Remember Birefringence? Some crystals have a different speeds of light based on the
direction and polarization of the light ray. Basically you have an ordinary ray moving at
one speed and an extraordinary ray moving at another speed of light.
Category: Classical Physics
TTwo models the membrane model and the equivalent model were used for the
solution of some of the questions related to formation of the Solar System. Both models
show that the planets create clusters in which lies a higher probability of origination of
large masses. The rings and belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter and the belt
of asteroids behind the Neptune track are the beginnings of these clusters.
According to the equivalent model, the Solar System went through a different development
than other extrasolar systems. Both models show the wave principle, which
is the same for other planetary systems and systems of moons of large planets .
Comments: 11 Pages.
This study has demonstrated that entropy is not a physical quantity, that is, the physical quantity called entropy does not exist. If the efficiency of heat engine is defined as η = W/W1, and the reversible cycle is considered to be the Stirling cycle, then, given ∮dQ/T = 0, we can prove ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮d/T = 0. If ∮dQ/T = 0, ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮dE/T = 0 are thought to define new system state variables, such definitions would be absurd. The fundamental error of entropy is that in any reversible process, the polytropic process function Q is not a single-valued function of T, and the key step of Σ[(ΔQ)/T)] to ∫dQ/T doesn’t hold.P-V fig. should be P-V-T fig. Similarly, ∮dQ/T = 0, ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮dE/T = 0 do not hold, either. Since the absolute entropy of Boltzmann is used to explain Clausius entropy and the unit (J/K) of the former is transformed from the latter, the non-existence of Clausius entropy simultaneously denies Boltzmann entropy.
Category: Classical Physics
Particles moving within the flux of micro-quanta filling the space have been shown to obey
the Relativistic Mechanics and to undergo a gravitational "pushing" force with G depending
locally on the quantum flux constants. Due to the very little quantum energy Eo , the ratio
Eo/mc2 equals about 10-50 so the collisions with particles follow the optical reflection
accurately. The simultaneous micro-quanta hitting upon a nucleon are about 1050, a high number
due to the small wavelength which results close to Planck's length. Along the joining line
between two particles there is a lack of incident quanta (missing beam) which determines
unbalanced collisions generating drawing forces between particles by mutual screening. These
forces increment the particle energy, as shown for instance by the heating during the
gravitational contraction of the galactic gas globules leading to protostars. This mechanism
allows to predict that observations of the thermal emission from major solar planets may
exceed the power received from solar light. When two particles are very close, the mutual
screening highly increments the missing beam, giving rise to a short-range strong force
which is of the right strength to hold protons and neutrons within the atomic nuclei. The
belief that nuclear forces are "self-produced" by nucleons is disproved. Proof is given
for the structure of the simple Deuterium nucleus. The same process originates also a
short-range "weak" force on the electron
closely orbiting a proton, giving rise to the neutron structure which undergoes β- decay. The
mutual strong forces on a nucleon pair are equal, but the weak force on the bound electron
differs largely from the force on the proton (breakdown of Newton's action and reaction
Category: High Energy Particle Physics