[52] **viXra:1107.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-22 15:01:52*

**Authors:** D.T. Froedge

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The presentation here is based on the presumption that the total energy of a particle and photon in a gravitational field is localized and conserved. A mass particle thus entering a static gravitational field has an increasing velocity, but a decreasing rest mass, or a mass defect. The total energy is conserved. This also means that as a photon rises in a gravitational field there is no loss of energy, and therefore a photon escapes the most intense field, precluding the formation of a black hole. Since there is no energy change in an accelerating particle technically gravitation is not a force. It will be shown that such a theory of gravitation can be developed, that properly predicts known dynamic, has proper covariant transformations, the proper Shapiro velocity, and does not require formulation in curved space. Noether’s theorem definitively shows that contrary to all other forces, energy cannot be conserved nor localized in a Riemannian gauge field representation. It is presumed here that this is a flaw in GR, and it is asserted here that Noether’s theorem is not an indicator of a physical reality, but an indicator of the approximate nature of GR. This can best be tested in the observation of the properties of objects cited to be black holes. There are points of this development that are testable, and provable or disprovable in experiments on Black Holes and, Event Horizons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1107.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-29 08:14:30*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Matter is the only substance that can provide objective reality and positive existence in space. (Real) universal medium should be made of matter. It should be homogeneous and fill entire space, outside 3D matter-particles, without voids (empty space). At the same time, it should be flexible enough to have properties of perfect fluid. Anisotropic nature, which allows relative motions within, requires that universal medium should be structured by sub-particles and each of its constituent matter-particles has lot of (apparently) vacant space around it, to allow relative movements. This article attempts to describe, how these contradicting properties are simultaneously achieved in the universal medium, proposed in alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[50] **viXra:1107.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 63 pages, v2 in Italian, v3 in English

The greatest revolution in the number from the days of Pythagoras.
The similarity between quantum mechanics and electromagnetism. Are we a three-dimensional television show?
These and other fascinating topics are addressed by the author in this paper at once popular and
mathematical, which leads us to a world still largely unexplored. Are we facing with what is (up to now) the true language of Physics? "Clifford's algebra - he called it 'geometric algebra' - is now well recognized as the natural
algebra for describing physics in 3-space, but it hasn't yet caught on in engineering, or even in
standard treatments of electricity and magnetism or fluid dynamics, where vector analysis with its
ugly cross product still holds sway" (Mark Buchanan, Nature Physics 7, 442, 2011).
But can physics laws be derived from Clifford algebra and analytic functions? And why?
From simple postulates of geometrical nature (or, I mean, which simply precisely define our
language) it seems that we arrive at equations of relativistic dynamics, electromagnetism, fluid
dynamics and quantum mechanics.
Issues covered more or less in depth in this paper are: numbers and algebra, the analysis and the δ*
operator, analytic functions in 3 and 4 dimensions, Maxwell's and Dirac equations, analytic
functions in circular waveguides, analytic functions in four dimensions, i.e. spherical cavity,
Physical Optics and heuristic derivation of the Hydrogen spectral lines.
Many disciplines are then influenced by this approach in a way that the paper often only suggests,
so as it suggests several areas of future development.
I mulled over these topics for more than 40 years, and I then summarized in an unpublished
manuscript dated March 2000, which is almost entirely reported here in his complete, also if naïve,
form.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[49] **viXra:1107.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Garreth H. Gothaven

**Comments:** 8 pages

The problem as it exists today is one of identity.
What do I, as an African youth have to offer the world in terms of culture worthy of respect.
What do we as Africans offer our children, that which they can be proud of and be willing to hand down to their own children, without any generation obtaining the familiar attitude of it being backward?
A possible solution to the mindset shift that has left continental Africans branded as paddlers of H.I.V.
Exploring some sources of the masochistic attitude, that many have toward their own cultural identity.

**Category:** Social Science

[48] **viXra:1107.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Ranganath G Kulkarni

**Comments:** 20 pages, Published in the General Science Journal

The energy density of free space is constant and negative. Energy,
which comes from free space according to the law of energy creation, is created at
a constant rate. Matter or energy that is created contains equal amounts of positive
and negative energy. Therefore, the total energy of the body is zero. This law offers
insights on the beginning and end of the universe, as well as how this cycle
continues.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1107.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-27 18:02:44*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The solution with no singularity of wave equation for E-M fields is
solved not to Bessel function, which's geometrical size is little
enough to explain all effects in matter's structure: strong, weak
effect or even other new ones. The mathematic calculation leaded by
quantum theory reveals the weak or strong decay and
static properties of elementary particles, all coincide with
experimental data, and a covariant equation comprising bent space is
proposed to explain mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:1107.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 4 pages

Many distinct concepts including data, memes, and information are introduced. This
manuscript aims to highlight
the important role that unconscious physical reality plays in the creation and transmission of symbolic values.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[45] **viXra:1107.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Alon Retter

**Comments:** 4 pages

It is a known fact that like people, many stars are single while most others tend to couple in
binaries, yet the two distributions have not been compared so far. The distribution of 4559
brightest nearby stars was matched with that of American adults at the age of 18-65 years. It
was found that the mean values of the distributions of star multiples and US households are
almost identical (2.04 vs. 2.03). Moreover, a strong resemblance between the two curves is
evident. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that this result is significant at a confidence level
higher than 97%. Apparently, there should be no connection between the two populations,
thus this striking result may supply some clues about the way Nature works.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[44] **viXra:1107.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Smita Rajpal, M.N. Doja, Ranjit Biswas

**Comments:** 10 pages

Today Databases are Deterministic. An item belongs to the database is a probabilistic event, or a tuple is
an answer to the query is a probabilistic event and it can be extended to all data models. Here we will
discuss probabilistic relational data. Probabilistic relational Data are defined in two ways, Database is
deterministic and Query answers are probabilistic or Database is probabilistic and Query answers are
probabilistic.
Probabilistic relational databases have been studied from the late 80's until today. But today Application
Need to manage imprecision's in data. Imprecision can be of many types: non-matching data values,
imprecise queries, inconsistent data, misaligned schemas, etc.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[43] **viXra:1107.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 72 pages

This book has been designed for students and researchers who are working in the field
of time series analysis and estimation in finite population.
There are papers by Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache, Shweta Maurya, Ashish K. Singh,
Manoj Kr. Chaudhary, V. K. Singh, Mukesh Kumar and Sachin Malik.
First chapter deals with the problem of time series and the rest of four chapters deal with the
problems in estimation in finite population.

**Category:** Statistics

[42] **viXra:1107.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An ATLAS plot at EPS HEP 2011 showed 3 Higgs state peaks: low mass state (Higgs mass around 150 GeV) middle mass state (Higgs mass around 200 GeV) high mass state (Higgs mass around 250 GeV) A preliminary CMS plot for EPS HEP 2011 showed the same 3 Higgs state peaks but for the plot shown at EPS HEP 2011CMS used a Look Elsewhere Effect (LEE) that flattened the 200 GeV and 250 GeV peaks into insignificance. Since the same location of the 3 peaks was independently shown by ATLAS the CMS use of LEE was improper so CMS should remove the LEE processing from its plot. (References are included in the body of the paper and in linked material.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[41] **viXra:1107.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 4 pages

I describe a universe in which all universal matter is of zero rest mass and is traveling
at the speed of light (this class of universe is hereinafter abbreviated ALSU). In this
universe motion through space is a result of constant rate repetition of discrete swift
microscopic leaps averaging to a smooth-like motion at C in the macroscopic scale.
All matter in this universe is composed of EMPs (see Article 1), and the difference
between photons whose speed of light is recognized in the macroscopic scale of
reality and between particles whose speed of light is not recognized as motion in the
macroscopic scale, is in the symmetry of their EMP based structures. While bosons
have semispherical structural symmetry, fermions have spherical structural symmetry.
Photons thus follow geodesic lines in their motion, while other elementary ALSU
particles are exercising their microscopic light speed leaps, frenetically joggling
around a local mid point, with the directional leap of each EMP in their construction
being cancelled out by a consequent leap of another EMP moving in the opposite
direction. In such a universe particles and photons are on an equal footing, they are
constructed from the same building blocks, have the same speeds, the same ticking
rate of time, the same zero rest mass and the same light speed mass per each EMP
participating in their construction. The physicists residing in this ALSU unfortunately
live in the macroscopic world, and are thus unaware of said equal footing. Since they
are able to recognize only the macroscopic averages of the microscopic light speed
leaps of particles, they mess up everything: they relate to fermionic particles as if they
are at rest, to their light speed masses as if they were rest masses, and to small
differential values in the particles' light speeds as absolute small speeds.
Consequently they invent relativity theories, and finally become confused of the
inconsistency of such theories with the quantum realm. I guess you will not be
surprised to find out that according to MCS Physics this hypothetical universe is the
one in which we happen to reside.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1107.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 8 pages

I deduce that the interaction between EMPs and space "units" (hereinafter spacents) is
the origin of Energy and that mass is nothing more or less than "amount of kinetic
energy". This allows me to conclude that dark energy does not exist. I further deduce
that the EMP is the minimal photon in nature and that EMPs move through space in
the speed of light, not only when participating in photon constructions but also as
constituents of fermionic matter. Fermionic matter does not exhibit, however, motion
at the speed of light in the macroscopic scale of reality due to the spherical symmetry
arrangement of the EMPs from which it is constructed. In the microscopic realm,
however, fermionic matter is frenetically joggling at the speed of light. Accordingly,
all universal matter is of zero rest mass. What we actually measure as the Mass of
particles and bodies, is their light speed mass. Photons exhibit C in the macroscopic
world due to their open non spherical structure. I postulate that statistically speaking,
due to the relatively long idleness interval T2, elementary particle interactions are
taken against a standing still universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[39] **viXra:1107.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-08 11:38:28*

**Authors:** Mauro Avon

**Comments:** 201 Pages.

The paper is about an approach to logic that differs from the standard first-order logic and other known approaches. It should be a new approach the author has created proposing to obtain a general and unifying approach to logic and a faithful model of human mathematical deductive process. We list the most relevant features of the system. In first-order logic there exist two different concepts of term and formula, in place of these two concepts in our approach we have just one notion of expression. The set-builder notation is enclosed as an expression-building pattern. In our system we
can easily express second-order and all-order conditions (the set to which a quantifier refers is explicitly written in the expression). The meaning of a sentence will depend solely on the meaning of the symbols it contains, it will not depend on external `structures'. Our deductive system is based on a very simple definition of proof and provides a good model of human mathematical deductive process. The soundness and consistency of the system are proved, as well as the fact that our system is not affected by the most known types of paradox. The paper provides both the theoretical material and two fully documented examples of deduction. The author believes his aims have been achieved, obviously the reader is free to examine the system and get his own opinion about it.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[38] **viXra:1107.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Experimental results announced at EPS HEP 2011 are compared with some predictions of my E8 Physics model, including 3 Higgs states: low mass state (Higgs mass around 145 GeV/c2) middle mass state (Higgs mass around 180 GeV/c2) high mass state (Higgs mass around 240 GeV/c2) My view is that the EPS HEP 2011 results support my E8 Physics model. Some prospects for the future exploration by the LHC are briefly discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[37] **viXra:1107.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Javier Bootello

**Comments:** 6 pages, Comments and annotations are welcome

This article presents a gravitational potential, which could explain some astronomical singularities: the
secular increase of the eccentricity of the Moon and the increase of the Astronomical Unit. This potential is also
consistent with the solution to the unexplained anomalous precession of the perihelion of Mercury, which was the first
success of General Relativity, event which is near to reach its first centenary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1107.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 4 pages

September 1 2009 a new cosmological hypothesis was proposed to imagine the
universe otherwise. Many institutional scientists still try to implement their results into the
commonly accepted Big Bang theory. I am one of the two scientists who propose a
Double Torus as a new shape for the universe. Several 'papers' are hosted at 'vixra' about
this subject. This paper adds an explanaition to these afore published papers and in
particular explains the 'dominance of matter over anti-matter', deduced from the earlier
derived 'dark energy force formula' and the perspective of the Double Torus.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[35] **viXra:1107.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 289 pages

In this book, super interval matrices using the special type of intervals of the form [0, a] are introduced.
Several algebraic structures like semigroups, groups, semirings, rings, semivector spaces and vector spaces are introduced.
Special fuzzy linear algebras are introduced using the concept of super fuzzy interval matrices.

**Category:** Algebra

[34] **viXra:1107.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages

Obtaining the electron's electromagnetic mass has just been made
much easier now that the electron has been measured to be aspheric.
We show here that the electron can be modeled as a right circular
cylinder whose front face is connected to its back face. We show that
there must be a circulating magnetic field along the axis of this ring.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[33] **viXra:1107.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** A. S. Muktibodh, S.T. Rathod

**Comments:** 9 pages

In this paper we define two kinds of Pseudo-Smarandache
functions. We have investigated more than fifty terms of each
pseudoSmarandache function. We have proved some interesting results and
properties of these functions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[32] **viXra:1107.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Raymond Jensen

**Comments:** 16 pages

A 1986 experiment involving a two-particle entangled system is analyzed, and it
is shown that: (1) the measurement results of that experiment are in contradiction
to the discrete degenerate form of the quantum measurement postulate
(DDQMP) and (2) the measurements done in the experiment are of the positive
operator valued measure (POVM) type. Thus there exist POVM measurements
which contradict the DDQMP. A modification to the DDQMP is provided which
agrees with the experimental results. The modified DDQMP is then applied to a
proposed experiment involving a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger
state.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[31] **viXra:1107.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 4 pages

An extension of the zitterbewegung phenomenon is suggested together
with a solution to the measurement problem and the claimed incompleteness
of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[30] **viXra:1107.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 5 pages

It has happened sometimes in the history of scientific development, that a misinterpretation of a
phenomenon or an experiment by a renowned scientist, will spread thereafter under the mantle of his
authority without anyone bothering to verify the veracity of those arguments and check for its correctness.
With time it becomes so settled that any attempt to deny it will meet with strong opposition. The word of this
or that distinguished scientist is irrefutable and only a fool would dare to question it.
This kind of attitude has caused serious harm to the scientific development over the centuries and led
research in many areas astray. The last century has not been different.
I'm coming back again and again to this issue, always in a somewhat different and more explicit mode
because this is an emblematic case of what has been said above.
In two previous papers1 we got to demystify the phenomenon of stellar aberration and show
that there is nothing magic with light and, as has been demonstrated, there is no violation of the constancy
of the speed of light in applying Eddington's rain drops analogy. Since there is a straight correlation, as will
be readily shown, between the phenomenon of light aberration and the M/M experiment, we shall start
making a rapid pass through it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1107.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 10 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 pages

[This paper deals with] the differential coordinate transformation in the general relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1107.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-01 16:43:00*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. (Hans) van Leunen

**Comments:** 568 Pages.

Collection of papers written by Ir J.A.J. (Hans)van Leunen The main subject of this collection is a new model of physics The collection also contains papers about related subjects

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1107.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-03 20:24:03*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Appendix III was added to the original paper in January 2016

The Strong Force is unique in that it changes from repulsive to attractive as the distance between
two quarks increases, and rapidly approaches a steady level thereafter. Unlike the inverse square
law related to the surface area of a sphere, there is as yet no simple physical explanation for this
phenomenon. It is demonstrated that the inductive forces between three magnetic dipoles
symmetrically arrayed and tilted around a circle, will result in a repulsive force acting radially on
any one one of them at close proximity, that changes to an attractive force with increase of
distance. The forces are most like the Strong Force when the tilt is at around 13°, remarkably
similar to the Cabibbo Angle
relating the Strong and Weak reactions. These results encourage
development of Tamari's Beautiful Universe
(BU) model of a universal lattice entirely made up of
magnetic dipoles.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[26] **viXra:1107.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Hubble sphere model uses a single equation of frequency versus distance to
describe the linear and non-linear cosmological redshift data. The non-linear portion of the
cosmological redshift curve is what has been interpreted as Dark Energy, an unnecessary
phenomena that can easily be described by the interaction of Hubble spheres, where the
gravitational and electromagnetic forces are limited to the range of the Hubble radius. Analysis
of Type Ia supernovae data reveals the simple, 3rd-order polynomial predicted by the Hubble
sphere model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1107.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The Atlas of Atomic Nuclear Structures (ANS) is one of the major output results of the Basic Structures
of Matter - Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG), based on an alternative concept of the physical vacuum.
The atlas of ANS illustrates the material structure of the elementary particles and atomic nuclei as they
are revealed in BSM-SG. While they exhibit the same interaction energies as the Quantum Mechanical models,
they are not point-like structures. The atlas also provides information about the spatial arrangement of
the protons and neutrons in the atomic nuclei, atoms and molecules. The Z-number trend of the nuclear
build-up follows a shell structure that complies strictly with the row-column pattern of the Periodic
table, while obeying the Hund's rules and Pauli exclusion principle. The nuclear structures of the stable
isotopes exhibit a higher degree of symmetry. The trend of faster increase of the number of neutrons in
comparison to the protons in heavier elements and their spatial positions play a role in redistribution
of the repulsive Coulomb forces between protons. The proposed physical models could find applications in
different fields, such as the chemistry, nanotechnology, biomolecules and deeper understanding of the
nuclear stability and reactions..

**Category:** Classical Physics

[24] **viXra:1107.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper discusses the meaning and role of the quantities of energy and momentum in the
definition relations of relativistic, quantum and classical mechanics with focus on kinetic
and total relativistic energy, on the definition of the de Broglie momentum hypothesis and
using momentum and energy in Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1107.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we present the coupling equations involving retarded phase factor in
wireless power transmission. Negative resistance can be achieved in specific range of
distance between two resonators. The law of energy conservation is valid when the
retarded phase factor is equal to one.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22] **viXra:1107.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Gocho Sharlanov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the article the "ether" is considered to be the "warped space-time of the Universe"
itself. Unambiguous results for the presence of anisotropy of the speed of light are obtained up
to now.
The approach in this paper is that fairness requires that experiments have to be related
to the reference system, associated with the space itself, where the Earth moves and warps the
space around. The results:
- Constant speed of light in time-spatial domains with equal gravitational potential.
- Explanation of the anomaly in the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 at escaping from
the Sun's gravity with "acceleration of the speed of the electromagnetic radiation"
emanated from the spacecrafts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1107.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-28 18:09:43*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 36 Pages

The Special Theory of Relativity is disproved here using simple high school algebra. The theory of relativity is LACED throughout and therefore clouds modern scientific thinking. As with Aristotle’s theory about everything being made of earth, air, fire, and water, or that a heavier canon ball will fall to earth faster than a lighter wooden ball, said theories standing for over 2000 years, Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity is also wrong and has stood intact for over 100 years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1107.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose a simple universal theory/model of the atom composed of anti-neutrons, electrons, positrons,
and neutrinos which better explains fusion, fission, radioactivity, electromagnetic radiation, gravity,
electric force, magnetic force, and the strong force.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1107.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper takes a look at the formulating of the unified field
theory and the theory of everything. It shows how a unified field
theory and theory of everything may be obtained. It also brings
up a number of new and controversial concepts relating to nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1107.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-30 08:08:54*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2012, Vol. 1, No. 13, P. 1 – 15.

The essence of mass and its relation to the relativistic energy is considered. It is assumed that the rest energy is equal to the total binding energy of the body and can be found through the energies of fundamental fields associated with the substance of the body. Mass as a measure of inertia is calculated by relativistic energy and relativistic momentum. The conclusion is made that after radiation of energy from a system the mass of the system must not decrease, but increase. The opposite case is heating of bodies by external sources, which must be accompanied by an increase in entropy and decrease in the mass of the bodies. On the basis of strong gravitation the mass defect of atomic nuclei is explained. Conclusions of the general theory of relativity and the covariant theory of gravitation with respect to the mass and energy of gravitational field are opposite – in the general theory of relativity, relativistic energy and mass of a body are reduced by the mass-energy of its own gravitational field, and in the covariant theory of gravitation the mass-energy of the gravitational field increases the relativistic energy and body mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1107.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-17 20:44:11*

**Authors:** Hartmut Traunmüller

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Withdrawn in order to be replaced by several more narrowly focused papers

Current doctrines relevant to cosmology are criticized for not being well founded, not being based on definitions and unquestionable first principles alone or violating such principles. This concerns inertia as an action of space in classical mechanics and general relativity, simultaneity in special relativity, creation out of nothing, and the plethora of means that guard the Big Bang paradigm against falsification (dark matter, cosmic inflation, dark energy, size evolution of galaxies, etc.). It is shown that a kinematic spacetime theory characterized by Lorentz symmetry can be derived from geometry alone. The foundation for a dynamic spacetime theory is also laid. It is characterized by a substratum that expands since it is pulled into gravitational potential wells. This expansion explains the cosmic redshift, Olber's paradox and the finiteness of gravitational forces in an infinite world. The apparent magnitude of type Ia supernovae, the angular size and the surface brightness of distant galaxies are shown to compare favorably with the new approach. It is suggested that the energy that is lost by redshifting light is the source of the CMBR. The cosmic energy cycle, whose existence the approach implies, and the super-Newtonian cohesion of galaxies and clusters remain yet to be understood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1107.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 6 pages

The leading idea of this paper is to prove the theorem of Wigner with concepts and
methods inspired by geometry. The exercise mentionned in the title has two functions: On
the one hand it can serve as a pedagogical text in order to make the reader acquainted with
the essential features of the theorem and its proof. On the other hand it will turn out to
be the core of the general proof.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1107.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 18 pages

Quantum mechanics (QM) has the problem of lacking a coherent conceptual foundation, even if its quantitative algorithms are functionally adequate. This paper appraises the conceptual logic beneath quantum mechanics, using as the point of reference a novel alternative conceptual framework called the cordus conjecture. If the cordus conjecture is correct then the comparison suggests that quantum mechanics is conceptually fallacious in several areas: (1) Particles need not be zero-dimensional points after all. (2) Bell's theorem is refuted as being not universally applicable, and the principle of locality also fails. (3) The wavefunction is a mathematical approximation of a deeper reality, and superposition is not a physical state. (4) Superposition confounds positional and causal (temporal) variability, and this causes the weirdness of the QM interpretations. (5) Cordus identifies the factors that cause decoherence and (6) explains why quantum mechanics does not scale up to macroscopic objects. (7) It is fallacious to consider fields and particles as independent phenomena. Instead they are closely coupled in the cordus, and this explains the measurement context. Several core principles of QM are thereby refuted. The paradox of Schrödinger's Cat is explained as an artefact of these flawed premises. The paper also explains why the mathematical machinery of quantum mechanics is a reasonable approximation to reality, even if the concepts are not. The mathematics works, at least within a certain scale-range where: (a) things look like particles and the proposed cordus structure is not evident (i.e. not too small) and (b) where body-coherence is attainable (i.e. not too large). Outside of that range quantum mechanics seems neither conceptually nor mathematically relevant. The same analysis predicts QM is unlikely to scale down to the next deeper level of physics. The implications are that QM is profoundly deficient in its conceptual foundations, and is only an approximation of a deeper and more logically consistent mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1107.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Edward Fredkin

**Comments:** 1 page

We describe a hypothetical apparatus for making arbitrarily accurate simultaneous successive
measurements of a particle's positions, momenta, energies and times.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1107.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 5 pages

Here in this 'paper' a deeper analysis of the 'dark energy force formula' in the
Double Torus Cosmology is made. Earlier 'papers' were posted as 'pre-papers' in the
vixra-archive. These are subject to a new cosmological hypothesis, being further described
in higher order mathematics in the near future by Christopher Forbes. I have found
evidence through an unexpected interpretation of CMB results, that the 'dark energy force
formula' appears to be a functional 'recalculation-mechanism' for quantum gravity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[12] **viXra:1107.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Alfredo G. Oliveira

**Comments:** 21 pages, 7 figures

This work presents a critical yet previously unnoticed property of the units of some constants, able
of supporting a new, self-similar, model of the universe. This model displays a variation of scale
with invariance of dimensionless parameters, a characteristic of self-similar phenomena displayed
by cosmic data. The model is deducted from two observational results (expansion of space and
invariance of constants) and has just one parameter, the Hubble parameter. Somewhat surprisingly,
classic physical laws hold both in standard and comoving units, except for a small new term in the
angular momentum law that is beyond present possibilities of direct measurement. In spite of having
just one parameter, the model is as successful as the ΛCDM model in the classic cosmic tests, and
a value of H_{0} = 64 kms^{-1}Mpc^{-1} is obtained from the fitting with supernovae Ia data from Union
compilation. It is shown that in standard units the model corresponds to Big Bang cosmologies,
namely to the ΛCDM model, unveiling what dark energy stands for. This scaling (dilation) model is a
one-parameter model that seems able of fitting cosmic data, that does not conflict with fundamental
physical laws and that is not dependent on hypotheses, being straightforwardly deducted from the
two observational results above mentioned.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1107.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 12 Pages

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are
either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral
disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate
arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since
arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured one
as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which is
based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all equiangular
spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates the
spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the seventh galaxy
(NGC 5921) that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples
of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10] **viXra:1107.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 12 Pages

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are
either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral
disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate
arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since
arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured
one as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which
is based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all
equiangular spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates
the spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the sixth galaxy
(NGC 5701) that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples
of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9] **viXra:1107.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 12 Pages

Weakly interacted galaxies present very simple body structure. They are
either three-dimensional objects resembling ellipsoids or flat-shaped disks showing spiral
disturbance. Elliptical galaxies present little dust and gas but spiral galaxies demonstrate
arms and rings which are characterized by containing a huge amount of dust and gas. Since
arms and rings are linear-shaped, the body structure of spiral galaxies may be a textured
one as earth-bound materials always are. This led to the concept of rational structure which
is based on proportion curves. The proportion curves for normal spiral galaxies are all
equiangular spirals which trace or cut through arms consistently. This paper demonstrates
the spider-shaped proportion curves for barred spiral galaxies. It shows for the fifth galaxy
(NGC 4930) that the curves do trace or cut through arms or rings consistently. More examples
of barred galaxies will be studied for the testification of Nature's rationality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8] **viXra:1107.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** A. Rozenkevich

**Comments:** v1 in Russian (6 pages), v2 in English (6 pages)

A mathematical derivation of geometry is rigidly rotating disk dust, taking into account special relativity.
Based on this formula are defined geometric forms a rotating disk, sphere and torus.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1107.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 10 pages

Based on Richard Feynman's argument in rejection of Fatio/Le-Sage's gravity, I
indicate that dark energy, or the "something" that pushes galaxies apart must do its
magic without killing inertia of the galactic matter rotational motion. I then turn to
investigate the Hubble expansion: independent studies from different areas of physics
reveal that the age of the universe is closely 13.7Gy. This substantially corresponds to
the inverse of the Hubble parameter H0. I suggest that our era is not unique: the age of
the universe at any given time ATB is equal to the inverse of the Hubble parameter at
the given time. I propose to substitute the conventional Hubble parameter H0 which
relates to expansion of distances, by a volumetric form of the same, vH0,
corresponding to the volumetric expansion of space. A formula is derived
accordingly, which connects between the volumetric Hubble parameter at any given
age of the universe, the volumetric Hubble parameter at any other given age, and the
time separation between these two ages. Logical study of the formula reveals that the
Hubble expansion is analogous to, and may actually result from, an addition of
constant amount of space "units" per a unit of time, into the universe. I postulate that
space itself possesses the peculiar property of interacting with matter in a selective
manner which on the one hand results with a drag thereby producing the universal
expansion, and on the other complies with Feynman's argument and does not result
with an inertia killing drag. In the initiation of the bang, the first constant amount
entered a zero volume gravity free universe, since gravity depends on the presence of
space, and was able to occur only after a time delay T2 (see Article 2) each EMP must
experience before it builds up its field and before it can respond to fields generated by
others. In the absence of gravity, no energy nor inflaton were required for initiating
the bang and for dragging the elementary particles apart merely by space units
entering in between. I further postulate that as a phenomenon of space, gravity is
distributed volumetrically. Consequently, for cosmological distances the propagation
of gravity becomes slower than the expansion of space, thus receding galaxies are
gravitationally unbounded. It follows that the Hubble expansion does not require any
sort of energy, since there is no gravitational attraction to defeat, nor inertia to
produce.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1107.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this paper we prove ...(see paper) part 6

**Category:** Geometry

[5] **viXra:1107.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this paper we prove ...(see paper) part 5

**Category:** Geometry

[4] **viXra:1107.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this paper we prove ...(see paper) part 4

**Category:** Geometry

[3] **viXra:1107.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Mircea Eugen Selariu

**Comments:** 18 pages, In Romanian

LOBE EXTERIOARE SI CVAZILOBE INTERIOARE
CERCULUI UNITATE

**Category:** Geometry

[2] **viXra:1107.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 pages, submitted to Foundations of Physics

The main features of how to build a Born's Reciprocal Gravitational
theory in curved phase-spaces are developed. The scalar curvature of the
8D cotangent bundle (phase space) is explicitly evaluated and a generalized
gravitational action in 8D is constructed that yields the observed
value of the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke-Jordan Gravity
action in 4D as two special cases. It is found that the geometry of the
momentum space can be linked to the observed value of the cosmological
constant when the curvature in momentum space is very large, namely
the small size of P is of the order of (1/R_{Hubble}). More general 8D actions
can be developed that involve sums of 5 distinct types of torsion squared
terms and 3 distinct curvature scalars R,P, S. Finally we develop a Born's
reciprocal complex gravitational theory as a local gauge theory in 8D of
the deformed Quaplectic group that is given by the semi-direct product
of U(1, 3) with the deformed (noncommutative) Weyl-Heisenberg group
involving four noncommutative coordinates and momenta. The metric is
complex with symmetric real components and antisymmetric imaginary
ones. An action in 8D involving 2 curvature scalars and torsion squared
terms is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1107.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 5 pages.

Special Relativity Theory (SRT) has two postulates, one stating that the laws of physics are the same for
all observers, and the other stating that the speed of light is the constant 186,000 miles per second, regardless of
any reference frames. As a result of these postulates, SRT renders predictions such as: 1) No object can travel
faster than 186,000 miles per second (the speed of light itself); 2) On approaching the speed of light, a moving
object contracts in length in the direction of motion, while 3) a clock traveling with the object slows down; 4)
The mass of an object multiplied by the square of the speed of light gives energy ( E = mc^{2} ); i.e., mass could be
converted to energy and vice versa; 5) Observers do not agree on the simultaneity of events - two events that are
simultaneous for one observer might not be simultaneous for another.
There are evident inconsistencies among these predictions. There is also a philosophical problem relating
to the nature of reality. Could there be more than one reality in Nature; that is, can reality be subjective, and
only a matter of interpretation? This paper explores the evident inconsistencies and the philosophical problem
by developing arguments and providing numerical examples.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology