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0811 Submissions

[5] viXra:0811.0005 [pdf] submitted on 26 Nov 2008

Working Theory - Magnetic Dipole Contours

Authors: Michael Snyder
Comments: recovered from

Remember Birefringence? Some crystals have a different speeds of light based on the direction and polarization of the light ray. Basically you have an ordinary ray moving at one speed and an extraordinary ray moving at another speed of light.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:0811.0004 [pdf] submitted on 23 Nov 2008

Formation of Extrasolar Systems and Moons of Large Planets in Clusters

Authors: P. Pintr, P. Kalenda, V. Mikula
Comments: recovered from

TTwo models the membrane model and the equivalent model were used for the solution of some of the questions related to formation of the Solar System. Both models show that the planets create clusters in which lies a higher probability of origination of large masses. The rings and belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter and the belt of asteroids behind the Neptune track are the beginnings of these clusters. According to the equivalent model, the Solar System went through a different development than other extrasolar systems. Both models show the wave principle, which is the same for other planetary systems and systems of moons of large planets [1].
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:0811.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2012-11-23 14:38:52

Entropy:A Concept that is not a Physical Quantity

Authors: Shufeng-Zhang
Comments: 11 Pages.

This study has demonstrated that entropy is not a physical quantity, that is, the physical quantity called entropy does not exist. If the efficiency of heat engine is defined as η = W/W1, and the reversible cycle is considered to be the Stirling cycle, then, given ∮dQ/T = 0, we can prove ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮d/T = 0. If ∮dQ/T = 0, ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮dE/T = 0 are thought to define new system state variables, such definitions would be absurd. The fundamental error of entropy is that in any reversible process, the polytropic process function Q is not a single-valued function of T, and the key step of Σ[(ΔQ)/T)] to ∫dQ/T doesn’t hold.P-V fig. should be P-V-T fig. Similarly, ∮dQ/T = 0, ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮dE/T = 0 do not hold, either. Since the absolute entropy of Boltzmann is used to explain Clausius entropy and the unit (J/K) of the former is transformed from the latter, the non-existence of Clausius entropy simultaneously denies Boltzmann entropy.
Category: Classical Physics

[2] viXra:0811.0002 [pdf] submitted on 21 Nov 2008

Unification of the Gravitational, Strong, Weak and Inertial Forces

Authors: Maurizio Michelini
Comments: recovered from

Particles moving within the flux of micro-quanta filling the space have been shown to obey the Relativistic Mechanics and to undergo a gravitational "pushing" force with G depending locally on the quantum flux constants. Due to the very little quantum energy Eo , the ratio Eo/mc2 equals about 10-50 so the collisions with particles follow the optical reflection accurately. The simultaneous micro-quanta hitting upon a nucleon are about 1050, a high number due to the small wavelength which results close to Planck's length. Along the joining line between two particles there is a lack of incident quanta (missing beam) which determines unbalanced collisions generating drawing forces between particles by mutual screening. These forces increment the particle energy, as shown for instance by the heating during the gravitational contraction of the galactic gas globules leading to protostars. This mechanism allows to predict that observations of the thermal emission from major solar planets may exceed the power received from solar light. When two particles are very close, the mutual screening highly increments the missing beam, giving rise to a short-range strong force which is of the right strength to hold protons and neutrons within the atomic nuclei. The belief that nuclear forces are "self-produced" by nucleons is disproved. Proof is given for the structure of the simple Deuterium nucleus. The same process originates also a short-range "weak" force on the electron closely orbiting a proton, giving rise to the neutron structure which undergoes β- decay. The mutual strong forces on a nucleon pair are equal, but the weak force on the bound electron differs largely from the force on the proton (breakdown of Newton's action and reaction symmetry).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1] viXra:0811.0001 [pdf] submitted on 11 Nov 2008

The Birth of New Technology, Water Fuel Cell

Authors: Stanley A. Meyer
Comments: recovered from

Explaining the Hydrogen Fracturing Process on how to use water asa new fuel-source
Category: Classical Physics