[349] **viXra:1508.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 16:06:33*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The fact that a red shift of galaxies is observed to increase with the galaxies approaching the cosmic horizon is taken as plain evidence that the universe is acceleratedly expanding, hopefully perpetually. That implication does however not take into account the gravitational effects of the cosmic horizon on the universe; the cosmic horizon is the center of mass of our universe, and taking this into account, a very different picture of the state of our universe results:
Based on [1] it is shown that the observed red shift, implies a huge deceleration of the universe, already. Whether the cosmos is currently before, at, or after the turn from expansion to collapse, this could only be answered by repeated red shift measurements over the next decades.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[348] **viXra:1508.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 20:38:15*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà, Gabriele Tessaro, Andrea Forti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we study for which m ∈ N_0 there is a finite number of distinct k ∈ ℕ-{0} such that [k, k+99] contains m primes. On the contrary, we prove that the distinct values of k are not finite if m≤1, while there is no k for any m>26. In conclusion, we will discuss the current state of research in this field, advancing also a few speculations as regards to the above-mentioned subject.

**Category:** Number Theory

[347] **viXra:1508.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 13:52:22*

**Authors:** Robert Kardien Vanderhoek

**Comments:** 2 Pages. An amplified four particle oscillating system?

The conformation of Four and five quark hadrons at the LHC would be expected if the fundamental components of a four particle oscillating proton model were amplified by high energy collisions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[346] **viXra:1508.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:24:58*

**Authors:** Gülnur Şaffak Atalay, Emin Kasap

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we analyzed the problem of consructing a family of surfaces from a given some special Smarandache curves in Euclidean 3-space. Using the Bishop frame of the curve in Euclidean 3-space, we express the family of surfaces as a linear combination of the components of this frame, and derive the necessary
and sufficient conditions for coefficents to satisfy both the asymptotic and isoparametric
requirements. Finally, examples are given to show the family of surfaces with common Smarandache asymptotic curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[345] **viXra:1508.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 09:22:58*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A proof of the conjecture in the title is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[344] **viXra:1508.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:45:02*

**Authors:** Lauro Snidaro, Ingrid Visentini, Karna Bryan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The concepts of event and anomaly are important building blocks for developing a situational picture of the observed environment.
We here relate these concepts to the JDL fusion model and demonstrate the power of Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) for encoding uncertain knowledge and compute inferences according to observed evidence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[343] **viXra:1508.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:46:06*

**Authors:** Abdul Salam Shah, M. N. A. Khan, Asadullah Shah

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Biometrics is being commonly used nowadays for the identification and verification of humans everywhere in the world. In biometrics humans unique characteristics like palm, fingerprints, iris etc. are being used.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[342] **viXra:1508.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:47:15*

**Authors:** Desmond Adair, Hosam Emara-Shabaik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Quite often, during long-distance pipe leakage, critical decisions have to be made quickly and with as much certainty as possible using conflicting and uncertain sources of information. Key to providing quality decision options is an appropriate method of combining, or fusing, these heterogeneous evidence sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[341] **viXra:1508.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:48:19*

**Authors:** Julien Moras, Jean Dezert, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this contribution, we propose to improve the grid map occupancy estimation method developed so far based on belief function modeling and the classical Dempster’s rule of combination. Grid map offers a useful representation of the perceived world for mobile robotics navigation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[340] **viXra:1508.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:51:13*

**Authors:** A. Tchamova, J. Dezert

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to present and to evaluate the performance of particular
fusion rules based on fuzzy T-Conorm/T-Norm operators for two tracking applications:
(1) Tracking object's type changes, supporting the process of objects' identication (e.g. ghter against cargo, friendly aircraft against hostile ones), which, consequently is essential for improving the quality of generalized data association for targets' tracking; (2) Alarms identication and prioritization in terms of degree of danger relating to a set of a priori dened, out of the ordinary dangerous directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[339] **viXra:1508.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:52:33*

**Authors:** Farid Messelmi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to development a general theory of dual-complex numbers. We start by de…ne the notion of dual-
complex and their algebraic properties. In addition, we develop a simple mathematical method based on matrices, simplifying manipulation of dual-complex numbers. Inspired from complex analysis, we generalize the concept of holo-
morphicity to dual-complex functions. Moreover, a general representation of holomorphic dual-complex functions has been obtained. Finally and as concrete examples, some usual complex functions have been generalized to the algebra of dual-complex numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[338] **viXra:1508.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:54:14*

**Authors:** Ion SOARE

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Născut la 10 decembrie 1954 în comuna (azi – oraşul)
Bălceşti din judeţul Vâlcea, Florentin Smarandache este,indubitabil, unul dintre cei mai cunoscuţi olteni din lume! „Serialul” său memorialistic Frate cu meridianele şi paralelele, ajuns la cel de-al VIII-lea volum, ar avea darul să convingă
singur pe oricine s-ar îndoi de îndreptăţirea aprecierii noastre.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[337] **viXra:1508.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:56:20*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Generalized and hybrid set can be created with neutrosophy and quad-stage method. Firstly the generalized and hybrid neutrosophic set is discussed. Based on this, the concepts of "problem set", "solution set", "principle set", "law set", "theory set", "formula set", and the like are presented;

**Category:** General Mathematics

[336] **viXra:1508.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:57:31*

**Authors:** Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is very useful to express uncertainty,impreciseness, incompleteness
and inconsistency in a more general way.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[335] **viXra:1508.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:58:50*

**Authors:** Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Adrian Nicolescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

“Communication Neutrosophic Routes” by Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu was
published by Education Publishing, Ohio, USA, on May 2014. Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan
Vlăduţescu are two remarcable professors, first at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second at
University of Craiova/ Romania, with many researches in neutrosophical, communication,
mathematic, literature, journalism, social sciencies. Neutrosophy had been in the emergence phase since 1995.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[334] **viXra:1508.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:16:51*

**Authors:** Khalid M. Amin, Mohamed Abd Elfattah, Aboul Ella Hassanien, Gerald Schaefer

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, an improved thresholding approach
based on neutrosophic sets (NSs) and adaptive thresholding is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[333] **viXra:1508.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:17:49*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, S.A. Akinleye

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to study neutrosophic hypervector spaces. Some basic denitions and properties of the hypervector spaces are generalized.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[332] **viXra:1508.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:20:00*

**Authors:** Swati Aggarwal, Ranjit Biswas, A.Q.Ansari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Quite recently, Neutrosophic Logic has been
proposed by Florentine Smarandache which is based on nonstandard analysis that was given by Abraham Robinson in 1960s.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[331] **viXra:1508.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:21:23*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, the correlation measure of neutrosophic refined(multi-) sets is proposed. The concept of this correlation measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of correlation measure of neutrosophic sets and intuitionistic fuzzy multi sets. Finally, using the correlation of neutrosophic refined set measure, the application of medical diagnosis and pattern recognition are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[330] **viXra:1508.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:22:19*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we define a rough cosine similarity measure between two rough neutrosophic sets. The notions of rough neutrosophic sets (RNS) will be used as vector representations in 3D-vector space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[329] **viXra:1508.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:23:18*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, S. A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a power general formal framework, which generalizes the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, and interval intuitionistic fuzzy set from philosophical point of view.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[328] **viXra:1508.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:27:09*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Based on the combination of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and fuzzy numbers, this
paper proposes the concepts of a neutrosophic number and a trapezoidal neutrosophic number (TNN) as the extension of an intuitionistic fuzzy number and an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy number (ITFN), the basic operational relations of TNNs and the score function of TNN.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[327] **viXra:1508.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:28:18*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we firstly defined neutrosophic parameterized neutrosophic soft sets(npn¡soft sets) which is combination of a neutrosophic sets and a soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[326] **viXra:1508.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:31:35*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Yusuf Subas

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The single valued triangular neutrosophic number (SVTrN-number) is simply an ordinary number
whose precise value is somewhat uncertain from a philosophical point of view, which is a generalization of triangular fuzzy numbers and triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[325] **viXra:1508.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:32:26*

**Authors:** Hong-yu Zhang, Pu Ji, Jian-qiang Wang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The paper presents a new correlation coefficient measures satisfying the requirement that the correlation coefficient measure equals one if and only if two interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) are same and the weighted correlation coefficient measure of INSs based on the extension of the correlation coefficient measures of intuitionstic fuzzy sets (IFSs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[324] **viXra:1508.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:34:36*

**Authors:** C. Ramkumar, R. Ravanan, A. Lourdusamy, S. Narayanamoorthy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the society there are several poor people are living. One of the sympathetic poor people is gypsies. They are moving from one place to another place towards survive of life because of not having any permanent place to live.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[323] **viXra:1508.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:35:57*

**Authors:** Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of Neutrosophic Soft Matrix(NS-Matrix). We have proposed different types of NS-Matrix along with various operations on them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[322] **viXra:1508.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:37:05*

**Authors:** Yanhui Guo, Abdulkadir Sengür, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Image thresholding is an important field in image processing. It has been employed to segment
the images and extract objects.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[321] **viXra:1508.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:38:19*

**Authors:** Mehmet Şahin, Shawkat Alkhazaleh, Vakkas Uluçay

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In some real-life problems in expert system, belief system, information fusion and so on, we must consider the truth-membership as well as the falsity-membership for proper description of an object in uncertain, ambiguous environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[320] **viXra:1508.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:39:44*

**Authors:** Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

tIn this paper, a new outranking approach for multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems is devel-oped in the context of a simplified neutrosophic environment, where the truth-membership degree,indeterminacy-membership degree and falsity-membership degree for each element are singleton sub-sets in [0,1].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[319] **viXra:1508.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:42:02*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the concept of neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebras. Elementary properties of neutrosophic BCI/BCK algebras
are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[318] **viXra:1508.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:43:03*

**Authors:** Debabrata Mandal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to define several operations such as Intersection, Union, OR, AND operations of intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Maji and
compare these with intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Said et al via examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[317] **viXra:1508.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:43:45*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the correlation measure of neutrosophic refined(multi-) sets is proposed.
The concept of this correlation measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of
correlation measure of neutrosophic sets and intuitionistic fuzzy multi-sets. Finally, using the
correlation of neutrosophic refined set measure, the application of medical diagnosis and pattern
recognition are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[316] **viXra:1508.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:47:38*

**Authors:** Tudor Marin, Gheorghe SĂvoiu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In terms of the criteria used, and also comprehensively, a classification of education, considered already classical in the light of its
fundamental dimensions, is slightly ambiguous, even if it easy to state; education issues today demonstrate that the structural make-up of education as formal, nonformal and informal presents many aspects of interference, overlapping and transfer, inevitably leading to vague areas.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[315] **viXra:1508.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:51:14*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have firstly redefined the notion of neutrosophic soft set and its operations in a new way to handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information which exists commonly in belief systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[314] **viXra:1508.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:52:07*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin, Mesut Karabacak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce an inclusion measure for interval neutrosophic sets, which is one of information measures of interval neutrosophic theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[313] **viXra:1508.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:13:21*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In pattern recognition and medical diagnosis, similarity measure is an important mathematical tool. To overcome some disadvantages of existing cosine similarity measures of simplified neutrosophicsets (SNSs) in vector space, this paper proposed improved cosine similarity measures of SNSs based oncosine function, including single valued neutrosophic cosine similarity measures and interval neutro-sophic cosine similarity measures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[312] **viXra:1508.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:14:31*

**Authors:** V. Jaiganesh, P. Rutravigneshwaran

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic logic has been applied to network intrusion processing problems recently. A novel approach for intrusion thresholding is proposed by defining neutrosophic set in network domain. Neutrosophic is applied to network processing by
defining a neutrosophic domain.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[311] **viXra:1508.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:17:29*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a neutrosophic number, which consists of a determinate part and an indeterminate part, can
more easily and better express incomplete and indeterminate information that exists commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[310] **viXra:1508.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:18:44*

**Authors:** Yanbing Ju, Dawei Ju, Wenkai Zhang, Xia Li

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In engineering design, the decision to select an optimal material has become a challenging task
for the designers, and the evaluation of alternative materials may be based on some multiple
attribute group decision making (MAGDM) methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[309] **viXra:1508.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:19:34*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Similarity measure plays an important role in medical diagnosis. In this paper, a new rough
cotangent similarity measure between two rough neutrosophic sets is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[308] **viXra:1508.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:21:22*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A neutrosophic set is a more general platform, which can be used to present uncertainty, imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[307] **viXra:1508.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:23:21*

**Authors:** Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In recent years, hesitant fuzzy sets (HFSs) and neutrosophic sets (NSs) have become a subject of great interest for researchers and have been widely applied to multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[306] **viXra:1508.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:25:59*

**Authors:** T. Bharathi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we analyzed the impact of cervical cancer among women using Combined Disjoint Block Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (CDBFCM) model.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[305] **viXra:1508.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:33:58*

**Authors:** I. R. Sumathi, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work, we rst dene a relation on neutrosophic soft sets which allows to compose two neutrosophic soft sets. It is devised to derive useful information through the composition of two neutrosophic soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[304] **viXra:1508.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:35:10*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of neutrosophic near-rings. The concept of neutrosophic N-group of a neutrosophic nearring is introduced. We studied neutrosophic subnearrings of neutrosophic nearrings and also neutrosophic N-subgroups of neutrosophic N- groups.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[303] **viXra:1508.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:36:27*

**Authors:** G Anusha, P. Venkata Ramana

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

College students experience stress because of various reasons. Caused by many reasons, the stress is present whether one is in their first year of college or their last.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[302] **viXra:1508.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:37:44*

**Authors:** Hai-Long Yang, Zhi-Lian Guo, Xiuwu Liao

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Smarandache initiated neutrosophic sets (NSs) which can be used as a mathematical tool for dealing with indeterminate and inconsistent information. In order
to apply NSs conveniently, single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) were proposed by
Wang et al.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[301] **viXra:1508.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:39:44*

**Authors:** Indranu Suhendro

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We celebrate the first 10-year momentous span of the solid body of critical scientific results and efforts delivered by the visionary editorial and founding team of the pioneering open new-millennium journal for advanced studies in theoretical and experimental physics, mathematics, astronomy, and cosmology,
Progress in Physics (see the Editor-in-Chief’s message: “Progress in Physics: 10 years in Print”), behind which is the core scientists and guardians of universal scientific creation,
scientific revolution, and scientific-intellectual freedom and ethics: the few core scientists of the quintessential Zelmanov
CosmologicalGroup, such as the founding editors and scientific creators Dmitri Rabounski and Larissa Borissova.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[300] **viXra:1508.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:42:30*

**Authors:** Pawalai Krai peerapun, Kok Wai Wong, Chun Che Fung, Warick Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Uncertainty estimation in mineral prospectivity prediction is an important task i n order to support decision making in regional-scale mineral exploration.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[299] **viXra:1508.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:43:14*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, cotangent similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set is proposed and some of its properties are studied. Finally, using this refined cotangent similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic set, an application on educational stream selection is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[298] **viXra:1508.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:44:24*

**Authors:** C. Antony Crispin Sweety, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A rough set is a formal approximation of a crisp set which gives lower and upper approximation of original set to deal with uncertainties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[297] **viXra:1508.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:45:11*

**Authors:** Shawkat Alkhazaleh

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In 2013 Ayman A. Hazaymeh in his PhD thesis introduced the concept of timefuzzy soft set as a generalization of fuzzy soft set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[296] **viXra:1508.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:46:10*

**Authors:** Zhang-peng Tian, Jing Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen, Jian-qiang Wang

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to provide a method of multi-criteria decision-making that
combines simplified neutrosophic linguistic sets and normalized Bonferroni mean operator to address the situations where the criterion values take the form of simplified neutrosophic linguistic numbers and the criterion weights are known.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[295] **viXra:1508.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:48:06*

**Authors:** Rajashi Chatterjee, P. Majumdar, S. K. Samanta

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we have investigated single valued neutrosophic multisets in detail.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[294] **viXra:1508.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:04:24*

**Authors:** Miaomiao Liu, Xinde Li, Jean Dezert, Chaomin Luo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper proposes a new generic object recognition
(GOR) method based on the multiple feature fusion of
2D and 3D SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) descriptors drawn from 2D images and 3D point clouds.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[293] **viXra:1508.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:05:33*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Kaouthar Benameur, Laurent Ratton, Jean-Franc¸ois Grandin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we present a method to estimate the
quality (trustfulness) of the solutions of the classical optimal data association (DA) problem associated with a given source of information (also called a criterion).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[292] **viXra:1508.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:07:13*

**Authors:** Zhun-ga Liu, Quan Pan, Jean Dezert, Arnaud Martin, Gregoire Mercier

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The influence of the missing values in the classification of incomplete pattern mainly depends on the context. In this paper, we present a fast classification method for incomplete pattern based on the fusion of belief functions where the missing
values are selectively (adaptively) estimated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[291] **viXra:1508.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:08:40*

**Authors:** Deqiang Han, Jean Dezert, Yi Yang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The theory of belief functions is a very appealing
theory for uncertainty modeling and reasoning which has been widely used in information fusion. However, when the cardinality of the frame of discernment and the number of the focal elements
are large the fusion of belief functions requires in general a high computational complexity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[290] **viXra:1508.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:09:45*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Julien Moras, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Grid map offers a useful representation of the
perceived world for mobile robotics navigation. It will play a major role for the safety (obstacle avoidance) of next generations of terrestrial vehicles, as well as for future autonomous navigation systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[289] **viXra:1508.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:11:13*

**Authors:** Alessandro Oltramari, Jin-Hee Cho

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Interactions between humans and machines are
often placed in a multi-layered network involving the multidimensional trust in communication, information, and socio-cognitive layers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[288] **viXra:1508.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:12:15*

**Authors:** Roman Ilin, Erik Blasch

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We compare several belief fusion methods,
including the proportional conflict redistribution rules (PCR5 and PCR6) for multiple sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[287] **viXra:1508.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:13:22*

**Authors:** Roman Ilin, Jun Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We develop a novel information fusion scheme
based on topological event space, viewed as a distributive lattice.We discuss the advantages of topological modeling and compare our approach to the existing Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, and
Dezert-Smarandache approaches.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[286] **viXra:1508.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:14:27*

**Authors:** Gheorghe Săvoiu, Vasile Dinu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The structure of the paper brings together three major sections, following the general approach to the impact of paradoxes in economic theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[285] **viXra:1508.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:15:33*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In January, 2015, we celebrate first 10 years of our journal Progress in Physics. This is a good time to remember what events led to the idea of the journal, and how the journal was founded.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[284] **viXra:1508.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:16:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Larissa Borissova, Andreas Ries, Pierre Millette, Ebenezer Chifu, Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

December 10, 2014,marked the 60th anniverssay of Florentin Smarandache’s birth.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[283] **viXra:1508.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:17:58*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper discusses the G-flow solutions on Schr¨odinger equation, Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation, i.e., the field equations of particles, bosons or fermions, answers previous questions by ”yes“, and establishes the many world interpretation of quantum mechanics of H. Everett by
purely mathematics in logic, i.e., mathematical combinatorics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[282] **viXra:1508.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:18:56*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, Smarandache soft groupoids shortly (SS-groupoids) are introduced as a generalization of Smarandache Soft semigroups (SS-semigroups).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[281] **viXra:1508.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:20:44*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Let p and q two consecutive prime numbers, where q > p.

**Category:** Algebra

[280] **viXra:1508.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:21:48*

**Authors:** H.S.Abdel-Aziz, M.Khalifa Saad

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the present paper, Smarandache curves for some special curves in the threedimensional
Galilean space G3are investigated. Moreover, spherical indicatrices for the helix as well
as circular helix are introduced. Furthermore, some properties for these curves are given. Finally, in
the light of this study, some related examples of these curves are provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[279] **viXra:1508.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:22:47*

**Authors:** Ilim Kisi, Murat Tosun

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, the spinor formulation of Darboux frame on an oriented surface is given. Also, the relation between spinor formulation of Frenet frame and Darboux frame is obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[278] **viXra:1508.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:23:48*

**Authors:** Süleyman Şenyurt, Abdussamet Çalişkan

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve in terms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache
curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[277] **viXra:1508.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:24:37*

**Authors:** Atilla Karamana, Metin Dagdeviren

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The α-Discounting Method was developed to be an alternative to and extension of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to solve multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems with non-commensurable and conflicting criteria.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[276] **viXra:1508.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:28:03*

**Authors:** A. Shahpari, S. A. Seyedin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, five conditions that have been proposed by Cobb and Shenoy are studied for nine different mappings from the Dempster-Shafer theory to the probability theory. After comparing these mappings, one of the considerable results indicates that none
of the mappings satisfies the condition of invariance with respect to the marginalization
process. In more details, the main reason for this defect is that the classic projection process in DST loses some probabilistic information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[275] **viXra:1508.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:32:52*

**Authors:** Poornima G Patil, Ravindra S Hegadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The various studies conducted for classification of handwritten signatures of people have shown that the task is difficult because there is intra personal differences among the signatures of the same person.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[274] **viXra:1508.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:34:12*

**Authors:** Ekata Gupta, S.K.Saxena

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The article presents a concept of Dezert-Smarandache theory application for enhancing security in tactical mobile ad- hoc network. Tactical MANET, due to its specification, requires collection and processing of information
from different sources of diverse security and trust metrics. The authors specify the needs for building a node’s situational awareness and identify data sources used for calculations of trust metrics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[273] **viXra:1508.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:07:28*

**Authors:** Tamer M. Abo Neama, Ismail A. Ismail, Tarek S. Sobh, M. Zaki

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Information fusion is an advanced research area which can assist decision makers in enhancing their decisions. This paper aims at designing a new multi-layer framework that can support the process of performing decisions from the obtained beliefs using information fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[272] **viXra:1508.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:11:17*

**Authors:** Xian LI, Zhigang CHEN, Peiliang JING

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper proposes a model of evidential network based on Hybrid Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmH)
to improve target identication of multi-sensors. In the classication simulation, we compared the
results obtained at the Target Type node and Foe-Ally node in evidential network by using Dempster-Shafer theory (DS) and using DSmH. The comparisons show that, when we use DSmH in the evidential network, we can assign more Basic Belief Assignments (BBA) to the focal element the target belongs to. Experiments conrm that the model of evidential network using DSmH is better than the one using DS.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[271] **viXra:1508.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:12:29*

**Authors:** Desmond Adair, Martin Jaeger

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Crucial decisions are necessary throughout the life-cycle of large-scale construction projects. Such decisions are critical in that they have a direct impact upon the outcomes and success of a given project. To improve the decision process, an evidential reasoning framework based on the Dezert-Smarandache theory of plausible and paradoxical
reasoning, where heterogeneous evidence sources are fused together, is described and used here.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[270] **viXra:1508.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:13:40*

**Authors:** Erik P. Blasch, Jean Dezert, Pierre Valin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we explore the use of DSMT for
seismic and acoustic sensor fusion. The seismic/acoustic data is noisy which leads to classification errors and conflicts in declarations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[269] **viXra:1508.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 22:07:51*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The author completed this paper in Tokyo Japan in 1993 but it was not submitted for publication anywhere. This LaText version was released on arXiv.com in 2008 and is posted here on viXra with no changes for convenience.

The field of an electromagnetic (E) dipole has been examined using general relativistic (R) and
quantum mechanical (Q) points of view, and an E=Q=R equivalence principle presented whereas the
curvature of the electromagnetic streamlines of the field are taken to be evidence of the distortion
of spacetime, and hence of the presence of a gravitational field surrounding the dipole. Using a
quasi-refractive index function N, with the streamlines and equipotential surfaces as coordinates,
a new dipole relativistic metric is described, replacing Schwarzschild’s for a point mass. The same
principle equates the curvature and other physical features of the field with fundamental quantum
concepts such as the uncertainty principle, the probability distribution and the wave packet. The
equations of the dipole field therefore yield the three fields emerging naturally one from the other
and unified without resorting to any new dimensions. It is speculated whether this model can be
extended to dipolar matter-antimatter pairs.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[268] **viXra:1508.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 19:26:33*

**Authors:** Minseong Kim

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In computer science, a character set $\Sigma$ is often defined. Then, Kleene plus and Kleene star for formal language are defined. Then, $\Sigma^{+} = \Sigma^{*}\Sigma$ is proved, which means every string (set) in $\Sigma^{+}$ can be represented as a concatenation of a set in $\Sigma^{*}$ and a set in $\Sigma$. However, if one forms a set that cannot be defined by a formula but what people would believe as existing, then while the proof itself does not break down, it may be possible that state of matter is inconsistent. This paper explores this possibility.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[267] **viXra:1508.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 19:47:44*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Проблемы и перспективы существования человечества давно интересуют и волнуют людей. Возникла масса учений и теорий о будущем человечества и грозящих ему бедах и катастрофах: от теории Мальтуса о перезаселенности планеты до современных теорий о потеплении (похолодании) климата и снижении среднего интеллектуального уровня населения. Беда большинства этих теорий в том, что они сочиняются гуманитариями далекими от естественных наук и не учитывают ускоряющееся – экспонентное развитие науки и техники, которые развивается столь стремительно, что опрокидывает все теории, основанные на статическом состоянии технологии и общества.
В данной работе делается попытка оценить основные разработанные (осуществимые в настоящее время) технологии и их влияние на страну, человеческую жизнь и будущее оружие.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[266] **viXra:1508.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 17:03:50*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can not only produce gigantic energy outputs but should be hundreds of times cheaper than a conventional electric generation processes. The AB-Generator can be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for numerous space vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second and the technology to capture them may be used for the AB-Generator.
Key words: Production of nuclear energy, Micro Black Hole, energy AB-Generator, photon rocket.
* Presented as Paper AIAA-2009-5342 in 45 Joint Propulsion Conferences, 2–5 August, 2009, Denver, CO, USA.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[265] **viXra:1508.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 17:31:47*

**Authors:** A.A. Bolonkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Автор выдвигает идею превращения любой матери в ядерную энергию путем использования микро-черной дыры и предлагает генератор для этого.
Основная идея АБ-генератора состоит в том, что мы компенсируем потерю массы Микро Черной Дыры (МЧД) путем впрыска в нее любой материи (мусор, песок, камни) и реализуем ее излучение, превращая его в нужный нам вид энергии.
При этом возникает много вопросов и проблем, требующих массы принципиально новых изобретений. Некоторые из них приводятся ниже. Например, как поддерживать Черную Дыру в пространстве? Очевидно, что ни один из существующих обычных методов не годиться, ибо любую жесткую или тросовую конструкцию МЧД тут же «съест». Обычная МЧД не реагирует ни на магнитные, ни на электрические поля, а создание электрических и магнитных МЧД пока - сильное усложнение проблемы. Гравитационные поля требуют огромных масс (что весьма опасно вблизи МЧД! В случае аварии МЧД может все «съесть» в мгновение ока!), а главное, гравитационные поля не поддаются управлению.
Автор предлагает поддерживать положение (позицию) МЧД кинетической энергией поступающего топлива. Количество поступающего топлива также позволит регулировать размер МЧД и количество получаемой энергии.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[264] **viXra:1508.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 17:56:02*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

В 2008г автором был предложен и исследован новый искусственный вид ядерной материи (АБ-материя), который не встречается в природе. Опираясь на хорошо известные законы ядерной физики, автор показал, что предлагаемый искусственный материал будет обладать потрясающими свойствами: Он будет в миллионы моллионов раз прочнее всех известных материалов (включая знаменитые искусственные нанотрубы), может выдерживать температуру в миллионы градусов, обладает почти нулевой теплопроводностью, сверхпроводимостью, в одной из форм способен быть невидимым и пропускать сквозь себя обычную материю, в другой форме защищать от любого излучения, включая ядерное оружие.
Краткие результаты исследования были опубликованы в статье “Femtotechnology: Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties” [1] American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. (http://viXra.org/abs/1401.0173 ), и некоторые его применения развиты в статье “Femtotechnology: Design of the Strongest AB-Matter for Aerospace”,(2009), http://www.archive.org/details/FemtotechnologyDesignOfTheStrongestAb-matterForAerospace .
Дальнейшие исследования устойчивости отдельных форм АБ-материи показало, что тончайшие нити из этой материи (АБ-иглы в миллион раз меньше атома водорода) обладают удивительным свойством: они находятся в натянутом состоянии и способны проникать безболезненно не только в человеческое тело, но доставлять микроприботы в любые укрытия из обычной материи на гиганские расстояния, в недра Земли, планет и Солнца. В частности, безракетные космические корабли на планеты солнечной системы. http://viXra.org/abs/1312.0017, http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0064.
Некоторые результаты этих исследований в популярной форме излагаются ниже.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[263] **viXra:1508.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 14:25:05*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show that in the modified quantum mechanics EPR correlations can be explained locally. We show also that the claim on the quantum nonlocality is in the modified quantum mechanics false.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[262] **viXra:1508.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-29 16:07:43*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The new view on process of radiation as a result of braking of orbiting electrons by an external force field is offered. The substantiation of the Planck’s radiation law without hypotheses and postulates of quantum- mechanical nature is given. The sense of a constant of Planck is opened and is shown that the true quantum of radiation is the soliton.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[261] **viXra:1508.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-29 08:36:40*

**Authors:** Samuel Amok

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, I answer to a question that has been raised in http://www.les-mathematiques.net/phorum/read.php?16,1137927,1137947#msg-1137947

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[260] **viXra:1508.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-29 05:23:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[259] **viXra:1508.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 16:01:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Pions apparently give strength to the strong force. Where does this meson get its mass. It is made of up and down quarks with a plus or minus one charge. Imagine the insides of a so called elementary particle with jazillions of Kaluza spheres with size and frequency on the order of Planck length and time. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Instead of going down to the 16th dimension, Pion’s, quarks, and other mesons may only go to the 9th dimension. At least that is what these equations hint at.
Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass ratios of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculations for the Pion’s are shown in this paper. Instead of these particles being connected to the neutron, the Pions, quarks, and other Mesons, may be connected to a mass ratio to the Proton. At least, that is what these equations hint at.
This paper is a comparison to “Energy Derivation of Mass Ratio’s of Pions. This theory seems more likely as the sum of Energy Loss of particles in direct collisions of particles. This energy loss will be shown in a separate paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[258] **viXra:1508.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-09 20:25:38*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we analyze the behavior of prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[257] **viXra:1508.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 12:53:48*

**Authors:** Valeriy Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We postulate the non-commutativity of 4-momenta and we derive the mass splitting in the Dirac equation. The applications are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[256] **viXra:1508.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 13:01:53*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a new type of motor that can substitute the conventional motors with large advantage. This motor works without the use of any type of fuel. It converts energy from the Earth’s gravitational field directly into rotational mechanical energy, and can have a very high-power (several thousand of HP), occupying only a volume smaller than one cubic meter. When a Gravitational Motor of this type is coupled to a conventional generator of electrical energy, the system Motor-Generator can supply several thousand kilowatt-hours of electrical energy, similarly to hydroelectric plants, but without the needs to use of water of the rivers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[255] **viXra:1508.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-15 14:25:40*

**Authors:** Jae-Kwang Hwang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is shown that the particle energy is proportional to its surface area. This surface area dependence
of the particle energy extended to the universe scale indicates that our universe is the
holographic universe. The obtained equation of E = 12.2047 1038 x2 = ρsS is based on the experimental
rest mass and radius relation of the proton. This result can be a first evidence of the possible
holographic particles and universe based on the experimental data. Also, the graviton is proposed
to have the rest mass (mg) of 3.1872 10
−31 eV/c2 and the force range of 10.032 Mpc. The diameter
(d = 1.0493 1029 m) of the observable universe is obtained. The observed dark energy density is
explained in terms of the holographic character of the observable universe. Also, the mass gap in the
Quantum Yang-Mills theory is proposed as the rest mass (3.1872 10−31 eV/c2) of the Planck size
real particle (or graviton). The evolution and origin of the black hole and our universe are newly
explained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[254] **viXra:1508.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 08:43:05*

**Authors:** allen Graycek

**Comments:** 3 Pages. update to previous great age cosmology

Great Age Model rescues an old dusty galaxy. A1689-zD1 is a dusty galaxy very distant from us, 700 million years after the big bang when light left it. [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150302122925.htm] Oh wait, it is thought that stars did not form for several hundred million years after the big bang. Think of the time necessary for galaxies to mature to the level of being dusty. The evidence is there are several hundred supernova per year everywhere, which includes the greatest distances. Supernovae occur at a slow rate throughout the universe, which makes this galaxy at least 10 billion years old when light left it. In the Milky Way there are several per century. These are very bright and noticeable events, so the idea this dusty galaxy occurred due to many early supernovae lacks evidence. This galaxy’s age plus the time for its light to travel to earth, 13 billion years, is far more than 13.8 billion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[253] **viXra:1508.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 22:50:55*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Pions apparently give strength to the strong force. Where does this meson get its mass. It is made of up and down quarks with a plus or minus one charge. Imagine the insides of a so called elementary particle with jazillions of Kaluza spheres with size and frequency on the order of Planck length and time. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Instead of going down to the 10th dimension, Pion’s, quarks, and other mesons may only go to the 7th dimension. At least that is what these equations hint at.
Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass ratios of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculations for the Pion’s are shown in this paper. Instead of these particles being connected to the neutron, the Pions, quarks, and other Mesons, may be connected to a mass ratio to the Proton. At least, that is what these equations hint at.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[252] **viXra:1508.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 14:48:11*

**Authors:** Andrey Chaykin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, based on the super fluid substance (vacuum liquid) is identical with the equations of the electromagnetic field and gravitational field.
These differential equations are corrected by the author equations of electrodynamics Maxwell.
Electrodynamics
1. Excluded vortex electric field, the electric field is always potentially.
2. Time-varying magnetic field is interpreted as a density charge displacement and added to the real density of the charges.
Gravitodynamics.
For the successful application of modified equations of electrodynamics to gravity, enough gravitational mass to be considered as a gravitational charge, having the same dimensionality as the electric charge.
For that weight multiply on the gravitational constant of Newton in degree 1/2.
Gravity currents are conventional mechanical pulses multiplied by this factor also leads to a vortex gravitational fieldes, as in electrodynamics and with the same consequences.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[251] **viXra:1508.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 11:53:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The pursuit of an understanding of the base machinery of the mind led early researchers to anatomical exhaustion. With neuroscience now in the throes of molecular mayhem and a waning biochemical bliss, physics is spicing things up with a host of eclectic quantum, spin, and isotopic novelties. While increases in electron spin content have been linked to anesthetic effects, nuclear spins have recently been implicated in a more rarefied and subtle phenomenon— neural quantum processing. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[250] **viXra:1508.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 18:49:31*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The theory of Orchestrated Objective Reduction (Orch OR) can be reformulated using the Margolus-Levitin Theorem of conventional quantum mechanics, thereby preserving the essential predictions of Orch OR without invoking a theory of Quantum Gravity which still awaits satisfactory development. Further, we demonstrate that, at the energies encountered in biology, quantum states cannot evolve quickly enough to preclude causal interactions over length scales matching the dimensions of typical cells. The facile inference, often drawn, that decoherence of a quantum state in a heat bath at biological temperatures is too rapid to permit significant quantum effects is thereby shown to be fallacious.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[249] **viXra:1508.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 00:47:59*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 72 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the
neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. We now introduce for the first time the notions of neutrosophic measure and neutrosophic integral.Neutrosophic Science means development and applications of neutrosophic logic/set/measure/integral/
probability etc. and their applications in any field. It is possible to define the neutrosophic measure and consequently the neutrosophic integral and neutrosophic
probability in many ways, because there are various types of indeterminacies, depending on the problem we need to solve. Indeterminacy is different from randomness.Indeterminacy can be caused by physical space materials and type of construction, by items involved in the space,
or by other factors. Neutrosophic measure is a
generalization of the classical measure for the case when the space contains some indeterminacy. Neutrosophic Integral is defined on neutrosophic measure. Simple examples of neutrosophic integrals are given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[248] **viXra:1508.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:08:39*

**Authors:** Shawkat Alkhazaleh, Emad Marei

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of
neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft
set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[247] **viXra:1508.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:12:07*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy,
and "Quad-stage" (Four stages) is the expansion of
Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development.Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW)taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[246] **viXra:1508.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:51:43*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache, Valeri Kromov

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of "neutrosophic closed set "and "neutrosophic continuous function". Possible application
to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[245] **viXra:1508.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:53:49*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, O. M. Khaled, K. M. Mahfouz

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concepts of correlation and correlation coefficient of neutrosophic data in probability spaces and study some of their properties. Also, we introduce
and study the neutrosophic simple linear
regression model. Possible applications to data processing are touched upon.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[244] **viXra:1508.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:55:21*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 85 Pages.

It has been found that bosons are not subject
to the Pauli Exclusion Principle. This paper argues that in some cases the exclusion principle is also invalid for fermions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[243] **viXra:1508.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:02:21*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean when some information on two auxiliary attributes are available.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[242] **viXra:1508.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:15:21*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean when some
information on auxiliary attribute is available. It is shown that the proposed estimator is more
efficient than the usual mean estimator and other existing estimators. The results have been
illustrated numerically by taking empirical population considered in the literature.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[241] **viXra:1508.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:17:40*

**Authors:** Ion Goian, Raisa Grigor, Vasile Marin, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 146 Pages.

In this book, you will find algebraic exercises and problems,grouped by chapters, intended for higher grades in high schools or middle schools of general education. Its purpose is to facilitate training in mathematics for students in all high school categories, but can be equally helpful in a standalone work. The book can also be used as an extracurricular source, as the reader shall find enclosed important theorems and formulas, standard definitions
and notions that are not always included in school textbooks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[240] **viXra:1508.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:19:05*

**Authors:** Asim Hussain, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we study the algebraic operations of neutrosophic soft sets and their basic properties associated with these opertaions. And also define the associativity and distributivity of these operations. We discusse different
algebraic structures, such as monoids, semiring and lattices, of neutrosophic soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[239] **viXra:1508.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:22:03*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Multi-space is the notion combining different
fields in to a unifying field, which is more applicable in our daily life. In this paper, we introduced the notion of multi-soft space which is the approximated collection of the multi-subspaces of a multi-space

**Category:** General Mathematics

[238] **viXra:1508.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:23:30*

**Authors:** Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Smarandache in 1995 introduced the concept of neutrosophic set and in 2013 Maji introduced the notion of neutrosophic soft set, which is a hybridization of neutrosophic set and soft set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[237] **viXra:1508.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:24:20*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, there should be only one truth,
namely law of conservation of energy, in the area of Newton Mechanics. Through the
example of free falling body, according to the neutrosophic principle considering
neutralities (the small ball is falling to the middle positions), this paper derives the
original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity respectively by using the
law of conservation of energy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[236] **viXra:1508.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:25:42*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Jun Ye, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The interval neutrosophic uncertain
linguistic variables can easily express the
indeterminate and inconsistent information in real world, and TOPSIS is a very effective decision making method more and more extensive
applications. In this paper, we will extend the
TOPSIS method to deal with the interval
neutrosophic uncertain linguistic information, and propose an extended TOPSIS method to solve the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute value takes the form of the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables and attribute weight is unknown.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[235] **viXra:1508.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:26:47*

**Authors:** Huda E. Khalid

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The analysis of most of the real world
problems involves the concept of
indeterminacy. One cannot establish or cannot
rule out the possibility of some relation but
says that cannot determine the relation or link;

**Category:** General Mathematics

[234] **viXra:1508.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:29:40*

**Authors:** Donald J. Bucci

**Comments:** 175 Pages.

There is ongoing interest in designing data fusion systems that make use of human opinions (i.e.,\soft" data) alongside readings from various sensors that use mechanical, electromagnetic, optical,and acoustic transducers (i.e., \hard" data). One of the major challenges in the development of
these hard/soft fusion systems is to determine accurately and flexibly the impact of human responses on the performance of the fusion operator.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[233] **viXra:1508.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:35:07*

**Authors:** B. B. Khare, Habib Ur Rehman, U. Srivastava

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, a study of improved chain ratio-cum regression type estimator for population
mean in the presence of non-response for fixed cost and specified precision has been made.
Theoretical results are supported by carrying out one numerical illustration.

**Category:** Statistics

[232] **viXra:1508.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:36:17*

**Authors:** Ion Pătrașcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

În acest articol scoatem în evidență axa radicală a cercurilor Lemoine.

**Category:** Geometry

[231] **viXra:1508.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:39:07*

**Authors:** Ion Pătrașcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Laturile unui triunghi sunt împărțite de primul cerc Lemoine în segmente proporționale cu pătratele laturilor triunghiului.

**Category:** Geometry

[230] **viXra:1508.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:41:27*

**Authors:** Hojjatollah Farahani, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In spite of researchers’ concerns to find causalities, reviewing the literature of
psychological studies one may argue that the classical statistical methods applied in order to find causalities are unable to find uncertainty and indeterminacies of the relationships between concepts.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[229] **viXra:1508.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:43:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 221 Pages.

The degree of difficulties of the problems is from easy and medium to hard. The solutions of the problems are at the end of each chapter. One can navigate back and forth from the text of the problem to its solution using bookmarks. The book is especially a didactical material for the mathematical students and instructors.

**Category:** Geometry

[228] **viXra:1508.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:44:21*

**Authors:** Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The objective of the study is to present cosine
similarity measure based multi-attribute decision making under neutrosophic environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[227] **viXra:1508.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:46:52*

**Authors:** Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

In this paper we initiated the concept of neutrosophic codes which are better codes than other type of codes. We first construct linear neutrosophic codes and gave illustrative examples. This neutrosophic algebriac structure is more rich for codes and also we found the containement of corresponding code in neutrosophic code. We also found new types of codes and these are pseudo neutrosophic codes and strong or pure neutrosophic codes. By the help of examples, we illustrated in a simple way. We established the basic results for neutosophic codes. At the end, we developed the decoding proceedures for neutrosophic codes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[226] **viXra:1508.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:49:21*

**Authors:** Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 106 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce for the first time the notions of Neutrosophic Axiom,
Neutrosophic Axiomatic System, Neutrosophic Deducibility and Neutrosophic Inference, Neutrosophic Proof, Neutrosophic Tautologies, Neutrosophic Quantifiers, Neutrosophic Propositional Logic, Neutrosophic Axiomatic Space, Degree of Contradiction (Dissimilarity) of Two Neutrosophic Axioms, and Neutrosophic
Model. A class of neutrosophic implications is also introduced. A comparison between these innovatory neutrosophic notions and their corresponding classical notions is made. Then, three concrete examples of neutrosophic axiomatic systems, describing the same neutrosophic geometrical model, are presented at the end of the paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[225] **viXra:1508.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:50:36*

**Authors:** B. B. Khare

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The auxiliary information is used in increasing the efficiency of the estimators for the
parameters of the populations such as mean, ratio, and product of two population means. In this context, the estimation procedure for the ratio and product of two population means using auxiliary characters in special reference to the non response problem has been discussed.

**Category:** Statistics

[224] **viXra:1508.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:53:06*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper re-discusses the problems of the
so-called “law of nonconservation of parity” and “accelerating expansion of the universe”, and presents the examples of determining Neutrosophic Probability of the experiment of Chien-Shiung Wu et al in 1957, and determining Neutrosophic Probability of accelerating expansion of the partial universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[223] **viXra:1508.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:54:17*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is
uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[222] **viXra:1508.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:55:40*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Prof. Cai Wen defined the 1-D Distance and 1-D Dependent Function in 1983. F. Smarandache generalized them to n-D Distance and n-D Dependent Function respectively in 2012 during his postdoc research at Guangdong University of
Technology in Guangzhou. O. I. Şandru extended the last results in 2013. Now [2015], as a further generalization, we unify all these results into a single formula for the n-D Distance and respectively for the n-D Dependent Function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[221] **viXra:1508.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:57:49*

**Authors:** Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Tariq Aziz

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Usually the models of real world problems in almost all disciplines like engineering, medical sciences, mathematics, physics, computer science, management sciences, operations research and arti…cial intelligence are mostly full of complexities and consist of several types of uncertainties while dealing them in several occasion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[220] **viXra:1508.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:02:39*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory of rough sets was firstly proposed by Pawlak. Later on, Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic (NS) sets in 1998. In this paper based on the concept of rough neutrosohic set, we define the concept of single valued neutrosophic information systems. In addition, we will discuss the knowledge reduction and extension of the single valued neutrosophic information systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[219] **viXra:1508.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:07:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Legile lui Florentin nu sunt nici Legi ale lui Murphy (pesimiste), nici Legi ale lui Peter (optimiste), ci, pe de o parte, parțial pesimiste și pațial optimiste, iar pe de altă parte neutre (ambigue: nici pesimiste, nici optimiste) – ca în logica neutrosofică.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[218] **viXra:1508.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:08:22*

**Authors:** Ion Pătrașcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The first Lemoine circle divides the sides of a triangle in segments proportional to the squares of the triangle’s sides.

**Category:** Geometry

[217] **viXra:1508.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:22:18*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

As a powerful technique for holding relations in things, combinatorics has experienced rapidly development in the past century, particularly, enumeration of configurations,combinatorial design and graph theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[216] **viXra:1508.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:23:29*

**Authors:** Shan Ye, Jing Fu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes a generalized distance
measure and its similarity measures between single valued neutrosophic multisets (SVNMs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[215] **viXra:1508.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:24:26*

**Authors:** Lingwei Kong, Yuefeng Wu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper proposes a distance measure of
neutrosophic numbers and a similarity measure based on cosine function, and then develops the misfire fault diagnosis method of gasoline engines by using the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[214] **viXra:1508.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:25:29*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Teacher recruitment is a multi-criteria group decisionmaking process involving subjectivity, imprecision,and fuzziness that can be suitably represented by neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[213] **viXra:1508.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:28:48*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Munazza Naz, Muhammad Shabir4

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The idea of neutrosophic code came into my mind at that time when i was reading the literature
about linear codes and i saw that, if there is data transfremation between a sender and a reciever. They want to send 11and 00 as codewords. They suppose 11 for true and 00 for false. When the sender sends the these two
codewords and the error occures. As a result the reciever recieved 01 or 10 instead of 11 and 00. This story give a way to the neutrosophic codes and thus we introduced neutrosophic codes over finite field in this paper

**Category:** General Mathematics

[212] **viXra:1508.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:30:02*

**Authors:** Ameirys Betancourt-Vázquez, Maikel Leyva-Vázquez, Karina Perez-Teruel

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Interdependency modeling and analysis have commonly been ignored in project portfolio management. In this work, we proposed a new method for modeling project portfolio interdependencies, and specially risks interdependencies, using neutrosophic logic and neutrosophic cognitive maps. This proposal has many advantages for dealing with indeterminacy making easy the elicitation of knowledge from experts. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[211] **viXra:1508.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:30:07*

**Authors:** Mojtaba Mahmoudi Fard

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is thought that in accordance with the quantum uncertainty, energy could be extracted from the empty space. However, space nowadays could be considered as a material sui generis entity, a collection of indivisible small particles, and in a grainy fabric. So this paper asserts that the vacuum is not a concept other than the space-time itself related to its microscopic structure and the underlying ether.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[210] **viXra:1508.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:32:50*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present single
valued neutrosophic decision making model of school choice. Childhood is a crucial stage in terms of a child's physical, intellectual, emotional and social development i.e. all round development of a child. Mental and physical
abilities of children grow at an increasing rate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[209] **viXra:1508.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:34:00*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Muhammad Shabir, Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Neutrosophic LA-semigroup is a midway
structure between a neutrosophic groupoid and a commutative neutrosophic semigroup. Rings are the old concept in algebraic structures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[208] **viXra:1508.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:35:46*

**Authors:** Shawkat Alkhazaleh

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In 1993, Gau and Buehrer proposed the theory of vague sets as an extension of fuzzy
set theory. Vague sets are regarded as a special case of context-dependent fuzzy sets.
In 1995, Smarandache talked for the first time about neutrosophy, and he defined the
neutrosophic set theory as a new mathematical tool for handling problems involving
imprecise, indeterminacy, and inconsistent data. In this paper, we define the concept
of a neutrosophic vague set as a combination of neutrosophic set and vague set. We
also define and study the operations and properties of neutrosophic vague set and
give some examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[207] **viXra:1508.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:36:39*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper a new concept is called n-valued interval neutrosophic sets is given. The
basic operations are introduced on n-valued interval neutrosophic sets such as; union,
intersection, addition, multiplication, scalar multiplication, scalar division, truthfavorite
and false-favorite.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[206] **viXra:1508.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:38:21*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce and study neutrosophic ideals of neutrosophic BCI-algebras. Elementary properties of neutrosophic ideals of neutrosophic BCI-algebras are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[205] **viXra:1508.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:40:03*

**Authors:** B. B. Khare, P. S. Jha, U. Srivastava

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper the use of coefficient of variation and shape parameters in each stratum, the
problem of estimation of population of mean has been considered. The expression of mean
squared error of the proposed estimator is derived and its properties are discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[204] **viXra:1508.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:41:46*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Yale Landsberg

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[203] **viXra:1508.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:45:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we make a short history about: the
neutrosophic set, neutrosophic numerical components and neutrosophic literal components, neutrosophic numbers, and elementary neutrosophic algebraic structures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[202] **viXra:1508.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:46:32*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, S.A.ELhafeez, M. M. Lotfy

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we present a review of different
recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[201] **viXra:1508.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:47:56*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents rough netrosophic multiattribute decision making based on grey relational analysis. While the concept of neutrosophic sets is a powerful logic to deal with indeterminate and inconsistent data, the theory of rough neutrosophic sets is also a powerful mathematical tool to deal with incompleteness.

**Category:** Geometry

[200] **viXra:1508.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:49:35*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache, B. B. Khare, P. S. Jha, Usha Srivastava, Habib Ur. Rehman

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The present book aims to present some improved estimators using auxiliary and attribute information in case of simple random sampling and stratified random sampling and in some cases when non-response is present.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[199] **viXra:1508.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:50:51*

**Authors:** N.Kannappa, P.Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache-2-algebraic structure of R-module namely Smarandache-R-module.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[198] **viXra:1508.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:51:59*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we first defined soft intervalvalued neutrosophic rough sets(SIVN- rough sets for short) which combines interval valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[197] **viXra:1508.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:53:00*

**Authors:** R.Ponraj, S.Sathish Narayanan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Throughout this paper we considered finite, undirected and simple graphs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[196] **viXra:1508.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-25 11:04:45*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Escaping information from black holes (BHs) produce firewalls at the event horizon. Such walls of fire absorb anything falling in black holes so they destroy them. It leads to conclusion that black hole understood as singularity with event horizon cannot be realized by Nature and that General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Physics (QP) are the incomplete theories. To solve the information paradox, Hawking proposes to replace the event horizon for apparent horizon i.e. for horizon widened due to quantum fluctuations in such a way that light can escape but there is lack of a mathematical description. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we solved the information paradox in a different way. The key to solve the many unsolved problems concerning black holes are the interactions of nuclear matter with the luminal Einstein spacetime both composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (they dominate) and neutrinos (detection of the pairs is much difficult than neutrinos) - there appear the ordered virtual motions in spacetime, dark-matter structures and advection. Incompleteness of GR and QP causes that altogether with good solutions we obtain solutions that cannot be realized by Nature and singularities are such solutions. SST shows that there are objects with circular orbit for photons and abstract event horizon but without singularity - we will call such objects the modified black holes (MBHs). The RHIC experiment showed that inside baryons are dense gluon fields. On the other hand, the SST shows that intensity of the superluminal quantum entanglement (it follows from the extended GR) close to the Planck scale is tremendous so the cores of baryons are indestructible. It leads to conclusion that MBHs are built of modified neutron black holes (MNBHs) which are the biggest neutron stars. When we take into account also the gravitational interactions then matter winds around the central point of MBH at a continuously decreasing distance from the point, next spirals on surfaces of the MNBHs towards their poles, and next twists along the relativistic jet. Among many other things, we calculated maximum efficiency of accretion process (41.42%), radii of the accretion discs, described the mechanism of production of the dark-matter structures, gravitational redshift and answered why the luminal Einstein spacetime does not collapse to separated black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[195] **viXra:1508.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 06:58:21*

**Authors:** Alex Patterson

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Special thanks to many

Abstract
This short paper is a simple attempt to see whether the Lorentz Gamma Factor, when restrained by Wittgenstein’s TLP (Tractatus Logico Philosophicus) 3.333 proposition on a Function containing a function which he supposes rather imperatively that it excises Russell’s Paradox in Principia Mathematica, may be ‘a rationalist/rational under-study’ on that very of excisement, and vice versa. Further, potentially moot but nonetheless by Vico’s Dictum attention is given to what the consequences of finalizing the Under-Study might entail, be consequent on, pertain to, maybe even elucidate, etc.
Such under-studies are abundant in the classics, for example Vico to Petrarch. That’s sufficient and needs more of in the author’s view.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[194] **viXra:1508.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 12:59:25*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The new view on process of radiation as a result of braking orbiting of electrons by an external force field is offered. The substantiation of the Planck’s radiation law without hypotheses and postulates of quantum-mechanical nature is given. The sense of a constant of Planck is opened and is shown that the true quantum of radiation is the soliton.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[193] **viXra:1508.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 13:44:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6]
Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[192] **viXra:1508.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-26 13:00:01*

**Authors:** Iourii Gribov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The substantially new simple method for generating & detection of elementary particles of Dark Matter (DM) is proposed, distinguished by the fact that pairs of elementary (DM /(Ordinary Antimatter (OAM), particles like (dark electron/positron), (dark proton/antiproton) etc. could be easily created in conventional low energy colliders, but only in collision between elementary antiparticles (preferably positrons-positrons, antiprotons-antiprotons or positrons- antiprotons). This method is predicted by the new physical concept of DM by the author, where DM particles are intrinsically identical to our Ordinary Matter (OM) particles, but are shifted in two the nearest adjacent DM-Universes. The method can be used for calibration the proposed direct-DM-detectors by the author, using captured antiparticles - physical mediators between OM and DM. The dark DM-protons etc. created in the collider via the colliding antimatter will atypically annihilate with the visible OAM antiprotons, captured in the DM-detector, with outcome of two gamma quanta (one dark- undetectable and one detectable).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[191] **viXra:1508.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 00:59:39*

**Authors:** Tian Hao

**Comments:** Pages. published RSC Advances , 2015, 5, 95318-95333

Granular powders can be successfully treated with kinetic theory and statistical mechanics that are typically applicable to thermal systems, though the granular powders are athermal systems and the conventional environmental temperature is too weak to drive particles to move. Once the granular temperature is analogously defined in line with that in thermodynamics, viscosity concept of thermal systems is naturally borrowed to describe the flowability of granular powders in this article. Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume concept, which have been proved to be very powerful in dealing with many thermally activated phenomena in a wide variety of fields, are utilized to derive viscosity equations of granular powders under a simple shear. The obtained viscosity equations are examined only with empirical experimental observations in describing powder flowability, due to the lack of instruments and methodology for directly determining the viscosity of granular materials. The continuous shear thickening rather than the discontinuous shear thickening are predicted and found to be dependent on shear rate, the cohesive energy between particles, and the particle volume fraction, though the discontinuous shear thickening may still occur if certain conditions are met during shear, such as local particle volume fractions approach to the jamming point created by the shear induced inhomogeneity. A fundamental mechanism on how dry granular powders flow is proposed on the basis of what are demonstrated from the viscosity equations.The work presented in this article may lay a foundation to scale powder flowability in a more fundamental and consistent manner, at least providing an approach to consistently define the viscosity of granular powders. Since the same approaches are employed to derive the viscosity equations of granular powders as used to derive viscosity equations of liquids, colloidal suspensions, and polymeric materials, both athermal and thermal systems are thus unified with a single methodology.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[190] **viXra:1508.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 03:24:52*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Comments/Criticism are wellcomed

A thought experiment shows that the concept of the critical density is nonsense.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[189] **viXra:1508.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-25 13:46:36*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke, Henry Otobrise, Tolulope Famoroti, Adenike Olatinwo, Afees Tiamiyu, Funmi Akintujoye

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

We give an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of the Ising model in mutually orthogonal external magnetic fields, using as basis the eigenstates of a system of non-interacting spin~$1/2$ particles in external magnetic fields. We subsequently apply our results to obtain an analytical expression for the ground state energy per spin, to the fourth order in the exchange integral, for the Ising model in perpendicular external fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[188] **viXra:1508.0205 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 01:49:30*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper has been prepared to show the derivation of the Doppler transformations as eigenvalues of the Lorentz transformations matrices and to conclusively proves that these eigenvalues are the correct relativistic factors which have to be use instead of the Lorentz factor. The paper also shows the forms of the Doppler matrices that can replace the Lorentz matrices, and discuss some of the consequences that follow
the equivalence of Lorentz and Doppler transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[187] **viXra:1508.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-25 14:15:46*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke, Olawanle Layeni

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We state and prove a general summation identity. The identity is then applied to derive various summation formulas involving the generalized harmonic numbers and related quantities. Interesting results, mostly new, are obtained for both finite and infinite sums. The high points of this paper are perhaps the discovery of several previously unknown infinite summation results involving {\em non-linear} generalized harmonic number terms and the derivation of interesting alternating summation formulas involving these numbers.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[186] **viXra:1508.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-27 11:10:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

In this paper I propose a quantum gravitational cosmological model which introduces a mass
density function that reproduces the WMAP and the PLANCK missions' data quite accurately. This function implies that the Universe started with a mass equal to one half of the Planck mass, avoiding the need for a singularity (point with infinite mass density) at the beginning of (normal) time. One of the predictions of the model is that the mass of the Universe grew very rapidly according to an exponential function so that most of the mass of the Universe was “created” very early in its history (99 % of the mass of the Universe was created in the first 442 million years since
the Big Bang). Because the average mass density function changes over time, this model is
radically different to the Steady State Model. The model presented here assumes the existence of a Pre-universe, meaning that our Universe is not the result of a “creation process” but the result of a mysterious transformation. Finally, this formulation, which does not use General Relativity's field equations, encompasses part of the original Friedmann work. Therefore, we draw the conclusion that we don't need GR to develop an acceptable cosmological model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[185] **viXra:1508.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-25 06:55:08*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 5 Pages

We suggest using the experimental setup given in [15] by carrying out the following change: We will increase the distance, equally and sufficiently, between the mirror and polarized beam splitter present on one side and between the other mirror and beam combiner present on other side in the experimental apparatus shown in FIG 1 below which is actually Figure 5 in [15] taken with thanks. We then suggest to carry out imaging after suitably predefined regular time intervals and compare these images of transverse amplitude, phase, (and intensity) of coherent electromagnetic field. It is our guess that the images will be identical as long as no gravitational waves pass through the apparatus and cause changes in the distance between the mirror and polarized beam splitter present on one side as well as in the distance between the other mirror and beam combiner present on other side in the experimental apparatus shown in Figure 5 in [15] due to squeezing and stretching of space-time fabric. So, the changes that will be observed will occur in the images only due to the passing of gravitational waves through the apparatus. Due to passing of the gravitational waves through the apparatus the squeezing and stretching of the paths for rays will cause the change in the images of transverse amplitude, phase, (and intensity) to be taken at regular intervals. The observed changes in the images will offer a conclusive proof for the existence of gravitational waves!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[184] **viXra:1508.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-30 18:35:17*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We provide an optimal strategy to solve the n X n X n points problem inside the box, considering only 90° turns, and at the same time a pattern able to drastically lower down the known upper bound. We use a very simple spiral frame, especially if compared to the previous plane by plane approach, that significantly reduces the number of straight lines connected at their end-points necessary to join all the n3 dots. In the end, we combine the square spiral frame with the rectangular spiral pattern in the most profitable way, in order to minimize the difference hu(n) − hl(n) between the upper and the lower bound, proving that it is ≤ 0.5 ∙ n ∙ (n + 3), for any n > 1.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[183] **viXra:1508.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 21:54:33*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Section 1 says that in a Thorne-Zytkow Object, gas from a supergiant companion can spiral around a neutron star and be reshaped into a sphere enveloping the neutron star by gravitational waves converging on that star from every direction. This is followed by an introductory mention of the concentration of gravitational waves.
In section 2, the mechanism of the waves' functioning is proposed. First - as a precise, non-probabilistic version of quantum mechanics that relies on Hidden Variables which take the form of base 2 mathematics (the binary digits 1 and 0). Second - particles with mass are given that mass by the energy of photons and gravitons interacting.
In section 3, a Letter from the journal "Nature" is used to propose how black holes/star-forming nebulae arise; in addition to touching on cosmic expansion, dark energy, and the range from low to high masses corresponding to the gradient of low to high concentration of gravitational waves.
There's a 4th section bounded above and below with the single-line border
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This part includes some of my articles "Binary Digits and Topology Create Hybrid Big-Bang/Steady-State Universe Unified as One Qubit" (http://vixra.freeforums.org/binary-digits-and-topology-create-hybrid-big-bang-steady-sta-t591.html) and "Dark Matter and Travel into the Past" (http://vixra.freeforums.org/post1207.html#p1207). Topics included here are time travel into the past and the future, the origin of life, dark matter, imaginary time, plus uniting electromagnetism with gravitation.
If all the subjects in this article were being presented as parts of a fully developed scientific theory, I'd be very wary of it. The words "exaggeration" and "delusion" would quickly come to mind. Fortunately, it's nothing of the sort. It's just an informal piece intended to point the way to what may be possible in certain areas - it (and my "Qubit" article mentioned above) are definitely not attempts at a formal theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[182] **viXra:1508.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 14:23:38*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** There is theoretical overlap with paper viXra:1412.0213 but this new paper has 31 pages and the other has 16 pages. This paper is about the physics context and interpretation related to the theory of paper viXra:1412.0213 so it has a very different focus.

Using frequency gauged clocks on a free fall grid we look at gravitational phenomena as they appear for observers on a stationary grid in a central field of gravity. With an approach based on Special Relativity, the Weak Equivalence Principle and Newton's gravitational potential we derive first order correct expressions for the gravitational red shift of stationary clocks and of satellites. We also derive a second order correction of a satellite's clock frequency, related to the geodetic precession. In the derivation of the apparent velocity of light in a field of gravity, a Lorentz symmetry breaking occurred. The derived changed radial velocity of light is at the basis of the Shapiro delay and the gravitational index of refraction, so phenomena connected to the curvature of the metric. The advantage of the free fall grid SR-WEP approach is that it is less advanced and thus far less complicated as compared to the GR approach, but still accurate enough for all GPS purposes for the next few decades. Also important: our approach is never in conflict with GR because we do not introduce additional axioms to the ones already in use in GR. We only use less axioms. For GPS engineers, our approach will give a deeper insight into problems concerning clock synchronization in a grid around the earth, without using the complex mathematics needed in GR. The free fall grid SR-WEP approach can be taught to GPS engineers in an achievable and economically affordable time. It will considerably reduce the communication gap between those engineers and the GR experts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[181] **viXra:1508.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 11:14:35*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article criticises the phenomenon “wave-like-behaviour” of matter and shows that the Davisson-Germer experiment, considered as the validation of De Broglie’s hypothesis, can be interpreted in another way too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[180] **viXra:1508.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 08:54:01*

**Authors:** DING Jian, HU Xiuqin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Moon is always with the same face toward the Earth. However, the prevailing theory to explain this phenomenon, there is a dead angle. That is why the Moon does not rotate around the axis which is a straight line between the Earth and Moon to connect to their mass centers. Because many of meteorite impact craters on the lunar surface indicate that the Moon is entirely possible to obtain momentums to rotate around the axis. In this paper, we propose a plain explanation which is the universal gravitation between the Earth and Moon as well as the Earth's magnetic field to have formed a trinity binding mechanism about the Moon to be locked. According to this explanation, the Moon can be locked, the mechanism of lunar libration has been revealed out, which can confirm mutually with the natural phenomenon that the Moon has sought a balance in the swing. In addition, with all kinds of detection data from the Apollo moon landings and other circumlunar spacecraft to detect, as well as the studies of lunar soil samples, the conclusion is that as a whole for the Moon, which belongs to the paramagnetic substance, its relative permeability is between 1.008 and 1.03. Although due to the impact of the solar wind, the Earth's magnetic flux density in the lunar orbit has been dropped below 0.0008125 nT, but can not become a reason to assert that present-day Moon has no global dipole magnetic field. Unless it can be confirmed that a constant magnetic field does not exist in the lunar orbit.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[179] **viXra:1508.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 09:13:24*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Some nature's large-scale phenomena and unexpected experiments are analyzed. It is shown that they can be explained by the existence of gravitomagnetism and substantial by the value of gravitomagnetic forces. On the same base it is proved that there can exist a generator using the energy of the source of gravitational conservative forces in order to perform work, and that this fact does not contradict to the energy conservation law.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[178] **viXra:1508.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 05:55:04*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Bijective epistemology results confirm models of “space-time” and “empty” space have no counterpart in physical universe. NASA results confirm universal space is “flat”, means it corresponds to the Euclidean geometry. Riemann finite geometry seems not to be an adequate model of universal space. The only possible alternative is infinite Euclidean universal space which has origin in quantum vacuum. As theory of infinite numbers confirms “infinity” is not a metric term, this opens new perspectives about the qualitative dimension of the universe which surpasses empirical scientific research methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[177] **viXra:1508.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 02:52:48*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Imagine many, bazillions, of spheres rotating on 3 axes. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Inside these spheres is another level of spheres that are matched. Therefore we go down two levels of dimensions from our three dimensional level of the universe. Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass rations of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculation for the elementary particles of the proton, electron, muon, and tau(tauon) are shown below. It is shown that these particles are all ratios with the neutron. It is shown that the electron, muon, and tau are all derived from the proton neutron mass ratio. It is shown that the muon and tau are complimentary lepton particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[176] **viXra:1508.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 03:29:59*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Idea that time can have origin in entanglement is based on the preposition that “internal observer”, “external observer”, “coordinate time” and “proper time” are theoretical models of the world which have counterpart in physical universe. Bijective epistemology based on bijective function of set theory confirms these models have no counterpart in physical universe; they are pure theoretical inventions on which we cannot build a consistent scientific theory. Idea that time could have origin in entanglement has no enough theoretical and experimental basis to be taken seriously as an adequate model of physical world.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[175] **viXra:1508.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 05:14:34*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes mistakes/fallacies in modern theoretical physics, it explains why the biggest mysteries in the universe cannot be solved. I found the origin of gravity, and once I knew what it was I immediately realized that most mysteries in the universe are man-made. Mistakes/fallacies resulted in mathematical fiction, most mysteries in the universe are in fact virtual reality in reality. I will show you that Einstein's gravity, spacetime, gravitational waves, massive black holes, dark matter, dark energy, etc don't exist, that is why they cannot find or explain anything (they have no proof). Einstein's theory of gravity is the foundation of modern theoretical physics, it was devastating to modern theoretical physics because physicists didn't realize that he gave us a mathematical reason for gravity. They don't realize that almost everything is based on or intertwined with Einstein's mathematical fiction, they are looking for things that don't exist. That huge mistake has resulted in 100 years of useless research, physicists have wasted time and money on nothing.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[174] **viXra:1508.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-23 09:22:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Hamilton’s research focuses on the search for specific types of dark energy fields known as “chameleon fields,” which exhibit a force whose strength depends on the density of their surrounding environment. This force, if it were proven to exist, would be an example of a so-called “fifth force” beyond the four known forces of gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak forces acting within atoms. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[173] **viXra:1508.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-23 06:34:19*

**Authors:** Davide Fiscaletti, Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A model of a three-dimensional quantum vacuum with variable energy density is proposed. In this
model, time we measure with clocks is only a mathematical parameter of material changes, i.e.
motion in quantum vacuum. Inertial mass and gravitational mass have origin in dynamics between
a given particle or massive body and diminished energy density of quantum vacuum. Each
elementary particle is a structure of quantum vacuum and diminishes quantum vacuum energy
density. Symmetry “particle – diminished energy density of quantum vacuum” is the fundamental
symmetry of the universe which gives origin to mass and gravity. Special relativity’s Sagnac effect in GPS system and important predictions of general relativity such as precessions of the planets, the Shapiro time delay of light signals in a gravitational field and the geodetic and frame-dragging effects recently tested by Gravity Probe B, have origin in the dynamics of the quantum vacuum which rotates with the earth. Gravitational constant N G and velocity of light c have small deviations of their value which are related to the variable energy density of quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[172] **viXra:1508.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 21:37:45*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

This paper consolidates all the salient geometrical aspects of the principle of Polychronous Wavefront Computation. A novel set of simple and closed planar curves are constructed based on this principle, using MATLAB. The algebraic and geometric properties of these curves are then elucidated as theorems, propositions and conjectures.

**Category:** Geometry

[171] **viXra:1508.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-23 01:20:59*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Tito Waluyo Purboyo

**Comments:** 18 pages, 2 figures, 5 tables, supported by RIK-ITB b-II 2015

Solving problem using C++ language requiring dynamic size variable can be easier performed using STL vector class. How to reproduces statuses from the article "An Improved Algorithm for Generation of Attack Graph Based on Virtual Performance Node" is traced back in this work by implementing the vector class. A random function in C++ rand() is also used in determining IP for attacker and also the target, imitating guessing from attacker.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[170] **viXra:1508.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 10:24:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One thing that all chemical reactions have in common—whether they are the reactions that take place inside a battery, the metabolic reactions inside a living organism, or the combustion reactions that cause an explosion—is that they all involve some kind of change in energy. On a large scale, the changes in energy of a reaction can usually be measured in various ways for practical purposes, but attempting to understand the fundamental origins of this energy at smaller and smaller scales becomes more complicated, especially as chemistry enters the quantum realm. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[169] **viXra:1508.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 06:42:03*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Update & extended 1508.0117 - Lie groups of SM arise naturally

G matrices are matrices with single entries 1,i. It is shown that the G matrices generate the Cl(p,q), SU(n), SO(n) generators and the matrix representation of CAR and CCR operators. The exponential map of the direct sum of so(n) and su(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be restricted to 2 or 3 dimensions. It is shown that the unitary representation of SO(3), the spin space of 2x2 SU(2) matrices arises naturally. It is shown that there are 3 generations of chiral electroweak doublets of quarks. The CAR & CCR are invariant under a real scaling of the operators only for a null space-time (n,1) metric condition on the co-ordinates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[168] **viXra:1508.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 08:19:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Per Delsing and his team want to combine theoretical calculations with experiments on superconducting circuits to gain an understanding of how things fit together at the nano level. Among other things, they plan to simulate objects that move very rapidly, almost at the speed of light, and demonstrate the "twin paradox" on a microchip. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[167] **viXra:1508.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-01 23:55:08*

**Authors:** Tian Hao

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

For the purpose of applying laws or principles originated from thermal systems to granular athermal systems, we may need to properly define the critical “temperature” concept in granular powders. The conventional environmental temperature in thermal systems is too weak to drive movements of particles in granular powders and cannot function as a thermal energy indicator. For maintaining the same functionality as in thermal systems, the temperature in granular powders is defined analogously and uniformly in this article. The newly defined granular temperature is utilized to describe and explain one of the most important phenomena observed in granular powders, the jamming transition, by introducing jamming temperature and jamming volume fraction concepts. The predictions from the equations of the jamming volume fractions for several cases like granular powders under shear or vibration are in line with experimental observations and empirical solutions in powder handlings. The goal of this article is to establish similar concepts in granular powders, allowing granular powders to be described with common laws or principles we are familiar with in thermal systems. Our intention is to build a bridge between thermal systems and granular powders to account for many similarities already found between these two systems.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[166] **viXra:1508.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 21:30:47*

**Authors:** Constantin Dumitrescu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 241 Pages.

In this book, we discuss a succession of methods encountered in the study of high school mathematical analysis to students and teachers, to higher education entry examination candidates, to all those interested, in order to allow them to reduce as many diverse problems as possible to already own work schemes.
We tried to present in a methodical manner, advantageous for the reader, the most frequent calculation methods encountered in the study of the mathematical analysis at this level.
{ First imprint: Metode de calcul în analiza matematică (in Romanian), INFOMED Publishing House, Craiova, Romania, 1995.}

**Category:** Algebra

[165] **viXra:1508.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 00:19:59*

**Authors:** T.E.Girish, V.Vipindas, C. Radhakrishnan Nair

**Comments:** 16 pages, 4 tables

Using a phenomenological model in the ultra-relativistic limits we suggest that elementary particles including photons transforms in to micro black holes subjected to the following critical conditions:(i) When the de Broglie wavelength of elementary particles becomes equal to its Schwarzschild radius its energy reaches an upper limit (Em) given by the relation: Em= hc3/2Gm where m is the rest mass of the elementary particle (ii) Particle black holes will have a mass equal to the limiting relativistic mass of the elementary particles and Schwarzschild radius equal to Compton wavelength of these particles. Lorentz invariance of the Compton wavelength of elementary particles in the trans Planckian scales is suggested from this result. Photon black holes are found to be similar to massive elementary particles resembling the Planck particles discussed in cosmology. We find that the known elementary particle physical properties may be a window to the early universe since it provides clues about density distribution and nature of primordial black holes formed during the post Planck era after the Big Bang

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[164] **viXra:1508.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 03:08:23*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи.
На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались.
Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[163] **viXra:1508.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-10 03:39:25*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 177 Pages.

According to Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) proposed in this paper, the center of the spherical wave fronts moves with the apparent source. The velocity of light emitted by a source in absolute motion is constant c relative to the apparent source. For absolutely co-moving source and observer, the position (distance and direction ) of the source apparently changes relative to the observer; the effect of absolute motion is to change the path length, and not the speed and wavelength, of light. Physically ( intuitively ) this means that the group velocity ( magnitude and direction) of light varies relative to the ( real) source, due to absolute motion of the source. This implies different group velocities of light in different directions relative to the source , transverse velocity components and bending light rays in lateral directions, and aberration of light for co-moving source and observer. Unconventionally, in some cases, this also means that the measured group velocity of light varies along its path. Such behavior of light results from light being a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. AST is a modified emission theory, a fusion between emission theory and absolute motion theory, with the real source replaced by an apparent source to account for absolute velocity of the source. In the Sagnac experiment, the source appears farther away than its physical distance when looking in the backward direction and closer than its actual/ physical distance in the forward direction. Physically this means that the velocity of light is c + V in the backward direction and c - V in the forward direction, relative to the source , hence a fringe shift at the detector. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in the position of the light source relative to an observer does not create a fringe shift, for the same reason that an actual ( physical ) change of the source position doesn't create any significant fringe shift. This is unlike the Sagnac interferometer, which will form a fringe shift if the position of the source was changed physically ( mirror positions changed accordingly), instead of rotating the apparatus. The group velocity of light relative to the source moving with absolute velocity Vabs is c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction. Therefore, the velocity of light relative to a stationary observer will be: (c - Vabs ) + Vabs = c and (c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . This is why the group velocity of light has been found to be independent of source velocity in moving source experiments; the (group) velocity of light changes relative to the source in such a way that it will not be affected by source velocity. The (group) velocity of light depends on the observer (absolute) velocity and on mirror velocity. The reason why GPS works accurately in the ECI frame is discussed. The phase velocity of light is always constant c, independent of source or observer velocity. This paper explains why absolute velocity does not affect characteristic wavelengths of atoms , why Doppler effect depends only on relative velocity, why Ives-Stilwell experiments are not affected by Earth's absolute velocity. Einstein’s thought experiment ( ‘chasing a beam of light’ ) is interpreted as follows. For an observer moving away at (near) the speed of light from a light source that is at absolute rest, the group will be 'frozen' but the phases will still go past the observer at the speed of light, with a wavelength of λ’ = eλ, where e is Euler’s constant . A new theory : ' Exponential Law of Doppler effect of Light ' is proposed to explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment, according to which λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e - V/c . Transverse Doppler effect doesn't exist. A strange behavior of light is revealed that can explain the Argo starlight refraction and aberration experiments . The Trouton-Noble Paradox is a glaring evidence disproving relativity and supporting absolute motion. Absolute velocity is defined to be relative to the observer, where 'observer ' is any massive object. It is proposed that the absolute velocity of an object is the resultant of its mass weighed velocities relative to all massive objects in the universe. The ether doesn't exist, but absolute motion does. The speed of light is the universal limit on all absolute and relative velocities of physical objects in the universe. This is not due to Special Relativity, but is proposed to be due to non-linear law of electromagnetic radiation power and radiation reaction . As the absolute velocity of a body approaches the speed of light, any further acceleration will result in or require increasingly infinite amounts of radiation power and radiation reaction. Mass ( inertia) itself may be just radiation reaction. A neutral object/particle also radiates electromagnetic energy and develop radiation reaction during acceleration but, unlike radiation from charged particles, radiations of opposite charges 'cancel' each other and just become inaccessible, not destroyed. The ever confusing problem of electric field of uniformly moving charges is solved. The 'speed' of electrostatic and gravitational fields is shown to have dual nature: finite (light speed) and infinite, from a new interpretation of astronomical observations and laboratory experiments according to AST. The force of gravity is shown to be just a difference between electrostatic attraction and repulsion forces. For absolutely co-moving, accelerating charge and observer, the position of the charge changes apparently, as seen by the observer, and physically resulting in bending lines of force, creating transverse component electric field and this is the cause of radiation during acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[162] **viXra:1508.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 06:52:04*

**Authors:** MADANI Bouabdallah

**Comments:** 1 Page. Lier 'Essai Conjecture de Legendre' et 'Résultat Conjecture de Legendre'

Cette note est tirée de mon article 'Essai sur les conjectures de Legendre et de Brocard' non encore publié.
Le résultat principal est le Lemme 3.
Les calculs sur ce lemme sont donnés dans l'article
Résultat Conjecture de Legendre pour n=3,...,1000

**Category:** Number Theory

[161] **viXra:1508.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-08 04:59:36*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Unification of strong force, weak force, and electromagnetism is provided via higgs mechanism. Thus, gluons, W+, W-, and Z particles can acquire mass. All green related gluons then have mass. This theory links U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) for a general unification theory which extends from Weinberg's electroweak interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[160] **viXra:1508.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 06:56:20*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This experiment is based on the physical meaning of Apparent Source Theory which states that light rays from an absolutely moving source will be bent in the lateral directions. To test this assertion, a plate with slit is placed between a laser source and a photo diode, all mounted on the same rod. Just by varying the orientation of the apparatus ( the rod) in space, the voltage /current output of the photo diode should vary. The direction of Earth's absolute velocity is orthogonal to that plane in which rotation of the apparatus will result in a steady(non-varying) current/voltage of the photo diode. The magnitude of the absolute velocity is determined from the magnitude of photo diode voltage.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[159] **viXra:1508.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 07:57:49*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 38 pages, 28 eqs, 45 refs; English translation of a published paper in Russian, http://www.imp.kiev.ua/nanosys/ua/articles/2015/1/nano_vol13_iss1_p0161p0199_2015_abstract.html

Introduction of a new physical entity, the omnipresent Higgs field and bosons, in the Standard Model of elementary particles and interactions is related to the absence of the universal dynamical origin of particle mass in this standard description, which is compensated for by particle interaction with the Higgs field. In this paper we propose an extended review of the theory of complex dynamics of unreduced interaction in multicomponent systems, which provides such universal dynamic and intrinsic origin of mass appearing, in the case of elementary particles, together with particles themselves. The same complex-dynamic interaction in the initial minimal system of two homogeneous protofields accounts also for the emergence of all other internal and dynamical particle properties and fundamental interactions (now dynamically unified). We consider particular advantages of such complex-dynamic origin of mass as compared to the Higgs mechanism and propose the respective Higgsless interpretation of recent experimental results of the "Higgs boson discovery" at the Large Hadron Collider. Finally, we formulate the necessary essential changes of the entire strategy of research in high-energy physics and fundamental physics in general, following from the obtained results.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[158] **viXra:1508.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 10:45:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[157] **viXra:1508.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 12:41:35*

**Authors:** Jo Hansle

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I found some rule related to factor 2

**Category:** Number Theory

[156] **viXra:1508.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 13:16:51*

**Authors:** Antonio Cardoso

**Comments:** 6 pages, 1 figure. Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Volume 41 , 2016

In this paper we discuss a recent double-slit experiment where which-path information is obtained without disturbing the photons in their path to the detector, and, as a consequence, an interference pattern is observed on the far screen even if it is known which slit the photons go through. We argue that this result is in clear contradiction with a fundamental principle in orthodox quantum mechanics – Bohr’s complementarity principle – and also point out that, on the other hand, the results of this experiment are the expected ones in the framework of de Broglie’s pilot wave theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[155] **viXra:1508.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 16:05:59*

**Authors:** Alexander Unzicker

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

\begin{abstract}
It is argued that the speed of light $c$ and Planck's quantum $h$ are anomalies that undermine the basis of Newtonian physics, the existence of space and time. In a Kuhnian sense, $c$ and $h$ were unpredicted parameters, extraneous to Newton's physics. Relativity and quantum mechanics, despite their obvious success, can be seen modifications of Newtonian physics that hided the possibility that space and time were inappropriate concepts for describing reality. Rather than being fundamental, space and time might just be the most suitable frames for human perception. $c$ indicates a failure of the Newtonian space-time paradigm on large scale, while $h$ indicates a failure on small scale. At the same time, $c$ and $h$ are related to light and matter, two phenomenologies Newtonian physics cannot explain as such. There is no a priori reason why reality should present itself in this particular fashion, and there is no reason for the existence of 3+1 dimensions either.
It is further suggested that reality might be truly three-dimensional, the fourth dimension
being an illusion created by navigating through a sequence of tangent spaces of a three-dimensional manifold. All physical laws would then be encdoded in a connection on this manifold. The most simple three-dimensional manifold, endowed with unique properties, is $S^3$. From the point of view of natural philosophy, there must be a reason for the existence of constants of nature. If $S^3$ is indeed a description of reality, then it should provide a reason for the existence of $c$ and $h$. It is suggested that $c$ is related to the fact that $S^3$ has a tangent space and $h$ is related to the noncommutativity of SU(2)$, the group acting on $S^3$.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[154] **viXra:1508.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 19:05:35*

**Authors:** Mihai Grumazescu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Gravity is a force pushing from within the atomic nucleus where each nucleon generates a linear momentum due to an asymmetric stretch quantum oscillation of quarks and gluons. The atomic nucleus is a kinetic dipole free to change direction. Each atomic species has a specific gravitational signature which renders the big G variable. All Cavendish-like measurements are affected by Earth's gravity. A measurement of the proton gravitational constant is proposed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[153] **viXra:1508.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 01:14:23*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 6 Pages. JSRI Preprint: JSRI-6/2015

Two conflicting theoretical structures,
one using the non-relativistic Schroedinger
equation and the other using relativistic energy, are used simulataneously to derive the expression, for example for
$P_{\nu_\mu \rightarrow \nu_\tau} (t)}$,
to study the neutrino oscillations. This has been confirmed experimentally.
Here we try to resolve the above theoretical inconsistency.
We show that this can be done in a single consistent theoretical framework
which demands that the neutrinos be superluminal.
We therefor predict that in the neutrino appearance experiments ( for example
$P_{\nu_\mu \rightarrow \nu_\tau} (t)$ ) the neutrinos shall be seen to travel with velocities which are faster than that of light.
The experimentalists are urged to try to confirm this prediction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[152] **viXra:1508.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 13:10:18*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The 10D/4D correspondence between subatomic particle mass scales and cosmological length scales has been extended to relate trans-Planckian length scales and astrophysical mass scales. In addition to the black holes previously described, the planets and moons of the Solar System have now been found to occupy levels of trans-Planckian length scale within three geometric sequences that derive from the geometry of spacetime. The planets lie in a symmetric arrangement of four twinned pairs on the levels. Exoplanetary systems are also symmetrically arranged. Planetary systems are related in mass to their star through a gravitational coupling constant incorporated within the trans-Planckian scheme.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[151] **viXra:1508.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-17 10:39:43*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** Pages. In Proceedings of the Int. Conference "Cosmology on Small Scales 2016", Michal Krızek and Yurii Dumin (Eds.), Institute of Mathematics CAS, Prague, pp 179-198

The model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author is based on the conjecture about an existence of the graviton background. An
interaction of photons and moving bodies with this background leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological consequences. In the model, redshifts of remote objects and the
dimming of supernovae 1a may be interpreted without any expansion of the Universe and without dark energy. Some of these consequences are discussed and confronted with supernovae 1a, long
GRBs, and QSOs observations in this paper. It is shown that the two-parametric theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits
observations with high confidence levels (100% for the SCP Union 2.1, 43% for JLA compilations, 99.81% for long GRBs, and 13.73% for quasars), if all data sets are corrected for no time dilation.
These two parameters are computable in the model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[150] **viXra:1508.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-20 22:26:38*

**Authors:** M. MADANI Bouabdallah

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Cette note présente mes résultats (Lemme 3)sur la conjecture de Legendre.
Le lemme 3 a été reconnu comme équivalent à la conjecture de Legendre.
Tableau Primes illustre le Lemme 3 pour n=3,...,1000

**Category:** Number Theory

[149] **viXra:1508.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 12:08:39*

**Authors:** Alexander Poshelaev

**Comments:** 150 Pages, English

These parts of the work with help of the model of an elementary mass (it may be the
Higgs boson) unveils internal essence of nature of time; the forces of Newton, and corrects
understanding of the nature of gravitational force. The model explains the physical nature of the
postulates of special relativity, and shows that the physical frames of reference are obeyed to
the Lorentz transformation of coordinates and time because of the existence of matter of our
world in a "special" wave form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[148] **viXra:1508.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 07:35:44*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Initially it is proposed to interpret the fact that the delay of gravitational interaction in a binary system causes the emanation of gravitational waves, as a generalization of the Newtonian Principle of action and reaction. Then, the impact of such a concept is shown for a situation with mutual and simultaneously acting electromagnetic and inertia force, as well as consequences for a possible validity of the Mach principle. Further, the same phenomenon of retardation of the physical interactions is applied on the mechanistic Bohr model of the hydrogen atom together with the Indeterminacy principle, which results in a realistically adequate quantum description of the atom involving the pertinent de Broglie wave. Finally, the physical conclusions made before are discussed from a philosophical point of view; a new `para-deterministic' concept is presented being an alternative to both the deterministic and holistic views of our world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[147] **viXra:1508.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 07:42:20*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The GR-concept of the ‘frozen star’ can be seriously questioned, considering the quantum structure of space. If, however, the parallel validity of GRT and quantum physics becomes a basic assumption, a way out of the problem can be found. The solution – a quantum membrane – fulfilling both criteria, is deduced with the use of the quantum limit for acceleration and the GR- mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[146] **viXra:1508.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 09:19:58*

**Authors:** Alex Patterson

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Special thanks to Michael J. Burns

This paper uses its own peculiar lettering system for each paragraph.
This paper proposes an overall solution to Godel’s incompleteness theorem and the Gödel sentence. Both are handled as one, by using Gödel numbers as the exemplary objects of incompleteness.
New terms and tools are introduced for quantification that creates a more synthetic (logical, reasonable, coherent) intervention and inter-weaving into these now classical problems of the assumptions in the Gödel material and literature.
Asymptotes are used within vertical and horizontal graphs to justify a future that need not be seen as a future in the sense of grammatical future-tense, but as a potential part such systems themselves that we deal with respect to incompleteness.
The thesis is that we can approach incompleteness by using theoretical reasoning and available tools that are allowed in theoretical reasoning to critique the very theory of incompleteness itself. That is the essential Abstract Thesis. It will be seen that a real attempt is attempted.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[145] **viXra:1508.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 05:34:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We can show that the Equivalence Principle is based on the Electromagnetic Force. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[144] **viXra:1508.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 06:11:21*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page letter

This letter proposes that ‘time’ is not an objective physical entity. So there is a difference between the ways how: ‘space’ is measured; and how ‘time’ is estimated. A foot-rule can measure a ‘distance’; but a clock does not measure ‘time’; rather we get an estimate of ‘time’ with the help of clock. Does an hour-glass measure ‘time’? According to GR ‘time’ runs slower in stronger gravitational field. If an hour-glass were ‘measuring’ ‘time’, then the flow of sand should slow down. But we know that the flow of sand becomes faster in stronger gravitational field. Similarly, an atomic-clock too does not measure ‘time’. Coincidentally, the revolutions of electrons in the atoms slow-down in stronger gravity, but it should not be mistaken as an ‘experimental-test’ of GR. Since ‘time’ is not a physical entity, the general-relativistic space-time-continuum too is not an objective physical entity; rather it is nothing more than a ‘mathematical abstraction’. Consequently, the ‘expansion of space’, and ‘time-dilation’ of super-novae ‘light-curves’ too are mathematical objects. As was shown in ref.1, any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation’ of super-novae light-curves’. If the space between the galaxies is expanding; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because a galaxy is a ‘gravitationally-bound-structure’, then what happens at the boundary of the galaxy? Such un-even expansion of glass would break the glass, and should tear-off the space. Therefore, we need to find better alternative to the GR and the ‘expanding model of the universe’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[143] **viXra:1508.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-19 13:08:29*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

Run-2 2015-16 of the LHC will probably, when enough data is collected, show whether or not there exist two new Standard Model Higgs mass states, around 200 GeV and around 250 GeV, each with cross sections around 25% of the full Standard Model cross section for the 125 GeV state. Run-1 results were consistent with the existence of those two new Higgs mass states, but were also consistent with their peaks being statistical fluctuations that could go away with more data from Run-2. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: 1 - To describe my E8 Physics Model, which predicts the existence of those two new Higgs mass states around 200 GeV and 250 GeV, and which allows calculation of realistic particle masses, force strengths, K-M parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, etc, a description of which takes up pages 6 through 105 (the end) of this paper; and 2 - To describe the status of the LHC Run-2 data that will show the existence or non-existence of the two new Higgs mass states around 200 GeV and 250 GeV with cross sections about 25% or so of the 125 GeV Higgs mass state cross section, and therefore either support my E8 Physics Model or kill it. Since it may be well into 2016 before Run-2 has enough data to decide the issue, I expect to replace this paper with updated versions throughout Run-2 until it has decided the issue. Version 2 (v2) adds some details to the description of my E8 physics model. Version 3 (v3) adds material about Ghosts, Dark Energy, and AQFT Quantum Codes. Version 4 (v4) adds results of LHC Run-2 for 2015. Version 5 (v5) adds commentary on ATLAS Run-2 2015 results.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[142] **viXra:1508.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 18:14:00*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A solution is presented that describes a region of space, box or warp bubble, where time gets
slowed down by an arbitrary factor, while reducing the components of the energy-impulse tensor by
any chosen amount

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[141] **viXra:1508.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-19 20:44:14*

**Authors:** Ben Steber

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The author will demonstrate that the sums of odd numbers to an nth value equals that nth value squared. A geometric proof will be provided to demonstrate the principle of sum odds equaling squares.

**Category:** Geometry

[140] **viXra:1508.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-19 23:27:53*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A radio frequency (RF) power generator is designed by coupling parallel plate capacitors with conductive coils in wireless power transmission. The displacement current through parallel plate capacitor can induce electric field to conductive coil, but it self cannot experience induced electric field from conductive coil due to the gap between plates. Thus the symmetry of mutual inductivity is broken. We designed a new kind of capacitor coil which is composed of a series of parallel plate capacitors in a ring structure. We designed a new kind of RF receiver which is composed of a conductive coil and a capacitor coil connected in opposite polarity. Such a receiver can pick up induced electric field from transmitter coil, with zero or negative react induction. The transmitter doesn’t consume energy if the react induction from receiver is zero, or it gains energy if the react induction is negative. Alternative designing of transmitter and receiver are also described in this work. Such device can be used to generate electric power. A device composed of conductive coil and capacitor coil can be used as electric propeller.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[139] **viXra:1508.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 06:06:48*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 14 Pages. See viXra:1601.0312: "Breakdown of Navier-Stokes Solutions – Unbounded Energy for t > 0", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

Considerations on (and solution to) the 6th millenium problem, respect to breakdown of Navier-Stokes solutions and the bounded energy.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[138] **viXra:1508.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-02 05:24:46*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 31 Pages. New version, in French.

En 1997, Andrew Beal \cite{B1} avait annoncé la conjecture suivante: \textit{Soient $A, B,C, m,n$, et $l$ des entiers positifs avec $m,n,l > 2$. Si $A^ m + B^n = C^l$ alors $A, B,$ et $C$ ont un facteur commun.}
Nous commençons par construire le polynôme $P(x)=(x-A^m)(x-B^n)(x+C^l)=x^3-px+q$ avec $p,q$ des entiers qui dépendent de $A^m,B^n$ et $C^l$. Nous résolvons $x^3-px+q=0$ et nous obtenons les trois racines $x_1,x_2,x_3$ comme fonctions de $p,q$ et d'un paramètre $\theta$. Comme $A^m,B^n,-C^l$ sont les seules racines de $x^3-px+q=0$, nous discutons les conditions pourque $x_1,x_2,x_3$ soient des entiers. Des exemples numériques sont présentés.

**Category:** Number Theory

[137] **viXra:1508.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-19 07:01:48*

**Authors:** Yibing Chen, Song Jiang, Na Liu

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this paper, a new scheme of arbitrary high order accuracy in both space
and time is proposed to solve hyperbolic conservative laws. Based on the idea of
°ux vector splitting(FVS) scheme, we split all the space and time derivatives in
the Taylor expansion of the numerical °ux into two parts: one part with positive
eigenvalues, another part with negative eigenvalues. According to a Lax-Wendro®
procedure, all the time derivatives are then replaced by space derivatives. And
the space derivatives is calculated by WENO reconstruction polynomial. One
of the most important advantages of this new scheme is easy to implement.In
addition, it should be pointed out, the procedure of calculating the space and
time derivatives in numerical °ux can be used as a building block to extend the
current ¯rst order schemes to very high order accuracy in both space and time.
Numerous numerical tests for linear and nonlinear hyperbolic conservative laws
demonstrate that new scheme is robust and can be high order accuracy in both
space and time.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[136] **viXra:1508.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 17:17:56*

**Authors:** F. Winterberg

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The particle-wave duality of the de Broglie pilot wave is explained by the emission of watt-less gravitational waves from Schroedinger's "Zitterbewegung" of elementary particles obeying the Dirac equation. In particular is shown that the quantum potential of the Madelung-transformed Schroedinger equation is gravitational in it's origin.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[135] **viXra:1508.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 20:27:34*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we shall show that the proof of the nonlocality of Quantum Mechanics given in [1] contains a gap. We also show that Bell inequalities cannot be derived in the modified QM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[134] **viXra:1508.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-19 01:45:27*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The empirical life history of soccer player and coach Bela Guttmann is explored, concerning critical life events. This is a humanistic portray that teaches us how to go from strength to strength and to score our goal for a life.

**Category:** Social Science

[133] **viXra:1508.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-19 03:43:03*

**Authors:** LI WeiGang

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Physicist Niels Bohr in 1913, according to Rutherford atomic model and a hydrogen atom spectrum, proposed a hydrogen atom theory, initially laid the foundation of atomic physics.Bohr's theory can be a good answer Rutherford atomic model can not explain - the stability of atoms, identity, regeneration and discrete line spectrum - question.Bohr theory consistent with experimental data very well.However, mainly due to the physics of long-term mistakenly believe that "uniform circular motion of electrons, but also electromagnetic radiation", the theory is abandoned by the physics community (including Bohr himself ).
The author, using mathematical methods can prove:1. uniform circular motion of the electron, does not radiate electromagnetic waves; 2. the basic assumptions of Bohr theory, its equivalent is "Phase harmony principle";3. The fine structure constant physical meaning is - in the atomic environment, electrons are accelerated speed limit is the speed of light 1/137; 4.n and m, are hydrogen atomic energy-level changes, two different step.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[132] **viXra:1508.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-20 18:04:46*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. added electron neutrino mass calculation.

The mass ratio calculation for the elementary particles of the proton, electron, muon, and tau(tauon) are shown below. It is shown that these particles are all ratios with the neutron. It is shown that the electron, muon, and tau are all derived from the proton neutron mass ratio. It is shown that the muon and tau are complimentary lepton particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[131] **viXra:1508.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 05:19:47*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently we develop a model of dynamic quantum vacuum in which a given stellar object increases curvature of space and diminishes density of quantum vacuum. Motion of stellar objects is diminishing density of dynamic quantum vacuum in the areas of their motion. Diminished density of quantum vacuum is causing minimal increasing of gravitational constant G. We propose experiment which will confirm that G has the same value when measured at the same time on places which are situated close the same meridian and have equal distances to the moon and planets of the solar system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[130] **viXra:1508.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-24 08:21:59*

**Authors:** L. Martino, F. Louzada

**Comments:** 15 Pages. To appear in Computational Statistics

The multiple Try Metropolis (MTM) algorithm is an advanced MCMC technique based on drawing and testing several candidates at each iteration of the algorithm. One of them is selected according to certain weights and then it is tested according to a suitable acceptance probability. Clearly, since the computational cost increases as the employed number of tries grows, one expects that the performance of an MTM scheme improves as the number of tries increases, as well. However, there are scenarios where the increase of number of tries does not produce a corresponding enhancement of the performance. In this work, we describe these scenarios and then we introduce possible solutions for solving these issues.

**Category:** Statistics

[129] **viXra:1508.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 14:46:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Computer Engineers and especially IT people do more than most people think, and in some cases do tedious amounts of work. During this assignment I interviewed my uncle, a senior software engineer, Ameer Ghobrial. I also got some resources from Michael Nickola (Management Level Engineer) and Vivek Ramesh (CEO of Slidenerd). However, for this assignment I will focus specifically on my uncle. People who do Software or Hardware engineering have to do: Digital Logic, Computer Design, Analog Automation, VHSIC Technologies, IC System Design, VLSI, Software modeling and UML Communication languages. They also have to learn Oracle or Cisco based systems if they want to work in both. Overall, depending on your CSE profession you will have much to learn and throughout this paper, I will explain why.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[128] **viXra:1508.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 14:52:18*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Andrew Nassif reviews the novel BlindSight and how it shows themes of modern Trans-humanism, Futurism, and Artificial Intelligence, as well as its symbolic references in terms of philosophy and human empathy. He reviews it through a philosopher, a physicist, a researcher, and a literary analyst point of view.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[127] **viXra:1508.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 15:51:37*

**Authors:** Joel M WIlliams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The "hockey-stick" behavior is plotted on the Vostok Ice Core data for comparison. Plots are made for 0-300 to 0-10000ybp. While the former shows almost no deviation from linearity, the Ice Core data demonstrates that the earth has gone through considerable warm and cold spells since the last Ice Age.
In addition, the Vostok Ice Core data is plotted on a graph containing many modeling methods for the last 2000 years. Typically, the models are not as variant as the Ice Core data, except for the recent few decades.

**Category:** Climate Research

[126] **viXra:1508.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-24 07:16:41*

**Authors:** Aaron Chau

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Attached with Chinese language for reference

The concept of the first numbers with the interval between 2 has existed in east for more than 3,000 years, even though the oriental mathematicians are not familiar with this concept. After 14 years research, I have found the law of filling out could prove（1+1）&（P+2). This article explained very clearly about this law, and it is very helpful to solve the Goldbach Conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[125] **viXra:1508.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 09:01:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[124] **viXra:1508.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 09:04:41*

**Authors:** Paul E. Loehr

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The International Year of Light 2015 is a welcome opportunity to look back to observations and famous experiments that lead to revolutionary theories in physics around the phenomenon of light. The observed aberration of starlight and later the experiment of Michelson and Morley were in contradiction to the electrodynamic theory of light until the special relativity theory solved the conflict by proposing time and space effects in moving systems. Today, laser and CCD technlogies enable much more precise measurements than in former times. The most accurate test of electrodynamics is achievable by aberration measurement of a laser beam because it offers an effect in the first order of v/c. The results of the experiment verify the findings of Michelson and Morley but are, surprisingly, in contradiction to electrodynamics and to special relativity theory. Our picture of the light's properties is still imperfect.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[123] **viXra:1508.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 10:03:07*

**Authors:** Olatunji Joshua Awoleye, Chris Thron

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Background: Nigeria has an estimated 3.5 million HIV positive individuals, ranking third worldwide. This study analyzed the determinants of HIV infection to improve HIV programming in Nigeria and developing countries.
Methodology: The methodology used was a literature review of grey and electronic databases of reviewed journals, and application of Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991) determinants of health model. A total of 45 publications (21 reports and 24 articles were reviewed).
Results: New infections are emerging at increasing rates among individuals engaging in sexual relationships such as men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex work (FSW). The level of political commitment to HIV control is extremely low: currently, the government of Nigeria provides less than 10 percent of the funding for HIV control efforts in Nigeria, the rest coming from foreign sources and private sectors. Political, work environment, gender, healthcare service and lifestyle determinants are predominant over others.
Conclusion: HIV control in Nigeria is financially over-dependent on foreign interventions. Political actions are required to address sexual orientations. Most-at-risk populations require education, legal requirements, and healthcare services in order to minimize new infection.

**Category:** Social Science

[122] **viXra:1508.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 10:05:11*

**Authors:** Olatunji Joshua Awoleye, Chris Thron

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Background: Nigeria has an estimated 3.5 million HIV positive individuals, ranking third worldwide. This study analyzed the determinants of HIV infection to improve HIV programming in Nigeria and developing countries.
Methodology: The methodology used was a literature review of grey and electronic databases of reviewed journals, and application of Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991) determinants of health model. A total of 45 publications (21 reports and 24 articles were reviewed).
Results: New infections are emerging at increasing rates among individuals engaging in sexual relationships such as men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex work (FSW). The level of political commitment to HIV control is extremely low: currently, the government of Nigeria provides less than 10 percent of the funding for HIV control efforts in Nigeria, the rest coming from foreign sources and private sectors. Political, work environment, gender, healthcare service and lifestyle determinants are predominant over others.
Conclusion: HIV control in Nigeria is financially over-dependent on foreign interventions. Political actions are required to address sexual orientations. Most-at-risk populations require education, legal requirements, and healthcare services in order to minimize new infection.

**Category:** Social Science

[121] **viXra:1508.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-20 19:12:54*

**Authors:** Denny L.Y. Lee

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The commonly accepted no-hair conjecture postulates that all black holes can be completely characterized by three and only three externally observable classical parameters: mass, electrical charge, and angular momentum. The Kerr–Newman metric describes the spacetime geometry in the region surrounding a charged, rotating mass. These three parameters are also the basic parameters of many subatomic particles. In light of the similarities between the black holes and the subatomic particles, this paper applies the Kerr–Newman metric to investigate the spacetime properties of a spinning Planck mass particle carrying an angular momentum of one half Planck constant. Depending on the angular frequency of the rotation of the particle, the results exhibit a group of particles with properties similar to those of the stable subatomic particles, including the neutrino, electron, position, proton, and anti-proton. The highly curved spacetime surrounding the particle in Planck scale, together with the rotation of the particle, make the Planck mass particle to appear as a laboratory mass similar to the mass of the respective particle. The laboratory measurable size of these particles is in the same order of their respective Compton wavelengths. Interacting forces between these particles in the Planck scale exhibit strengths similar in magnitudes to the strong force, electrical force, weak force and the gravitational force depending on the spacetime curvature at the point of interaction. This preliminary attempt of investigating the “spinning Planck mass” using the Kerr-Newman metric has resulted with an interesting model that resembles many particles in nature and raised two interesting questions:
(1)Are there any relationships between the fundamental particles and the “spinning Planck masses”?
(2) Could the particle-particle interacting forces be expressed in terms of the interactions of spacetime curvatures in Planck scale?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[120] **viXra:1508.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 20:11:29*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generalisation of the Schr\"{o}dinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing consequent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this dependence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational Waves are easily detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[119] **viXra:1508.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 03:28:44*

**Authors:** Mahmoud A. Mansour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A biochemical model is suggested for how the mind/brain might be modelling objects of thought in analogy with the biochemistry of enzymes, which explains various characters about human thought such as having a top-bottom architecture. The composition of complex ideas out of simple ones is realized as a semigroup C. Then we explain the composition of objects in the act of thought, and prove that every object of thought has a match – another object which makes perfect sense with it – whether meaningful or not. Lastly, we emphasize the role of experience in the evolution of the Algebras of sense.

**Category:** Mind Science

[118] **viXra:1508.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 06:01:13*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper published at Advances in High Energy Physics (AHEP) journal, Yang Zhao et al. derived Maxwell equations on Cantor sets from the local fractional vector calculus. It can be shown that Maxwell equations on Cantor sets in a fractal bounded domain give efficiency and accuracy for describing the fractal electric and magnetic fields. However, so far there is no derivation of equations for electrodynamics of superconductor on Cantor sets. Therefore, in this paper I present for the first time a derivation of London-Proca-Hirsch equations on Cantor sets. The name of London-Proca-Hirsch is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Proca and London-Hirsch’s theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. Considering that Proca equations may be used to explain electromagnetic effects in superconductor, I suggest that the proposed London-Proca-Hirsch equations on Cantor sets can describe electromagnetic of fractal superconductors. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for fractal superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to fractal cosmology modeling too.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[117] **viXra:1508.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 06:38:09*

**Authors:** A. Furtado Neto

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Speed of the wavefunction collapse is calculated assuming the universe is a vast cellular
automaton.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[116] **viXra:1508.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 12:33:45*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Siti Nurul Khotimah, Yulia Yopy Mardiansyah

**Comments:** 4 pages, 5 figures, conference paper

Motion modes of pseudo 2-d granular particles in vertical rotation drum is modeled using point mass motion considering only friction, normal, and gravitation forces. Two schemes in evaluating the forces are used, i.e. dynamics in 2-d linear and 1-d angular motions. Finite difference method implementing Euler scheme is used to solve the equation of motion.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[115] **viXra:1508.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 14:19:11*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper is an additional short topic to my former paper http://viXra.org/abs/1506.0192. In the paper a visualization is given of the rotating Triple Torus Hologram (rTTH), which emerges from my Double Torus Theory (DTT), and which comprehends a rotating Time Torus Universe (rTTU) that performs three ‘tori’, in which the recalculation of the physical reality happens.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[114] **viXra:1508.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 07:46:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[113] **viXra:1508.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 08:35:15*

**Authors:** L.Rimsha, V.Rimsha

**Comments:** 39 Pages. In Russian

In the free falling geocentric reference system do not valid local gravitational and inertial forces identity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[112] **viXra:1508.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-14 03:41:08*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is the rewrite of "The anzwer of the axiom that equivarent to Riemann Hypothesis".

**Category:** Number Theory

[111] **viXra:1508.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 16:57:27*

**Authors:** Piero Benazzo

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The loss of a loved pet or the desire of a new game are two of the various empirical examples of stretch, force, flow, love and knowledge that generate from changes between presence and absence or concealment. The absent situation may well be beyond the material world and the concealed part may well be transcendental, thus both immaterial, beyond time and space. They are thus spiritual. Their interplay with the material presence results thus as spiritual force. The force provides a flow between the two situations that manifests empirically in the material world. The spirit as such provides life-giving force to matter in the world. The spiritual part that generates it remains however beyond direct empirical evidence. Material batteries, waterfalls and wind exemplify empirical material manifestations of flows between presence and absence. An experience based definition of holy Spirit stems from the discussion, in terms of presence and concealment. Mary mother of Jesus would be role model for receiving gifts from the holy Spirit and well of eternal life gifting graces of the holy Spirit.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[110] **viXra:1508.0120 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-16 09:03:30*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 54 Pages. Please contact Gene at genebarbee@msn.com

Gravity is still an active research area for scientists even though English mathematician Isaac Newton published his work entitled Principia in 1867. For the last twenty years or so some of the best theorists have been working on quantum gravity. There is a basic disconnect at the heart of gravity. The problem is that although Isaac’s equations are correct they describe large scale behavior of objects. Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the modern theory of gravity but again, it describes large scale behavior of objects following paths curved by mass. This leaves small scale (quantum scale) gravity a subject of research. In the author’s opinion, a solution to the problem was delayed by general acceptance of an old relationship between fundamental constants. Literature states that the gravitational constant (G) originates at the Planck scale. The Planck length (Compton wavelength) L= (h*G/C^3)^0.5 = 1.61e-35 meters where h is Heisenberg’s reduced constant (H/2pi) = 6.58e-22 MeV-Sec and C is of course the speed of light. The energy associated with the Planck length is 1.2e22 MeV. This energy is far greater than the energy of a proton and the Planck length is incredibly small. Many physicists are reluctant to give up the equation that contains G, h and C in what appears to be a defining relationship. Theorists are exploring alternatives like string theory in search of unification but have failed to gain acceptance of a new theory describing the origin of the gravitational constant.
The proverbial apple that Isaac was watching when he conceived of gravity was a bit of Hollywood. He actually rolled objects down an incline and measured time and distance. He was an observational based scientist. But we have high standards for present day physics and should expect someone to find the source of the gravitational constant and its relationship to the other forces. During Newton’s lifetime the concept of a small scale was not taken seriously although the idea of an atom came much earlier. We will explore the possibility that the Planck length is too low and the energy 1.2e22 MeV is too high. A new theory of quantum gravity will be proposed at the scale of the proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[109] **viXra:1508.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 00:03:47*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. corrected typos

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is also shown that the Muon/Neutron mass ratio is calculated with a similar integrated polynomial. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the tau could also be modeled similarly with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the tau neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[108] **viXra:1508.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 13:11:19*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

G matrices are matrix generators with single entries 1,i. It is shown that the G matrices generate the Cl(p,q), SU(n), SO(n) generators and the matrix representation of CAR and CCR operators. The direct sum of SO(n) and SU(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be only to 2 or 3 dimensions. It is shown that the unitary representation of SO(3), the spin space of 2x2 SU(2) matrices arises naturally. It follows that there are 3 generations of 8 fermions and 2 complex scalar doublets. The CAR & CCR are invariant under a real scaling of the operators only for a null space-time metric condition on the co-ordinates. Spin conservation requires the generation of spin 1, 2 bosons which is the reason for interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[107] **viXra:1508.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 13:13:10*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

paper we show that the origin of spacetime precedes the beginning of the material Universe. Thus, the Universe arises at a finite time, which defines the beginning of time itself in our Universe. In addition, it is possible to calculate the maximum scale of time between the beginning of the time and the end of the time in our Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[106] **viXra:1508.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 07:00:36*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи.
На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались.
Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[105] **viXra:1508.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 00:41:58*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the muon could also be modeled similarily with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the muon neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[104] **viXra:1508.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-20 13:11:09*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The Referee Report and Author's objection are presented

Examples are presented that geometrical images of generated electromagnetic fields are emitted
by the geometrical images of the electromagnetic fields, which are the sources

**Category:** Classical Physics

[103] **viXra:1508.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 13:03:12*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Corollary to paper: Gravitation is a gradient in the velocity of light.

In earlier papers by the author [4], [5], [6], an alternate locally conserved theory of gravitation has been proposed, exploring gravitation as a gradient in c. This creates an issue for the existence of gravitational waves since it is difficult to understand how a gradient in c could transmit energy or cause the pulsar orbits to decay. Since it is an experimental fact that binary pulsars do radiate away energy, there is a necessity for some other mechanism that explains the energy loss. It is developed here that radiation as illustrated in the Larmor and gravitational radiation are not the province of electromagnetic or gravitational forces, but are one in the same and are a general property of accelerated mass. Also proposed here is falsifiable experiment for testing the validity of the proposition.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[102] **viXra:1508.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-21 22:46:09*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Article for the colloquium QSCP-XX, September 2015, Varna, Bulgary

Arthur Haas explained the Hydrogen spectra, 3 years before Niels Bohr, by extending the virial theorem to the Planck energy formula. This suggests the holographic coherence principle: energy conservation means frequency unicity, i.e. the coherence condition for Holography. This is applied to an Hydrogen molecule model, in a black-hole sphere of horizon R = 2GM/c^2: this critical condition being seen as a general holographic conservation, and tied to the Non-Doppler cosmic period tcc. So R/c appears as a period 2GFtcc^2/ħƛe^3≈ 13.8123(1) Gyr, while R = 2ħ^2/Gm_em_pm_H ≈ 13.812(1) Glyr confirms Eddington's Theory. These two formulas displays a G-GF symmetry between Newton and Fermi constants and are compatible with the so-called 'Universe age' 13.81(5) Gyr of standard cosmology.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) wavelength enters an associated special holographic conservation, confirming a come-back to the steady-state cosmology, for which the factor Wm = 3/10 for matter density is trivial, eliminating the 'dark energy problem', and confirming the Eddington prediction M/m_H = 136 × 2^256, while the real Hydrogen density is √(m_e/m_H) ≈ 0.0233, nearly compatible with the Helium density and CMB temperature, and connected to Wm. From Sanchez-Maruani matter-antimatter vibration viewpoint, dark matter would be usual matter vibrating in quadrature. A cosmic Hydrogen atom model relates directly R, ƛe and the Bohr radius rB with R' = 2r_e^3/l_P^2≈ 4R/3, seen as the radius of a sphere representing a Grandcosmos. This rules out several common conjectures: 1) the Primordial Big-Bang, 2) the Planck Wall, 3) the Cosmic Anthropic Principle, 4) the Multiverse.
The holographic relations can be represented in a topological axis, involving a double exponential function, and showing the special string dimension series n = 2 + 4p. It yields R and rB for the canonic values n = 26 (tachyo-bosonic) and 10 (superstring), with a non-standard Gluon mass for p = 1. The Grandcosmos is the lacking concept in 1) the CMB interpretation (not a fossil radiation) 2) the steady-state model (no need for an internal thermostat) 3) the lacking point p = 7. The physical parameters are shown to connect with music numbers, economic numbers and biological parameters, pointing to a Grand Theory.
Keywords Quantum Theory, Steady-state Cosmology, Holographic Principle, Eddington Theory, Cosmic Oscillation, Antimatter, Dark matter, Combinatorial Physics, String Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[101] **viXra:1508.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-16 08:50:17*

**Authors:** Julian Borchardt

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The results from this paper have been published in *Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders* (Vol. 8, pp. 145-150, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.msard.2016.03.005). The complete PDF can be downloaded for free from http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1TQWn7skoepyJK

In this short note, we show how to quickly verify the correctness of the estimates of the PML risk on natalizumab established in [Borchardt 2015]. Our approach is simple and elementary in that it requires virtually no knowledge of either statistics or probability theory. For a Kaplan-Meier curve of the PML incidence may be found in [O'Connor et al 2014], based on postmarketing data as of early August 2013, and just using the information from that chart, it is possible to directly derive estimates of the risk of PML in JCV-seropositive natalizumab-treated patients according to prior or no prior immunosuppression. Actually, the resulting figures are almost identical to the ones in [Borchardt 2015], even though the latter were obtained in a very different fashion.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[100] **viXra:1508.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 11:09:04*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

X^p-Y^p=A^p B^p
Has no number solutions in N ; p = odd primes

**Category:** Number Theory

[99] **viXra:1508.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 22:12:23*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There are two spaces, the metaphysical space and the abstract mathematical space of physics. The mathematical space is the Euclidean space commensurate with the innate faculty of man. There is the mysterious metaphysical time and there is the physical time based on the mathematical scalar. The universe and everything within exists only in the moment of the present. The past and the future are only within the mind of man. The only reality is the present. Time in philosophy is metaphysical time. It is the motion of the present, the unceasing unfolding of reality. Every real event in the universe happens simultaneously. An Euclidean coordinate system together with synchronized coordinate clocks implements a system of universal physical timekeeping. There is a covenant of physical reality which sets forth in a determinate way
what constitutes a physical quantity. Physical reality has absolute three dimensional Euclidean space and absolute universal time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[98] **viXra:1508.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 08:02:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is unusual for a pure-theory physics paper to make it into the journal Science. So when one does, it’s worth a closer look. In the new study, researchers bring together one of physics' most venerable set of equations – those of James Clerk’s Maxwell’s famous theory of light – with one of the hot topics in modern solid-state physics: the quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[97] **viXra:1508.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 09:11:08*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Cosmologists always claim that their black holes, mathematical fabrications entire as they are, have a finite mass. This mass, they say, is concentrated at their 'singularity', where volume is zero, density is infinite, and their spacetime infinitely curved. Their singularity they say is not a mathematical artifice, not a limiting fiction, but a real physical entity which absorbs all other matter that encounters it. In this way cosmologists have even asserted that their black holes can become obese. Their black hole was first conjured from their solution to what Einstein called The Field Equations of Gravitation in the Absence of Matter. Notwithstanding the absence of matter, Einstein claimed that a material source is still present, because his gravitational field is spacetime curvature induced by the presence of a material source. Without matter there is no gravitational field. And what is matter? According to Einstein it is everything except his gravitational field. Now there is only one other form of Einstein’s field equations: The Field Equations of Gravitation in the Presence of Matter. Thus, in both cases, Einstein and his followers claim that a material source is present. However, in a mathematical theory, matter cannot be both present and absent by the very same mathematical constraint. Cosmologists routinely call their contradictions 'paradoxes' that defy 'common sense'. Nonetheless, common sense does in fact know that a contradiction is a contradiction; no less than a rose by any other name is still a rose. Not only does the black hole defy common sense, it defies physics and mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[96] **viXra:1508.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 05:03:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

For any computer, being able to manipulate information is essential, but for quantum computing, singling out one data location without influencing any of the surrounding locations is difficult. Now, a team of Penn State physicists has a method for addressing individual neutral atoms without changing surrounding atoms. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[95] **viXra:1508.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 06:56:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We often use phrases such as “think from the head” and “feel from the heart” which implies that the brain does all the logical thinking and our heart is where we respond from emotionally. The logical mind often takes control over the best of us and very rarely do we understand the power we hold within our hearts. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[94] **viXra:1508.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 03:05:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Bristol in the UK and Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) in Japan, have pulled off the same feat for light in the quantum world by developing an optical chip that can process photons in an infinite number of ways. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[93] **viXra:1508.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-21 22:15:13*

**Authors:** Peiman Ghasemi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Via decrement of mass of planets, we can send the entire planets to far space orbital allocations. We can convert physical matter into energy, it can either get irradiated to outer space, get transmitted back to Earth's potential energy, get used as a self-propellant, or it can get used in a complex model of these systems; it decreases the mass of the planet. By conversion of the matter to energy, Earth will lose some mass that decreases the gravitational fields for Earth; the formulas of the current research are deduced to control the movements of the planets. Celestial bodies, like any other mechanical systems which follow, and are based on, the physical laws of mechanics and dynamical systems, follow these laws. So since the celestial object “A” exerts the “F” force on the celestial object “B”, the celestial object “B” exerts an interactive force “F” on the celestial object “A” also. All celestial objects exert gravitational influences on each other. Scientists believe, once upon a time, the Sun would be much hotter than what it is today. By that point, this high temperature leads to extinction of the entire existence of life on Earth. When the gravitational force changes, a space particle may either get departed from the other particle or come closer to the other particle.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[92] **viXra:1508.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-13 14:43:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated a new quantum computation scheme in which operations occur without a well-defined order. The researchers led by Philip Walther and Caslav Brukner used this effect to accomplish a task more efficiently than a standard quantum computer. Moreover, these ideas could set the basis for a new form of quantum computing, potentially providing quantum computers with an even larger computational speed-up. Their results will be published in an upcoming issue of "Nature Communications". [8]
Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[91] **viXra:1508.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-13 09:53:15*

**Authors:** Peiman Ghasemi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

To protect your private information, you may use a data encryption and decryption computer program like PGP. But for an espionage agency even the PGP Public Key is not completely unbreakable. So you may prefer to encipher the Public Key before you send it to the destination, then it would become probably an impossible goal for the Internet fraud operatives to decipher the contents.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[90] **viXra:1508.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-13 23:58:00*

**Authors:** Klimets Alexander

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We show that Bohr's complementarity principle can be generalized to all the phenomena of reality. The generalized principle of complementarity Bohr can be formulated as follows: the rational side of reality and conjugate irrational side of reality are complementary to each other. This raises the question of relations between science and mysticism.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[89] **viXra:1508.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-13 12:45:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Evidence of a fourth ultra-high energy neutrino—the highest-energy neutrino yet—has been detected by the South Pole-based IceCube experiment, a project that Berkeley Lab researchers helped build and to which they currently contribute analysis. [5]
A group observed a beam of muon neutrinos from CERN and detected the tau neutrinos some of them transformed into. The results clearly show that muon neutrinos can transform into tau neutrinos. A similar group working with the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector observed electron neutrinos from a muon neutrino beam. So we now have directed evidence of neutrino oscillation. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[88] **viXra:1508.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 08:41:14*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is demonstrated that the Navier Stokes equation has a smooth nontrivial exact solution in (3+1). All the required characteristics of a type B solution are verified.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[87] **viXra:1508.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-13 09:42:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10]
The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[86] **viXra:1508.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 16:17:42*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Just a small improvement

We propose that the two resonant states of the recently found pentaquark by LHCb with masses of 4380 MeV and 4450 MeV are two states of the hadronic molecule ccbar + proton with similar properties to those of the Karliner-Lipkin pentaquark. Applying the Morse molecular potential to the molecule its minimum size is estimated. If S states exist, the first two possible S states are suggested and their energies are estimated. It is shown that the coupling constant is close to that of charmonium, and this may mean Physics Beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[85] **viXra:1508.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-12 11:34:44*

**Authors:** Ştefan Vlăduţescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As communication axis, communication philosophy interrogates the idea that in postmodern society communication constructs reality. The philosopher is called to achieve a new synthesis, between philosophy and media communication, to assume the condition of man of media communication. Media has a decisive influence in relation to the constitution of reality in post-modern consciousness. Communication is related to relationships, to construct interhuman relationships, changing the attitudes of the other, decisions or behavior of others, the perceptions of reality and action according to the requirements of this perception. Secularization as a positive value of modernity does not eliminate the presence of the sacred in modern political imaginary also from communication. Advertising is by exellence the bearer of a deep dimension of reality construction as art of seduction, persuasion, communication.
“Advertising constructs reality”, professor Sandu Frunza’s book, published in 2014 by Tritonic Publishing , Bucharest, represents a high level analisys and point out the “reality construction” through advertising as a communication mean of regaining authenticity. Storing an imaginary universe, which allows for the sacred to be manifest in the life of postmodern man, advertising supports the human being in its self quest through reaching harmony with the surrounding things, with other people and with the world. Advertising is not a new form of religion, even though several of its aspects could be said to be displaying religious dimensions. “We can, says Sandu Frunza, however, state generically that advertising ultimately lodges posmodern man’s religious creativity. In this way, advertising does not propose to challenge or oppose in any fashion the traditional religious patterns of interpreting and living within our world. Instead, it supplies a complementary authenticity, one matching man’s status in a communication-based society”. Advertising offers an alternative view on the world, man and man’s own choice to act coherently upon this view.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[84] **viXra:1508.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-12 05:39:05*

**Authors:** Peiman Ghasemi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

By the progress of technology, following to advancements on directed energy systems and magnetic resonance, over an introductory research on potentials of application of charged particle beam on the brain of the humans which can lead to a painless consecutive death, we shall investigate for the possibility of prevention of the extreme pain that a volunteer patient may highly suffer of, before the death as a state for relieving the pain itself. Exposure of charged particle beam on the brain of the humans, potentially, leads to a painless death. The basal ganglia, S1 and BA3, S2, BA46, BA10, BA9, BA5, the pretectal area, the hippocampus (and the other parts of the limbic system), and the thalamus are the most important locations in the human’s brain, and targeting them destroys the home of our personality and the control/attention center of the brain, over NDE (near-death experience) it leads to finishing the life process of a patient who is suffering intolerable pain, but the patient won’t sense the pain ever. In conclusion, distinct parts of the cerebrum and the thalamus are active locations of self-personality and attention. In elder patients of extreme pain who suffer of untreatable illnesses, it may get considered voluntary as a final decision by the victim and the victim’s relatives. Thus, this experiment has several potentials for application; more research must be conducted with regard to in-depth understanding of these neural networks.

**Category:** Mind Science

[83] **viXra:1508.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-13 08:42:50*

**Authors:** Peiman Ghasemi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Until the current moment, mankind is not realized that there is a diverse population of intelligent civilizations living in our universe. In the current article we will deduce the occurrence/existence of extraterrestrial life by mathematical proof. I would show you that even inside our galaxy, the Milky Way, a sufficient number of alien creatures are living. The first section includes an algebraic probabilistic proof when the event of life is not highly biased and the second section includes a proof by contradiction that describes the event fundamentally. It's a mathematical proof for the extraterrestrial life debate, for the first time in mankind's history.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[82] **viXra:1508.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-14 08:41:48*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 5 Pages; 1 Reference

In a relatively recent article by Arbab I. Arbab (Astrophys. Space Sci. 325, 37, 2010), the author claimed the generalization of Newton's law of gravitation via the introduction of the gravitomagnetic field. However, the present comment proves more conclusively that the proposed formulae and the so-called generalized Newton's law of gravitation are physico-mathematically erroneous. Consequently, the alleged generalization cannot be a law of physics at all.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[81] **viXra:1508.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 10:34:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

MIT physicists have created a superfluid gas, the so-called Bose-Einstein condensate, for the first time in an extremely high magnetic field. The magnetic field is a synthetic magnetic field, generated using laser beams, and is 100 times stronger than that of the world's strongest magnets. Within this magnetic field, the researchers could keep a gas superfluid for a tenth of a second—just long enough for the team to observe it. The researchers report their results this week in the journal Nature Physics. [9]
Phonons—the elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound—have magnetic properties, according to a landmark study supported by Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) services and recently published by a researcher group from The Ohio State University. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[80] **viXra:1508.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-01 17:57:21*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

This paper introduces the Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA), based in the G8,2 Clifford geometric algebra. DCGA is an extension of CGA and has entities representing points and general Darboux cyclide surfaces in Euclidean 3D space. The general Darboux cyclide is a quartic surface. Darboux cyclides include circular tori and all quadrics, and also all surfaces formed by their inversions in spheres. Dupin cyclide surfaces can be formed as inversions in spheres of circular toroid, cylinder, and cone surfaces. Parabolic cyclides are cubic surfaces formed by inversion spheres centered on other surfaces. All DCGA entities can be conformally transformed in 3D space by rotors, dilators, translators, and motors, which are all types of versors. All entities can be inversed in general spheres and reflected in general planes. Entities representing the intersections of surfaces can be created by wedge products. All entities can be intersected with spheres, planes, lines, and circles. DCGA provides a higher-level algebra for working with 3D geometry in an object/entity-oriented system of mathematics above the level of the underlying implicit surface equations of algebraic geometry. DCGA could be used in the study of geometry in 3D, and also for some applications.

**Category:** Geometry

[79] **viXra:1508.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-27 14:39:38*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The Ulam numbers form an increasing sequence beginning 1,2 such that each subsequent number can be uniquely represented as the sum of two smaller Ulam numbers. An algorithm is described and implemented in Java to compute the first billion Ulam numbers.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[78] **viXra:1508.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 09:26:19*

**Authors:** I. V. Drozdov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

As the further development of the local formalism of entropy gradient maximization (EGM), the construction of weak maximization condition (local ergodicity) is established.
The concerning mathematical techniques for generation and interpretation of dynamic equations for system consisting of two degrees of freedom are consequently elaborated.
An application of the method is discussed and illustrated with standard examples of mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[77] **viXra:1508.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 10:24:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Armando De Castro

**Comments:** 7 pages, one column, 8 figures

In this paper it is shown a simple approximation of the function exp(x) for positive values of x, deduced from the implicit Euler numerical solution of first order lineal differential equations (ODE). The results show that the approximation has an error of less than 10% for exp(x) when x < 0.35 and for exp(-x) when x < 0.5, which is acceptable for many engineering applications, and helps facilitate the analysis of some systems without the use of computers.
Keywords: approximation, Euler implicit method, exponential function, first order ODE.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[76] **viXra:1508.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 06:42:41*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи.
На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались.
Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[75] **viXra:1508.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 06:44:03*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[74] **viXra:1508.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 07:09:08*

**Authors:** I. V. Drozdov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The conventional definition of time based on the period of oscillations
or fluctuations around equilibrium states is considered in the framework of the local formalism of entropy gradient maximization. This
definition is shown to be an arbitrary chioce of the time scale in a
special case of systems with discoupled 'clock'-degree of freedom.
The relation between the conventional definition of time and the time-
reference degree of freedom in the local formalism of entropy gradient
maximization is established. In this framework it is entirely a restric-
tion on the special case of the entropy function with the separated
time-reference degree of freedom. A transformation to this special
form is discussed and illustrated with a standard example.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[73] **viXra:1508.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-21 16:54:56*

**Authors:** Hsien-Pu Chen, Elias Gonzalez, Yessica Saez, Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** Pages. Accepted for publication in the journal: Information.

The security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-(like)-noise (KLJN) key exchange system is based on the Fluctuation-Dissipation-Theorem of classical statistical physics. Similarly to quantum key distribution, in practical situations, due to the non-idealities of the building elements, there is a small information leak, which can be mitigated by privacy amplification or other techniques so that the unconditional (information theoretic) security is preserved. In this paper, the industrial cable and circuit simulator LTSPICE is used to validate the information leak due to one of the non-idealities in KLJN, the parasitic (cable) capacitance. Simulation results show that privacy amplification and/or capacitor killer (capacitance compensation) arrangements can effectively eliminate the leak.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[72] **viXra:1508.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 01:26:03*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages. JSRI Preprint: JSRI-5/2015

A subtle but very real difference in how the Pauli Exclusion Principle is applicable to
baryons in three-quark systems and to those in multiquark systems is presented.
This distinction creates no important physical manifestations for structures with light quarks, as in case of the SU(3)-flavour
group with (u,d,s)-quarks.
However it does produce significant effects for multiquark systems containing one or more heavy quarks like the c- and b-quarks.
In fact, these consequences permit us to comprehend the structure of the two pentaquark states at
4.38 and 4.45 Gev, which were discovered recently
by the LHCb Collaboration at CERN.
This model makes a unique prediction
of the existence of similar two new pentaquarks with structure (uudb$\bar{b}$) and with similar spin assignments as above.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[71] **viXra:1508.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 03:41:37*

**Authors:** Mark M. Grinshtein

**Comments:** Pages. in Russian

The article presents the results of studies confirming the inconsistency of the "free radical theory of aging." It proves the genic-viral etiology of this process and the role of antioxidants in slowing down the aging process. \\ В статье приведены результаты исследований,
подтверждающие несостоятельность свободнорадикальной теории старения». Доказана генно-вирусная этиология этого процесса, а также роль антиоксидантов в замедлении процессов старения.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[70] **viXra:1508.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-10 13:28:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Daniela Gifu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Discourse analysis is a synergy of social science disciplines, including linguistics,
education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology,
area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication
studies, and translation studies, subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis,
and methodologies. The aim of this paper is to present the applicability of (t, i, f)-
Neutrosophic Social Structures, introduced for the first time as new type of structures,
called (t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Structures, and presented from a neutrosophic logic.
Neutrosophy theory can be assimilated to interpret and evaluate the individual
opinion of social structures. This type of analyse already tested and applied in
mathematics, artificial inteligence as well can be applied in social sciences by reseachers in
social sciences, communication, sociology, psycology.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[69] **viXra:1508.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-10 13:41:39*

**Authors:** Elena Rodica Opran, Dan Valeriu Voinea, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

What seems to suggest various avant-garde and artistic experimentalism movements from futurism to cubism, from expressionism to surrealism, from Picasso to the great masters of informal art is a Beauty of challenge. The avant-garde art does not arise the issue of Beauty. It is understood without saying that the new images are "beautiful" in terms of art and that should produce the same pleasure that feel the contemporaries of Rafael and Giotto in front of their works” asserts Umberto Eco (Eco, 2005). The phenomenon is due to the fact that the challenge of avant-garde tear down all aesthetic canons, observed at the moment. Art no longer aims to offer images of natural beauty, no longer occasion for calm pleasure of contemplation the harmonious forms. Instead, it wants to lead to an interpretation of the world from a different optic, wants to return to archaic or exotic models: the universe of dreams or ill mentally fantasies, visions experienced under the drugs influence, rediscovering matter, chaotic household objects current location in contexts unlikely (new object, Dadaist movement etc.), unconscious impulses, of uncertainties, of confusion, of neutrality. The study aims to explore Beauty and ugly in terms of neutrosophic concept.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[68] **viXra:1508.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 05:04:06*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In intimate cooperation, symmetry centers and coherent stochastic mechanisms recurrently recreate elementary physical objects. Symmetry centers are dedicated subspaces of separable quaternionic Hilbert spaces. As such they are no more and no less than structured storage places that feature special properties. The coherent stochastic mechanisms are the actors that generate and control coherent dynamics. Tri-state flavor switching appears to fit similar quaternionic representation as dynamic geometry does.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[67] **viXra:1508.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-10 09:43:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The work in correlated electrons looks at a subset of electrons. Metals, as an example, have an unfilled outermost orbital and electrons are free to move from atom to atom. Thus, metals are good electrical conductors. When metal atoms are tightly packed into lattices (or crystals) these electrons mingle together into a "sea" of electrons. The metallic element mercury is liquid at room temperature, in part due to its electron configuration, and shows very little resistance to electric current due to its electron configuration. At 4 degrees above absolute zero (just barely above -460 degrees Fahrenheit), mercury's electron arrangement and other properties create communal electrons that show no resistance to electric current, a state known as superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[66] **viXra:1508.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-06 15:29:50*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 264 Pages.

Some nature's large-scale phenomena and unexpected experiments are analyzed. It is shown that they can be explained by the existence of gravitomagnetism and substantial by the value of gravitomagnetic forces. On the same base it is proved that there can exist a generator using the energy of the source of gravitational conservative forces in order to perform work, and that this fact does not contradict to the energy conservation law. \\ Анализируются некоторые масштабные природные явления и неожиданные эксперименты. Доказывается, что они могут быть объяснены существованием гравитомагнетизма и значительных по величине гравитомагнитных сил. На этой же основе доказывается, что может существовать генератор, использующий энергию источника гравитационных консервативных сил для выполнения работы, и это не противоречит закону сохранения энергии.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[65] **viXra:1508.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-10 12:25:38*

**Authors:** R. J. Mathar

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Main contents of the contribution is the Java program listing.

A Java program is presented which extracts star positions from the Hipparcos main catalogue
and places them into a sphere collection rendered in a VRML97 file. The main options
to the executable are a cut-off distance to some center of the scene (the sun by default)
and a density of labeling some or all of the spheres with common names, Henry Draper numbers
or Hipparcos ID's.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[64] **viXra:1508.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-10 05:05:03*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A short proof of Eulers Cubus Theorem

**Category:** Number Theory

[63] **viXra:1508.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-23 09:59:38*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Final Version of the paper

Is the standard model of fundamental-particles, with six quarks, leptons, photons and force carriers….., final? Or there is something beyond it? And, how to accommodate our direct experience of ‘consciousness’ in Physics? As an attempt to seek answers to these questions, an alternative view emerging from the ancient spiritual scriptures, namely Upanishads, is presented here for consideration of scientists. All the five Upanishads suggest that the most fundamental substance of the universe is not only physically real, but it is also capable of being aware of itself. This fundamental real substance is eternally ever-present in time and all-pervading in space. The fundamental particles of ‘matter’ are different patterns of vibrations or fluctuations of it. Depending upon the complexity of vibrations these patterns-of-vibrations subjectively feel them either in waking, dreaming or deep-sleep state.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[62] **viXra:1508.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 21:04:23*

**Authors:** Carlos Armando De Castro, Orlando Porras Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Double column format

In this paper, transient heat transfer under soil with plastic mulch is modeled using quadratic finite elements in the Galerkin approach. The model is nonlinear because of the radiative heat exchange between the soil surface, the plastic mulch and the atmosphere. Model validation was done experimentally by measuring the temperature of the soil surface in a terrain in the Savanna of Bogotá in Colombia, giving good approximation of the model to the measured data.
Keywords: heat equation, finite element method, nonlinear boundary conditions, plastic mulch, atmospheric radiation

**Category:** General Mathematics

[61] **viXra:1508.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 22:59:08*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Cosmologists always claim that their black holes, mathematical fabrications entire, have an escape velocity. They even have an equation for it and by using this equation they assert that the ‘escape velocity’ at their black hole ‘event horizon’ is the speed of light. This event horizon, they say, is at the ‘Schwarzschild radius’ of their black hole; and they have an equation for that too. On the other hand, the cosmologists also always assert that nothing can even leave the event horizon of their black holes. Light, they say, hovers forever at their event horizon as it tries to leave or escape the clutches of a black hole. Thus, according to the cosmologists, their black holes have and do not have an escape velocity simultaneously at the same place. However, nothing can in fact have and not have an escape velocity simultaneously at the same place. This schizophrenic character of the black hole is sufficient to completely invalidate it. But there is more. Escape velocity is a two body relation – one body escapes from another body. The black hole is, by its supposed mathematical construction, a one mass universe. Consequently the very concept of escape velocity does not even apply. Obviously, no cosmologist understands the meaning of escape velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1508.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-13 17:47:58*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors of E8 are given by Garrett Lisi (arXiv 1506.08073) and by Tony Smith (viXra 1405.0030) using, respectively, an 8-circle x 30 vertex projection to 2-dim and a square/cube vertex projection to 2-dim. This paper compares the two interpretations and their projections and gives a graphical view of the physical interpretations of viXra 1405.0030 using the square/cube projection. Version 2 [v2] adds full viXra reference number and revises graphics and discussion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[59] **viXra:1508.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 23:25:45*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Primary reference: “Methodology to Define Physical Constants Using Mathematical Constants”, IEEE Potentials July/August 2011, Vol. 30 Issue 4, pgs 39-43, 10.1109/POT.2011.940377

Abstract— A pair of very basic geometric forms, when properly linked, identifies the union between space and time. Additionally, the paired triangles mathematically define the size of the most basic units of measure, a unit length and a unit time duration, and produces a mathematically defined value for the speed of light. One does not need to know ahead of time the actual physical size of the dimensions used to describe the elements of the triangles.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[58] **viXra:1508.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-28 02:02:24*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge hypothesis of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The hypothesis of emergent reality (ER- hypothesis later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ER-hypothesis and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ER-hypothesis. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ER-hypothesis and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ER-hypothesis. ER-hypothesis unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[57] **viXra:1508.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 14:38:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[56] **viXra:1508.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 10:03:53*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Following on from the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales, as shown in the
3D Universe Theory, we propose a simple formula to calculate the age of the Universe. It is in agreement with Planck 2013 results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[55] **viXra:1508.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 17:18:12*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Supersymmetry has been found at LHC with the discovery of the ttH entity. This contains the massive Higgs boson particle of spin 0 together with fermonic matter. The massive weak boson of the spin 1 version is also expected, so we should see a ttZ supersymmetric entity. This form upon disintegration is almost certainly observed as direct-collapse black holes in the early universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1508.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 17:43:50*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to compute the number Pi based on the cosine rule.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[53] **viXra:1508.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 23:31:46*

**Authors:** Carlos Armando De Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper heat transfer through roofs with one layer and with two layers of materials with an air gap between them is modeled. Solar radiation and infrared atmospheric radiation over the exterior surface of the roof are considered, also the convective and radiative heat exchange between the surfaces that limit the air gap in the roof. The transient partial differential heat equation is solved with the nonlinear time variant boundary conditions and the discrete heat equation considered like a system of nonlinear equations for each time step with the Newton-Raphson multidimensional iteration. A code in MATLAB was used to implement the algorithm of solution. With the temperature profile known the heat gain through the roof to the interior of the building is calculated considering a constant internal temperature, with meteorological conditions from the Caribbean Coast of Colombia and varying the roof surfaces’materials and properties to radiation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1508.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 23:41:15*

**Authors:** Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Гравитация есть следствие движения Эфира в недра звёзд и планет под воздействием вихревого потока СВЕТА.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[51] **viXra:1508.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 00:27:15*

**Authors:** Peter F Coin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Rough draft "paper" to present this idea. Needs love.

A popular objection to the Many-worlds interpretation of Quantum Mechanics is that it allows for quantum suicide where an experimenter creates a device that instantly kills him or leaves him be depending the output of a quantum measurement, since he has no experience of the device killing him he experiences quantum immortality. This is considered counterintuitive and absurd. Presented here is a speculative argument that accepts counterintuitiveness and proposes it as a new approach to physical theory without accepting some of the absurd conclusions of the thought experiment. The approach is based on the idea that the Universe is Fragile in that only a fraction of the time evolved versions retain the familiar structures of people and planets, but the fractions that do not occur are not observed. This presents to us as a skewed view of physics and only by accounting for this fact (which I propose calling the Continual Anthropic Principle) can we understand the true fundamental laws.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[50] **viXra:1508.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 13:34:09*

**Authors:** Marvin E. Kirsh

**Comments:** 22 pages, 3 figues

The purpose of this writing is to propose a frame of view, a form as the eternal world element, that is compatible with paradox within the history of ideas, modern discovery as they confront one another. Under special consideration are problems of representation of phenomena, life, the cosmos as the rational facility of mind confronts the physical/perceptual, and itself. Current topics in pursuit are near as diverse and numbered as are the possibilities for a world composed strictly of uniqueness able to fill infinite space; it is assumed that not all of the paths chosen in contemporary pursuits will produce coherent determinations in an appropriate frame able to accommodate a world of nominals in motion, containing motion, and is commensurate with basic physical law and the propagation of form, change from within. Intended as a potential guiding post for the aim of reason seeking to select, define and capture topics, chosen as special examples are the works of logistician/mathematician Lewis Carroll as he presents a paradox of actuality verses the reality of perception in Alice in Wonderland, the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein as he fails to elaborate a mathematics to communicate an inertial frame of reference, and the reconstruction ideas of Jacques Derrida as he refers for contrast with the scientific world view constructed of dualisms, monisms that are conceived to have no opposites. Supporting discussion is evolved from the works of Bertrand Russell, Erwin Schrodinger, Jurgen Habermas, Bronislaw Malinowski, Michel Foucault.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1508.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 07:49:34*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We try briefly the relationship between numbers and some aspects of physical reality . By means of a simple set of mathematical and physical tools what we wanted to find was dimensionless numbers that could fit with a particular symmetry . In this paper we describe a small sheaf of numerical results .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[48] **viXra:1508.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 01:04:51*

**Authors:** Feng Lin

**Comments:** 24 Pages. interdiscipline of medical science and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

We focus on the symptom of hypothalamus controlled fever, which is in fact a problem related to non-equilibrium system. Since live human body has constant temperature, whose dissipation is easy to be figured out by observation, it is a suitable candidate for non-equilibrium system to study. In our paper, human body is regarded as a 2-compartment-system: one is the chemical-reaction network, the other is observed by mechanical motion which means the vital signs apart from body temperature. Van der Pol model is used to describe the overall effect of chemical reaction network in human body. When the parameter of mathematical model is set to guarantee the mathematical model to be in limit cycle oscillation state, the energy absorbtion and releasing is computed. With the help of body temperature, which can be observed, the energy metabolism of overall effect of chemical reaction network is figured out. We have figured out the conditions when human is at healthy and fever how the mathematical respond. This response is just the overall effect of chemical reaction network. This research may be capable of answering the question whether fever is a kind of illness or some response of body to maintain its life? From our study, hypothalamus controlled fever is beneficial to maintain life.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[47] **viXra:1508.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-08 17:15:31*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind. The following equation shows a mathematical relations that may relate to the mass ratio of the Proton/Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[46] **viXra:1508.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-07 04:40:23*

**Authors:** Colin James BSc BA MInstP

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper suggests an alternative mechanism to account for the dominant abundance of matter over antimatter in our observed universe by looking at the production side of baryons and antibaryons in the very early universe. The Sakharov conditions
appear to be met.
It is suggested that an aspect of baryogenesis may have been similar to the physics of randomly forming only one isomer from two possible identical energy isomers by non-biased (achiral) stimulus. Research is cited where random 100% one isomer (complete single chirality) is produced without bias from a mixture that should produce a 50%/50% mix of two isomers as they have equal energy and equal probability of being formed.
A similar chance resolution in the production of baryons and antibaryons to generate baryons as the majority might have applied in the very early universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[45] **viXra:1508.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-06 12:52:02*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov, N. E. Nyunko, Yu. N. Tyukhtyaev

**Comments:** 7 Pages. in Russian, VTYF, v. 12 , p. II

The quasipotential equation is discussed, which describes the system of two particles with spins 1/2 and different masses. Analysis of the infrared pecularities is presented.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[44] **viXra:1508.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-06 13:01:40*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The talk presented at the Meeting of the DPF of the APS, May 24-28, 2002, The College W&M, Williamsburg, VA, USA, May 26, 2002

The amplitude of Higgs-Higgs interaction is calculated in the Standard Model in the framework of the Sirlin's renormalization
scheme in the unitary gauge. The one-loop corrections for lambda, the constant of 4chi interaction are compared with the previous results of L. Durand et al. obtained on using
the technique of the equivalence theorem, and in the different gauges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[43] **viXra:1508.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-06 02:34:45*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.Recently Gianluca Perniciano a physicist from Italy
appeared with a very interesting idea for the Alcubierre warp
drive spacetime:he introduced in the Alcubierre equations a
coefficient which is $1$ inside and outside the warp bubble but
possesses large values in the Alcubierre warped region thereby
reducing effectively the negative energy density requirements
making the warp drive more "affordable" even at $200$ times light
speed.In this work we reproduce the Perniciano analysis for the
Natario warp drive spacetime in both the original and parallel
$ADM$ formalisms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1508.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-05 13:44:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[41] **viXra:1508.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-29 17:09:32*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Fixed typo in Equation 4.3

As far as the writer is aware, the Bianchi identities associated with a Weyl space have never been presented. That space was discovered by the noted German mathematical physicist Hermann Weyl in 1918, and represented the geometry underlying a tantalizing theory that appeared to successfully unify the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. One of theory’s problems involved one form of the Bianchi identities, which in Riemannian space are used to derive the divergenceless Einstein tensor. Such a derivation is generally not applicable in a non-Riemannian geometry like Weyl’s, in which the covariant derivative of the metric tensor is non-zero. But it turns out that such a derivation is not only possible but straightforward, with a result that hints at a fundamental relationship between Weyl’s geometry and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[40] **viXra:1508.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-08 10:45:52*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A conjecture on the quasi-periodic behaviour of Ulam sequences

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[39] **viXra:1508.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-16 21:39:39*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Akira Kanda

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal yet. Anyone interested may distribute, copy or publish it

We are a number of humble scientists and theologians who feel that the progress of science nowadays tends to distract people away from God. It is simply because many scientists now think that to be good scientists they should become fervent agnostics or atheists, both as individual and also as community. For example, instead of glorifying God as the Creator of the Universe, some physicists told us that the Universe emerged from nothingness (they call it: vacuum fluctuations). Similarly, for the beginning of life in Earth, some biologists do not refer to God anymore, but to a series of simple chemical reactions triggered at billions years ago, which then they call: LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor). So, this is our small response to that situation. The name of this social network is SciPrint.org.
It is our dream that someday we can redeem science again for the Glory of God, through dialogue between the Bible and other Scriptures and the modern science.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[38] **viXra:1508.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-06 02:52:58*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The EM Drive is a propellantless drive thruster that could be used in spacecraft. It uses microwave energy to generate thrust without the need for a propellant. Mainstream Physics is reluctant to recognise it as valid as it appears to break the law of conservation of momentum in its supposed operation, as it generates thrust without expelling a propellant during its operation. This paper suggests a possible theoretical explanation for its operation (using conventional Physics) whilst retaining conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[37] **viXra:1508.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-04 19:55:12*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been accepted and published in Prespacetime Journal, august 2015. This preprint is uploaded here with permission.

In a recent paper, I derived an exact analytical solution of Riccati form of 2D Navier-Stokes equations with Mathematica. Now I will present a possible route from an exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations to Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets. The route is by showing that Raychaudhury equation leads to Friedmann equation when the vorticity vector, shear tensor and tidal force tensor vanish. Then, I show how one may generalize it further towards Navier-Stokes equations on Cantor Sets. Further observations are recommended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1508.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-04 23:20:33*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Hindu Philosophy is an ancient one that has apart, from influencing most philosophies in East and Southeast Asia, withstood the test of time for thousands of years, and as in the past, still continues to influence every aspect of the lives of more than a billion people. It is therefore only logical that the philosophies and wisdom gained in this philosophy can be put to good use in understanding some of the deepest, most mysterious secrets about the mechanics and working of the universe. That is precisely the objective of the present article, where the Lalitha Sahasranamam the crown jewel of the esoteric tradition of Sri Vidya, which in turn is the pinnacle of the Hindu Advaitic philosophy, is the key focus. In particular, assorted names of the Lalitha Sahasranamam are considered, and by using a combination of decipherments of metaphors, allusions, symbolism, semiotics and etymo-linguistic studies, deeper meanings of each Nama are studied, primarily in context with the Higher Sciences, revealing key details about our universe.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[35] **viXra:1508.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-05 02:44:02*

**Authors:** Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich

**Comments:** 178 Pages.

Во Вселенной происходит только один процесс перехода Эфира в СВЕТ. Все явления в Природе предназначены для обеспечения этого процесса или являются следствием этого процесса.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[34] **viXra:1508.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-05 03:32:00*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[33] **viXra:1508.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-05 03:33:17*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[32] **viXra:1508.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-04 10:14:29*

**Authors:** Aritra Sinha, Shinjan Mandal

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we make an introduction to the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis.We have first reviewed thermalization mechanism in classical systems, then introduce eigen-state thermalization as a possible explanation for thermal behavior in quantum systems.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[31] **viXra:1508.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-04 10:26:29*

**Authors:** Aritra Sinha

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here I have first discussed how averaging theory can be an effective tool in solving weakly non-
linear oscillators. Then I have applied the technique for a Van der Pol oscillator and extended the stability criterion of a Van der Pol oscillator for any integer n(odd or even).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[30] **viXra:1508.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-08 06:37:35*

**Authors:** Dao Thanh Oai

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I propose a conjecture of generalization of the Fermat last theorem and the Lander, Parkin, and Selfridge conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[29] **viXra:1508.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-04 10:54:11*

**Authors:** J. E. Williams

**Comments:** Pages. e-mail jack.e.williams@att.net

The physics that I'm about to describe to you is regarding the processes that determine how all self generating vortices get their initial rotation and in some cases continue under the same process. This process or phase is of a major importance to the scientific community. The universe is dictated by the properties of a vortex as in the formation of the galaxies, solar system, stars and planets. Any change in the basic physics of how a vortex functions will have major importance to how the universe actually works.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[28] **viXra:1508.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-04 04:34:08*

**Authors:** E. Comay

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The paper discusses a monopole theory based on the assumption that electromagnetic fields of charges are identical to electromagnetic fields of monopoles. It proves that this theory violates energy conservation. This result is consistent
with the absence of a regular Lagrangian density for this theory as well as with the systematic failure of experiments aiming to detect such monopoles. By contrast, a monopole theory that is derived from a regular Lagrangian density is free of these problems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[27] **viXra:1508.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 18:42:12*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** English，25 pages

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, this paper presents the New Newton Mechanics (NNM) taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. Examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity by using the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space), derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum) can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal gravitation can be derived, which can be used to solve the problem of advance of planetary perihelion and the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun. Again, according to accurate experimental result, the synthesized gravitational formula (including the effects of other celestial bodies and sunlight pressure) for the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun is presented. Unlike the original Newton Mechanics, in New Newton Mechanics, for different problems, may have different laws of motion, different formulas of gravity, as well as different expressions of energy. For example, for the problem of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane, and the problem of advance of planetary perihelion, the two formulas of gravity are completely different.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[26] **viXra:1508.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 15:02:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In a new blow for the futuristic "supersymmetry" theory of the universe's basic anatomy, experts reported fresh evidence Monday of subatomic activity consistent with the mainstream Standard Model of particle physics. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[25] **viXra:1508.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 10:26:42*

**Authors:** V.E. Prigozhin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The author narrates (in Russian) about influence of CW (right) and CCW (left) Torsion Fields, TF, on human health. All the considered fields are produced by the environment of human dwellings, such as furniture, landscapes and their geometry as well as a lot of subjects of our everyday living.
Even the geometry of dentistry works can influence a health of the patient.
The author states that CW fields are mostly auspicious, while the CCW are inauspicious for human health.
A 30 year experience of the author in this practice results in developing special simple means to mitigate and neutralize negative natural sources of unwanted TF.

**Category:** Social Science

[24] **viXra:1508.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 05:40:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Using a magnetic field, internal states of each ion are tailored to represent a qutrit, with a (+) state, (-) state and (0) state denoting the three available energy levels. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-15 07:29:28*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected Equation 3

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1508.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 01:53:31*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint, Michael Tint

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Original article is written in Russian.

We show ("transparently") that by using a new binomial expansion identically equal to the classical, received ambiguous numerical sequences (countable sets) of arbitrary length, smaller infinity, in which the coefficients of each degree "x" can be either identical zero and not equal to zero simultaneously.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1508.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 03:22:12*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich, Igore Valereevich Nikitini

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20] **viXra:1508.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 03:23:58*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich, Igore Valereevich Nikitini

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[19] **viXra:1508.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 12:40:25*

**Authors:** José Salvador Ruiz Fargueta

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In spaces where some of its dimensions are insignificant (compacted) compared to others, can happen a curious phenomenon that the magnitude of the scalar characteristic of fractal becomes dependent on the inverse distance. This means that the observed fractal is "dense" at small distances and “vacuum”, or invisible, at large distances.
En espacios donde algunas de sus dimensiones son despreciables (compactadas) respecto a otras, puede ocurrir un curioso fenómeno por el que la magnitud del escalar característico del fractal pasa a depender del inverso de la distancia. Esto significa que el fractal se observa “denso” a pequeñas distancias y vacuo en las grandes distancias.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[18] **viXra:1508.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 14:15:13*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The energies required for nuclear reactions far exceed the thermal energies hypothesized to exist in stellar interiors.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[17] **viXra:1508.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 11:09:12*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. http://www.physics.sk/aps/pubs/2000/aps-2000-50-6-629.pdf

We argue that self/anti-self charge conjugate states of the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2) representation
possess axial charges. Furthermore, we analyze recent claims of the sigma [Ax A*] interaction
terms for “fermions”. Finally, we briefly discuss the problem in the (1,0)+(0,1) representation.
PACS: 11.30.Er, 12.60.-i, 14.60.St

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[16] **viXra:1508.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 11:16:44*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. http://www.actaphys.uj.edu.pl/_cur/store/vol29/pdf/v29p0619.pdf

Gauge transformations of type-II spinors are considered in the Majorana–
Ahluwalia construct for self/anti-self charge conjugate states. Some speculations
on the relations of this model with the earlier ones are given.
PACS numbers: 11.30. Er, 12.10. Dm, 12.60. -i, 14.60. St

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1508.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 11:21:22*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. http://www.actaphys.uj.edu.pl/_cur/store/sup6/pdf/s6p0065.pdf

We construct self/anti-self charge conjugate (Majorana-like) states for
the (1/2, 0)⊕(0, 1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs
for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problems of the
basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac-like and
Majorana-like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties
(P, C, T) are studied. The corresponding dynamical equations are
presented. In the (1/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 1/2) representation they obey the Diraclike
equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by
Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled
(as shown by Ziino). The particular attention has been paid to the questions
of chirality and helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused
in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states, and to the normalization
(“the mass dimension”). We further review several experimental consequences
which follow from the previous works of M. Kirchbach et al. on
neutrinoless double beta decay, and G.J. Ni et al. on meson lifetimes. The
results are generalized for spins 1, 3/2 and 2.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14] **viXra:1508.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 17:14:30*

**Authors:** Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.

**Comments:** 29 Pages. www.is-si.ru/atomic-pp.pdf

The atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) increases in the field of gravity. The value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. This is the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin. The authors propose a crucial physical experiment with two high precision atomic clocks to verify their hypothesis. According to the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin time goes faster in the field of gravity. The authors provide the official prize for the competent disproof of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin before the experiment, the necessary materials are in Russian Academy of Sciences. $ 100 000 will be paid to any person who will disprove the effect. To get $ 100 000 see the contacts in the end of this scientific paper – you have to send by e-mail and post the competent scientific disproof in case you have it.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1508.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 17:19:51*

**Authors:** Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. «The priorities of the world science: experiments and scientific debate»,17-18 June 2015, North Charleston, SC, USA

The atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) increases in the field of gravity. The value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. According to the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin, time goes faster in the field of gravity. This is the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin. The authors propose a crucial physical experiment with two high precision atomic clocks to verify their hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1508.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 04:20:23*

**Authors:** Richard D. Gill

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Also posted on arXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.00106

In this note, I analyse the data generated by M. Fodje’s simulation programs epr-simple and epr-clocked using appropriate modified Bell-CHSH type inequalities: the Larsson detection loophole adjusted CHSH, and the Larsson-Gill coincidence loophole adjusted CHSH. The experimental efficiencies turn out to be η ≈ 81% and γ ≈ 55% respectively, and the observed value of CHSH is (of course) well within the adjusted bounds.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1508.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 05:07:51*

**Authors:** A. Warnery

**Comments:** 23 Pages. French

Atom characteristics can be represented by a nuclear structure. The nuclear structure depends on protonic forces. Protons attract neutrons and repulse protons. These forces makes two microstructures ; the free proton (in equilibrium between the neutron's attraction and the repulsion forces) and the corpuscle (two protons closely attracted by two or more neutrons).
The nuclear structure is compact. Two free protons can make a corpuscle (2n protons). N² corpuscles make a saturated square layer of 2n² protons. Between two saturated layers it is possible to have an insaturated layer of 2(n+1)²-2n²=2n+1 free protons. From the nuclear equator (biggest layer) each successive layer has one proton less per side. The unsaturated layer can be considered as an unsaturated layer of (n) protons per side or a saturated layer of (n-1) protons per side (n/n-1).
The structure is simple (see representation page 4-.7). Under the equator the layer has n= 4,3,2,1 (or 3,2,1 or 2,1 or1) protons per side. Above the equator the layer has :
4,3,2,1/0 (or 3,2,1/0 or 2,1/0 or 1/0) protons per side for alkaline metals,
4,3,2/1 (or 3,2/1 or 2/1) protons per side for poor metals, non metals, noble gases,
4,3/2,1 (or 3/2,1) protons per side for transition metals,
4/3,2,1 protons per side for rare earth metals,
The characteristics (quantum, chemical) of an atom depends on the number and position of the free protons ;
Oxydation (number of free protons in specifics layers),
Valency (number of position of free proton),
Principal quantum number (number of the unsaturated layer),
Azimuthal quantum number, (number of protons per side (n) of the unsaturated layer with 1=s ; 2=p ; 3=d ; 4=f)
Magnetic moment (free proton distance from the nuclear meridian),
Spin (free proton distance from the neutron, free proton ½ or 0 corpuscle),
In this paper, we present how this representation can interpret the physics from a chemical point of view. This representation can help us interpret the quantum physics and understand the dynamic material energy.

**Category:** Chemistry

[10] **viXra:1508.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-28 03:05:55*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Spanish

In 1945, Einstein began a new investigation into the unified field theory, which we call the Hermitian theory. A metric tensor and a connection whose components are complex numbers and have the Hermitian property. In essence it is an asymmetric metric-affine theory. In three studies, one conducted jointly with Straus, Einstein formulated the equations of Hermitian unified field theory. We analyzed this research, detailing and updating all calculations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1508.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 06:13:26*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What if we were not actually testing spin, but aligning our measuring system to detect a specific spin.
This is possible in DTL because we postulate that spin is really just particle phase relationships and not exclusively a pole/dipole moment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1508.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 11:16:30*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We present here our quantum propagation and entanglement system for virtual reality remote
space computers and TVs with photonic displays in laser activated imagery. This concept is
based on 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument in Quantum Theory. Einstein maintains
(Bacciagaluppi and Valentini 2009, p. 488) “the interpretation, according to which |ψ|² expresses
the probability that this particle is found at a given point, assumes an entirely peculiar
mechanism of action at a distance, which prevents the wave continuously distributed in space
from producing an action in two places on the screen. Einstein continues: “in my opinion, one
can remove this objection only in the following way, that one does not describe the process
solely by the Schrödinger wave, but that at the same time one localizes the particle during
propagation

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1508.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 12:48:06*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The boson count of 8 for the cyclic universe theory includes 4 massless gauge bosons. These must be assigned 1 for 2 fermiboson force implementations, 1 for a big bang force and 1 each for the graviton and photon

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1508.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 08:42:45*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Cosmologists claim that they have found black holes all over the Cosmos. The black hole is however entirely a product of mathematics. The simplest case is the 'Schwarzschild' black hole, from the solution to Einstein's field equations in the absence of matter, for a static, uncharged, non-rotating mass. "In the absence of matter" involves linguistic legerdemain, but in any event all types of black holes reduce, mathematically speaking, to a very simple question: Can a squared real number take values less than zero? Symbolically this is restated as follows. Let r be any real number. Is r^2 < 0 possible? No, it's not possible. Thus, the black hole is not possible. Anybody who can square a real number is capable of understanding why the black hole is a fantasy of mathematical physicists and cosmologists, illustrating once again why it can be very dangerous to put trust in the word of an Authority.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1508.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-08 06:41:42*

**Authors:** Dao Thanh Oai

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this note, I propose a conjecture of generalization of the Lander, Parkin, and
Selfridge conjecture; and a conjecture of generalization of the Beal’s conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4] **viXra:1508.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 03:24:53*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[3] **viXra:1508.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 03:33:44*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich, Igore Valereevich Nikitini

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Dear sirs scientists!
We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations.
We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1508.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 03:35:06*

**Authors:** Valery Nikolaevich, Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Dear sirs scientists!
We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations.
We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1508.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 03:43:18*

**Authors:** Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Astrophysics