Yemis and Mazza, 2011, Bioresour. Technol. 102, 7371-7378] study the effects of different Bronsted acids, temperatures, times, substrate concentrations, and pH on the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose, xylan and straw into furfural by microwave-assisted reaction. The authors appear to incorrectly classify phosphoric acid as a mineral acid, and claim to achieve pH values in solutions of acetic and formic acid below the apparent theoretical limits.

**Category:** Chemistry

[63] **viXra:1303.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 11:52:15*

**Authors:** H. Wang, Y. Zhang, R. Sunderraman, F. Song

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We define set-operators on DNS.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[62] **viXra:1303.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 11:54:52*

**Authors:** Athar Kharal

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This work presents a method of multicriteria decision making
using neutrosophic sets. Besides studying some interesting mathematical properties
of the method, algorithm viz neut-MCDM is presented. The work also furnishes the
fundamentals of neutrosophic set theory succinctly, to provide a …rst introduction
of neutrosophic sets for the MCDM community. To illustrate the computational
details, neut-MCDM has been applied to the problem of university faculty selection
against a given set of criteria.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[61] **viXra:1303.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 10:56:31*

**Authors:** I. M. Hanafy, A. A. Salama, K. M. Mahfouz

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we propose another method to calculate the correlation coefficient of neutrosophic sets. The value which obtained from this method tells us the strength of relationship between the neutrosophic sets and the whether the neutrosophic sets are positively or negatively related. Finally we give some proposition and examples.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[60] **viXra:1303.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 11:13:19*

**Authors:** Matteo Ceriotti, Massimiliano Vasile, Mauro Massari

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) used for the planetary rover.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[59] **viXra:1303.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-09 11:18:30*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, H. Alagamy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the notion of filters on neutrosophic set which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy
filters studies in [6], the important neutrosophic filters has been given. Several relations between different neutrosophic
filters and neutrosophic topologies are also studied here. Possible applications to computer sciences are touched upon.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[58] **viXra:1303.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 16:04:51*

**Authors:** Carol He, Bo He, Jin He

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 2 Figures. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton

Newton discovered the dynamic law of universal gravity, based on his principles of kinetic physics and Kepler's three laws of planetary motion in the Solar system. However, astronomers observed larger material systems in the universe that are galaxies. If Newton's theory was applicable to galaxies then stars would rotate around the galaxy center at a speed decreasing with the distance from the center. However, astronomical observation shows that the speed is constant regardless of the distance. This is called the problem of constant rotational curves. It is the dark cloud hanging over twentieth century physics. Fortunately, Dr. Jin He found out that the observational galaxy structure is rational. This suggests Jin He might be a modern Kepler. In this article we present Cylindrical Conjecture on galaxy force field based on Jin He's observational result. The conjecture simply proves constant rotational curves. We are looking for a modern Newton who will develop the conjecture into a systematic theory on galaxy dynamics, be the conjecture a cosmic truth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[57] **viXra:1303.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 16:46:28*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The new theory of (Special) Relativity of Electromagnetic Fields proposed earlier is based on the assumption that the observer and the source are in uniform relative speed and is based on the ‘postulate’ of absolute constancy of the speed of light. It was disappointing at first when I discovered that the theory implied a variation of the speed of light with the acceleration of an observer relative to the source. Later I found out that this variation to be vitally important as it might explain the results of the well known ‘time delay’ experiments claimed as evidences supporting Einstein’s relativity! Perhaps the variation of the speed of light with source-observer relative acceleration might explain ‘GPS correction’, Ives-Stilwell experiment and Hafele and Keating Experiment! There is a common factor in all these experiments: acceleration. However, the new theory of General Relativity of EM waves should be completed quantitatively to know its real significance. The purpose of this paper is only to announce the new theory by presenting a briefly and preliminarily; the details and more accurate quantitative analysis will be presented in future versions of this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1303.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 19:26:31*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 5 references

The scientific consensus, (religious dogma), that quasars are powered by super-massive black holes or black holes of any size is mathematically and observationally false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[55] **viXra:1303.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 19:51:35*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 71 Pages. Copyright © 2013 - Super Principia Mathematica - The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

A question that the physics community is asking today, is, “What is a Singularity?”, and “Are Singularities Detectable and Measurable?” This work, will describe five (5) different types or classifications of “Singularities” in nature: the Inverse Distance Power Law Singularity, the Physical Singularity, the Naked Singularity, the Coordinate Singularity, and the Big Bang Singularity. Correlating the nature of these singularities, with the mathematics, theory, and the real physical world, is a conundrum in physics.
This work extends the “Strong and Weak Cosmic Censorship” hypotheses originally proposed an debated by Roger Penrose, Steven Hawking, and Kip Thorne, by adding an additional thirteen (13) “Censorships” which removes some of the contradiction that exists with just the two (2) original “Cosmic Censorship Hypotheses” alone. The “Penrose–Hawking–Thorne” singularity theorems, of General Relativity Theory, described in this work, addresses mathematically the concept of “Geodesic Incompleteness”; which is another name for a geodesic with infinite curvature, which at one end of the geodesic is a singularity. And “Geodesic Completeness” another name for a geodesic with infinite curvature, on a 2-Sphere Riemann Manifold; there the Non-Euclidean geometry still predicts a singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1303.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 21:54:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 references

A few notes are taken concerning the extraterrestrial spaceship that appeared over China. Some characteristics are noted and the video is referenced on the second page of this paper.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[53] **viXra:1303.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 07:47:10*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 5 pages

We propose a new technique for detecting gravitational waves that rests on Weber-like setup plus a specially arranged double slit experiment in which we suggest to make distance between the slits as much small as possible with present state of the technology. We make these two slits in the Weber bar itself, equidistant from center of thin Weber bar, to be suspended along y-axis and kept in the y-z plane and suppose the gravitational waves will be falling perpendicularly on this suspended Weber bar having specially made two slits near the center as mentioned along x-direction. This technique is based on detecting oscillations produced in the fringe pattern formed due to interference between light waves passing through two slits made in the suspended Weber bar due to squeezing and elongation of this antenna leading to variation in the distance between the slits made in this antenna when this antenna will get exposed to incoming gravitational waves, in the x-direction. Let the separation between slits be d say. When plane gravitational waves will be passing this apparatus by falling perpendicularly on y-z plane there will be switching of direction of elongation and contraction periodically in such a way that there will be elongation along y-direction and contraction along z-direction and then the reversal of these conditions, i.e. there will be contraction along y-direction and elongation along z-direction. Due to this the separation between these parallel slits will be changing periodically. This variation will essentially amount to variation in the fringe pattern. If this variation that is expected in the fringe pattern could be found then it will conclude the arrival and passing of gravitational waves!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[52] **viXra:1303.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-08 03:16:37*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

By using the IS units and applying the dimensional analysis to the apsidal motion equations, we show more conclusively that their current formulation in astronomy and astrophysics is conceptually, mathematically and physically incorrect and highly questionable since it was erroneously used in several research articles. Consequently, we cannot use these apsidal motion equations, at least in their present form, as a decisive test of alternative gravity theories and theoretical models of internal stellar structure and evolution. Thus the main purpose of this paper is to draw theorists’ attention to such a fallacy in order to establish new, correct, clear and concise equations.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[51] **viXra:1303.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-02 11:29:25*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 26 Pages. 26

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles.
As a result, a new splitting, accelerating and pairing massless dual Black Hole system in space, seems to be able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) efficiently into real electric energy by entropy decrease between electrons and quarks, creating a nuclear electric potential by charge separation around the BH horizon.
At the same time, dark matter observations around ( dwarf) galaxies show point like characteristics as a support for the additional assumption that all dark matter will come into the form of Black Holes of different particle Quantum Knot content.
The electric energy production of Stellar Anchor Black Holes (SABHs), seem to be able to explain quick Star- and Galaxy formation, by Birkeland Currents and so called Alfven Circuits. However, smaller ( new paradigm) Black holes (created by magnetic interference and Radio Frequency currents) are supposed to be responsible for Sunspots, micro-Comets, Ball Lightning and even as multiple so called Quantum Knots inside Plasma Balls in the laboratory.
It is postulated that some specific shaped singular photonic particles seem to be able to form compose complex Quantum Knots or micro black holes as the origin of electric potentials observed inside RF generated Plasma balls and heat production inside Silicon based ball lightning experiments in the lab.
Reason to describe a laboratory system, to show the possibility of Micro Birkeland Alfven current circuit generation between RF generated plasma balls as a future possibility to generate electric energy ( Zero Point Electric Energy: ZPEE) on earth on large and smalls scales

**Category:** Astrophysics

[50] **viXra:1303.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 18:32:29*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract
Using newly assigned structural contents for quarks and leptons, it is possible to create simple, schematic diagrams of the structural content of the baryons that contain u-, d-, and s-quarks. These diagrams not only accurately explain observed baryon decay patterns but also point out major flaws in the quark configurations assigned to these baryons by the Standard Model. One consequence of this proposal is the discovery that individual baryons may have multiple configurations. A review of 13 baryons suggests that each of these baryons consists of a meson-like structure with a tightly bound positron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:1303.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 23:10:31*

**Authors:** Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Climate modeling work has suggested biofuel wheat production in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the mid-21st century will be influenced by increasing annual precipitation, including precipitation increases in every month except July and August, increasing daily mean, minimum, and maximum air temperatures throughout the year, and substantial increases in the risk of wheat heat shock (temperatures>32.0 C). In the current study, we compare prior modeling predictions to historical trends in the number of days with maximum temperatures >32.0 C during July and August, the number of hours with maximum temperatures >32.0 C during July, as well as monthly and annual total precipitation, mean daily temperatures, and mean maximum daily temperatures for climate stations throughout southern Saskatchewan. We find no evidence of increasing trends for wheat heat shock days or hours during the mid-summer period in this region. In contrast, the majority of stations exhibit significantly declining temporal trends in wheat heat shock days and hours. Historical precipitation and temperature trends for the climate stations under consideration in southern Saskatchewan display significant inter- and intra-station heterogeneity throughout the year in terms of whether or not trends are evident, as well as their magnitude and direction. Consequently, caution must be exercised when extrapolating any case study analyses at a particular location to larger geographic areas of the province. Based on our analyses of historical climate data for southern Saskatchewan, it is unclear whether climate models are accurately predicting future climate change impacts on biofuel wheat production for this region in the mid-21st century.

**Category:** Climate Research

[48] **viXra:1303.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 13:30:18*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Spectrin alpha, erythrocytic 1 [ Mus musculus ] suggested the following scheme, which supports up or downstream of this site the study of numerous molecular regulating mechanisms the characterize the alpha-chain that mediates the binding of the EF-hand complex SPNA1-protein/P17687.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[47] **viXra:1303.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 11:27:20*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A short summary on economic surplus

Economic surplus could mean up to three things: excess of supplies, an extent in which people’s assets exceeds their liability, profits remaining after a company subtracts their major expenses. Another word for Economics surplus is Marshallian Surplus, named after the great economics himself Alfred Marshall. The two types of surplus are consumer and producer surplus. Consumer surplus is the monetary gain of an item purchased by the consumer. Producer’s surplus is the producer/company’s benefit of bringing an item to the market for a certain price. Paul Baran, introduced Marshall’s concept as having to do with supply and demand. Meaning when the producer’s supplies meet the consumer’s demand then it is a mutual economic surplus.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[46] **viXra:1303.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 11:32:32*

**Authors:** Edigles Bezerra Guedes

**Comments:** 6 pages

We prove the Legendre’s conjecture: given an integer, n>0, there is always one prime, p, such that n^2<p<(n+1)^2, using the prime-counting function and the Bertrand’s Postulate.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1303.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 11:35:37*

**Authors:** Edigles Bezerra Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages

We prove the Oppermann’s conjecture: given an integer, n>1, there is, at least, one prime between n^2-n and n^2, and, at least, another prime between n^2 and n^2+n, using the prime-counting function and the Bertrand’s Postulate.

**Category:** Number Theory

[44] **viXra:1303.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 08:39:29*

**Authors:** Stan Bumble

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract; An Application of Statistical Mechanics to Dark Energy
A reexamination of a past application of order-disorder theory to a new two dimensional application produces a toy model of “dark energy.” This model of the universe contains negative pressure. The model depicts sparse basic geometric figures having vertices covered with celestial objects. Most of the basic figures are empty or considered as vacuum covered. There are interactions between the occupied adjacent vertices of the basic figures. The basic figures change from a point to a bond to a triangle and, as larger basic figures are considered, the results become more accurate as the mathematics become more difficult. There is no need in this application to resort to phenomena as negative mass or anti matter, etc. in order to explain dark energy as has been done in some other publications. However, new publications that refer to entangled growth and coevolution of correlated multiplex networks seem appropriate.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[43] **viXra:1303.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 08:50:04*

**Authors:** Suresh k Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract—We describe the p-untestability of faults in combinational circuits. They are similar to redundant faults, but are defined
probabilistically. P-untestable fault is a fault that is not detectable after N random pattern simulation or a fault, FAN either proves
to be redundant or aborts after K backtracks. We chose N to be about 1000000 and K to be about 1000. We provide a p-untestability detectability algorithm that works in about 85% of the cases, with average of about 14% false negatives. The algorithm is a simple hack to FAN and uses structural information and can be easily
implemented. The algorithm does not prove redundancy completely but establishes a fault as a probabilistically redundant, meaning a
fault with low probability of detection or no detection.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[42] **viXra:1303.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 09:55:14*

**Authors:** Ana L. Teixeira, João P. Leal, Andre O Falcao

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Stereoisomers have the same molecular formula and the same atom connectivity and their existence can be related to the presence of different three-dimensional arrangements. Stereoisomerism is of great importance in many different fields since the molecular properties and biological effects of the stereoisomers are often significantly different. Most drugs for example, are often composed of a single stereoisomer of a compound, and while one of them may have therapeutic effects on the body, another may be toxic. A challenging task is the automatic detection of stereoisomers using line input specifications such as SMILES or InChI since it requires information about group theory (to distinguish stereoisomers using mathematical information about its symmetry), topology and geometry of the molecule. There are several software packages that include modules to handle stereochemistry, especially the ones to name a chemical structure and/or view, edit and generate chemical structure diagrams. However, there is a lack of software capable of automatically analyzing a molecule represented as a graph and generate a classification of the type of isomerism present in a given atom or bond. Considering the importance of stereoisomerism when comparing chemical structures, this report describes a computer program for analyzing and processing steric information contained in a chemical structure represented as a molecular graph and providing as output a binary classification of the isomer type based on the recommended conventions. Due to the complexity of the underlying issue, specification of stereochemical information is currently limited to explicit stereochemistry and to the two most common types of stereochemistry caused by asymmetry around carbon atoms: chiral atom and double bond.
A Webtool to automatically identify and classify stereochemistry is available at http://nams.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/tools.php

**Category:** Chemistry

[41] **viXra:1303.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 07:08:19*

**Authors:** Suresh k Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract—Reverse order restoration ROR techniques have found great use in sequential automatic test pattern generation ATPG, esp. spectral and perturbation-based ATPG. This paper deals with
improving ROR for that purpose. We introduce parallel-fault multipass 2-level polynomial reverse order restoration PROR algorithms
with constant complexity of the form H(n)G(n) + c where H(n) is the number of vectors to be released this iteration and G(n) is the attenuation factor. In PROR H(n) = nk and G(n) here is 1

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[40] **viXra:1303.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 05:14:22*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A large variety of types of open access publishing exist. Its advantages and problems are treated in this paper.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[39] **viXra:1303.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 01:38:43*

**Authors:** Muteru michael

**Comments:** 1 Page. M THEORY

HAVING WORKED ON THE MBRANE IN MTHEORY THE UNIVERSE IS HEREIN PRESENTED AS BRANEWORLDS IN COSMOLOGY MAKING USE OF THE Cosmic microwave background as the critical limit.presenting the universe in its Purest intrisic state/s, under a single holding

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] **viXra:1303.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-07 01:42:47*

**Authors:** Muteru michael

**Comments:** 1 Page. n/a

in this article i present a braneworld scenario incorporating Mtheory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1303.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-11 14:40:00*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 5 Pages. added a reference to a note on the black hole information paradox

The measurement problem, the mechanism of quantum state reduction, has remained an open question for nearly a century. The 'quantum weirdness' of the problem was highlighted by the introduction of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in 1935. Motivated by Bell's Theorem, nonlocality was first experimentally observed in 1972 by Clauser and Freedman in the entangled states of an EPR experiment, and is now an accepted fact. Special relativity requires that no energy is transferred in the nonlocal collapse of these entangled two-body wavefunctions, that no work is done, no information communicated. In the family of quantum impedances those which are scale invariant, the Lorentz and centrifugal impedances, satisfy this requirement. This letter explores their role in the collapse of the wave function

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1303.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-21 04:33:40*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Corrected 2 digits in eq. (11). Added remark 2, eqs. (22) and (24), and 2 references

The manuscript delivers
nodes and their weights for Gaussian quadratures with a "non-classical"
weight in the integrand defined by a reciprocal hyperbolic cosine.
The associated monic orthogonal polynomials are constructed; their
coefficients
are simple multiples of the coefficients of Hahn polynomials.
A final table shows the abscissae-weight pairs for up to 128 nodes.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[35] **viXra:1303.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-06 16:32:05*

**Authors:** Suresh kumar Devanathan, Michael L Bushnell

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract—We like to introduce fQuantum, a Quantum Computing Fault Simulator and new quantum computing fault model based on Hadamard, PauliX, PauliY and PauliZ gates, and the traditional stuckat-1 SA1 and stuck-at-0 SA0 faults. We had close to 100% fault coverage on most circuits. The problem with lower coverage comes from function gates, which we will deal with, in future versions of this paper.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[34] **viXra:1303.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-15 20:37:14*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 6 Pages. v3 corrects typos and adds a sentence to the 3rd from last paragraph

In a previous paper, “On the Applicability of the Lorentz Transformations”, the issue of the physical vs. apparent velocity of a photon, c vs. (c±v), was examined in the cases of the emitter moving relative to the detector and vice versa. In the present paper, the case is examined of both the emitter and detector moving relative to the origin of a third coordinate system, the case used by Einstein for his derivation of the Lorentz transformations. It is shown that both Einstein’s derivation and a more general derivation are inconsistent with the behavior of the photon, and that the physical (not apparent) velocity of the photon as measured in the stationary coordinate system in this case must be (c±v). It is also noted that because the velocity of the photon is independent of its momentum and energy, the dispersion relations between conjugate Fourier variables of energy and time, ∇E∇t ≥ ħ/2, and momentum and position, ∇p∇x ≥ ħ/2, do not affect its velocity. As a result, unlike for non-zero rest mass quanta, the position of a photon as a function of time can in principle be determined with an arbitrary accuracy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1303.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-26 16:17:54*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 8 Pages. V3-typo corrections

This thesis proposes neutrons have been accidentally labeled as fundamental particles and provides arguments supporting the position neutrons are protons with an electron in an inner orbit and are neither permanent, nor fundamental.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:1303.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-06 08:37:15*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The interaction between particles is carried out by the exchange of real particles.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[31] **viXra:1303.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-06 10:29:40*

**Authors:** Murod Abdukhakimov

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The electrodynamics is usually considered as a phenomenological theory with respect to the masses and charges of the particles. In this paper we develop theoretical model of electrodynamics that does not contain any phenomenological constants associated with the particles, such as particles’ masses and charges. This model can be applied equally to various types of particles, such as photon, charged spin ½ fermions and neutrino, and allows for deriving the values of particles’ masses and charges. We avoid using any ad hoc particle structures (such as ad hoc charge and/or mass distributions) in our model, but only symmetry properties associated with distinctive features of the particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[30] **viXra:1303.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-06 04:31:54*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Despite the development of computer systems, the chains of succesive primes obtained through an iterative formula yet have short lenghts; for instance, the largest known chain of primes in arithmetic progression is an AP-26. We present here few formulas that might lead to interesting chains of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[29] **viXra:1303.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 16:50:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif, Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page. short commentary

A short explanation and definition on what is Quasars and how this idea disproves Hawking's belief that Quasars are small in size.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1303.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-12 18:30:42*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 93 Pages. Feedback is welcome for both Part I & Part II of these papers as they overlap

The Standard Model particles can be formed as infinite superpositions borrowing mass from a Higgs type scalar field and energy from zero point vector fields; but zero point energy densities are limited especially at cosmic wavelengths. Any causally connected region grows with time, requiring the average density of matter to decrease so that sufficient zero point energy is available. This requires space to expand exponentially with time after the big bang. For similar reasons the spacetime metric near mass concentrations changes in proportion to m/r in accordance with the Swarzschild solution to Einstein’s equations. There is a maximum wavelength graviton probability density scalar that is invariant in any coordinates and at all points in spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] **viXra:1303.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 11:46:11*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Source: Green Rouge Factory Tour 2012

Well, you may be wondering what a green roof is? A green roof is a roof that is filled with plants that created vegetation, an inexpensive sewage system which can use heat from the sun to power up energy. A green roof is very urgent efficient. It can insulate the plants while helping vegetate crops. In some corners of green roofs there can be solar panels that also have water inside them for vegetation.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[26] **viXra:1303.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 11:50:58*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Andrew Nassif's guide on the world of microbes and the rise of its cellular growth as a colony.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[25] **viXra:1303.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 11:53:14*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The guide was written in 2011 of August and is about the rise and fall of civilization through a historical point of perspective.

**Category:** Archaeology

[24] **viXra:1303.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 11:56:45*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A short panphlet and guide on the brief explanation of what are Brain cells that make us human?

**Category:** Mind Science

[23] **viXra:1303.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 09:40:06*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Six pages

A @@brief, simple, and solid disproof, by contradiction, of Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1303.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 05:21:25*

**Authors:** Muteru michael

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This is a cosmological application of the TOE

I PRESENT A MATHEMATICAL SOLUTION TO THE DUAL BRANE AT THE HEART OF M-THEORY IN SUPER-SYMMETRIC STRING THEORY,Which i have herein termed as the Mbrane.hence solve M theory.i build a fractal which yields a universe consisting Dark matter and dark energy similar to the one we live in

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1303.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-05 04:31:58*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 Pages. To be presented in Rencontres De Blois : Very high energy in the Universe section

The Machs principle as unveiled in this paper is really a statement as to information conservation, with Gravitons and Gravitinos being information carriers. What we wish to know is are there measurable consequences as far as scale factor evolution, spatial distance expansion and cosmological density proportional to a quinessent variant of the cosmological ‘constant’ parameter ? We furthermore postulate a connection between the quinessent variant, and DM and its relationship to DE using Sundrum’s model of DE as an example.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1303.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-07 00:09:39*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents a general equation of motion, which can be applied in any reference frame (rotating or non-rotating) (inertial or non-inertial) without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:1303.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-04 12:39:44*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Considering the fact that the Harappan script may have been proto-Brahmi, the underlying language to be expected should be Sanskrit, or proto-Sanskrit, or derivatives of Sanskrit. Many of the rules of evolution that apply to scripts are equivalently true for languages too. Like scripts, languages too render themselves to similar evolutionary inspections, as they too carry imprints of their journey down the ages.

**Category:** Archaeology

[18] **viXra:1303.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-04 08:27:01*

**Authors:** Nikolay Dementev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Algorithm for determining whether given number is a prime or a composite is conjectured. The algorithm implies neither division operation, nor the counting to more than two to be an a priori knowledge.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17] **viXra:1303.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-03 15:16:54*

**Authors:** Emmanuil Manousos

**Comments:** Pages. published in PROGRESS IN PHYSICS, 2013, Vol. 9, issue 3

The law of selfvariations quantitatively determines a slight increase of the masses and charges as the common cause of quantum and cosmological phenomena. It predicts and explains the totality of the cosmological data. In this article we present the prediction of the law concerning the increased luminosity distances of distant astronomical objects. The prediction we make is in agreement with the cosmological data for the luminosity distances of type Ia supernovae.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1303.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-04 02:08:13*

**Authors:** Dirk J Pons, Arion D Pons

**Comments:** Pages. Published as:

A physical interpretation of the holographic principle is derived, using a specific non-local hidden-variable theory called the Cordus conjecture. We start by developing an explanation for the vacuum, and differentiate this from the void into which the universe expands. In this theory the vacuum comprises a fabric of discrete field elements generated by matter particules. The outside void into which the universe expands is identified as lacking a fabric, and also being without time. From this perspective the cosmological boundary is therefore the expanding surface where the fabric colonises the void. Thus the cosmological boundary is proposed to contain the discrete field elements of all the primal particules within the universe, and therefore contains information about the attributes of those particules at genesis. Inner shells then code for the changed locations of those particules and any new, or annihilated, particules. Regarding the notion of holographic control of inner contents of the universe from the outer surface, this theory identifies the infeasibility of placing a physical Agent at the boundary of the universe, and also predicts there is no practical way to control the universe from its outer boundary as the holographic principle suggests. It also rejects the notion that the boundary contains information about the future and past, or about all possible universes. The Cordus model suggests that there is no causality from the boundary of the universe to its inner contents.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1303.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-03 12:42:55*

**Authors:** Nasir ermain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Nasir Germain newest problem

**Category:** Algebra

[14] **viXra:1303.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-03 12:08:50*

**Authors:** Marian Nitu, Florentin Smarandache, Mircea Eugen Selariu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This work central idea is to present new transformations, previously non - existent
in Ordinary mathematics, named centric mathematics ( CM) but that became possible due
to new born eccentric mathematics, and, implicit, to supermathematics.
As shown in this work, the new geometric transformations, named conversion or
transfiguration, wipes the boundaries between discrete and continuous geometric forms,
showing that the first ones are also continuous, being just apparently discontinuous.

**Category:** Geometry

[13] **viXra:1303.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-03 11:09:03*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Indra Venkatbabu

**Comments:** 227 Pages.

In this book authors have given the innovative ways in which they have used matrices, starting from ATD, RTD & CETD matrices which can be applied to any collected data depending on time.
A new type of matrices, called fuzzy linguistic matrices, which play a major role in the construction of fuzzy linguistic models, is defined.
Then, the super matrices are used in the construction of super linear algebra and super fuzzy models.
Further, interval matrices using natural class of intervals is introduced. The ingenious way of defining DSm matrices of refined labels is an interesting feature. Finally the construction of n-matrices and its use in the building of n-codes is described.

**Category:** Algebra

[12] **viXra:1303.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-02 14:02:55*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Tables extended to Hermite quadratures for x^m*exp(-x^2), m=2, 4, 6 or 8.

The manuscript provides tables of abscissae and weights
for Gauss-Laguerre integration on 64, 96 and 128 nodes,
and abscissae and weights
for Gauss-Hermite integration on 96 and 128 nodes.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[11] **viXra:1303.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-03 04:24:08*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Currently the quantitative description of confinement inside nuclear matter is exclusively limited to computer experiments, mainly on lattices, and concentrating upon calculating the static potential. There is no independent reference for comparison and support of the results, especially when it comes to the quark potential in the continuum limit. Yet, we are entitled to be optimistic, for the basic results of these calculations seem to be correct from an entirely different point of view, suggested by Manton’s geometrization of Skyrme theory. The present work shows the reasons of this point of view, and offers a static potential that might serve as independent reference for comparison and endorsement of any lattice calculations, and in fact of any structural hypotheses of nuclear matter. A historical review of the pertinent key moments in the history of modeling of nuclear matter, as well as an outlook anticipating the necessary future work, close the argument.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10] **viXra:1303.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-02 21:58:25*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper you will find a short treatise on the obviousness of a collapsing Universe; a short one, but full of reference links which will better help you to understand the environment in which such an obviousness is.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1303.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-03 08:45:13*

**Authors:** Hontas Freeman Farmer

**Comments:** 161 Pages. A monograph

This is a comprehensive review of the published research in cosmology focusing on the time period from the big bang to the last scattering of cosmic microwave background radiation. This is a period of approximately 380,000 years. Theoretical, observational, and experimental research with a bearing on cosmology will be covered. First, a time line of events from the big bang to last scattering of CMB photons will be provided. Then, a review of theoretical research related to the big bang, cosmic inflation, and baryogenesis will be covered. Next, a review of observational as well as experimental work on the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and efforts to directly detect gravitational waves. After that, a look at research on the edge of accepted cosmology such as loop quantum cosmology, and the possible time variation of fundamental constants. Last but not least this author will present a tiny, and novel theoretical idea, a Lagrangian which captures all of the physics of the standard model of cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1303.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-02 14:49:37*

**Authors:** Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Nasir germain describes his theories in a quick paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1303.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-30 13:10:39*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 16 formulas, 1 table

In "The Code of Nature" [1] Helmut Söllinger gives Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker's (1912-2007) relationship between the fundamental physical constants. The first section examines Söllinger's the relationship between the masses of protons and electrons, and the fundamental physical constants. The second is about the Weizsacker's assumption of proportionality between the Planck length, Compton wavelength and radius of the Universe. In the third section, I try to explain, the previous relationships, in light of the attractive-repulsive forces of the Ruđer Bošković (1711-1787), the earliest founder of quantum theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[6] **viXra:1303.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-02 12:08:25*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache (editor)

**Comments:** 180 Pages.

Contributors:
From Albania: Dritan Kardhashi
From Canada: Asher Tamir
From Germany: Bernd Hutschenreuther
From Greece: Denis Koulentianos
From India: B. Venkateswara Rao
From Romania: Adrian Botez, Petre Chichirdean, Eugen Evu, Constantin Frosin, Florentin Gurău, Liviu-Florian Jianu, Elisabeta Kocsik, Ioan Marinescu-Puiu, Mircea Monu, Gh. Niculescu, Nicolae Nistoroiu, Victor Păun, Ion Segărceanu, Mircea Selariu, Alexandru Surdescu, Ştefan Văduţescu
From Russia: Adolf P. Shvedchikov
From Serbia: Ioan Baba
From South Africa: Ivan Frimmel
From USA: William L. Bingham, Timothy A. Boling, Curtis Cook Jr., Frederick Davis, Holly Day, Tom Deicker, Chris. E. Ellington, Lenny Emmanuel, Brian C. Felder, Tom Gundersen, Greg Hall, Billie Louise Jones, Wm Meyer, David J. Nielsen, Eric Pierzchala, Kyle Reveral, Roger Sedarat, Arnold Skemer, Florentin Smaradache, Peter Specker, C. J. Thomas, Mary Ellen Walsh

**Category:** Linguistics

[5] **viXra:1303.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-02 12:15:41*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 130 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache a lansat, în 2004, un nou gen literar-artistic, adaptat cerinţelor cititorului de azi, dar şi scriitorului contemporan grăbit: fotojurnalul instantaneu, bazat pe abundenţa de imagini corespunzătoare textului, plus scrierea directă, rapidă, la prima mână,
pe locul vizitei, cu verbe puţine şi exprimări scurte, neşlefuite. În această carte, autorul prezintă călătoriile sale recente prin vestul Statelor Unite ale Americii.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4] **viXra:1303.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-05 06:06:30*

**Authors:** Michael muteru

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

After intensive study of all the known Superstring theories namely, 1,2a,2b, E₈*E₈, and the SO₃₂
theories. It was discovered that all these Superstring theories are related by Dualities and so led to the
eventual conclusion of one theory that was coined M –theory.
The fundamental conclusion that I have deduced, is that there are basically only two string interaction
modes-Open and Closed .I search for both string modes in a naturally feasible and single universal
allegorical entity that displays both Geometrical and mathematical coherence, hence ultimately solving
the longstanding problem in theoretical physics termed M-theory in a sense presenting a Mathematically
musical universe model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1303.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-01 18:12:59*

**Authors:** Henrik Agerhäll

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A new extension to Newtonian celestial mechanics is examined. We focus on the scenario of a point-like body with negligible mass orbiting a spherically symmetric massive body. We take the implicitly time-dependent mass of electrodynamics one step further. We let the mass of the orbiting body vary not only with the velocity, but also with the position within the gravitational field. We find a family of expressions for the gravitational acceleration that explains the anomalous precession of perihelion of the planets and in the strong field limit results in orbits in close agreement with the predictions of the Schwarzschild solution. Regarding the orbital velocity of a body in circular orbit and the acceleration of a body at rest, the new theory gives the same results as classically. This is not the case with the post-Newtonian expansion even if terms at the third post-Newtonian, 3PN, level are included. Arguably, the major benefit of the new theory is that it presents a method that is much less intricate and more practical to deal with than general relativity, while reproducing most of its results, at least in the spherically symmetric case. While the differences between the final expression and the corresponding expression from the post-Newtonian expansion are small and subtle, the new theory gives results that in several ways are closer to both the classical results and to what the Schwarzschild solution predicts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1303.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-01 15:56:25*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Ershkov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Keywords: Helmholtz equation, PWE, paraxial approximation, bipolar coordinates

A new type of exact solution of the reduced 3 dimensional spatial PWE (paraxial wave equation) for the case of bipolar coordinates is presented here.
First, we consider a self-similar representation of the solution in a bipolar coordinate system, the second we additionally reduce PWE under a proper paraxial assumption.
Analyzing the structure of the final equation, we obtain the simple exact solution which is proved to satisfy to such an equation in bipolar coordinates.
Besides, there is a limitation of the components of self-similar solution of a new type.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[1] **viXra:1303.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-01 08:34:44*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 18 Pages

Dr. D. Sasso of Italy has just filed a new paper: On Basic Physical Properties of Baryon Matter According To The Non-Standard Model. See www.k1man.com/a20.pdf Regarding underlying scientific thinking, Dr. Sasso writes: ”…(Dr.) Einstein’s Special Relativity …..is.…obsolete because Lorentz’s kinematic transformations on space-time are wrong…”
See www.k1man.com/f58.pdf Dr. Sasso then explores electromagnetic theory in the paper: The Maxwell Equations, The Lorentz Field and The Electromagnetic Nanofield To The Qxzuestion of Relativity See www.k1man.com/a17 Accordingly, we now further focus on the problems of different approaches to the Lorentz transformation and a current suggestion by Dr. Al McDowell that we look at 21st Century physics with Special Relativity totally removed. We must therefore look further into an explanation of unipolar induction. See Harry Ricker’s (MSEE, UNH) as well as Mueller’s papers on unipolar induction: www.k1man.com/RickerUnipolar1.pdf http://www.marmet.org/louis/induction_faraday/mueller/muller.htm Antonio Saraiva and Martin Plaun join us this edition with papers in disagreement with Special Relativity, and Roger Anderton disputes General Relativity. J. C. Edwards proves Fermat’s last theorem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology