[366] **viXra:1603.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 15:33:29*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Mass conversion locally to kinetic energy at high speed

A first attempt to extend Polarizable Vacuum theory of Harold Puthoff and others to high speed in deep space quickly failed the test of special relativity for all velocities other than zero. The mass function of PV theory was found to be the main cause of failure, while Puthoff’s choice of invariant Planck constant was a second limitation.
Calculations at high velocity suggested the Puthoff mass function is not in agreement with his choice invariant Planck constant. A new mass function was derived in the Puthoff system holding Planck constant invariant with high speed.
Further modification to PV theory is proposed for consistency with Heisenberg Uncertainty principle in exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum. Planck constant was allowed to vary slowly with stress energy, based on work by Niels Bohr in 1949. Relativistic factors were calculated for extending the theory to high speed in deep space transport vehicles.
Both modifications are used to predict a polarization in the vacuum can arise from high speed of prolonged acceleration, resulting in localized stress energy curvature of space. A weakness of PV theory is removed by offering high speed as a source of vacuum polarization to supplement the previous suggestions for field effect generators of the future.
A third modification to PV theory was attempted to adjust energy and variation of Planck constant for agreement with the Puthoff mass function. Results were not in compliance with established principles of energy and momentum derived from accelerator experiments. The Puthoff mass function was not retained in any conclusion of velocity greater than zero, or expressed in the graphical presentation of results.
In reasonable agreement with LIGO published data on merging black holes, mass energy conversion to kinetic energy is predicted to occur at high speed in the frame of action, although long standing theories require the opposite to appear in the frame of a distant observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[365] **viXra:1603.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 21:06:44*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Russian Robert Yusupov © Theory of the evolution of the Universe. Physics’s of process

В настоящей статье представлена авторская модель эволюционного развития Вселенной (YRA-модель) и представлен график этой модели. Сама Вселенная рассматривается, как составная часть единого тандема «Сингулярность – Вселенная» (СВ). Этот тандем представляет собой единый материальный космологический объект. Это динамический эволюционирующий объект. В его основе лежит движущаяся материя. Эволюционный путь развития тандема СВ и Вселенной конечен во времени и ограничен в пространстве. Вселенная возникла из Сингулярности много лет назад и уйдёт в небытие (в Сингулярность) через много лет в будущем. Новая рожденная Вселенная повторит тот же самый, что и предшествующая, но всё же свой уникальный, собственный цикл эволюционного развития. Это будет другая Вселенная, и это будет другая эволюция. Окончание эволюции нашей Вселенной в далёком будущем завершится Большим вселенским схлопом (БВС), когда вся материя Вселенной за один миг собирается или «схлопывывается» в Сингулярности. Этот Большой вселенский схлоп (БВС) в свою очередь станет материальным «первотолчком» для начала новой эволюции новой Вселенной. Таков циклический путь эволюции, эволюционного развития Вселенной. Это закон природы. Природа – это объективная материальная реальность, первичная сущность. Ничего в материальном мире, окружающем нас, стоящего вне природы, за природой, над природой нет. Нет никакого наблюдателя за природой. В природе нет никакого бога, никакого дьявола, никакой абсолютной идеи, никакой вселенской воли! В природе есть только материя и законы ее движения и развития! Эта статья также, как и все другие мои статьи, размещённые на этом сайте (vixra.org), являются препринтами.
----------
Ключевые слова: природа, материя, Вселенная, Сингулярность, абсолютное вселенское время, абсолютный возраст Вселенной, крупица материи.
----------
In the present article the author's model of evolutionary development of the Universe (YRA-model) and a graph of this model are presented. The Universe is considered, how a component of a uniform tandem of the «Singularity – Universe» (SU). This tandem represents the uniform material (from the word matter) cosmology object. It is the dynamic dialectic evolving object. In its basis the moving matter lies. The evolutionary way of the development of the tandem SU and the whole Universe are limited in the time. The tandem SU and the whole Universe is limited in the volume and space. The Universe has arisen from the Singularity many years ago and will leave in a non-existence (into the Singularity) in many years in the future. The new born Universe will repeat the same, as previous, but nevertheless the unique own cycle of evolutionary development. It will be a new and other Universe and it will be a new and other evolution. The termination of the evolution of our Universe in the far future will come to the end Big Universal Skhlop (or Shift) (BUS), when the whole matter of the Universe for one instant gathers or shifts into the Singularity. This Big Universal Skhlop (or Shift) (BUS) in turn becomes the first matter impulse to start new evolution of the new Universe. Such is a cyclic way of the evolutionary development of the Universe. It is the nature law. Nature is an objective material (from the word matter) reality, the primary entity. Nothing in the material world around us standing outside of the nature or behind of the nature or above the nature is present. There is no observer of the nature. In the nature there is no god, no devil, no absolute idea, no universal will. In nature there is only matter and laws of its motion and development! This article also, as well as all other my articles placed on this site (vixra.org), are the pre-prints.
----------
Keywords: nature, matter, the Universe, the Singularity, absolute universal time, absolute age of the Universe, atom of the matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[364] **viXra:1603.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 22:44:34*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 14 Pages. news identities for primes, binomial sums and euler, bernoulli numbers

A survey is made based on finite sums of the polygamma function with rational arguments which are
D_(k,j)^n=∑_((m,n)=1)▒〖χ_j (n)ψ(k,m/n) 〗
Where, χ_j (n) is the j’th Dirichlet character and ψ(k,m/n) is the polygamma function of order k.
We use this representation to rewrite identities using a new notation for linear combinations of mathematical constants. Identities are given for prime numbers using irrational constants. For negative argument n we use the generalization of Espinosa and Moll[6], well implemented into Maple CAS.

**Category:** Number Theory

[363] **viXra:1603.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 14:09:17*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) there exist positive integers k such that the number (30*k)\\(30*k + p) is prime for an infinity of primes p. I used the operator “\\” with the meaning “concatenated to”; (II) there exist primes p such that the number (30*k)\\(30*k + p) is prime for an infinity of values of k; (III) there exist an infinity of primes of the form (30*k)\\(30*k + 1), where k positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[362] **viXra:1603.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 14:10:42*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I define a Smarandache reconcatenated sequence Sr(n) as “the sequence obtained from the terms of a Smarandache concatenated sequence S(n), terms for which was applied the operation of consecutive concatenation” and I present six such sequences. Example: for Smarandache consecutive numbers sequence (1, 12, 123, 1234, 12345...), the Smarandache reconcatenated consecutive numbers sequence has the terms: 1, 112, 112123, 1121231234, 112123123412345...). According to the same pattern, we can define back reconcatenated sequences (the terms of the Smarandache back reconcatenated consecutive numbers sequence, noted Sbr(n), are 1, 121, 123121, 1234123121...).

**Category:** Number Theory

[361] **viXra:1603.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 14:57:47*

**Authors:** Junichi Hashimoto

**Comments:** 27 pages

This universe is the so-called "clockwork organization". If a metagalaxy is compared to "clock", each "part" of which that's composed will be each object (galaxy, star, elements and atom). Those have to be equipped with the individuality in the purpose which is the organization. It's possible to be continuing this universe by existence's with the peculiar feature in the size, the mass and speed harmonizing in one structure. The natural world is formed by such harmony principle. If it's so, to elucidate such mechanizm of harmony has to be the main purpose of physical science. Certainly, physicists were approaching mystery of its harmony sharply under the vision as action through medium. But the try didn't succeed. Such try was effective by the part, but maybe that couldn't finish catching the natural true form. So I stand as the vision as action at a distance and have advanced a study originally. Each members in this world considered to be harmonized each other by exerting the force each other by action at a distance, and "relationship physics" was produced newly. As a result, I succeeded to explain all force which exists in the natural world in one structure.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[360] **viXra:1603.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 15:16:49*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[359] **viXra:1603.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 11:05:06*

**Authors:** Carles R Paul, Albert Serra, Ricard Bosch

**Comments:** 7 pages

It is a mistake to believe that the primitive experiments, known as the origin of the physical sciences, have been sufficiently studied and therefore it is impossible to extract from them some new and important knowledge. This view has contributed to the perpetuation of some misconceptions. The study of such experiments from other points of view, and applying new techniques, makes it possible to expand their meaning and understanding. Einstein must have thought this way since in 1905 decided to study the Faraday disk and, by doing so, discovered the theory of relativity, according to which the magnetic field is a consequence of the relative motion of different signs electric charges. The verifications of the theory of general relativity by cosmological experiments have led to the belief that the special relativity theory is irrelevant in terrestrial dimensions and speed. Therefore, it is important to correct this error by simple laboratory experiments, whose explanation is only possible by using special relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[358] **viXra:1603.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 07:47:59*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Praveen Kumar, Rishideo Kumar, Vikrant Raj

**Comments:** 06 Pages. Unpublished

Computational epitaxial thin film deposition of Bi thin films with variation of polar angle and ion fluence was presented.Specific polar angles giving higher deposition rate were observed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[357] **viXra:1603.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 08:15:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29]
A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28]
Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[356] **viXra:1603.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 08:59:45*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Hypergeometric function 3F2 , Polylogarithm function Li2 and Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[355] **viXra:1603.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 09:42:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In dynamic neuronal networks, pervasive oscillatory activity is usually explained by pointing to pacemaking elements that synchronize and drive the network. Recently, however, scientists at The Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel studied synchronized periodic bursting that emerged spontaneously in a network of in vitro rat hippocampus and cortex neurons, finding that roughly 60% of all active neurons were self-sustained oscillators when disconnected from the network – and that each neuron oscillated at its own frequency, which is controlled by the neuron's excitability. [10] Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9] Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[354] **viXra:1603.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 04:02:07*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The experiments, conducted by the author; demonstrate the physical equivalence between the repulsion between two powerful Neodymium magnets and reverse Casimir effect (nanoscale) and macroscopic scale (The spherical shell of actual observable Universe); and as measuring weight on an electronic balance of this repulsive force, it causes the appearance of a fictitious mass; dependent on the repulsive force between the two magnets. One of these magnets is positioned above the balance; while the other slowly magnet is positioned right in the perpendicular axis that would link the centers of both circular magnets. (Circular disks). There is no difference between this experiment and the physical results of the experiments carried out at the microscopic level and measured experimentally: The reverse Casimir effect of a conducting spherical shell. The actual comportment of the Universe to macroscopic scales; with the manifestation of an accelerated expansion and the emergence of a fictitious mass, which does not exist; the so-called dark matter. The three physical phenomena with identical results are equivalent; so they could have a common physical origin. In the article, we have inserted links to videos uploaded to youtube that let you see the whole experimental process and its results. The last experiment is made with other balance; more shielded against interference magnetism and the magnet placed over the balance.
The videos are explained in Spanish. They are welcome English subtitles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[353] **viXra:1603.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 17:00:06*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, we combined into a single equation of the curvature of Finsler geometry , Fisher information and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[352] **viXra:1603.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 18:19:23*

**Authors:** Brian Scannell

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We look here at the geometry of zeta(3). By piling cubes a 3D shape is defined which has a volume of zeta(3). This shape is a double integral form for zeta(3). Considering the centroid of this shape leads to an experimental estimate for zeta(3). Cutting the shape parallel to the x axis reproduces the dilogarithmic relationship to zeta(3). Cutting the shape in the z axis reproduces the logarithmic version of Riemann’s formula for zeta(3). Geometrical considerations also reproduce formula for the polylog of a half Lin(1/2) for n=2 and 3.
These are illustrations of number geometry.

**Category:** Number Theory

[351] **viXra:1603.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 21:39:45*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Motivated by the call for a more flexible, easy-to-tune means of generating chaos, the present work elaborates upon the development of the Ramanujan Theta Function as a source of chaos. By setting the variables of this function to sinusoids of competing frequencies the chaotic output signal is generated, with the ratio of the input frequencies serving as control parameter. The characteristics of such chaos generated are studied using the iterative map and bifurcation plots, and the presence of chaos is ascertained using Lyapunov Exponents and Kolmogorov Entropy. Following this, the route from order to chaos of the proposed system are studied using three techniques – phase portrait, Fourier Spectra and wavelet analysis. In the phase portraits, it is seen that for non-chaotic regimes, phase portraits are orderly with definite number of loops, whereas for chaotic regimes, trajectories are spread all over the phase space, suggesting ergodicity and giving the phase portrait a rich, ornamental look. The Fourier spectra highlighted the discrete frequency components in non-chaotic regimes, with well formed sidebands, whereas in chaotic regimes, a lot of new frequency components are seen, giving the spectral profile a ‘grassy’ appearance. Finally, a hyperbolic wavelet, termed the Solitary Wavelet seen to possess vanishing higher order moments with a negative logarithmic slope, is used as the basis to perform wavelet analysis. The results reveal that the rhythmic periodicity observed in large scale values for non-chaotic regimes is significantly absent for chaotic regimes, with variations in the trends of new pulses emerging alongside the main pulse train. It is seen that the wavelet analyses combine the best features of phase portrait analyses (ergodicity detected by peak sporadicity and pulse variance), and Fourier Spectral analyses (new frequency component generation seen by observing dominance at various scales, and new peaks at lower scales corresponding to new pulses), while revealing additional features such as fractal nature, not seen in the other two analysis tools. In summary, the present article ushers in a novel perspective pertaining to signal oriented chaos, calling for a change in the way bifurcation plots and iterative maps are perceived, as also the means to generate and control such chaos. It is hoped that the wavelet analysis, highlighting both spectral and temporal aspects of the signal, emerges as a reliable and assertive qualitative means to identify, detect and to an extent, characterize the nature of chaos, either stand-alone, or in conjunction with tools such as phase portraits. Progress in such an area will eventually drive chaos analyses away from Lyapunov Exponents, which are most useful in system based chaos where initial conditions are well known, and are at best computed with approximations from output chaotic signals, using methods such as the Rosenstein Algorithm.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[350] **viXra:1603.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 00:19:34*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 2010 Jason J. Sharples, an Associate Professor at the University of New South Wales, wrote an article titled ‘Watching the World Cup’. Despite the title, the article addresses a number of papers and articles refuting the theories of black holes and Big Bang cosmology written by Stephen J. Crothers. In his article, Sharples has committed several major errors, and resorted to language unbefitting a publicly funded professorship when addressing the person of Crothers. After some rolling preamble, Sharples disputes two matters addressed by Crothers: (a) Einstein’s Principle of Equivalence, (b) Einstein’s pseudotensor. In the first case Sharples incorrectly argues that multiple arbitrarily large finite masses are not involved in its definition. In the second case he failed to understand the problem and thereby expounded upon an entirely different matter that was never contested by Crothers in the first place - Sharples confounded the Einstein tensor for Einstein’s pseudotensor and consequently did not even address the issue.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[349] **viXra:1603.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 00:58:26*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recently we have provided a physically consistent and a mathematically justified ontological model
of Heisenberg's suggested "potentia" in quantum mechanics. What arises is that parallel to the real three dimensional
$SO(3)_l$ space there is a coexisting dual space called potentia space $SO(3)_p$,
wherein velocity $c \rightarrow \infty$. How does this affect gravity?
We show here that gravity actually sits in the space of potentia.
The space of potentia does not allow gauging. Thus gravity is not quantized.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[348] **viXra:1603.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 01:31:45*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, there was no Big Bang and there is no dark energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[347] **viXra:1603.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 10:34:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[346] **viXra:1603.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 11:09:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One the most intriguing physics discoveries of the last century was the existence of antimatter, material that exists as the "mirror image" of subatomic particles of matter, such as electrons, protons and quarks, but with the opposite charge. Antimatter deepened our understanding of our universe and the laws of physics, and now the same idea is being proposed to explain something equally mysterious: memory. [10] Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9] Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[345] **viXra:1603.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 08:27:44*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Is reality continuous or discrete ? As for the matter and the energy , both are composed of concrete elements : photons , electrons , molecules…Therefore it is pertinent to ask whether spacetime is made of any type of discrete , elementary ingredients . A preliminary approach to this issue is presented . It consists of numerical and geometric equivalences. The introduction of few parameters will help us to analyze some physical and cosmological subjects.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[344] **viXra:1603.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 05:34:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has laid out a novel scheme to check whether any number is Prime or not.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[343] **viXra:1603.0404 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 09:57:15*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We oﬀer a new look on multiparticle theory which was initiated in a recent philosophical paper [1] of the author. To accomplish such feature, we start by a revision and extension of the single particle theory as well relativistically as nonrelativistically. Standard statistics gets an interpre- tation in terms of symmetry properties of the two point function and any reference towards all existing quantization schemes is dropped. As I have repeatedly stated and was also beautifully explained by Weinberg, there is no a priori rationale why quantum ﬁeld theory should take the form it does in a curved spacetime; there is no reason why the straightforward generalizations of the Klein Gordon and Dirac theory should have some- thing to do with the real world. Perhaps, if we were to look diﬀerently at the ﬂat theory, a completely satisfactory class of relativistic quantum theories would emerge. These may not have anything to do with quantum ﬁelds at all except in some limit.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[342] **viXra:1603.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 07:26:23*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present the following four Smarandache type sequences: (I) The sequence of numbers obtained concatenating the positive integers of the form 6*k – 1; (II) The sequence of numbers obtained concatenating the primes of the form 6*k – 1; (III) The sequence of numbers obtained concatenating the positive integers of the form 6*k + 1; (IV) The sequence of numbers obtained concatenating the primes of the form 6*k + 1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[341] **viXra:1603.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 07:29:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: There exist an infinity of primes S(n+1) + S(n) - 1, where S(n) is a term in Smarandache concatenated odd sequence (which is defined as the sequence obtained through the concatenation of the first n odd primes).

**Category:** Number Theory

[340] **viXra:1603.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 01:48:26*

**Authors:** LI WeiGang

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The famous photoemission experiments to natural light as the light source, can be drawn: photoemission or not, depending on the wavelength of the irradiated light (frequency), regardless of the intensity of the irradiation light - the conclusion;
However, if the laser coherence excellent redo corresponding experiments, but also Is that right?
My guess: a laser redo photoemission experiment, the low-frequency high-intensity laser irradiation, and they can play photoelectron.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[339] **viXra:1603.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 02:55:36*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** would be 2 page contribution to Rencontres De Moriond, Cosmology, as a poster contribution

This summary of results poses the question of a minimum cosmological constant, i.e. vacuum energy at the start of the cosmological evolution from a near singularity. We pose this comparing formalism as given by Berry (1976) as to a minimum time length, and compare that with a minimum time length at the start of cosmological space-time evolution. This we use a minimum time length a way of specifying a magnetic field dependence of the cosmological constant. The presented results are a summary of results in JHEPGC, and is referencing the JHEPGC article. The cited results use the idea of a magnetic monopole charge to start with

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[338] **viXra:1603.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 03:31:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[337] **viXra:1603.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 15:21:45*

**Authors:** Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The problem of the true rate of time course in the field of gravity: time dilation or time acceleration in the gravitational field - what effect is valid? What physical measurements and arguments we really have, and do they satisfy the strictly scientific point of view?
To the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin.
According to the general theory of relativity (GTR), time goes slower in the field of gravity. The GTR uses several arguments to prove the postulate about gravitational time dilation.
We will look at all these arguments and we will show that all of them can’t be the direct evidence of time dilation in the field of gravity and that they are only indirect proof in the GTR’s paradigm.
We insist that till now there is no even one physical fact as the direct experimental or measurement data that can prove gravitational time dilation. Gravitational time dilation is just the hypothetical physical effect of GTR that does not have a valid measurement till the present time.
Without an exact physical measurement, gravitational time dilation has the status of the theoretical hypothesis as the opposite effect - gravitational time acceleration (the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin: an atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) is increased in a gravitational field - time goes faster in the field of gravity and the value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential).
Both hypotheses are based on their theoretical models, each of them has its theoretical and physical arguments. Only a valid measurement of a direct comparison of the clocks readings in conditions of different gravitational potentials will provide a physical fact (direct physical evidence) proving gravitational time dilation or gravitational time acceleration.
We will prove that in spite of different physical measurements there is no the direct proof of gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[336] **viXra:1603.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 11:28:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The proton sounds like a simple object, but it's not. Inside, there's a teeming microcosm of quarks and gluons with properties such as spin and "color" charge that contribute to the particle's seemingly simplistic role as a building block of visible matter. By analyzing the particle debris emitted from collisions of polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), scientists say they've found a new way to glimpse that internal microcosm. They've measured a key effect of the so-called color interaction-the basis for the strong nuclear force that binds quarks within the proton. This new measurement tests, for the first time, theoretical concepts that are essential for mapping the proton's three-dimensional internal structure. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[335] **viXra:1603.0396 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-10 13:38:55*

**Authors:** Christian Rakotonirina, Simon Rasamizafy

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The properties of what we call inverse-symmetric matrices have helped us for constructing a basis of C^(3×3) which satisfy four properties of the Kronecker generalized Pauli matrices. The Pauli group of this basis has been defined. In using some properties of the Kronecker commutation matrices, bases of C^(5×5) and C^(6×6) which share the same properties have also been constructed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[334] **viXra:1603.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 07:52:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[333] **viXra:1603.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 05:08:39*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of quintets of primes (p, p + 10, p + 30, p + 40, p + 60), where p is a prime of the form 6*k + 1; (II) there exist an infinity of primes of the form p\\(p + 10)\\(p + 30)\\(p + 40)\\(p + 60), where p is a number of the form 6*k + 1. I used the operator “\\” with the meaning “concatenated to”.

**Category:** Number Theory

[332] **viXra:1603.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 06:17:41*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of quintets of primes (p, p + 20, p + 30, p + 50, p + 80), where p is a prime of the form 6*k - 1; (II) there exist an infinity of primes of the form p\\(p + 20)\\(p + 30)\\(p + 50)\\(p + 80), where p is a number of the form 6*k - 1. I used the operator “\\” with the meaning “concatenated to”.

**Category:** Number Theory

[331] **viXra:1603.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-16 08:20:52*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper the design and coding of a local hidden variables model is presented that violates the Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt, $|$CHSH$|$ $\leq 2$ inequality. Numerically we find with our local computer program, CHSH $\approx 1 + \sqrt{2}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[330] **viXra:1603.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 03:17:35*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: There exist an infinity of primes S(n) + S(n + 1) - 1, where S(n) is a term in Smarandache-Wellin sequence (which is defined as the sequence obtained through the concatenation of the first n primes).

**Category:** Number Theory

[329] **viXra:1603.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 05:12:11*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we introduce an exact escape velocity that also holds under very strong gravitational fields, even below the Schwarzschild radius. The standard escape velocity known from modern physics is only valid under weak gravitational fields. This paper strongly indicates that an extensive series of interpretations around the Schwarzschild radius are wrong and were developed as a result of using an approximate escape velocity that not is accurate when we approach strong gravitational fields. Einstein's general relativity escape velocity as well as the gravitational time dilation and gravitational redshift that are derived from the Schwarzschild metric need to be modified; in reality, they are simply approximations that only give good predictions in low gravitational fields. This paper could have major implications for gravitational physics as well as a long series of interpretations in cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[328] **viXra:1603.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 20:07:50*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This report provides a brief outline and literature listing dealing with the discovery of the existence of Dynamical Space, and the subsequent generalisation to Maxwell Electromagnetic Theory, Schrodinger and Dirac Quantum Theory, and the emergence of Gravity as a quantum effect. This amounts to the unified theory of gravity and quantum phenomena. All theory developments have been experimentally and observationally checked.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[327] **viXra:1603.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 13:13:58*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper we show some formulas for the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[326] **viXra:1603.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 13:17:44*

**Authors:** Edgar valdebenito

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas for the Fcg(i) constant

**Category:** General Mathematics

[325] **viXra:1603.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 13:36:36*

**Authors:** Carreño ED, Diener M, Cruz EHM, Navaux POA

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

One of the most important aspects that influences the performance of
parallel applications is the speed of communication between their tasks. To optimize communication, tasks that exchange lots of data should be mapped to processing units that have a high network performance. This technique is called communication-aware task mapping and requires detailed information about the underlying network topology for an accurate mapping. Previous work on task mapping focuses on network clusters or shared memory architectures, in which the topology can be determined directly from the hardware environment. Cloud computing adds significant challenges to task mapping, since information about network topologies is not available to end users. Furthermore, the communication performance might change due to external factors, such as different usage patterns of other users. In this paper, we present a novel solution to perform communication-
aware task mapping in the context of commercial cloud environments with multiple instances. Our proposal consists of a short profiling phase to discover the network topology and speed between cloud instances. The profiling can be executed before each application start as it causes only a negligible overhead. This information is then used together with the communication pattern of the parallel application to group tasks based on the amount of communication and to map groups with a lot of communication between them to cloud instances with a high network performance. In this way, application performance is increased, and data traffic between instances is reduced. We evaluated our proposal in a public cloud with a variety of MPI-based parallel benchmarks from the HPC domain, as well as a large scientific application. In the experiments, we observed substantial performance improvements (up to 11 times faster) compared to the default scheduling policies.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[324] **viXra:1603.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 14:55:44*

**Authors:** A. G. Dyshkant

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Язык русский. На основе Общей теории отноительности А. Эйнштейна

Новый взгляд на время и пространство в видимой части вселенной.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[323] **viXra:1603.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 12:27:12*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper is an extension of an earlier paper titled QUANTUM PARTICLES, CONSCIOUSNESS, UNIFIED FIELD THEORY AND RELATIVITY. It addresses the conundrum relating to nature and consciousness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[322] **viXra:1603.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 08:38:57*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

Beta decay and beta radiation of electrons (the weak force) is a part of nearly all radioactivity,[2][3][4] and are still not well understood. Fission reactions seem to lose mass while fusion shows a gain of mass. We examine these enigmas in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[321] **viXra:1603.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 05:12:44*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Space whirlwinds (tornadoes, tornado) have the power nature.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[320] **viXra:1603.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 05:25:23*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, the Universe can't have the flat form.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[319] **viXra:1603.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-27 16:43:22*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) there exist always a prime of the form p^2 + 18*m between the squares p^2 and q^2 of a pair of twin primes [p, q = p + 2], beside the pair [3, 5]; examples: for [p^2, q^2] = [11^2, 13^2] = [121, 169] there exist the primes 139 = 121 + 1*18) and 157 = 121 + 2*18; for [p^2, q^2] = [17^2, 19^2] = [289, 361] there exist the prime 307 = 289 + 1*18); (II) there exist always a prime of the form q^2 – 18*n between the squares p^2 and q^2 of a pair of twin primes [p, q = p + 2], beside the pair [3, 5]; examples: for [p^2, q^2] = [11^2, 13^2] = [121, 169] there exist the prime 151 = 169 – 1*18); for [p^2, q^2] = [17^2, 19^2] = [289, 361] there exist the prime 307 = 361 – 3*18); (III) there exist an infinity of r primes of the form p^2 + 18*m or q^2 – 18*n between the squares p^2 and q^2 of a pair of twin primes [p, q = p + 2] such that the number obtained concatenating p^2 to the right with r is prime; example: 121139 is prime; (IV) there exist an infinity of r primes of the form p^2 + 18*m or q^2 - 18*n between the squares p^2 and q^2 of a pair of twin primes [p, q = p + 2] such that the number obtained concatenating q^2 to the left with r is prime; example: 139169 is prime. Of course, the conjectures (III) and (IV) imply that there exist an infinity of pairs of twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[318] **viXra:1603.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-27 16:45:25*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper I list a number of 33 sequences of primes obtained by the method of concatenation; some of these sequences are presented and analyzed in more detail in my previous papers, gathered together in five books of collected papers: “Two hundred conjectures and one hundred and fifty open problems on Fermat pseudoprimes”, “Two hundred and thirteen conjectures on primes”, “Conjectures on primes and Fermat pseudoprimes, many based on Smarandache function”, “Sequences of integers, conjectures and new arithmetical tools”, “Formulas and polynomials which generate primes and Fermat pseudoprimes”.

**Category:** Number Theory

[317] **viXra:1603.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-27 16:51:16*

**Authors:** Hussein A. Abbass, George Leu, Kathryn Merrick

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Despite the advances made in artificial intelligence, software agents, and robotics, there is little we see today that we can truly call a fully autonomous system. We conjecture that the main inhibitor for advancing autonomy is lack of trust. Trusted autonomy is the scientific and engineering field to establish the foundations and ground work for developing trusted autonomous systems (robotics and software agents) that can be used in our daily life, and can be integrated with humans seamlessly, naturally and efficiently.
In this paper, we review this literature to reveal opportunities for researchers and practitioners to work on topics that can create a leap forward in advancing the field of trusted autonomy. We focus the paper on the `trust' component as the uniting technology between humans and machines. Our inquiry into this topic revolves around three sub-topics: (1) reviewing and positioning the trust modelling literature for the purpose of trusted autonomy; (2) reviewing a critical subset of sensor technologies that allow a machine to sense human states; and (3) distilling some critical questions for advancing the field of trusted autonomy. The inquiry is augmented with conceptual models that we propose along the way by recompiling and reshaping the literature into forms that enables trusted autonomous systems to become a reality. The paper offers a vision for a Trusted Cyborg Swarm, an extension of our previous Cognitive Cyber Symbiosis concept, whereby humans and machines meld together in a harmonious, seamless, and coordinated manner.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[316] **viXra:1603.0377 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-30 20:22:38*

**Authors:** Moises Dominguez-Espinosa, Jaime Melendez-Martinez

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 3 Figures, Dynamical Systems, Quantum Mechanics.

There is a paradigm in Quantum Mechanics that explains quantization through normal vibration modes called Eigenstates that arise from Schrodinger wave equation. In this contribution we propose an alternative methodology of quantization by using basic concepts of mechanics and chaos from which a Toy Model is built.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[315] **viXra:1603.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 00:57:00*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented 'A Locally Linear Transformations And Linear Interpolations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State System With Large Number Of Parameters'.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[314] **viXra:1603.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 04:36:50*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We know the Hooke’s Law: F=kx. It tells us a force can cause an extension or a contraction of a spring and it depends on the elastic constant k.
We also know that the dimension of k is that of a force divided by a lenght. Our purpose is that of determining the macroscopic universe by all microscopic forces. Moreover, we know that the size of atoms depends on the electrons which are the shells of the atoms themselves; so, the size does not eather depend on the protons or the nuclei.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[313] **viXra:1603.0373 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-30 08:57:13*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 3 in English.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity whose kinematic and dynamic quantities are invariant under generalized Lorentz transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[312] **viXra:1603.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-27 09:42:55*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 4, Issue 1 (2016), Page 66--73.

Rotational invariance of
physical laws is an accepted principle in Newton's theory. We show that
it leads to an additional constraint on local realistic theories with
mixture
of ten-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. This new constraint
rules out such theories even in some situations in which standard Bell
inequalities allow for explicit construction of such theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[311] **viXra:1603.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-15 17:31:25*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 1 Page. nice paper

Wick rotation produces numbers that agree with experiment and yet the method is mathematically wrong and not allowed by any self-consistent rule. We explore a small slice of wiggle room in complex analysis and show that it may be possible to use QFT without reliance on Wick rotations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[310] **viXra:1603.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-26 23:53:47*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture on an infinity of subsequences of primes in Smarandache prime-partial-digital sequence, defined as the sequence of prime numbers which admit a deconcatenation into a set of primes: for any prime p which admits a deconcatenation in k primes larger than 3 is true that there exist a number of k sequences of primes P1, P2,...,Pk, each one having an infinity of prime terms which also admit a deconcatenation in prime numbers, obtained replacing a prime q in p with primes having the same digital root as q (example: for the prime 547 there exist an infinite sequence of primes obtained replacing 5 with primes having the digital root equal to 5 (2347, 13147, 14947, ...) and also an infinite sequence of primes obtained replacing 47 with primes having the digital root equal to 2 (5101, 5227, 5281,...).

**Category:** Number Theory

[309] **viXra:1603.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-26 23:55:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: Let’s consider the primes p obtained from composite numbers in the following way: concatenating the prime factors of a composite number n (example: for 31941 = 3*3*3*7*13*13, the concatenation of its prime factors is 33371313) is obtained either a prime (in which case this prime is p), either a composite; if is obtained a composite, is reiterated the operation until is obtained a prime (in which case this prime is p). I conjecture that there exist such prime p for every composite number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[308] **viXra:1603.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-27 01:37:24*

**Authors:** Dayanand Potaraj

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Science- the study to understand the universe's physical laws/Nature's laws. And physicists till now has revealed most of the important so called theories. Those will explain the nature's law, The Big Bang theory, for example will explain about the creation of the universe itself. However we have been in search of the very basic fundamental building block of the universe, we found Higgs Boson. We had a wish to discover the very giant nature of the universe. But yet we aren't sure about the micro and macro universe. After all the expeditions we call the fundamental particle as "GOD" particle. What do we know about our own existence till now after all the expeditions?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[307] **viXra:1603.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-27 04:47:03*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) For any prime p, p > 5, there exist a pair of primes (q1, q2), both having the group of their last digits equal to p, and a positive integer n, such that p = (n + 1)*q1 – n*q2 (examples: for p = 11, there exist the primes q1 = 211 and q2 = 311 and also the number n = 2 such that 11 = 3*211 – 2*311; for p = 29, there exist the primes q1 = 829 and q2 = 929 and also the number n = 8 such that 29 = 9*829 – 8*929); (II) For any q1 prime, q1 > 5, and any n non-null positive integer, there exist an infinity of primes q2, having the group of their last digits equal to q1, such that p = (n + 1)*q2 – n*q1 is prime; (III) For any q1 prime, q1 > 5, and any q2 prime having the group of its last digits equal to q1, there exist an infinity of positive integers n such that p = (n + 1)*q2 – n*q1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[306] **viXra:1603.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-26 06:13:09*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Galactic rotation curves explained here as a result of interaction between fast rotating central black hole and stars, which are non-keplerian
characters. Black holes are „black” not due to trapping of light- rather due to changes in spectral peak flux

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[305] **viXra:1603.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 17:29:38*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli, Magi Mageshwaran, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The electromagnetic quantum vacuum of QED empowered with the Planck energy density is a model which comprehensively describes the origin of energy, mass, gravity and antigravity. A photon is a wave of quantum vacuum and has energy and so according to the mass-energy equivalence principle, a corresponding mass. A massive particle is a structure of quantum vacuum whose rest mass diminishes the energy density of the quantum vacuum, which generates mass and gravity. The kinetic energy of a relativistic particle originates from the quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[304] **viXra:1603.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-26 17:03:53*

**Authors:** Jorge Mahecha

**Comments:** 21 Pages. In Spanish

The rankings of all kinds are in vogue. They are backed up by the belief that human activity is likely to be measured, each and every institution must advance continuously to improve its position in the ranking. Education and research are some of the activities most affected by the pressure of classification. MIDE of Ministry of Education Colombia; the classification of research groups and researchers by Colciencias; rankings of journals, articles and books; tests Saber, Saber Pro in Colombia; entrance exams to universities; accreditation of "high quality", qualified registration, curriculum changes, Quality Assurance system... Internationally: The Shanghai rankings type of universities, those of "Impact" of scientific journals, Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), The Graduate Record Examination (GRE), PISA Testing, etc. They assume that the intellect can be "measured," standardized, branded with basis with a unique number that is obtained by "Summing Pears and Apples." Then the number is used to classify "by descending order of quality" whole institutions, academic programs, research groups and individuals. In this text we discuss the technical impossibility of such pretension, emphasizing the development of a ranking to choose people who deserve to enter the University of Antioquia and discard those who do not deserve it. Seeks to answer the following questions: (1) The system allows an accurate ranking of the candidates, based on the scores? (2) Does the system is accomplished by establishing a solid border between the scores of the admitted and the unsupported? (3) Do the alleged measurements of the intellectual abilities are the only measurements that escape protocols of the science of measurements?

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[303] **viXra:1603.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 18:33:06*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What is required and restricted by the grand unification scheme when it comes to energy for any variant?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[302] **viXra:1603.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 21:27:44*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 400 Pages.

Over 300 sequences and many unsolved problems and conjectures related to them are presented herein. These notions, definitions, unsolved problems, questions, theorems corollaries, formulae, conjectures, examples, mathematical criteria, etc. on integer sequences, numbers, quotients, residues, exponents, sieves, pseudo-primes squares cubes factorials, almost primes, mobile
periodicals, functions, tables, prime square factorial bases, generalized factorials, generalized palindromes, so on, have been extracted from the Archives of American Mathematics (University of Texas at Austin) and Arizona State University (Tempe): "The Florentin Smarandache papers" special collections, and Arhivele Statului (Filiala Vâlcea & Filiala Dolj, Romania).
This book was born from the collaboration of the two authors, which started in 2013. The first common work was the volume "Solving Diophantine Equations", published in 2014. The contribution of the authors can be summarized as follows: Florentin Smarandache came with his extraordinary ability to propose new areas of study in number theory, and Octavian Cira - with his algorithmic thinking and knowledge of Mathcad.

**Category:** Number Theory

[301] **viXra:1603.0361 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-17 02:28:06*

**Authors:** Chongxi Yu

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Every matter is moving in very high speed because the Milky Way’s speed relative to CMB rest frame is 552km/s, 0.18% of light speed. When matter moves, there may be the lag of gluons, photons, mesons, protons, and neutrons, in exact words, the lag of c-particles, A particle and their anti particles, which makes bonding of nucleons weaker and exposes more nuclear forces, and results in stronger residual forces of bonding forces between particles. Gravitation, then, may be the residual force of the bonding force between particles. Three color particles and a A particle and their antiparticles (total 8 particles) make all current “elementary particles”. Surprisingly, we can draw photons, gluons, electrons, quarks, mesons, bosons and any current “elementary particles” from these particles just like drawing chemical structures. These structures can show how an electron and a positron annihilate to photons, how proton absorb electron to form neutron, and how fission and fusion happen. It can explain almost every question around elementary particles. According to this model, there may be only one force which comes from c-particles orbit A particle and anti c-particles orbit anti A particle and a side product, the electromagnetic force, due to the asymmetry of c-particles and anti c-particles.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[300] **viXra:1603.0360 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-01 09:11:49*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 10 pages

We present quantum key distribution based on
Deutsch's algorithm
using an entangled state.
The security of the protocol is based on it of Ekert 91 protocol.
That is, the existence of eavesdroppers must destroy entanglement.
Next, we study quantum communication
based on two quantum algorithms,
such as the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and Simon's algorithm.
We discuss the fact that
quantum communication overcomes classical communication
by a factor of $N$ in the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm case.
Also we discuss the fact that
quantum communication overcomes classical communication
by a factor of $O(\sqrt{2^N}/N)$ in Simon's algorithm case.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[299] **viXra:1603.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 15:38:36*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** Pages. In Eqs. 3 and 4a, the last terms should read 1-R(+) and -52.01 resply.

It has been known for over a century that the interfacial tension of mercury dipping in electrolyte solutions changes with applied potential following a near parabolic course called the electrocapillary curve. Solution components adsorbable on mercury produce asymmetric curves with respect to the potential at the electrocapillary maximum. A simple mathematical description of this asymmetry has so far exercised and eluded many scientists. Here, the author shows a simple linear relation which describes the electrocapillary curves, using the existing data.

**Category:** Chemistry

[298] **viXra:1603.0358 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-25 16:51:37*

**Authors:** Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of NH3, we demonstrate a strong shift of the equilibrium of the Haber-Bosch process towards ammonia. Hydroxylated graphene provides the polar environment favoring the forward reaction, and remain stable under the investigated thermodynamic conditions. Ca. 50 kJ mol-1 enthalpy gain and ca. 60-70 kJ mol-1 free energy gain are achieved at 298 1300 K and 1 1000 bar, strongly shifting the reaction equilibrium towards the product. A clear microscopic interpretation of the observed phenomenon is given using electronic structure calculations and real-time reactive simulations. The demonstrated principle can be applied with many polar groups functionalizing a substrate with a high surface area, provided that the system is chemically inert to H2, N2 and NH3. The modified Haber-Bosch process is of significant importance to the chemical industry, since it provides a substantial increase of the reaction yield while decreasing the temperature and pressure, thereby, reducing the cost.

**Category:** Chemistry

[297] **viXra:1603.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 12:07:59*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The rotation curves of spiral galaxies usually display near-constant velocities in their outer regions. This is contrary to an expected continuing decline in the velocities moving away from the galaxies’ centers. The behavior prompted astrophysicists to declare that dark matter must exist and enclose these galaxies to hold the velocities constant. The centrifugal accelerations that the velocities would produce if the bodies were in orbit are small. They imply that the gravitational accelerations toward the centers of the galaxies on the bodies are also small relative to other orbital systems (e.g., the solar system). The accelerations may not be strong enough to hold the bodies in orbits about the galactic center. Consequently, the bodies may not be in orbit around the galactic centers, but moving away from them. That would allow explanations of flat rotation curves without introducing dark matter or altering gravity. However, due to the radii of the orbits (kilo-parsecs) and the assumed orbital velocities of the bodies (hundreds of km/s), the bodies would move only an infinitesimal distance of the length of their presumed orbital paths over many human generations. This makes verification that the bodies are actually in orbit virtually impossible.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[296] **viXra:1603.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 12:28:28*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we show that for all even integers “2n”, there exists infinite
positive integers “d” greater than one, such that their product “2nd” is a sum of two
primes. Any two odd primes add to give even integers. However this general method
does not allow us to understand the property or relationship among even numbers
numbers derived in this manner. On the other hand, our results suggests existence
of even integers of the specific form “2nd” that can be written as a sum of two
primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[295] **viXra:1603.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 09:59:25*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) for any k having one of the values 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 or 8, there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating two primes that both have the digital root equal to k; (II) for any n positive integer, not divisible by 3, n ≥ 4, there exist primes obtained concatenating two primes that both have the digital sum equal to n; (III) there exist an infinity of values of n, positive integer, for which exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating two primes that both have the digital sum equal to n.

**Category:** Number Theory

[294] **viXra:1603.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 04:59:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The values of two inherent properties of one photon – its spin and its orbital angular momentum – have been transferred via quantum teleportation onto another photon for the first time by physicists in China. Previous experiments have managed to teleport a single property, but scaling that up to two properties proved to be a difficult task, which has only now been achieved. The team's work is a crucial step forward in improving our understanding of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and the result could also play an important role in the development of quantum communications and quantum computers. [10] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. For the first time, researchers have demonstrated the precise requirements for secure quantum teleportation – and it involves a phenomenon known 'quantum steering', first proposed by Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger. [9] In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[293] **viXra:1603.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 02:50:23*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I make the following eight conjectures: (Ia) for any p prime, p > 3, there exist an infinity of primes q such that the number n obtained concatenating p – 1 to the right with q^2 is prime; (Ib) there exist an infinity of terms in any of the sequences above (for any p) such that r = (p – 1)*q^2 + 1 is prime; (IIa) for any q prime, q > 3, there exist an infinity of primes p such that the number n obtained concatenating q^2 to the left with p – 1 is prime; (IIb) there exist an infinity of terms in any of the sequences above (for any q) such that r = (p – 1)*q^2 + 1 is prime; (IIIa) for any Poulet number P, not divisible by 3, there exist an infinity of primes q such that the number n obtained concatenating P – 1 to the right with q^2 is prime; (IIIb) there exist an infinity of terms in any of the sequences above (for any P) such that r = (P – 1)*q^2 + 1 is prime; (IVa) for any Poulet number Q, not divisible by 3 or 5, there exist an infinity of primes p such that the number n obtained concatenating Q^2 to the left with p - 1 is prime; (IVb) there exist an infinity of terms in any of the sequences above (for any Q) such that r = (p – 1)*Q^2 + 1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[292] **viXra:1603.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 03:17:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum superposition has been used to compare data from two different sources more efficiently than is possible, even in principle, on a conventional computer. The scheme is called "quantum fingerprinting" and has been demonstrated by physicists in China. It could ultimately lead to better large-scale integrated circuits and more energy-efficient communication. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[291] **viXra:1603.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 11:08:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[290] **viXra:1603.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 13:42:11*

**Authors:** D.Mastoridis, K.Kalogirou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The current paper examines the nature of the Big Bang together with the possibility
of travelling using an alternative way, which would exceed the problem with the speed
of light limitation. This paper is the extension of the "About the Geometry of Cosmos"
and "About the Geometry of Cosmos(2)"

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[289] **viXra:1603.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 05:48:26*

**Authors:** Idhayan Pandian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

IDHAYAN’S SPIN THOERY OF GRAVITY PARTICLE
GRAVITY PARTICLE
Our universe is entirely made up of gravity particle, which is spherical, Indestructible ,identical ,negligible frictional surface.
ELEMENTARY PARTICLE
Gravity particle are closely packed and it cannot move, However it can spin, they use frictional surface to spin their surrounding particle, They spin geometrically to create an illusion of elementary particle or even the particle that made up of elementary particle, Their efficiency is 100 percent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[288] **viXra:1603.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 05:57:34*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a scheme to construct the Wave Equation of the Universe.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[287] **viXra:1603.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 07:52:47*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes p of the form (6*k - 1)]c[(6*k + 1)]c[(6*k - 1), where “]c[“ means “concatenated to" (example: for k = 4, the number p = 232523 is prime); (II) there exist an infinity of primes q of the form (6*k + 1)]c[(6*k - 1)]c[(6*k + 1) (example: for k = 2, the number p = 131113 is prime); (III) there exist an infinity of pairs of primes (p, q) = ((6*k - 1)]c[(6*k + 1)]c[(6*k - 1), ((6*k + 1)]c[(6*k – 1)]c[(6*k + 1)); example: for k = 5, (p, q) = (293129, 32931); note that, for such a pair (p, q), q – p = 19802; 1998002; 199980002 and so on; (IV) there exist, for any h positive integer, an infinity of primes q = p + m, where p is prime and m is the number obtained concatenating 1 with a number of h digits of 9 then with 8 then with the same number of h digits of 0 then with 2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[286] **viXra:1603.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 00:46:29*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The critical analysis of the foundations of pure mathematics is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. The main result is as follows: the concept of “mathematical quantity” – starting and central concept in mathematics – is meaningless, erroneous, and inadmissible one because it represents the following formal-logical and dialectical-materialistic errors: negation of existence of the essential sign (feature) of concept (i.e., negation of existence of the essence (content, intension) of the concept) and negation of existence of measure of material object. The correct metrical-geometrical and physical interpretations of mathematical relationships show that the set of standard mathematical functions represents error, mistake, and blunder. Therefore, pure mathematics does not satisfy the general-scientific criterion of truth: practice is criterion of truth. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the generally accepted foundations of pure mathematics are a false one, and they should be reconsidered.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[285] **viXra:1603.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 04:40:02*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The concept of "potentia" as proposed by Heisenberg to understand the structure of quantum mechanics, has just remained a
fanciful speculation as of now. In this paper we provide a physically consistent and a mathematically justified ontology
of this model based on a fundamental role played by the discrete subgroups of the relevant
Lie groups. We show that as such, the space of "potentia" arises as a coexisting dual space to the real three dimensional space,
while these two sit piggyback on each other, such that the collapse of wave function can be understood in a natural manner.
Quantum nonlocality and quantum jumps arise as a natural consequence of this model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[284] **viXra:1603.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 04:41:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists have developed a new protocol to detect entanglement of many-particle quantum states using a much easier approach. The new protocol is particularly interesting for characterizing entanglement in systems involving many particles. These systems could help us not only to improve our understanding of matter but to develop measurement techniques beyond current existing technologies. [10] Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[283] **viXra:1603.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 05:01:47*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating even numbers n with 0 then with n + 2, then again with 0, then with n + 5 (example: for n = 44, the number p = 44046049 is prime). It is notable that are found chains with 4 primes p obtained for 4 consecutive even numbers n (example: 17201740177, 17401760177, 17601780181, 17801800183, obtained for 172, 174, 176, 178); (II) there exist an infinity of pairs of primes (p, q) obtained applying on two consecutive even numbers (m, n) the method of concatenation showed in the conjecture above (note that q – p = 20202; 2002002; 200020002 and so on); (III) there exist, for any k positive integer, an infinity of primes q = p + n, where p is prime and n is the number obtained concatenating 2 with a number of k digits of 0 then with 2 then again with the same number of k digits of 0 then again with 2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[282] **viXra:1603.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 15:58:15*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The Kurepa conjecture states that the gcd (!n,n!) is equal to 2 for all n=2,3,….Although this conjecture has not been proven, in this paper we study the implication of a true Kurepa conjecture. We use (!n)/2 and (n!)/2 as components of two distinct arithmetic progressions and propose that both should have infinitely many primes as known from Dirichlet’s theorem of Arithmetic progressions and these are named as Dirichlet-Kurepa primes Type 1 and Type 2 in their honor.

**Category:** Number Theory

[281] **viXra:1603.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 12:27:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[280] **viXra:1603.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 13:37:13*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. uec = unidade eletrostática de carga (electrostatic unity of charge)

Some relations between physical constants, most were found by me in the year 1991, while a few in 1994. I leave registered here to make it easier to return to the theme of Eletrogravitational Unification at most favorable time, with some of these relationships in mind. Meanwhile, I leave it available to the public, if it is useful. The units were omitted in most case.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[279] **viXra:1603.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 08:32:53*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Out of interest, I took up the book of Rovelli and Vidotto to see how far covariant Loop Quantum gravity had evolved over the years and how its foundations are framed. I hoped that the authors had ﬁlled in the necessary technical details which was somehow the promise of the book, that it was an easy accesible, thorough introduction to the subject. This report is my impression of the ﬁrst 180 out of 250 pages, by then I encountered several diﬃculties and issues with the theory which require further explanation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[278] **viXra:1603.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 08:53:58*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[277] **viXra:1603.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 09:12:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of primes q = 2*n – 1, where n is the sum of a reversible prime p of the form 6*k + 1 concatenated to the left with 1 and its reversal, also concatenated to the left with 1 (example: for p = 13, n = 113 + 131 = 244 and q = 244*2 – 1 = 487, prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[276] **viXra:1603.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 10:04:45*

**Authors:** Haoyang Zheng, Yong Deng

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Shannon entropy, conditional entropy, joint entropy and mutual information, can estimate
the chaotic level of information. However, these methods could only handle certain situations. Based on Deng entropy, this paper introduces multiple new entropy to estimate entropy under multiple interactive uncertain information: conditional Deng entropy is used to calculate entropy under conditional basic belief assignment; joint Deng entropy could calculate entropy by applying joint basic belief assignment distribution; generalized mutual information is applied to estimate the uncertainty of information under knowing another information. Numerical examples are used for illustrating the function of new entropy in the end.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[275] **viXra:1603.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 05:20:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[274] **viXra:1603.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 07:22:53*

**Authors:** C A Brannen

**Comments:** 18 Pages. For submission to Foundations of Physics. Acknowledgements to be added after review by friends.

Density matrices can be used to describe ensembles of particles in thermodynamic equilibrium. We assume that the density matrices are a more natural description of quantum objects than state vectors. This suggests that we generalize density matrices from the usual operators on a Hilbert space to be elements of an algebra. Using density matrix renormalization to change the temperature of the ensembles, we show how the choice of algebra determines the symmetry and particle content of these generalized density matrices. The symmetries are of the form SU(N)xSU(M)x...U(1). We propose that the Standard Model of elementary particles should include a dark matter SU(2) doublet.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[273] **viXra:1603.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 18:32:25*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages, 10 references

- The Gell-Mann, Oakes and Renner and the Goldberger-Treiman relations jointly with a bold hypothesis about virtual thermal equilibrium, leads to the determination of the up and down-quarks current masses. The obtained results show good agreement with the best ones of the literature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[272] **viXra:1603.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 20:13:29*

**Authors:** Constantin Dumitrescu, Vasile Seleacu

**Comments:** 137 Pages.

The Smarandache Function is defined as the smallest integer S(n) such that S(n)! is divisible by n.
The authors study properties of this function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[271] **viXra:1603.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 01:41:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper I list a number of 20 Smarandache concatenated sequences (for other lists and analyses on these sequences see “Smarandache Sequences” on Wolfram MathWorld and “The math encyclopedia of Smarandache type notions”, Educational Publishing, 2013) and I highlight the sets of primes distinguished among the terms of these sequences, but also I list 25 “sets of primes which can be obtained from the terms of Smarandache sequences using any arithmetical operation” (I named such primes Smarandache-Coman sequences of primes, see my previous papers “Fourteen Smarandache-Coman sequences of primes” and “Seven Smarandache-Coman sequences of primes”).

**Category:** Number Theory

[270] **viXra:1603.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 11:20:22*

**Authors:** Vigneswaran Ramamoorthy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Consider a sketch about which the artist has no idea prior to the process of drawing, but develops
on his way along stepwise. A list of distinct sketches from which he can choose for each step, right
from start to the end, is given. Closing the loop marks the last step in the sketch.
The sketch, two types will be elaborated below.
Type 1: Here, anything but the first choice is used for each step. The idea is to make a sketch
of close second choices. The process is repeated till the loop is closed.
Type 2: Here, anything but the first and second choice is used for each step. The loop is closed
with all the steps made out of third choices.

**Category:** Mind Science

[269] **viXra:1603.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 12:24:54*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 3S2 near 1102.8 µHz allows a precise determination of the frequency and reveals a surprising phase modulation. This phase flip was first observed with the 10S2 normal mode and, by careless use of FFT, it may be misinterpreted as a frequency splitting. The correct demodulation requires the very robust method of homodyn conversion.

**Category:** Geophysics

[268] **viXra:1603.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 12:45:42*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle
By the wave trip that electromagnetic willpower acts on, the elementary particle "is the point" that does not have size.
By a particle trip and the minus number particle trip, the elementary particle has size.
The elementary particle of the particle trip has size, but the electric charge does not last.
An electric charge is not distributed over the inside such as an electron or the proton with size.
The power that acted in the end of the elementary particle because the elementary particle of the particle trip with size is not a rigid body does not act more than velocity of light in the end of the other side.
The elementary particle is not rigid, but it is not disintegrated by outside action such as the enlargement.
Around an electron or a proton with an electric charge, a cloud of the photon group is distributed as a pulsatile ripple, but, as for the wave (material wave) of the dark energy, as for the energy grand total, it is with zero by offset (supersymmetry) of the energy with a mountain and the valley of the wave every pulsation 1 cycle, and it is not with infinite energy, the infinite mass.
The gravitation is similar and a virtual gravity baby and the outbreak with the gravitational field continue like a chain reaction and do not become infinite energy, the infinite mass. The energy grand total of a pulsating place is zero.
It is equivalent to what it adds only the original energy of the material wave to it adopts only modulus squared of the equation of the material wave (dark energy), and to calculate, and it is a proper result that an energy grand total becomes infinite.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[267] **viXra:1603.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 07:20:59*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: for any p prime, p > 5, there exist an infinity of k positive integers such that the number q obtained concatenating to the right p with p + 30*k is prime (examples: for p = 13, the least k for which q is prime is 2 because 1373 is prime; for p = 104729, the least k for which q is prime is 3 because 104729104819 is prime). It is notable the small values of k for which primes q are obtained, even in the case of primes p having 20 digits, so this formula could be a way to easily find, starting from a prime p, a prime q having twice as many digits!

**Category:** Number Theory

[266] **viXra:1603.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 17:06:19*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we show that any two successive left factorials can only represent the first and second terms and not any other pair of successive terms in any arithmetic progression of positive integers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[265] **viXra:1603.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 23:53:44*

**Authors:** GuangSan Yu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This paper is Chinese

In turn kinetics of the classical mechanics, there is a serious error, namely the notion of the torque. Via the arm of force that vary the torque, can vary the dimension of the force, this is wrong. But turn kinetics and whole theory system, is to regard the notion of this kind of torque as
the foundation, moreover establish create. Thereupon, the hitherto of thereinto the turn kinetics, abound the multifarious mistake. In complete of the slewing kinetics of the inertia locomotion, the notion of the torque is meaningless. That with torque extraordinary resemble react, the is other concept Inertia-torque. Inertia-torque is mass and arm of force product at object or particle. Similar in this way through rectification after, the slewing kinetics will have the grand change. And thereupon we can also achieve, versus physics several celebrated conservation law of the exceed. The world science will have a grand advancement.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[264] **viXra:1603.0318 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-08 07:38:43*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Corrected according to relativity of simultaneity

This paper proposes a very compelling alternative model of the speed of light, which we call Apparent Source Theory ( AST ). AST can be stated in a few words: the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. AST starts with a simple question: what is the effect of slightly changing the position of the light source in the Michelson-Morley interferometer ? From optics, a very small fringe shift will occur. AST states that the effect of absolute motion of the MM interferometer is to create an apparent change in the position of the light source relative to the detector. Therefore, only a small fringe shift will occur in the MM interferometer due to apparent change of source position ( caused by absolute motion) for the same reason that only a small fringe shift will occur due to real/physical change of source position. This is the subtle trick of nature that eluded physicists for one hundred years. AST can easily explain many co-moving source and observer experiments, moving source experiments and moving observer experiments. AST also hints on the fundamental nature of light: light is not only a local phenomenon. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. The blunder in the conception of Michelson-Morley experiment was that they considered light as ordinary, material waves. The ether doesn't exist, but absolute motion does. This paper makes the distinction between the two. This paper reveals the fallacy in conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[263] **viXra:1603.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 04:02:16*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Velocity transformation is used to change system coordinates in order to simplify the solution of problems that involve relativistic collisions of particles. In this paper I check how the energy of a particle A that moves with some velocity VA toward an observer S* is seen by an observer S , under the condition that both observers sees the same energy. I found that although observer in S* sees particle A with a real rest mass momentum and energy. Observer S sees two particles. If they move in opposite direction, One of those particles have an imaginary rest mass momentum and energy.
I could not decide if the case is only a numerical problem or it is also physical. I expect that those who will read this paper are more experienced then me and will find if the imaginary rest mass is physically true or false. And will suggest how to use it in practical situations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[262] **viXra:1603.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 14:37:17*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Transformative Management/Next Society/Just Third Way

**Category:** Social Science

[261] **viXra:1603.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 15:01:22*

**Authors:** A.Antipin

**Comments:** 14 Pages. НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ. IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE.

НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ. IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE.
In this article, the author intended to demonstrate and reinforce the facts conclusion that the immediate cause of Price movements in the stock market is the change in the magnitude SdRu - a net difference of amounts of purchases and sales of shares at a given moment of time.
---------------------------------------
В данной статье, автор ставит своей задачей продемонстрировать и подкрепить фактами вывод о том, что непосредственной причиной движения цен на биржевом рынке акций, является изменение величины SdRu - нетто разницы сумм покупок и продаж актива в рассматриваемый момент времени.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[260] **viXra:1603.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 15:06:30*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: for any prime p of the form 6*k + 1 there exist an infinity of primes n obtained concatenating p to the left with 3 and to the right with a square of prime q^2 (examples: for p = 13, the numbers n = 313289, 313961, 3131369 – obtained for q = 17, 31, 37 – are primes).

**Category:** Number Theory

[259] **viXra:1603.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 11:12:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[258] **viXra:1603.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 11:58:26*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures on primes: (I) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating to the left a prime p with the number (p – 1)/2 (example: for p = 23, q is the number obtained concatenating 23 to the left with (p – 1)/2 = 11, i.e. q = 1123, prime); (II) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating to the left a prime p with the number (p + 1)/2 (example: for p = 41, q is the number obtained concatenating 41 to the left with (p + 1)/2 = 21, i.e. q = 2141, prime); (III) there exist an infinity of pairs of primes (q1, q2) where q1 is obtained concatenating to the left a prime p with the number (p – 1)/2 and q2 is obtained concatenating to the left the same prime p with the number (p + 1)/2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[257] **viXra:1603.0305 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-22 13:21:01*

**Authors:** Cameron rebigsol

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A few corrections on grammar on the previous submission

A signature conclusion from Albert Einstein’s relativity is that nothing in the universe can travel at speed exceeding the speed of light. This conclusion, however, must be destroyed by its own signature equation—the length contraction equation, in a few lines of algebraic operation. Following this lead, people will find that the entire derivative work of relativity is done within the forbidden zone of mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[256] **viXra:1603.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 09:28:26*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the
aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily
the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’
Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of
syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise.
Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and
the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward
sense have a cause-effect-cause (i.e., as in CauseEffectCause) relational
sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author
notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can
consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated)
within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be
different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause
meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal
Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other
Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any
Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of
‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/
or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be
used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding
CauseEffectCause when the ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam
Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in
the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward
directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[255] **viXra:1603.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 10:33:02*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures on squares of primes: (I) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating to the left a square of a prime p^2 with the number (p^2 + 1)/2 (example: for p = 17, p^2 = 289 and q is the number obtained concatenating 289 to the left with (p^2 + 1)/2 = 145, i.e. q = 145289, prime); (II) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating to the left a square of a prime p^2 with the number p + 12 (example: for p = 7, p^2 = 49 and q = 1949, prime); (III) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating to the left a square of a prime p^2 with the number p^ + 12 (example: for p = 11, p^2 = 121 and q = 133121, prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[254] **viXra:1603.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 07:08:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes p such that 3*p – 10 is also prime; (II) there exist an infinity of triplets of primes (p, 2*p – 1, 3*p – 10); (III) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p to the right with 2*p – 1 and to the left with 3 (example: for p = 11, q = 31121, prime; (IV) there exist, for any n positive integer, n > 1, an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p to the right with n*p – n + 1 and to the left with 3 (examples: for n = 5 and p = 19, q = 31991, prime; for n = 8 and p = 13, q = 31397, prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[253] **viXra:1603.0301 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 17:41:24*

**Authors:** Fernando Isla

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The numbers 137 appear in some of the most important greek temples. Height of Parthenon, length of Artemis Temple, and width of Hephaestus Temple.
It is also in the height of Great Pyramid, the length of Horus Temple.
In the Bible are the length and height of Noah's Ark, the length of the Tabernacle of Moses, the height of Solomon's Temple and some related objects.
Also in the Height and internal width of St Peter's Basilica, the main center of catolicism. And the Height of “The Last Judgment” on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
All measured in meters. No gimmicks.
The likelihood of a measure begins with digits 137 according to Benford's Law is:
Log (1 + 1/137) = 0.00315 = 0.315% [1]
The frequency of occurrence in these measurements is much higher than expected.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[252] **viXra:1603.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 20:48:07*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, we transform the zeros in the critical line.

**Category:** Number Theory

[251] **viXra:1603.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 03:18:13*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Though the well known Fermat’s conjecture on the diophantine equation x^n + y^n = z^n is named “Fermat’s big theorem”, in fact probably much more important for number theory is what is called “Fermat’s little theorem” which was the most important step up to that time in order to discover a primality criterion. This exceptional criterion of primality still has its exceptions: Fermat pseudoprimes, numbers which “behave” like primes though they are no primes; but they are still a class of numbers at least as interesting as the class of primes. Among Fermat pseudoprimes two classes of numbers are particularly distinguished: Poulet numbers (relative Fermat pseudoprimes) and Carmichael numbers (absolute Fermat pseudoprimes). The initial aim of this paper was only to see which Poulet numbers can be obtained concatenating primes (or, in other words, whichever admit a deconcatenation in prime numbers) but, inspired by a characteristic of a subset of Poulet numbers, I also made the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating to the right a prime q having the sum of the digits s(q) equal to a multiple of 5 with 3.

**Category:** Number Theory

[250] **viXra:1603.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 14:56:25*

**Authors:** Charles Ashbacher

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

The Smarandache Function is the smallest integer S(n) such that S(n)! is divisibil by n.

**Category:** Number Theory

[249] **viXra:1603.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 14:59:03*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

This book brings together fifty-two papers regarding primes and Fermat pseudoprimes, submitted by the author to the scientific database Research Gate. Part One of this book, “Sequences of primes and conjectures on them”, contains papers on sequences of primes, squares of primes, semiprimes, pairs, triplets and quadruplets of primes and conjectures on them. This part also contains papers on possible methods to obtain large primes, some of them based on concatenation, some of them on other arithmetical operations. It is also introduced a new notion, “Smarandache-Coman sequences of primes”, defined as “all sequences of primes obtained from the Smarandache sequences using any arithmetical operation”. Part Two of this book, “Sequences of Fermat pseudoprimes and conjecture on them”, contains sequences of Poulet and Carmichael numbers. Among these papers there is a list of thirty-six polynomials and formulas that generate sequences of Fermat pseudoprimes. Part Three of this book, “Prime producing quadratic polynomials”, contains three papers which list few already known such polynomials, that generate more than 20, 30 or even 40 primes in a row, and few such polynomials discoverd by the author himself (in a review of records in the field of prime generating polynomials, written by Dress and Landreau, two mathematicians well known for their contributions in this field, the author is mentioned with 18 prime producing quadratic polynomials). One of these three papers proposes 17 generic formulas that may generate prime producing quadratic polynomials.

**Category:** Number Theory

[248] **viXra:1603.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 12:16:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[247] **viXra:1603.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-12 19:32:21*

**Authors:** Jody Anthony Geiger

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Informativity is a field theory that applies the principles of quantum mechanics to the macroscopic universe. Its structure is fundamentally relativistic. Informativity arises from a central tenant, that not only are Planck’s derivations the smallest units of measure, but that all relative measure must be in whole Planck units. This limitation provides the basis for quantum uncertainty. With this, a mathematical framework is presented from which the physical laws and constants of nature may be derived, not as descriptions but as formulations of logic. Several discrepancies in observed measurements are resolved while invalidating non-quantum models that use Einstein’s, Planck’s and Heisenberg’s equations. New formulations of each are derived to include quantum uncertainty in a single field theory that accurately describes phenomenon from the quantum to the macroscopic. And in the process a new static state relativistic effect is found. Conflicts in General Relativity are presented that invalidate some of its tenants, such as curved space. Einstein’s equations, among others, are reduced entirely to counts of Planck units, having no cosmological constants, thus supporting the hypothesis that the observable universe is a product of quantized counts. Mass and time are shown to be manifestations of length. Derivations also demonstrate interactions are permitted only in 3D+t. Black holes have a maximum density of two Planck masses per length and gravity is derived as a product of quantum uncertainty. Finally, a hypothesis proposes a solution to both the dark matter and dark energy debate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[246] **viXra:1603.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 06:46:29*

**Authors:** Johann Albers

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the 1990s Eugene Podkletnov published results of experiments which in his opinion proved the effect of gravity shielding. The present paper is concerned with the question, what results may be expected from such experiments on the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation", (ARG). The results of these considerations are in excellent agreement with those experiments. There, however, appeared no gravity shielding, but the production of additional, highly focused repulsive forces. Such curious results can hardly be explained on the basis of classical gravitational theories, which deal with attractive forces and their strong decrease with distance.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[245] **viXra:1603.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 08:27:57*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The elementary particle is a wave of the dark energy to pulsate in fo ur-dimensional space.
It is energy aggregate appearing as a lump of the light to rotate in the three-dimensional space.
In this report, I show that it is the energy aggregate that three dimensions of spins of the elementary particle appear in the space as a lump of the light to rotate.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[244] **viXra:1603.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 10:43:20*

**Authors:** Mihai Grumazescu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3346.6005

The model of gravity based on the nuclear kinetic dipole states that each atomic nucleus constantly generates a pushing force which imparts a linear momentum to the atom. The direction of that force can be changed through gravitational polarization, a macroscopic body being pushed from within in the direction of surrounding bodies by the cumulative force of its nuclei.
The pushing force of a single nucleon is thought to be the gravitational force quanta, its value being derived from the Avogadro program for a new definition of the kilogram. The gravitational force quanta is found to be ≈ 2 x 10-19 a.u. (atomic unit of force) which could be confirmed through a proposed experiment.
An alternative definition of the kilogram is also proposed, along with multiple possibilities to build kilogram etalons. Particularly, subdivisions of the kilogram (e.g. gram, milligram, microgram) can be accurately reproduced onsite through nano-3D printing for the purpose of calibrating high-precision scales and balances.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[243] **viXra:1603.0269 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-20 11:18:51*

**Authors:** Camerorn Rebigsol

**Comments:** (1) Add page number to the previous submission; (2) delete the following text from the previous submission: (See appendix for detailed calculation development)

The shape of a gravity body can play a critical role in affecting the movement of an object moving in its vicinity of close range. If the shape is disregarded while the gravity body is regarded as a point mass regardless of the distance between the two bodies, the concept of dark matter may find its chance to surface up in theoretical treatment concerning gravity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[242] **viXra:1603.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 03:45:41*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures on the Smarandache prime-partial-digital sequence defined as the sequence of prime numbers which admit a deconcatenation into a set of primes: (I) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating two primes m and n, both of the form 6*k + 1, such that n = m*h – h + 1 , where h positive integer; (II) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating two primes m and n, both of the form 6*k - 1, such that n = m*h + h - 1 , where h positive integer; (III) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating two primes m and n, both of the form 6*k + 1, such that n + m - 1 is prime or power of prime; (IV) there exist an infinity of primes p obtained concatenating two primes m and n, both of the form 6*k - 1, such that n - m + 1 is prime or power of prime. Note that almost all from the first 65 primes obtained concatenating two primes of the form 6k + 1 (exceptions: 3779, 4373, 6173, 6719, 6779), and all the first 65 primes obtained concatenating two primes of the form 6k - 1, belong to one of the four sequences considered by the conjectures above.

**Category:** Number Theory

[241] **viXra:1603.0267 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-30 05:14:34*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we rewrite the gravitational constant based on its relationship with the Planck length and, based on this, we rewrite the Planck mass in a slightly different form (that gives exactly the same value). In this way we are able to quantize a series of end results in Newton and Einstein's gravitation theories. The formulas will still give exactly the same values as before, but everything related to gravity will then come in quanta. Numerically this only has implications at the quantum scale; for macro objects the discrete steps are so tiny that they are close to impossible to notice. Hopefully this can give additional insight into how well or not so well (ad hoc) quantized Newton and Einstein's gravitation are potentially linked with the quantum world.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[240] **viXra:1603.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 23:32:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p with 9 then with p itself (example: p = 104593 is prime and q = 1045939104593 is also prime); (II) there exist an infinity of primes q obtained concatenating a prime p of the form 6*k – 1 with 9 then with p itself and subtracting 2 (example: p = 104471 is prime and q = 1044719104471 – 2 = 1044719104469 is also prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[239] **viXra:1603.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-19 01:01:07*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It shows that the hybrid graphene may be the high temperature superconductor based on a simple superconductivity theory. However the pure graphene cannot be the high temperature superconductor. The efforts to make the graphene to be superconductors are to use the Graphene-Boron Nitride or other graphene-ceramics sandwich structure. Calculations show that this sandwich structure can satisfy the demanding of high temperature superconductivity.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[238] **viXra:1603.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-19 02:53:33*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: there exist, for any m prime of the form 6*k + 1, an infinity of primes n obtained concatenating a prime p with a prime q where q – p + 1 = m (example: for m = 457, prime, we have q - p + 1 = 457 for [p, q] = [11, 467], both primes, and the number n = 11467 is prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[237] **viXra:1603.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 14:33:20*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating, once or repeatedly, an odd multiple n of 3 with 111, then raising the number obtained to the power 2, adding to it n and subtracting 1 (Examples: 3111^2 + 3 – 1 = 9678323, prime; 27111111^2 + 27 – 1 = 735012339654347, prime); (I) there exist an infinity of semiprimes obtained concatenating, once or repeatedly, an odd multiple n of 3 with 111, then raising the number obtained to the power 2, adding to it n and subtracting 1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[236] **viXra:1603.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 16:23:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating the square of a prime p with p then with 1 and then subtracting 2 from the resulting number (example: 127^2 = 16129 and the number 161291271 – 2 = 161291269 is prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[235] **viXra:1603.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 09:02:42*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In 2011 a paper by C. Corda was published in the Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics (A Clarification on the Debate on “the Original Schwarzschild Solution'', EJTP 8, No. 25 (2011) 65-82). On the 18th February 2016 my paper titled ‘On Corda’s ‘Clarification’ of Schwarzschild’s Solution’ was received by all editors of EJTP. C. Corda has written a rebuttal, titled ‘Confusion and crackpottery by Mr. Stephen J. Crothers’. In his rebuttal Corda attempts to justify his reproduction in his paper, without reference, of the bulk of the original paper by K. Schwarzschild (1916), by his mere relabelling, renumbering and rearrangement of Schwarzschild’s equations, and contends that I have only emphasised his reproduction of Schwarzschild’s derivation. That Corda reproduced twenty-five of the equations in Schwarzschild’s paper is evident by comparison, as revealed in my paper. Moreover, I did not address only this in my paper, but also Corda’s ‘deformation of circumferences’ and his alleged ‘Schwarzschild sphere’, along with the issues of general covariance and coordinate transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[234] **viXra:1603.0260 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-02 15:30:03*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A solution of Maxwell equations for alternating current wire is presented. The structure of currents and energy flows is reviewed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[233] **viXra:1603.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 17:26:26*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This article shows that it is mathematically impossible for Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory (SRT) to use its own Lorentz transformation (LT), and it also reveals: the origin of this error in the pre-relativistic Electrodynamics, and the main causes of misunderstandings between the advocates of SRT and the critics of SRT, regarding the relativistic paradoxes of LT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[232] **viXra:1603.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 21:00:25*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 26 Pages. the paper is also relevant to quantum physics

The present article proposes an epistemic approach to relativity, termed information relativity theory. For this purpose we consider a physical system in which an observer receives information on measurements taken in another reference-frame moving with constant velocity v relative to observer's frame. Unlike existing ontic relativity theories, we avoided questions pertaining to the true state of Nature (i.e., as it is for itself). We only ask how physical measurements taken in the "moving" frame are transformed when they are received in the observer's "rest" frame. We specify that information is communicated using an information carrier with known velocity v_c (v_c > v). We make no other assumptions, thus our approach is completely epistemic. For systems of the above described type we derive the epistemic relativistic time, distance, mass, and energy transformations, relating measurements transmitted by the information sender, to the corresponding information obtained by the receiver. The resulting terms are simple and beautiful with several Golden Ratio symmetries. For β = v/v_c << 1, all the derived transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton terms. Provided that v_c > v the theory applies to all systems which could be described by the preparation described above, regardless of the modality and velocity of the information carrier, and the rest mass of the moving body.
An essential feature of the theory is that the direction of relative motion is of crucial importance. The derived time transformation concurs with the original Doppler formula, renders the theory useful for relativistic cosmology. No less important the theory predicts that distancing objects will suffer length extension. At sufficiently high velocities the theory predicts that two bodies distancing from each other can maintain s spatial locality, a property which enables the theory to bypass Bell's theorem. We demonstrate the validity of the above conclusion by successfully explaining and reproducing quantum theoretic results for two key quantum phenomena: quantum phase-transition, and matter-wave duality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[231] **viXra:1603.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 20:43:40*

**Authors:** Zhang Peng

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

我想到了一个简单的方法证明光速可变与否，根据下文的理论，红移是光子同观测点的相对速度发生变化产生的，也就是在我们看来，发生红移的星的光子的运动速度比光速要慢，也就是说如果两个观测点有距离差的话，他们观测到的红移的星光的时间差应该要大于以光速计算出来的时间差。谁有能力对比验证一下？
或者也就是说，两个存在直线距离的观测点，同一时间观测到的两个红移量不一样的天体的图案是不同和存在时间差的。

**Category:** Astrophysics

[230] **viXra:1603.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 00:45:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes of the form 2*(p*q*r) + 1, where p, q = p + 6, r = q + 6 are odd numbers of the form 6*k – 1; (II) there exist an infinity of semiprimes m*n of the form 2*(p*q*r) + 1, where p, q = p + 6, r = q + 6 are odd numbers of the form 6*k – 1, semiprimes having the property that n – m + 1 is prime; (III) there exist an infinity of primes of the form 2*(p*q*r) - 1, where p, q = p + 6, r = q + 6 are odd numbers of the form 6*k + 1; (IV) there exist an infinity of semiprimes m*n of the form 2*(p*q*r) + 1, where p, q = p + 6, r = q + 6 are odd numbers of the form 6*k + 1, semiprimes having the property that n – m + 1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[229] **viXra:1603.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 00:30:40*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recent experiments, performed by Prof. Pizzella's team with relativistic electron bunches, indicate that Coulomb field is rigidly attached to the charge's instantaneous position. Despite a widespread opinion, this fact does not violate causality in moving reference frames. To see that, one should apply the Wigner--Dirac theory of relativistic dynamics and take into account that the Lorentz boost generator depends on interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[228] **viXra:1603.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 03:26:29*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Using a clear and straightforward approach, we prove new ternary (base 3) digit extraction BBP-type formulas for polylogarithm constants. Some known results are also rediscovered in a more direct and elegant manner. A previously unproved degree~4 ternary formula is also proved. Finally, a couple of ternary zero relations are established, which prove two known but hitherto unproved formulas.

**Category:** Number Theory

[227] **viXra:1603.0253 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-22 03:39:32*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 20 Pages. 20

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field.
After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs filed particles from the vacuum.
These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law.
However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, (and not- as normal- in opposition due to the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field)
.As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron powder atoms.
This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets.
Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet platings with a spiralling electric coils in between.
The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[226] **viXra:1603.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 17:00:15*

**Authors:** Glenn Healey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This file contains an intrinsic contact list for batters.

**Category:** Statistics

[225] **viXra:1603.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 17:02:40*

**Authors:** Glenn Healey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This file contains an intrinsic contact list for pitchers.

**Category:** Statistics

[224] **viXra:1603.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-22 06:52:29*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A most deep solution to the fifteent problem of Smale, the Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimentions. The answer is negative.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[223] **viXra:1603.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 11:21:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11] In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[222] **viXra:1603.0248 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-14 03:21:54*

**Authors:** Prem kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I discuss an algorithm which will solve a very famous puzzle involving a monkey, few men and some coconuts. The puzzle involves a group of n men who have an unknown number of coconuts among them. At night, while the others are asleep, one of the men divides the coconuts in n parts and hides his share. While dividing, he discovers that there is one extra coconut, which he gives away to a monkey. Exactly the same thing happens with the rest of the men, one by one. They all hide their share, are left with one extra coconut that cannot be divided, which they give to the monkey. The next morning they again divide the coconuts together equally among themselves, with no extra coconut remaining this time. The puzzle is to find out the initial number of coconuts.

**Category:** Number Theory

[221] **viXra:1603.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 09:19:32*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract
Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” match current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They also fall in line with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[220] **viXra:1603.0246 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-11 04:01:50*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 192 Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell's equations for a vacuum, for wire with constant and alternating current, for the capacitor, for the sphere, etc is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The presented solution does not violate the Law of energy conservation. Besides, in this solution the electrical and magnetic components of intensity are shifted in phase. Technical applications of this decision is reviewed. \\ Предлагается новое решение уравнений Максвелла для вакуума, для провода с постоянным и переменным током, для конденсатора, для сферы и т.д. Предварительно отмечается, что доказательство единственности известного решения основано на законе сохранения энергии, который не соблюдается (для мгновенных значений) в известном решении. Предлагаемое решение
•описывает волну в вакууме и волну в проводе,
•не противоречит закону сохранения энергии в каждый момент времени, т.е. устанавливает постоянство плотности потока электромагнитной энергии во времени,
•выявляет сдвиг фаз между электрическими и магнитными напряженностями,
•объясняет существование потока энергии вдоль провода, равного потребляемой мощности.
Рассматриваются технические приложения полученного решения.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[219] **viXra:1603.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 14:29:28*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Conceptual definition of GRS and physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[218] **viXra:1603.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-16 21:27:43*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the late 1970s A.O.Barut put forth an alternative theory for the inner constitution of baryons and mesons, in which the basic pieces would be the stable particles, namely the proton, the electron, and the neutrino, rather than quarks with fractionary charges. At the same time Barut proposed also that the short range strong interactions between such internal constituents would be magnetic in nature. Quite recently, in vixra 1511.0005, we developed a phenomenological model based upon the concept that the magnetodynamic energy of zitterbewegung intrinsic motion is the source for the rest energies, and therefore, the source of mass in particles. In the present paper we show that our recently proposed model can be applied to leptons and to the full baryon octet with almost perfect accuracy, in a way consistent with Barut´s proposal. It is shown that mass for all these particles depends on two quantities, namely, the number of magnetic flux quanta trapped in an intrinsic vibrational motion, and the magnetic moment of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[217] **viXra:1603.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 01:48:20*

**Authors:** Chen jun Dr

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Application of force accompany with energy consumption is the basic common sense. Based on this common sense, Newtonian mechanics system is studied according to energy transformation and conservation law. A concept of dissipation work is proposed and a calculation formula of dissipation work is derived. Meanwhile, thermal effect of force is obtained through inference, kinetic energy theorem is amended, and supplements of angular kinetic energy theorem and the law of conservation of angular kinetic energy are made. Through these researches, celestial body movement is found to comply with conservation of angular kinetic energy, rather than the conservation of angular momentum or the so-called conservation of mechanical energy. Also, the potential energy, which is superfluous in Newtonian mechanics, is found not to be energy. Therefore, the unity of conservative forces and non-conservative forces is realized. The revised Newtonian mechanics will have a profound influence on subjects and relative research fields of physics, astronomy and astronautics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[216] **viXra:1603.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 03:18:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[215] **viXra:1603.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 04:34:33*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 19

Abstract.
According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole components: a North- and a South component.
After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic particles from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as the result of two individual mutated Higgs particles, able to do the magnetic job and interlock temporarily with the Fermion, to give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right.
However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, the magnetic field strength locally drops down to zero.
This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the local dropping zone, which can be used for reaction less space propulsion and Levitation

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[214] **viXra:1603.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 09:20:11*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

The road on the foundations of science in general consists in (a) making precise what the assumptions are one makes resulting from our measurements (b) holding a “good” balance between theoretical assumptions and genericity of predictions (c) saying as precisely as possible what you mean. Unfortunately, recent work where these three criteria are met is scarce and I often encounter situations where physicists talk about diﬀerent things in the same words or the other way around, identify distinct concepts (even without being aware of it), or introduce unnecessary hypothesis based upon a too stringent mathematical interpretation of some observation. In this work, I will be as critical as possible and give away those objections against modern theories of physics which have become clear in my mind and therefore transcend mere intuition. All these objections result from the use of unclear language or too stringent assumptions on the nature of reality. Next, we weaken the assumptions and discuss what I call process physics; it will turn out that Bell’s concerns do ﬁnd a natural solution within this framework.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[213] **viXra:1603.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 10:05:23*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures on the Smarandache’s proper divisor products sequence where a term P(n) of the sequence is defined as the product of the proper divisors of n: (1) there exist an infinity of numbers n divisible by 3 such that the number obtained concatenating the value of P(n) to the right with 1 is prime; (2) there exist an infinity of numbers n divisible by 3 such that the number obtained concatenating the value of P(n) to the right with 1 is semiprime p*q with the property that q – p + 1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[212] **viXra:1603.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 10:07:03*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating the number P – 1 to the right with 1, where P is a Poulet number; (II) there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating the number P – 1 to the right with 11, where P is a Poulet number; (III) there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating the number P + 1 to the right with 11, where P is a Poulet number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[211] **viXra:1603.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 10:09:42*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) there exist, for any prime p having the value of the last digit d equal to 1, respectively to 3, 7 or 9, an infinity of primes obtained concatenating p – 1 with the value of d; (II) there exist, for any prime p having the value of the last digit d equal to 1, respectively to 3, 7 or 9, an infinity of primes obtained concatenating twice p – 1 with the value of d; (III) there exist, for any prime p having the value of the last digit d equal to 1, respectively to 3, 7 or 9, an infinity of primes obtained concatenating p + 1 with the value of d; (II) there exist, for any prime p having the value of the last digit d equal to 1, respectively to 3, 7 or 9, an infinity of primes obtained concatenating twice p + 1 with the value of d.

**Category:** Number Theory

[210] **viXra:1603.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 05:36:39*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I inserted this short rebuttal to avoid further unscientific confusion by Mr. Stephen J. Crothers.

This is a short rebuttal to the "paper" of Mr. Stephen J. Crothers in viXra:1602.0221.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[209] **viXra:1603.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 06:51:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[208] **viXra:1603.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 17:51:42*

**Authors:** Allen D Allen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The only way to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem with logical rigor is to first prove Fermat’s Extended Last Theorem (FELT): If n is an integer greater than 2, then there cannot exist positive rational fractions r, s, and t, neither integral nor non-integral, such that r^n + s^n = t^n.

**Category:** Number Theory

[207] **viXra:1603.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 19:11:30*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The LIGO team, operating two vacuum-mode Michelson interferometers reported the detection, on September 14, 2015, of a gravitational wave event of some 0.2sec duration, which was claimed to have been generated by two black holes merging a billion years ago. However experimentally it has been shown that such vacuum mode interferometers have zero sensitivity to gravitational waves, which have indeed been detected using other techniques over the last 100+ years. One such recently discovered technique uses quantum barrier electron tunnelling current fluctuations in reverse biased diodes, generated by dynamical 3-space fluctuations: gravitational waves. These are Quantum Gravity Detectors (QGD). There happens to be an international network of such detectors, and the data from this network shows a significant event at the same time as the LIGO event, but extending over some 4sec duration. Previously in 2014 such Quantum Gravity Detectors detected gravitational waves generated by the resonant Earth vibrations, whose frequencies were known from seismology. It is suggested that the LIGO event may have been an Earth generated gravitational wave event that was detected by the electronics of the LIGO measuring and recording system, an effect previously discovered in 2014 using
time-delayed correlated fluctuations in data recorded by oscilloscopes located in Australia and London.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[206] **viXra:1603.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 20:44:51*

**Authors:** Andrzej Lechowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The article presents the author's view on space

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[205] **viXra:1603.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 00:19:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to DNA Decipher Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a series of papers, Luc Montagnier and his group reported various effects of electromagnetic fields to DNA. It has been shown that genetic information can be transmitted to water through applications of electromagnetic field. These experiments seem to confirm what have been done by Peter Gariaev and his group in the past 3 decades, i.e. that DNA has wave character. Of course, non-particle view of DNA challenges standard paradigm of DNA and biology. The purpose of this paper is to review shortly such a non-particle view of DNA. To conclude, then we consider an extension of known adage: “Omne vivum ex vivo”, to become “Omne vivum ex vivo via crebritudo” (crebritudo is the Latin word for “frequency”).

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[204] **viXra:1603.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 22:31:38*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This paper has been submitted to IJET (www.scipress.com). Your comments are welcome

This paper was at-least-partially inspired by the problem of relatively slow internet connection in our country. We believe that the same common problem has plagued other developing countries like ours, so it seems that we need a new technology to increase the internet capacity, especially the wireless network capacity. One way to do that is to look at the photon electrodynamics theory. In a series of papers, Bo Lehnert has suggested screw-shaped model of photon, inspired by his Revised Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED). Therefore in this paper we will review 4 possible methods to extend his screw-shaped photon model. In the mean time, there is recent debate concerning theoretical basis and utilization of photon orbital angular momentum (OAM), in particular as a means to increase wireless internet capacity. Promising results have been reported from laboratory experiments carried out by Bo Thide group and others too. But considering Vigier’s proposal to consider photon as soliton, in this paper we will discuss not the usual photon OAM as suggested by Thide group, instead we will consider soliton orbital angular momentum. If the proposed concept holds true, then it is possible to develop soliton radio wave based on OAM, which we call here as SOAmR (Soliton Orbital Angular Momentum Radio).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[203] **viXra:1603.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-04 08:50:26*

**Authors:** Jason Cole

**Comments:** 73 Pages.

Traditionally when we think of waves we think of 2d sine waves. For example, light waves, sound waves and the recently discovered gravity waves by LIGO. However, there exist a new form of waves called sphere-hyperboloid waves that has all the wave properties of 2d but in a 3d sphere and hyperboloid form. The new waveform is revolutionary because it has huge implications in mathematics and physics. If these new type of waves exist, then spherical particles are part of a sphere-hyperboloid propagation wave. This solves the particle wave-duality because it shows that the spherical electron is actually part of a newly discovered sphere-hyperboloid wave. The new wave theory will serve as basis for reconciling Q.M. with Relativity. It is called “Quantum wave Relativity” because this newly discovered wave served as the basis for reconciling Q.M. with Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. This new wave discovery will revolutionize physics! The great aspect about this theory is that it can be tested and yield new technological applications.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[202] **viXra:1603.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 01:25:03*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Hitherto only a base 5 BBP-type formula is known for $\sqrt 5\log\phi$, where \mbox{$\phi=(\sqrt 5+1)/2$}, the golden ratio, ( i.e. Formula 83 of the April 2013 edition of Bailey's Compendium of \mbox{BBP-type} formulas). In this paper we derive a new binary BBP-type formula for this constant. The formula is obtained as a particular case of a BBP-type formula for a family of logarithms.

**Category:** Number Theory

[201] **viXra:1603.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-17 02:40:06*

**Authors:** Vasile Pătraşcu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Starting from the primary representation of neutrosophic information, namely the degree of truth, degree of indeterminacy and degree of falsity, we define a nuanced representation in a penta valued fuzzy space, described by the index of truth, index of falsity, index of ignorance, index of contradiction and index of hesitance. Also, it was constructed an associated penta valued logic and then using this logic, it was defined for the proposed penta valued structure the following operators: union, intersection, negation, complement and dual. Then, the penta valued representation is extended to a hexa valued one, adding the sixth component, namely the index of ambiguity.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[200] **viXra:1603.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 05:12:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Better thermometers might be possible as a result of a discovery at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where physicists have found a way to calibrate temperature measurements by monitoring the tiny motions of a nanomechanical system that are governed by the often counterintuitive rules of quantum mechanics. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[199] **viXra:1603.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 12:05:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

University of Cincinnati theoretical physicists are about to report on a controversial discovery that they say contradicts the work of researchers over the decades. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[198] **viXra:1603.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 14:34:15*

**Authors:** Wei Cen, Ning Gu

**Comments:** Pages.

The bio-heat transfer equation for homogeneous material model can be easily calculated by using second order finite difference approximation to discretize the spatial derivatives and explicit finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme for time domain discretization. Mr. Gandhi and colleagues solved the bio-heat equation for inhomogeneous models utilizing implicit finite-difference method. Whereas we appreciate their research, we would like to address a few issues that may help further clarify or confirm the research.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[197] **viXra:1603.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 15:21:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[196] **viXra:1603.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 13:41:02*

**Authors:** Andrzej Gecow

**Comments:** v3 & 1 - version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, v4 & 2 - version in English, 170 pages, over 400 graphs and tables.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random
network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered
reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic,
described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties.
Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially
interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity,
however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node
states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when
one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects
description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen
and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations.
Keywords: chaos; complex networks; dynamic networks; deterministic networks; Kauffman
networks; computer simulation.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[195] **viXra:1603.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 10:26:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[194] **viXra:1603.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 07:27:51*

**Authors:** Ali Reza Najar Saligheh

**Comments:** 6 Pages. English and French languages.

First we will prove that Kk (the complete graph with k vertices) is a minor of every graph with chromatic number k. Then we will prove some other statements such as the four color theorem and the Hadwiger conjecture. We will not use computer-assisted proofs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[193] **viXra:1603.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 07:42:22*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[192] **viXra:1603.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 07:44:34*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[191] **viXra:1603.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-17 17:28:08*

**Authors:** Glenn Healey

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Given a set of observed batted balls and their outcomes, we develop a method for learning the dependence of a batted ball’s intrinsic value on its measured parameters.

**Category:** Statistics

[190] **viXra:1603.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 21:10:41*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 05 pages, 04 references, short note

Thompson’s Method is applied to a variational principle in order to treat the harmonic oscillator in one dimension. It is also used to link the de Broglie frequency to a harmonic oscillator model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[189] **viXra:1603.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-27 14:57:02*

**Authors:** Doug Jensen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article explains why we got started using pi and why we need to switch to tau.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[188] **viXra:1603.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 12:07:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

" Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[187] **viXra:1603.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 13:36:17*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this note we show the numerical integration of some double integrals related with the Euler constant,we use Mathematica tools

**Category:** General Mathematics

[186] **viXra:1603.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 09:33:03*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Author offers some initial ideas about a cognitive construct of the Micro-World with allows to design a preon based Universe matching many qualities of the observable universe.. The main idea is that - the initial base must be very simple: two energy massless virtual particles (eners) and two reciprocity relations (interactions) between them. Author postulates: Two energy massless virtual particles can explain the main features of much of what we see including: mass, electrical charges and the main interactions between particles such as: gravitation, centrifugal and inertial masses, repulsion and attraction of electric charges, weak and strong nuclear forces, design of quarks and baryonic matter.
Author gives only ideas of how these problems may be solved. Scientists who will be interested in the offered approach can make detailed mathematical descriptions and solutions.
-------------------------------------------
Key words: microworld, preon, preon theory, virtual particles, fundamental interactions, Ener Model of Universe, Bolonkin.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[185] **viXra:1603.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 09:45:53*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, I develop a simple analog electrical circuit. And I use this circuit to solve some classical problems in special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[184] **viXra:1603.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-27 07:29:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper show how we can “manipulate” physical fundamental constants like the Planck constants in Euclidean space-time. For example, what is the velocity we need to travel at for the π to disappear from the Planck length as observed from another reference frame? Or what is the velocity we need to travel at to replace π in the Planck energy with the Golden ratio Phi? Or what is the velocity we need to travel at to turn Planck’s mass into “Gold”? This paper provides the answer to this and similar questions all quite natural to think about on Pi-day.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[183] **viXra:1603.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 15:05:21*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, I suggest a new way to write the gravitational constant that makes all of the Planck units: Planck length, Planck time, Planck mass, and Planck energy much more intuitive and simpler to understand. Most importantly, this potentially opens up the way for several new interpretations in physics. By writing the gravitational constant in a Planck functional form, we can rewrite all of the Planck units (without changing their values) in a form that is much simpler and more intuitive.
The structural form given by the rewritten Planck constants is somewhat surprisingly also the same structural form as what recently has been derived by Haug 2014 from scratch from atomism. In atomism, the most fundamental particles have spatial dimension. This is in strong contrast to the view of modern physics that assumes the existence of point particles. It is not so long ago that the indivisible particles with spatial dimensions (used by Newton, for example) were abandoned by modern physics in favor of point particles. We will not conclude in this paper if the most fundamental subatomic particles are point-like or have spatial dimension, but we will mainly focus on how we can simplify the Planck units within the framework of mainstream modern physics. Hopefully this can help us get one step further in the interpretation of the quantum world.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[182] **viXra:1603.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 23:42:14*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Re done from a Prespacetime 2012 paper, which has substantially different content. The headers have the old Perspacetime template, but that is due to their construction, while the content is very different

In 2012, the author submitted an article to the Prespacetime journal based upon the premise of inquiry as to the alleged vanishing of disjoint open sets contributing to quantum vector measures no longer working. I.e. the solution in 2012 was that the author stated that quantum measures in 4 dimensions would not work, mandating, if measure theory were used, imbedding in higher dimensions was necessary for a singularity. The idea was to use the methodology of string theory as to come up with a way out of the impasse if higher dimensions do not exist. We revisit this question, taking into account a derived HUP, for metric tensors if we look at Pre-Planckian space-time introducing a pre-Quantum mechanical HUP which may be a way to ascertain a solution not mandating higher dimensions, as well as introducing cautions as to what will disrupt the offered solution. Note that first, measurable spaces allow disjoint sets. Also, that smooth relations alone do not define separability or admit sets Planck’s length, if it exists, is a natural way to get about the ‘bad effects’ of a cosmic singularity at the beginning of space-time evolution, but if a development is to believed, namely by Stoica in the article, about removing the cosmic singularity as a break down point in relativity, there is nothing which forbids space-time from collapsing to a point. Without the use of a Pre Planckian HUP, for metric tensors, the quatum measures in four dimensions break down. We try to ascertain if a Pre Planckian HUP is sufficient to avoid this pathology and also look at if division algebras which can link Octonionic geometry and E8, to Quark spinors, in the standard model and add sufficient definition to the standard model are necessary and sufficient conditions for a metric tensor HUP which may remove this break down of the sum rum in the onset of the ‘Big Bang’.
Keywords: quantum measures, spatial diffeomorphism, cylinder sets, Caratheodary-Hahn –Huvanek theorem, Big Bang singularity, causal sets, Modified Pre Planckian HUP, Division Algebras

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[181] **viXra:1603.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 00:37:17*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author presents a ‘Primeness Test’ which can
be used to test if any given number is Prime or not.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[180] **viXra:1603.0204 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-30 07:34:34*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 Picture

A new principle of celestial objects is presented to clarify the star sciences.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[179] **viXra:1603.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 11:54:50*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new principle of celestial objects is presented to clarify the star sciences according to stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[178] **viXra:1603.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 12:08:01*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new principle of celestial mechanics is presented to clarify the star sciences according to stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[177] **viXra:1603.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 07:49:50*

**Authors:** Mohsen Soori, Behrooz Arezoo, Mohsen Habibi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Computer-Aided Design, 45(11), 1306-1313, 2013

Virtual machining systems are applying computers and different types of software in manufacturing and production in order to simulate and model errors of real environment in virtual reality systems. Many errors of CNC machine tools have an effect on the accuracy and repeatability of part manufacturing. Some of these errors can be reduced by controlling the machining process and environmental parameters. However geometrical errors which have a big portion of total error need more attention. In this paper a virtual machining system which simulates the dimensional and geometrical errors of real three-axis milling machining operations is described. The system can read the machining codes of parts and enforce 21 errors associated with linear and rotational motion axes in order to generate new codes to represent the actual machining operation. In order to validate the system free form profiles and surfaces of virtual and real machined parts are compared in order to present the reliability and accuracy of the software.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[176] **viXra:1603.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 07:54:18*

**Authors:** Mohsen Soori, Behrooz Arezoo, Mohsen Habibi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 33(4), 498-507, 2014

Virtual manufacturing systems can provide useful means for products to be manufactured without the need of physical testing on the shop floor. As a result, the time and cost of part production can be decreased. There are different error sources in machine tools such as tool deflection, geometrical deviations of moving axis and thermal distortions of machine tool structures. Some of these errors can be decreased by controlling the machining process and environmental parameters. However other errors like tool deflection and geometrical errors which have a big portion of the total error, need more attention. This paper presents a virtual machining system in order to enforce dimensional, geometrical and tool deflection errors in three-axis milling operations. The system receives 21 dimensional and geometrical errors of a machine tool and machining codes of a specific part as input. The output of the system is the modified codes which will produce actual machined part in the virtual environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[175] **viXra:1603.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 08:00:26*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 15 pages

The nature of the chemical bond has intrigued many a mind. Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom, which celebrated its centennial recently, gave the correct value but a negative sign for the energy. As this would imply that the energy of the Universe, which consists of 70% hydrogen, is negative, the author was dissatisfied with it. So she proposed a modified approach to the problem, which showed that the energy is positive. Moreover, she found that the Bohr radius is divided into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton. This idea cascaded into the finding that all bond lengths in small as well as large molecules are simply exact sums of the appropriate atomic and or Golden ratio based ionic radii of adjacent atoms or ions. Over the years, this has proved to be correct for various types of bonds, including hydrogen bonds, bonds in graphite and in benzene dimers.

**Category:** Chemistry

[174] **viXra:1603.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 08:03:24*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 7 pages, 2 figs, submitted to EPL

The site reduction of SU(2) lattice gauge theory is employed to model the magnetic monopoles of SU(2) gauge theory. The site reduced theory is a matrix model on discrete world-line for the angle-valued coordinates of 0-branes. The Monte~Carlo numerical analysis
introduces the critical temperature $T_c\simeq 0.25~a^{-1}$ and the critical coupling $g_c\simeq 1.56$, above which the free energy does not exhibit a minimum leading to a phase transition.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[173] **viXra:1603.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 10:05:16*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A natural view on the problem of mass gap.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[172] **viXra:1603.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 07:06:24*

**Authors:** Alexander F. Jonkeren

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper describes the perceived spin (rotational) rate deduced from spectral redshift differences obtained with long-slit spectroscopy of a hypothetical spiral galaxy with a normal spin rate and a high (relativistic) peculiar velocity as seen from the Milky Way rest frame. With a sufficiently high relativistic peculiar velocity the perceived galaxy spin rate or galaxy rotation curve will correspond with the observed galaxy spin rates and flat rotation curves that led to the ‘Galaxy Rotation Problem’; the discrepancy between observed galaxy rotation curves and the theoretical prediction from the law of gravity, which led to the inference of Dark Matter. This difference between actual and perceived spin rate / rotational curve can then be explained by the fact that at relativistic velocities a small difference in velocity between two objects or areas lead to an exaggerated difference in spectral redshift across the major axis of a galaxy.
Assuming a relativistic peculiar velocity thus provides a (partial) solution to the galaxy rotation problem, observed flat rotation curves and the missing mass problem which all have lead to the hypothesized existence of Dark Matter, among other proposed solutions. The perceived high spin rate is then caused by a normal spin rate measured as large redshift differences due to the relativistic velocity of the whole galaxy.
Assuming a relativistic peculiar velocity also provides a (partial) solution for the perceived accelerating expansion of the universe as measured by the lower than expected luminosity of supernovae which lead to the hypothesized existence of Dark Energy. The actual lower luminosity of supernovae is then caused by a significant additional distance covered due to a high peculiar motion over billions of years, adding to the distance increase by space-time expansion.
Key words: cosmology , galaxy rotation problem , flat rotation curve , missing mass problem , peculiar velocity , spectral redshift , long-slit spectroscopy , dark matter , dark energy , accelerating expansion of the universe , Hubble constant

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[171] **viXra:1603.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-23 03:00:37*

**Authors:** Feng Lin

**Comments:** 16 Pages. mathematical and system science method is used to study biological system

Based on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics point of view that a biological system is sustained by a local potential provided by stable entropy production, we construct a mathematical model to describe the metabolism of human body system. According to the stable and periodic property of human body system, the embryonic form of the model is constructed by dimensional analysis. Based on the mathematical model, stability analysis is used to discuss the response to perturbation which corresponds to the influence on human health. With the help of physiology and medical science, the parameters in the model are determined by empirical formulas in physiology. The correspondence of parameters and the observable variables such as body temperature, body weight, heart rate etc is found out. As an example, an interesting result obtained from our model is that overweight adults, even though healthy in the medical examination reports, faces the risk of being sick, because overweight decreases the metabolic frequency, however, it drives the human body system "farther" from equilibrium (death). This result shows that the body weight of over weighted ones will gradually increase rather than staying at a stable interval. Our method provides a new approach of predicting human health according to the observable vital signs.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[170] **viXra:1603.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 17:01:37*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of primes p of the form n – 1, where n is the number obtained concatenating the digits of a prime q, each one of them multiplied by 6 (example: for q = 239, n = 121854 and p = n – 1 = 121853, prime); (II) There exist an infinity of primes p of the form n + 1, where n is the number obtained concatenating the digits of a prime q, each one of them multiplied by 6 (example: for q = 283, n = 124818 and p = n + 1 = 124819, prime).

**Category:** Number Theory

[169] **viXra:1603.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 16:43:21*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker, Leonid Tkach

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The paper considers a practical possibility to extract a portion of the hidden Ampere's current in the magnets. The extracted currents act as a powered conductor which develops a net force in the uniform magnetic field. In the experiments, the value of the extracted current was as mush as 160 A. Such the current reduced a weight of the magnetic system and developed its linear motion, as well. The video experiments demonstrate this.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[168] **viXra:1603.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 21:44:49*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution is written to account for the rate of dissipation of energy and mass during stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[167] **viXra:1603.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 04:41:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of 2-Poulet numbers P = m*n having the property that the number q = 6*(m + n) + 1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[166] **viXra:1603.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 12:27:01*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Acest nou volum de cititoriri (al șaselea) este un jurnal de lecturi instante compilat din câteva caiete de însemnări din adolescența consemnatorului; caietele datează din anii 1979-1982, când relativa deschidere culturală a anilor 70 își dădea ultima suflare. Publicațiile listate sunt, în marea lor majoritate, reviste de cultură, și o simplă răsfoire a numelor care publicau în aceste gazete are darul de a aminti că, în acele vremuri tulburi, românii au încercat să reziste mai ales prin cultură. Dar și atunci publicau doar privilegiații care ocupau posturi în redacții sau în cultură și acoliții lor, deși revistele erau retribuite de la buget.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[165] **viXra:1603.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 12:51:20*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Double-slit experiment is an experiment to detect gravitational waves.
Hypothesis, elementary pulsation principle (electrons and photons are powerful gravitational wave sources that)... and to interpret.
(The double-slit experiment was in gravitational wave detection)... and to interpret.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[164] **viXra:1603.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-10 00:02:18*

**Authors:** Zhang ChengGang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

shortcomings and difficulties which in Bohr’s theory and quantum mechanics imply a deeper theory after the quantum, a new way to touch the deeper theory is by analysis their premise thought foundation, analysis indicated that the force of microcosmic particle should different from classical mechanics, and microcosmic potential function(microscopic interaction) is a new discovery; the shortcomings and difficulties of Bohr’s theory and quantum mechanics can be understood or eliminated by microcosmic potential function, Bohr’s theory is the result of combining quantum phenomena of microscopic interaction and classical physics, quantum mechanics is established by directly using microscopic interaction’s "wave" apparent phenomenon, the microscopic interaction is more essential theory between the two particles, classical mechanics is only approximation results of microscopic interaction in macroscopic.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[163] **viXra:1603.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 05:31:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I state the following two conjectures: (I) For any prime q greater than 5 there exist an infinity of primes p obtained subtracting the square of q or the square of r from the number obtained concatenating the square of q with the square of r, where r prime, r = q + 18*n, and adding 1 (for example, p = 121841 – 121 + 1 = 121721, prime, also p = 121841 – 841 + 1 = 121001, prime, where q^2 = 11^2 = 121, r^2 = 29^2 = 841 and 29 = 11 + 18*1); (II) For any positive integer n there exist an infinity of triplets of primes [p, q, r] such that r = q + 18*n and p is obtained subtracting the square of q or the square of r from the number obtained concatenating the square of q with the square of r and adding 1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[162] **viXra:1603.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 05:33:51*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Parameter
Element Wise Linear Transformations (Interpolation)Based Forecasting Model
For Dynamic State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[161] **viXra:1603.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 06:51:18*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[160] **viXra:1603.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 06:53:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[159] **viXra:1603.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 16:14:21*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 14 references

The weak interaction due to different compositions of up and down quarks leads to the neutron-proton mass difference. The radius of the nucleon is fixed by the strong interaction. In a first calculation, the weak coupling is introduced by the hand. In a second one, both the mass difference and the weak coupling are determined.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[158] **viXra:1603.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 17:14:39*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The geometry of the universe.
(Dark energy pulsating principle) has found. 4-dimensional space, dark energy and dark matter.
The hypothesis is consistent. Nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force.
The hypothesis is suggested. New cosmic model.
The hypothesis is consistent. Micro-space structure and maximal spatial structure.
The hypothesis is described. As both a uniform geometry.
The hypothesis was correct. Stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics.
The hypothesis have solved the mystery. The mystery of the double-slit experiment.
The hypothesis is given. The size of the particle.
The hypothesis is. To suggest. 3: revolution in superstring theory.
The hypothesis have solved the mystery. The mystery of the universe and the big bang singularity and the mystery of Galaxy distribution.
The hypothesis is. To deny. Exponential function point space expansion model.
The hypothesis is. Fix. The mystery of the beginning of time and space from nothingness.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[157] **viXra:1603.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-14 15:52:37*

**Authors:** Luca Martino, Jorge Plata-Chaves, Francisco Louzada

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this work, we design an efficient Monte Carlo scheme for a node-specific inference problem where a vector of global parameters and multiple vectors of local parameters are involved. This scenario often appears in inference problems over heterogeneous wireless sensor networks where each node performs observations dependent on a vector of global parameters as well as a vector of local parameters. The proposed scheme uses parallel local MCMC chains and then an importance sampling (IS) fusion step that leverages all the observations of all the nodes when estimating the global parameters. The resulting algorithm is simple and flexible. It can be easily applied iteratively, or extended in a sequential framework.

**Category:** Statistics

[156] **viXra:1603.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 19:51:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Disruption-annihilation of 2 varieties of spin 1/spin 0 fermibosonic entity (process) is sufficient to match within 6% the observed recent abundance ratio of dark energy/fermions in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[155] **viXra:1603.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 22:27:24*

**Authors:** Amit Prakash, Manoj Kumar

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Journal of Applied Analysis and Computation, 6(3), 738-748, 2016

In this paper, we apply He's Variational iteration method (VIM)
for solving nonlinear Newell-Whitehead-Segel equation. By using this method
three dierent cases of Newell-Whitehead-Segel equation have been discussed.
Comparison of the obtained result with exact solutions shows that the method
used is an eective and highly promising method for solving dierent cases of
nonlinear Newell-Whitehead-Segel equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1603.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 22:32:00*

**Authors:** Mohsen Soori, S. Salman Nourazar, Akbar Nazari-Golshan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. International Journal of Mathematics and Computation, 27(3), 2016

To obtain the exact solution of the Fisher Type equation, the Variational Iteration Method (VIM) and the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) are used. Obtained results by using the methods are numerically compared to present accuracy of the algorithms in solving the equation. The results prove that the methods are effective and powerful algorithm in order to solve the Fisher type equation as a non-linear differential equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[153] **viXra:1603.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 22:36:09*

**Authors:** Mohsen Soori, S. Salman Nourazar, Akbar Nazari-Golshan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. International Journal of Mathematics and Computation, 27(1), 2016

In this paper, the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is used to solve the Fitzhugh–Nagumo non-linear differential equations. In order to obtain the exact solution of Fitzhugh–Nagumo equation, two case study problems of the equation are solved by using the HPM. The trend of the rapid convergence of the sequences constructed by the method towards the exact solution is also numerically shown. As a result, the rapid convergence towards the exact solutions of HPM indicates that the method is powerful and efficient technique to solve the Fitzhugh–Nagumo non-linear differential equations. Also, the results present validity and great potential of the method as a powerful algorithm in order to obtain the exact solution of nonlinear differential equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[152] **viXra:1603.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 14:38:18*

**Authors:** Glenn Floyd

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The 'truth' facts is a subjective version of the facts

There Exists A Powerful Propensity For Human Scientific Inquiry To Be 'Force-Fitted'
To Pre-Determined Perceptions Of Reality.
Stephen Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA, British theoretical physicist and cosmologist states:
“The eventual goal of science is to provide a single theory that describes the whole universe”.
This statement of fundamentally flawed defective logic is a profoundly erroneous premise for legitimate scientific inquiry.
The premise is flawed because the falsehood of ‘the whole universe’ cannot exist. Nor can the fictional notion of ‘time’, or the fabricated concept of ‘the beginning’; or the ‘concocted’ state of ‘nothing’ be existing.
Both intergalactic and quantum mechanics physics reality demonstrate this by observation and testing now, showing understanding of gravity density forces, matter, energy and distance impacts are utterly erroneous.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[151] **viXra:1603.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-18 14:43:16*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[150] **viXra:1603.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 16:10:53*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I list a number of eight formulas that generate two certain types of semiprimes, i.e. semiprimes p*q with the property that n = q – p + 1 is prime respectively with the property that P + q – 1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[149] **viXra:1603.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 11:25:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Researchers in the US have taken images of individual atoms in an ultracold fermionic gas as it makes the transition from a metallic phase to a band insulator and then to a Mott insulator. This is the first study of such a transition in a fermionic gas to be made with single-site and single-particle resolution. While such experiments are routinely done using ultracold bosonic atoms, doing the same with fermions is more challenging because they are difficult to cool. However, the rewards for physicists could be greater because fermionic atoms are a closer match to electrons in a solid, and therefore such experiments could shed light on poorly understood solid systems such as high-temperature superconductors. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[148] **viXra:1603.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 11:54:37*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Since it is well known that establishment astrophysics/astrochemistry experts are confused concerning the formation and evolution of Venus and everything physical in outer space, a simple addition is made on Venus page concerning its formation and evolution.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[147] **viXra:1603.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 12:48:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

An optical chip developed at INRS by Prof. Roberto Morandotti's team overcomes a number of obstacles in the development of quantum computers, which are expected to revolutionize information processing. An international research team has demonstrated that on-chip quantum frequency combs can be used to simultaneously generate multiphoton entangled quantum bit (qubit) states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[146] **viXra:1603.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 07:30:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers at Princeton University have observed a bizarre behavior in a strange new crystal that could hold the key for future electronic technologies. Unlike most materials in which electrons travel on the surface, in these new materials the electrons sink into the depths of the crystal through special conductive channels. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[145] **viXra:1603.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 13:50:13*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 5 pages

Electrochemical potentials are conventionally referred to that of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) arbitrarily as zero, in the absence of the knowledge of the latter. More than two centuries after Volta, the author demonstrated for the first time, a new simple linear relation between the gaseous ionization potentials (I) and the aqueous standard redox potentials using existing data for the elements of various Groups in the Periodic Table. All these straight lines (except for Gp. VII) converged to one point at I = 0, yielding the absolute potential of SHE as 4.20 (+/- 0.03)V. For halogens (Gp. VII), the value was found to be 2.87 (+/-0.01) V. This enabled converting the existing standard potential data into absolute potentials. Since the gaseous ionization potentials are inversely proportional to the Bohr radius, an extension of the idea to absolute aqueous redox potentials enabled estimating the radii of redox components in solution and correlating them with their covalent radii.

**Category:** Chemistry

[144] **viXra:1603.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-14 22:23:28*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

To make an introduction to a book about arithmetic it is always difficult, because even most apparently simple assertions in this area of study may hide unsuspected inaccuracies, so one must always approach arithmetic with attention and care; and seriousness, because, in spite of the many games based on numbers, arithmetic is not a game. For this reason, I will avoid to do a naive and enthusiastic apology of arithmetic and also to get into a scholarly dissertation on the nature or the purpose of arithmetic. Instead of this, I will summarize this book, which brings together several articles regarding primes and Fermat pseudoprimes, submitted by the author to the preprint scientific database Research Gate. Part One of this book, “Sequences of primes and conjectures on them”, brings together thirty-two papers regarding sequences of primes, sequences of squares of primes, sequences of certain types of semiprimes, also few types of pairs, triplets and quadruplets of primes and conjectures on all of these sequences. There are also few papers regarding possible methods to obtain large primes or very large numbers with very few prime factors, some of them based on concatenation, some of them on other arithmetic operations. It is also introduced a new notion: “Smarandache-Coman sequences of primes”, defined as “all sequences of primes obtained from the terms of Smarandache sequences using any arithmetical operation” (for instance, the sequence of primes obtained concatenating to the right with the digit one the terms of Smarandache consecutive numbers sequence). Part Two of this book, “Sequences of Fermat pseudoprimes and conjectures on them”, brings together seventeen papers on sequences of Poulet numbers and Carmichael numbers, i.e. the Fermat pseudoprimes to base 2 and the absolute Fermat pseudoprimes, two classes of numbers that fascinated the author for long time. Among these papers there is a list of thirty-six polynomials and formulas that generate sequences of Fermat pseudoprimes. Part Three of this book, “Prime producing quadratic polynomials”, contains three papers which list some already known such polynomials, that generate more than 20, 30 or even 40 primes in a row, and few such polynomials discovered by the author himself (in a review of records in the field of prime generating polynomials, written by Dress and Landreau, two French mathematicians well known for records in this field, review that can be found on the web address

**Category:** Number Theory

[143] **viXra:1603.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 05:47:48*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Physical Review D

After reviewing the basics of the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime, via the introduction of nonlinear connections, we build an action and derive the generalized gravitational field equations in phase spaces. A nontrivial solution generalizing the Hilbert-Schwarzschild black hole metric in spacetime is found.
The most relevant physical consequence is that the metric becomes momentum-dependent (observer dependent) which is what one should aim for in trying to $quantize$ geometry (gravity) : the observer must play an important role in any measurement (observation) process of the spacetime he/she lives in.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[142] **viXra:1603.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 06:02:34*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a simple intuitive explanation of the phenomenon of star light bending near the Sun is proposed based on some insight into Huygens-Fresnel principle. Light ( and other waves ) does not necessarily go in a straight line. If there is intensity gradient of a ( light) wave at a point in space, the wave will bend towards the lower intensity regions, and away from higher intensity regions of space. Only waves from ideal isotropic sources propagate in a straight line, in a space where there are no obstructions between light source and point of light detection. Intensity gradient may arise due to non-isotropic emitter/radiator or due to an obstruction shadowing a region of space. If diffraction pattern arises from a wave passing through a slit, then diffraction should also arise from intensity gradient of a wave.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[141] **viXra:1603.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 07:19:11*

**Authors:** George Gregory

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Developing interesting Generalized Smarandache Palindromes formed from smarandacheian sequences.

**Category:** Number Theory

[140] **viXra:1603.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 07:22:55*

**Authors:** M. Perez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Problems in Number Theory.

**Category:** Number Theory

[139] **viXra:1603.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 11:20:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[138] **viXra:1603.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 20:37:54*

**Authors:** E. Samsonov

**Comments:** 11 pages, 9 figures

This paper describes the experiment conducted by the author to verify predictions of the controversial theory by R. Shawyer where a frustum-shaped RF resonant cavity (“EmDrive”) is expected to produce an asymmetrical anomalous force. A resonant cavity has been designed, simulated, and constructed, followed by a dynamic test on a pendulum platform while being energized with approximately 30W of RF power at the TE012 resonance mode. No force resulting from the application of RF energy has been detected within the resolution of the experimental setup. Spurious forces of thermal origin have been observed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[137] **viXra:1603.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 21:03:38*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article started as a brief comment on the recent death of artificial-intelligence pioneer Marvin Minsky. After writing that the power of our emotions could be used to greatly enhance our reasoning abilities, I found that more and more had to be added and it turned into a physics article. This switch happened when I wrote that the entire universe (including the human brain) might be composed of electronics' binary digits. Since the bits would be generated by so-called virtual particles, it was necessary to talk about them and how their random motions could be ordered to produce 1's and 0's. I concluded this could be achieved via future application of an electrical-engineering experiment conducted at Yale University in 2009. From there, I began paragraphs on topics like cosmology, biotechnology and Maxwell's "retarded" and "advanced" light waves. This led to E=mc^2, gravitational waves also having retarded/advanced components, the multiverse actually being the unification of all past and future states of the universe with the present cosmos, and the concept from a 1919 paper by Einstein of gravitational waves playing a role in matter's creation. Since those waves have an "advanced" component that travels back in time, the matter of technicians, biotechnologists and computers could also go backwards in time. The final section shows that my conclusions throughout are supported by viewing E=mc^2 in different ways.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[136] **viXra:1603.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-10 16:23:51*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Corrected Typos

This paper shows that the cosmological constant is approximately assuming gravity travels through one level of dimensions. It is also explained why the cosmological constant is larger than this, by a 3 magnitudes, since gravity may travel through multiple levels of dimensions and curve our perception of space.
Sarnowski showed in “Evidence for Granulated Space” (1) that gravitational forces can be calculated from Spheres within Spheres. In Sarnowski’s paper “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”, it was shown that the outer surface of a sphere packed with spheres, closely matches the amount of discontinuities created when packing spheres concentrically and thus predicts the amount of equivalent mass in the universe (2) Using the parameters derived for the Planck Sphere in “Evidence for Granulated Space” (1) and “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”(2) paper shows that the Cosmological Constant is the inverse ratio of Planck Spheres in the Hubble Sphere Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[135] **viXra:1603.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 00:38:46*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mercury – a kernel of the former comet which tail "has covered" Venus.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[134] **viXra:1603.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 00:56:44*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, there was no Big Bang and there is no dark energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[133] **viXra:1603.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 03:56:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Finland's Aalto University researchers have theorized that superconducting surfaces can become topological superconductors when magnetic iron atoms are deposited on the surface in a regular pattern. They used the latest mathematical and physical models to predict the existence of a topological superconducting state on metallic superconducting surfaces and thin films. [28] Since the 1930s scientists have been searching for particles that are simultaneously matter and antimatter. Now physicists have found strong evidence for one such entity inside a superconducting material. The discovery could represent the first so-called Majorana particle, and may help researchers encode information for quantum computers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[132] **viXra:1603.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 11:52:53*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page letter

This letter attempts to draw attention of global scientific community and political leaders that when natural flow of wind or ocean-waters gets obstructed by wind-mills or tidal-power-stations, it applies a recurring torque to the globe of our earth; and can change the current 23o angle of inclination of the earth’s axis with the plane of orbit, leading to unimaginable and unbearable climate-change. In addition to these, high-rise buildings too obstruct the natural flow of wind, and can contribute to climate-change. Even launching of satellites can apply some torque to the globe, whose cumulative effect can be sizable.

**Category:** Climate Research

[131] **viXra:1603.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 12:02:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures on the Smarandache’s divisor products sequence where a term P(n) of the sequence is defined as the product of the positive divisors of n: (1) there exist an infinity of n composites such that the number m = P(n) + n – 1 is prime; (2) there exist an infinity of n composites such that the number m = P(n) – n + 1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[130] **viXra:1603.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 12:14:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have developed a new code of numerical simulations that offers a glimpse of the complex process of the formation of structures in the Universe. Based on Einstein's equations, they were able to integrate the rotation of space-time into their calculations and calculate the amplitude of gravitational waves, whose existence was confirmed for the first time on February 12, 2016. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[129] **viXra:1603.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 12:16:21*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe.
Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure.
Over time, in the early universe.
Void (bubble) group in each microcosm.
Galaxy was born in each microcosm.
The Galaxy by the pulsating bubble moved the boundary. The moved to the borders and bubbles.
The hundred billion galaxies distributed to the boundary of the bubble (lattice).
As a result, became no longer bubbles in Galaxy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[128] **viXra:1603.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 10:14:27*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. possible amendments at http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?action=felblog;sa=view;cont=5148;uid=17499

Installation Method hours Einstein always gives the result as the mean speed of
light in any experiment. Installation Method hours does not affect the speed at this
point. We introduce such a setting the clock, which will allow to estimate the speed
of light in one direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[127] **viXra:1603.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 07:18:33*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make two conjectures on the numbers m created concatenating to the right an odd number n, not divisible by 3, with 3*n – 4 and then, if n is of the form 6*k + 1, with 11, respectively, if n is of the form 6*k – 1, with 1: (I) there exist an infinity of m primes; (II) there exist an infinity of m = p*q composites such that p + q – 1 is prime (where p and q may be, or may be not, primes). Note that for 25 from the first 30 odd numbers n not divisible by 3 the number m obtained belongs to one of the two sequences considered by the conjectures above.

**Category:** Number Theory

[126] **viXra:1603.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 07:24:23*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make four conjectures on the numbers n created concatenating to the right the product p*q with number 11, where [p, q] is a pair of twin primes: (I) there exist an infinity of n primes; (II) there exist an infinity of n semiprimes of the form (10k + 1)*(10h + 1); (II) there exist an infinity of n semiprimes of the form (10k + 9)*(10h + 9); (II) there exist an infinity of n semiprimes of the form (10k + 3)*(10h + 7). Note that for 40 from the first 43 pairs of twin primes the number n belongs to one of the four sequences considered by the conjectures above.

**Category:** Number Theory

[125] **viXra:1603.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 07:24:20*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[124] **viXra:1603.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 07:26:43*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[123] **viXra:1603.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 20:59:10*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. USED as introduction of lecture by A. Beckwith , in a PhD teaching school of Ukrainian students in Bratislavia, in August 2015

Summary of mistakes made by Mukhanov in the Marcel Grossman meeting in 2015, in Italy.
This is the source document for 15 papers, which in different variations are showing up in JHEPGC, which is a journal with Dr. Christian Corda as head editor. I.e. 6 of the nine papers already published by the Author in JHEPGC used this as the start of their take down of bogus reasoning by Mukhanov.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[122] **viXra:1603.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 21:08:21*

**Authors:** J. M. Zhang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A distance between the eigenbasis of two different Hamiltonians is proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[121] **viXra:1603.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 21:13:32*

**Authors:** Quang Nguyen Van

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We give a conjecture on sequence of consecutive natural numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[120] **viXra:1603.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 02:24:23*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We unify the Bohr energy formula with the Leibniz continuity theorem in order to get
the aufbau of photon. During the electron transition in this model the photon is created by
the continual way. The oscillation of parity of K-meson is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[119] **viXra:1603.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 13:15:37*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 17 pages

Arrhenius theory of partial dissociation of electrolytes rose to its heights and fame when he was awarded the Nobel Prize (1903). While the theory was still being developed to account for the non-ideal properties of electrolytes at higher concentrations, it was unfortunately replaced by Lewis’ empirical concepts of activity and activity coefficients. With the near success of the Debye-Huckel theory of inter-ionic interactions for very dilutions, the latter was erroneously extended over the next few decades by extended parametrical equations to higher concentrations assuming complete dissociation at all concentrations. This eventually turned solution theory into a mere catalogue of parameters. Therefore, the present author abandoned it all and started systematically analyzing the available experimental data as such. She found that with the degrees of dissociation and ‘surface’ and ‘bulk’ hydration numbers obtained from vapor pressure data, properties of electrolytes could be explained quantitatively over the whole concentration range, using simple mathematical equations.

**Category:** Chemistry

[118] **viXra:1603.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 11:02:59*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

We all know about the existence of differing effects - magnetic and electrostatic. In the article is presented interaction which connects the magnetism and electrostatics. Using the interaction of magnet and the charged object you may present a phenomenon in the form of stream of protoelectrons (electrons). The stream of protoelectrons around the electrified object has a direction "from" or "to" the object and when it encounters on its way a magnet, it moves it in the proper direction. The direction of displacement of the magnet is also dependent on the direction of spinning motion of protoelectrons around the magnet, or in other words, depends on the position of the poles of the magnet. // Все знают о существовании отличающихся друг от друга воздействий - магнитных и электростатических. В статье представлено взаимодействие, которое соединяет магнетизм и электростатику. Используя взаимодействие магнита и электрически заряженного объекта, можно представлять явление в виде потока протоэлектронов (электронов). Поток протоэлектронов вокруг наэлектризованного объекта имеет направление "от" или "на" объект и, когда он встречает на своем пути магнит, перемещает его в соответствующем направлении. Направление смещения магнита также зависит от направления кругового движения протоэлектронов вокруг магнита, или, иными словами, зависит от положения полюсов магнита.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[117] **viXra:1603.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 11:15:47*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

With effects of the Fundamental Interactions of Matter (FIM) we deal in any place and at any time. Every phenomenon in the universe and every living creature exists and functions based on FIM. The four depicted effects of actions of FIM are just four examples of the unlimited number of various manifestations of FIM. // Влияние фундаментальных взаимодействий материи (ФВМ) мы имеем дело в любом месте и в любое время. Каждое явление Вселенной и каждое живое существо существует и работает с базой для ФВМ. Четыре картины эффекты ФВМ лишь четыре примера неограниченного числа различных проявлений ФВМ.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[116] **viXra:1603.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 12:31:05*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Version corrected to be submitted to Journal of Number Theory. in French.

In 1997, Andrew Beal announced the following conjecture : \textit{Let $A, B,C, m,n$, and $l$ be positive integers with $m,n,l > 2$. If $A^m + B^n = C^l$ then $A, B,$ and $C$ have a common factor.} We begin to construct the polynomial $P(x)=(x-A^m)(x-B^n)(x+C^l)=x^3-px+q$ with $p,q$ integers depending of $A^m,B^n$ and $C^l$. We resolve $x^3-px+q=0$ and we obtain the three roots $x_1,x_2,x_3$ as functions of $p,q$ and a parameter $\theta$. Since $A^m,B^n,-C^l$ are the only roots of $x^3-px+q=0$, we discuss the conditions that $x_1,x_2,x_3$ are integers. Three numerical examples are also given.

**Category:** Number Theory

[115] **viXra:1603.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 12:27:56*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[114] **viXra:1603.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 12:30:45*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[113] **viXra:1603.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-21 10:09:12*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Hadronic Journal Vol. 39, 2016

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration have announced that on 14 September 2015, LIGO detected an Einstein gravitational wave directly for the first time, with the first observation of a binary black hole merger. The announcement was made with much media attention. Not so long ago similar media excitement surrounded the announcement by the BICEP2 Team of detection of primordial gravitational waves imprinted in B-mode polarisations of a Cosmic Microwave Background, which proved to be naught. According to the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations, the gravitational wave LIGO allegedly detected was generated by two merging black holes, one of ~29 solar masses, the other of ~36 solar masses, at a distance of some 1.3 billion light years. The insurmountable problem for the credibility of LIGO's claims is the questionable character of the theoretical assumptions upon which they are based. In this paper various arguments are presented according to which the basic theoretical assumptions, and the consequential claims of detecting gravitational waves, are proven false. The apparent detection by the LIGO-Virgo Collaborations is not related to gravitational waves or to the collision and merger of black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[112] **viXra:1603.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-01 06:18:15*

**Authors:** Dwayne Huang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

By some simple innate logics and simple geometries change, it reproduces Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the change process of CMB that is surrounding a point.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[111] **viXra:1603.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 07:54:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[110] **viXra:1603.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-15 16:54:17*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Traditionally when we think of waves we think of 2d sine waves. For example, light waves, sound waves and the recently discovered gravity waves by LIGO. However, there exist a new form of waves called sphere-hyperboloid waves that has all the wave properties of 2d but in a 3d sphere and hyperboloid form. The new waveform is revolutionary because it has huge implications in mathematics and physics. If these new type of waves exist, then spherical particles are part of a sphere-hyperboloid propagation wave. This solves the particle wave-duality because it shows that the spherical electron is actually part of a newly discovered sphere-hyperboloid wave. The new wave theory will serve as basis for reconciling Q.M. with Relativity. This new wave discovery will revolutionize physics! The great aspect about this theory is that it can be tested and yield new technological applications.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[109] **viXra:1603.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-30 20:17:57*

**Authors:** CLaude Latourre

**Comments:** 8 Pages. en français

For more than a century, the equations of general relativity have evolved according to the observations of the universe. These changes are expressed through the cosmological constant (Λ), which was first added on the space-time part to account for a stationary universe, then removed when observed the evolution of it. More recently, the constant reappeared on the energy-momentum part to describe an accelerated expansion of the universe. Let's see now, how the contraction of the equations of general relativity can express exactly the value of the cosmological constant: Λ = -1/4 (R + κ T) and also to deduce an equivalent reformulation the equations of General Relativity: (Rµ√ -1/4 gµ√ R) = κ (Tµ√ -1/4 gµ√ T). All this, without using any physical concept: dark energy, Quintessence…

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[108] **viXra:1603.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 00:16:38*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Parameter Element Wise Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[107] **viXra:1603.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 01:38:37*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Conformal Dark Energy interacts with Josephson Junction BSCCO superconductors. Neutrino mass gives a cutoff at about 1.7 x 10^12 Hz. Using BSCCO crystals as edges, configurations such as 16-edge 5-dipyramid can be constructed in flat 3-dim Space to observe Dark Energy Curvature Distortion of 4-dim Spacetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[106] **viXra:1603.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-14 01:59:42*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Published: Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Entropy at the level of individual particles: Analysis of Maxwell's Agent with a hidden-variable theory. Journal of Modern Physics, 7(10), 1277-1295. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.710113

Problem- Maxwell's Agent (MA) is a thought experiment about whether the Second Law is violated at smaller scales. This is a complex problem because the scale dependencies are unclear for perfect gas assumptions, quantum coherence, thermalisation, and contextual measurement. Purpose- The MA is explored from a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) perspective. Approach- The Cordus theory, a specific NLHV solution, was applied at macroscopic to fundamental scales. Physical realism requires the Agent be included in the analysis. Findings- The primary function is sorting, i.e. a one-time separation of species by some attribute. The thermodynamic MA situation is merely a special case for reducing disorder (entropy). A one-time extraction of energy is possible. This requires input energy, hence the device only has thermodynamic leverage and is not a perpetual motion device. Inefficiencies arise from thermalisation causing short mean free path of Brownian motion, perfect gases having minimal interaction with the gate, ambiguity about spatial location arising from quantum superposition, contextual measurement interfering with the particle velocity, and bremsstrahlung hysteresis losses occurring when the Agent operates. Implications- Entropy is a group property at the bulk level, not a characteristic of the individual particle, and can be reversed at an energy cost at the particle level. Originality- The explanation spans multiple levels from macroscopic down to fundamental, which is unusual. Achieving an explanation from the NLHV sector is novel. The theory accommodates superposition, irreversibility, entropy, contextual measurement, coherence-discord transition, and Brownian motion.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[105] **viXra:1603.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 13:59:05*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The proton *F*_{2} structure function curve reveals the number and type of particles inside the proton. Deep inelastic scattering experiments from the late 1960s produced an *F*_{2} curve with no data for proton momentum fractions less than 0.06. However, the assumption the missing *F*_{2} values remain constant in that region provided the basis for the current proton model of quarks and gluons. Here, I produce a complete proton *F*_{2} curve by combining data generated in 2000 with the original 1960s data. It shows the aforementioned assumption was wrong, invalidating the basis for the quark-gluon proton. My analysis of the new curve indicates protons are made of nine particles that appear to be muons; each of which is made of approximately 204 particles that look like electrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[104] **viXra:1603.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-13 02:57:59*

**Authors:** Robert G Wallace

**Comments:** 48 pages

Manifolds of any dimension and signature have an associated Clifford algebra. Division algebras can be generated by repeated application of the Cayley-Dickson construction, which can be further extended to power associative algebras such as the sedenions. It is possible to apply the Cayley-Dickson construction to Clifford algebras. The series of algebras generated this procedure are referred to in this paper as kaotic algebras, and the notation Ka^n(p,q) is proposed to designate particular kaotic algebra obtained by $n$ applications of the Cayley-Dickson construction to a matrix group isomorphic to a Clifford algebra Cl(p,q). The Cayley table for Ka^3(1,4) is generated. This table has aspects suggesting that this algebra may have applications in physics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[103] **viXra:1603.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 11:44:09*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Chapter 10. Pulsating Big Bang universe model.
[1]. the current universe model.
[2]... to deny the cosmic inflation model.
[3]. the large-scale structure of the universe.
[4]... on ripples to the microcosm model cosmic large-scale structure.
[5]... models of the universe birth starting with the size of the universe, without exceeding the speed of light.
[6]... by dark energy pulsating pulsating universe model.
[7]... pulsing microcosm was illustrated on the cover model.
[8]... to solve the mystery of cosmic large-scale structure voids (bubbles) in in the Galaxy.
[9]. pulsating voids (bubbles) each microcosm.
[10]... solve the mystery of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[102] **viXra:1603.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 12:01:55*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In physics are well-known such concepts as force, electric charge, force carriers, curvature of space. In the article the author shows how due to improper understanding of the meaning of concepts they gained a mythical character. The mythical nature of the physical concepts made the greatest damage in the minds of the creators of physics. And those physicists contributed to the "chutzpah" ideas in physics. An example is the electric charge. Because of excess and loss of electrons in certain places, these places are marked with "+" and "-". For mathematical purposes there was created the concept of the unit of charge. A "mythical" change in the minds of physicists contributed to the creation of quantum mechanics, in which the quark has, for example, charge "+2/3". What is the physical meaning of this kind of determination - what exist in nature and is hiding under this term - don't even know themselves the creators of physics. // В физике хорошо известны такие понятия, как: сила, электрический заряд, передача взаимодействий, кривизна пространства. В статье автор показывает, как, из-за недостаточного понимания значений понятий, они приобрели мифический характер. Этот мифический характер физических понятий наибольший ущерб принес умам создателей физики. И эти физики внесли свой вклад в виде "хуцпарских" идей в физике. Примером может служить электрический заряд. Из-за избытка и дефицита электронов в некоторых местах эти места помечались знаками "+" и "-". Для вычислительных целей было создано понятие единичного заряда. А "мифические" изменения в умах физиков способствовали созданию квантовой механики, в которой кварк имеет, например, электрический заряд "+2/3". Каков физический смысл такого рода определения - что в природе существует и скрывается под этим термином - этого не знают даже сами создатели физики.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[101] **viXra:1603.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 12:31:33*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[100] **viXra:1603.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 07:44:35*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[99] **viXra:1603.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 05:38:03*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of primes obtained deconcatenating the numbers of the form (30*k – 1)*(30*k + 1) to the right with digit 9; example: 449*451 = 202499 and 20249 is a prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[98] **viXra:1603.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 05:39:13*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I state the following three conjectures on the numbers obtained concatenating to the left the odd numbers with 1234: (I) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating to the left odd numbers with 1234; (II) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating to the left prime numbers with 1234; (III) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating to the left Poulet numbers with 1234.

**Category:** Number Theory

[97] **viXra:1603.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 05:40:25*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following four conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of primes p which, concatenated to the right with the digit 9, form also prime numbers; (II) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating the reversal of p as is defined in Conjecture I to the right with the digit 9; (III) There exist an infinity of semiprimes obtained concatenating primes to the right with the digit 9, semiprimes m*n having the property that n – m + 1 is prime; (IV) There exist an infinity of semiprimes obtained concatenating the reversal of p as is defined in Conjecture I to the right with the digit 9, semiprimes m*n having the property that n – m + 1 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[96] **viXra:1603.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-15 08:00:02*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In english and portuguese. Published in Transactions on Mathematics (TM) Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2017, pp. 34-37

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[95] **viXra:1603.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 07:12:49*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[94] **viXra:1603.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-13 16:13:55*

**Authors:** Fernando Isla

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This is fascinating, much of my life chuckling of those who thought see signs in pyramid measures, numbers in the Bible, or such stories, and now I find this.
The numbers 137 appear in some of the most important Temples:
Greek Temples: Parthenon, Artemis Temple, and Hephaestus Temple.
Ancient Egypt: the Great Pyramid, and Horus Temple.
The Bible: Noah's Ark, Tabernacle of Moses, and Solomon's Temple.
Vatican City: St Peter's Basilica, and “The Last Judgment” on Sistine Chapel.
All measured in meters. No gimmicks.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[93] **viXra:1603.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 19:15:09*

**Authors:** Mihai Grumazescu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Triple axis accelerometers attached to the central balls of a Newton's cradle pendulum reveal, along with the expected horizontal acceleration, an unexpected vertical acceleration following the impact with the first ball. This effect can be explained through a switch in the initially vertically oriented kinetic dipoles in each ball to a horizontal direction as a result of the force of impact. The central balls experience a vertical acceleration because, for a moment, the balls are less heavy since not all their kinetic dipoles continue to push downwardly as before the impact. After transmitting the impact force to the next ball, each central ball switch back its horizontal kinetic dipoles to the initial vertical orientation. The delay between the horizontal and vertical signals provided by the accelerometers also reveal a relaxation time of the kinetic dipoles' change of direction.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[92] **viXra:1603.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 20:58:34*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to Gravity Research Foundation, March 2016

The elusive unity of microscopic and macroscopic physics may reflect a profound
misunderstanding of the microscopic world. We start with a real, deterministic de Broglie wave, and show how this leads to the equations of both special and general relativity, providing a unified picture for physics at all scales. In this picture, transformations of ω and k are more fundamental than spacetime transformations of t and r. Local metrics compatible with general relativity may be derived, but are not necessary for calculations. Furthermore, coupling constants and h are invariant, while c, G, e, and particle rest masses are not. Such variations cannot be observed using local measurements, due to the principle of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[91] **viXra:1603.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 21:52:01*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

More than a hundred years ago, a series of discoveries, especially in physics, began to subtly (or maybe not) reveal some mysterious properties of matter, properties that in some fashion or other were not acceptable to our established way of perceiving Reality. Strangely enough, these properties were not taken seriously by science because they pointed to a reality that seemed too fantastical to be true, a reality that seemed to have no substance or permanence.
These so called mysterious properties matter, for lack of a better word, turn out to be fundamentally related to the following discoveries:
The ambiguous wave-particle duality. As in de Broglie matter-waves and the Compton properties of particles.
The ubiquitous appearance of the cycle constant (τ=2π=C⁄r) in physical mathematical relations.
The general applicability of the Fourier Transform to represent/model physical motion and other natural processes.
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and its mysterious constraint between conjugate variables, momentum and position for example.
Quantum Mechanics and its collapse of the wavefunction.
The surprising mass-energy equivalence. As in Einstein’s E=mc^2.
The perplexing isotropy of the speed of light.
The mind boggling time dilation and length contraction of Einstein’s Special Relativity (SR).
The contradictory fabric of SR/GR’s spacetime and its assignment of properties to the void.
The surprisingly discrete nature of atomic properties. As in Quantum Mechanics (QM).
Needless to say, no matter what science has tried in order to fit the above discoveries into our physical world, their implications continue to elude an intuitively acceptable explanation in material terms.
This monograph, although not necessarily in chronological order, is a recapitulation of previous monographs written by the author in an attempt at a single-source theoretical explanation/clarification for the above mentioned list of “mysterious” properties of matter, in terms of one fundamental set of properties, the motional geometry of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1603.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-09 13:42:40*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

147-atom Palladium clusters embedded in Zeolite cavities enable Cold Fusion when exposed to Deuterium gas by Klein Paradox Tunnelling of D+D+D+D producing He + He + 47.6 MeV. Cold Fusion Energy goes to Optical Mode Phonons in the Pd clusters and then to the Zeolite where it is stored as Heat that is released by D2O Heavy Water to produce useful energy. Ejection of He + He and reloading of D+D+D+D is done by Jitterbug transformation between Icosahedral Ground State and Cuboctahedral Metastable State of 147-atom Pd clusters. Synthesis of 147-atom Pd clusters has been done by Burton, Boyle, and Datye at Sandia / U. New Mexico, USA. Zeolite synthesis has been discussed by Sharma, Jeong, Han and Cho at Chungnam Nat. Un., Korea. Based on prior experimental results of Arata and Zhang (replicated by McKubre at SRI) and of Parchamazad the expected energy production is on the order of kilowatts per milligram of Palladium. Version 2 (v2) adds some details of fusion energy transfer to Pd cluster.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[89] **viXra:1603.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-11 04:23:17*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Experimental and logical evidences against relativity theory have accumulated over many decades. However, relativity theory still persists and this is mainly due to lack of a competing alternative theory of the speed of light that can successfully explain the apparently contradicting experimental facts of the speed of light. In fact, the lack of an alternative explanation of existing experimental facts is considered as an assurance that relativity is a correct theory. The failure of ether and emission theories is cited as one of the evidences for relativity. In this paper a compelling alternative model of the speed of light: Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), is proposed. The blunder in the Michelson-Morley experiment was that of considering light as ordinary, material waves. Light is not only a local phenomenon. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. There is no medium (ether) for light transmission. The flaw in the conception of Michelson-Morley experiment was this: absolute motion was/is presumed to be motion relative to the ether. The new model of the speed of light can be stated in a few words: the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position of the light source relative to the observer. Therefore, no fringe shift would occur in the Michelson- Morley experiment due to apparent change of source position relative to the detector, for the same reason that a physical/actual change of source position doesn't create any ( significant) fringe shift. The speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source, but variable relative to the real source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[88] **viXra:1603.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 03:14:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a previous paper, “Fourteen Smarandache-Coman sequences of primes”, I defined the “Smarandache-Coman sequences” as “all the sequences of primes obtained from the Smarandache concatenated sequences using basic arithmetical operations between the terms of such a sequence, like for instance the sum or the difference between two consecutive terms plus or minus a fixed positive integer, the partial sums, any other possible basic operations between terms like a(n) + a(n+2) – a(n+1), or on a term like a(n) + S(a(n)), where S(a(n)) is the sum of the digits of the term a(n) etc.” In this paper I extend the notion to the sequences of primes obtained from the Smarandache concatenated sequences using any arithmetical operation and I present seven sequences obtained from the Smarandache concatenated sequences using concatenation between the terms of the sequence and other numbers and also fourteen conjectures on them.

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:1603.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 15:18:37*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Thoughts on the Scientific State.

**Category:** Social Science

[86] **viXra:1603.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 11:08:51*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

「No. 3: revolution in superstring theory. 」and
「Dark energy pulsating principle」
[1]. Advanced "superstring theory"
[2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory.
[3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space.
[4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory.
[5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[85] **viXra:1603.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 05:47:27*

**Authors:** Thierry DELORT

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). We then study according to our theory of dark matter and dark energy the different possible distributions of dark matter around galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters. Then we expose a new model of expansion of the Universe based on the new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new model of expansion. The 1st proposed mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd proposed mathematical model is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[84] **viXra:1603.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 08:01:18*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We often hear about a universe which is many billion years old, but does talking about so many years make any sense? Does a period of one year make sense in all eras? Human beings and all beings measure things according to themselves and to their own lives. A blade of grass is small for a human being, but it is a huge sequoia for an ant.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[83] **viXra:1603.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 08:02:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here we show that the mainstream cosmology incorrectly describes evolution of the early Universe. Using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers discovered galaxy GN-z11 that is placed close to the more distant edge of the region of reionization i.e. is placed in time distance about 13.4 Gyr. It is assumed that the reionization had begun due to the grouping of the first stars in quasars. On the other hand, we know that transformation of quasars into galaxies lasts a few gigayears (Gyr). It leads to conclusion that the mainstream-cosmology description of the early Universe is incorrect because in the field composed of the “free” first stars cannot appear galaxies during about 200 million years. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) provides the correct description of evolution of the early Universe and the observed most distant Universe (they are not the same thing) and shows that the period called dark ages is an illusion. SST shows that in the most distant observed Universe there should dominate galaxies, not quasars and/or free first stars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[82] **viXra:1603.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 09:10:32*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of primes of the form 3*p*(q – 1) – 1, where p and q are primes and p = q + 6. Note that from the first terms of the sequence of sexy primes we have a chain of consecutive 9 primes: 131, 233, 509, 683, 1103, 1913, 3329, 4643, 5639 (for q = 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 23, 31, 37, 41).

**Category:** Number Theory

[81] **viXra:1603.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 10:27:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: for any p prime there exist at least a value of n, different from p, for which the number (p^2 – n)/(n – 1) is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[80] **viXra:1603.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 16:06:01*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

No. 3: revolution in superstring theory.
[1]. Advanced "superstring theory"
[2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory.
[3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space.
[4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory.
[5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] **viXra:1603.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-26 17:56:12*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

We deduce that the speed of light is constant in all inertial frames of reference because both time and space are discretized. To provide a theoretical basis for this discreteness, we postulate our space to be an ocean of the “Gamma elements” having extremely small size and energy (or mass) density. The relativistic relationship between time and space with respect to the constant speed of light is then determined by the process of light propagation in this medium.
The theory finds light energy propagating as “elemental waves” with the phase velocity, c. Here a photon is no longer a particle traveling with the velocity, c, but a Gamma element transforming into a Planck element, an energized state carrying an angular momentum, h, with a frequency, v, substantially behaving like a particle with the energy, Eph = hν, traveling with the velocity, c. The lifetime of each Planck element is on the order of the elemental time, tp. A possible mechanism for this transformation is proposed by the use of the quantum field process involving a vector boson transforming between a massive state (Planck element) and a massless, charged state (Gamma element.) We note that the vacuum state in the quantum field theory is approximately equivalent to the Gamma element state.
A visualized space-time and photon models are presented and the Compton experiment and the double slit experiment are re-validated by the theory. Owing to the relativistic effect, in particular, the Compton scattering variables, the wavelength change of the incident Gamma rays and the velocity acquired by the electron by the scaterring, are shown to be the same whether the scattering is by the single photon particle or by the series of Planck elements. The difference is the rate at which the energy of the incident Gamma ray is assumed to be delivered, which will then manifest the difference in the acceleration of the electron. This difference may be explored to verify the theory by experiments.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[78] **viXra:1603.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 10:34:21*

**Authors:** Meric ERASLAN, Burhanettin HACICAFEROGLU

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This research aims to evaluate the problems encountered by physical education teachers in physical education classes and their professional life in Turkey. Method of researching was compilation, which is being used widely in research literature. In this context, authentic articles and post-graduate thesises on this subject have been evaluated first. As a result of the literature research conducted, it has been understood that most of the studies on this field were post-graduate thesis papers and there were a limited number of authentic articles on the subject. As a result of this research, it has been understood that among other problems encountered by physical education teachers in physical education classes, having inadequate/insufficient equipment for sports, parents not being able to communicate with physical education teachers, low level of interest shown by parents to physical education classes, low level of interest shown by students due to easy pass/fail regulations, parent considering children attendance to physical education events are unnecessary, other branch teachers not caring about physical education courses of children, school administration not caring about physical education courses of children, physical education classes in first, second and third grade not being administered by physical education teachers, insufficient/inadequate sports facilities and dressing rooms, unproductive application of course plans due to high number of students in classes, unproductive departmental works, easy pass/fail regulations, students not paying enough attention to physical education classes due to spending time in private courses for the preparation process to central placement exams were the major problems.

**Category:** Social Science

[77] **viXra:1603.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 10:35:24*

**Authors:** Berrin GUNER

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is observed that the researches are getting greater and greater in number about the youth problems comparing to the previous years recently. In literature it is seen that the recreation methods of the youth are also handled next to the problems of youth . It is a well known fact that in what kind of activities youth do in their leisure time is significant for both their mental and physical healthes. Because of that it has importance to take necessary precautions for youth effectively about the methods of leisure time activities. For youth’s having fruitful activities; their leisure time preferences, the factors effecting them while paticipating in the activity are to be well known. It is aimed in this paper to find out answers to these questions.

**Category:** Social Science

[76] **viXra:1603.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 10:36:24*

**Authors:** Ahmet SAHIN

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The handicapped are individuals who are often encountered in society, have development disabilities in various areas, and cannot benefit from many rights utilised by people with normal development due to their disabilities in question. This situation causes certain problems in handicapped individuals’ daily and social life. Social development disabilities are the main one among aforesaid problems. In many researches in body of literature, it is found that the handicapped experiences certain social problems depending on their handicap and level of disability. Various activities and therapy methods are used in supporting social development of handicapped individuals. One of these activities is sports. As known, participation in sport activities enhances people’s health quality and contributes protection of their physical and spiritual health. Sport activities are considered as a socialising means for handicapped individuals. In this research, it is aimed to evaluate effects of participation of sport activities on handicapped individuals’ socialising.

**Category:** Social Science

[75] **viXra:1603.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 10:37:26*

**Authors:** Mehmet TOKGOZ, Burhan DEMIROGLU, Yucel ASLAN

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The purpose of this research is to examine the free time preference according to their gender of middle school students. Total 151 middle school students participated in the study Tarsus district. Free time choice questionnaire, developed by Tel (2007), was used to determine the free time of the students. Frequency and chi-square analysis was used for statistical analysis of the data obtained at SPSS 22.0 software. At the end of the study, it was found that some free time preferences wasn’t significant difference statistically by gender such as “Dealing with nothing, rest”, “Books, newspapers, magazines read”, “Listening to music or playing a musical instrument”, “TV, video monitoring”, “Going to the cinema or the theater”, “To participate in social and cultural activities”, “Spend time with family”, “Go to neighbors or relatives”, “Chatting with friends”, “Go to the cafeteria or coffee shop”, “Deal with Hobbies” (p>0.05). Whereas, it was found that some free time preferences was significant difference statistically by gender such as “Visit bazaar or shopping”, “Sports do or watch sports competitions”, “Spending time on the internet (for chat, game or hobby)” and “Go hunting (hunting land and water)” (p<0.05).

**Category:** Social Science

[74] **viXra:1603.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 10:38:23*

**Authors:** Vedat ULUISIK

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this study, we aimed to investigate high school students' attitudes towards physical education classes. Attitudes of students were compared by sex and the class level in the study Total 150 high school students, consist of 91 women and 59 men, participated in this study. To determine the students physical education attitudes was used “Physical Education Attitude Scale” developed by Gullu & Guclu (2009). The frequency analysis, independent t test and One Way ANOVA analysis used in SPSS 22.0 data analysis software. At the end of the study, there is no significant difference in woman and men students physical education attitudes (p>0.05). Similarly, there is no statistically difference physical education attitudes according to students grade level (p>0.05). According to the results obtained, it can be said students gener status and grade level are not a significant determinant to physical education attitudes.

**Category:** Social Science

[73] **viXra:1603.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 11:09:36*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

The world and the occurring in it phenomena can be described in many ways. The author presents a way of describing the world and phenomena, which is extremely simple. His ideas fully fall within the framework of classical physics. Delineation of several phenomena confirm that the world can be described by means of words in a conceivable and logical way. The most important factor in the process of cognition of the world should be experimental facts and mathematics in this process should play a role of a humble servant. // Мир и происходящие в нем явления можно описывать многими способами. Автор представляет способ описания мира и явлений, который есть необычайно простой. Его идеи полностью содержатся в рамках классической физики. Представленные описания нескольких явлений подтверждают, что мир можно описывать при помощи слов воображаемым и логическим способом. Наиболее важным фактором в процессе познания мира должны быть экспериментальные факты. А математика должна в этом процессе выполнять роль скромной служанки.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[72] **viXra:1603.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 09:30:13*

**Authors:** Ivar Nielsen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Stories of Creation are found in cultures all over the World, but what do they really tell? Do they speak about a creation of the entire Universe and of a beginning? Or do the “just” speak of the creation of our Milky Way galaxy and of an eternal creation? It is my firm conviction that the latter is the fact. Ancient myths explains the pre-conditions and factual creation of our Milky Way, but our ancestors also knew of other “Islands floating or sailing in the Cosmic Ocean”.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[71] **viXra:1603.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 17:14:22*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We present the axiomatization of quantum mechanics which does not contain axioms concerning the measurement. Instead of the concept of measurement this axiomatization uses the concept of the observation of the individual state of the measuring system after the run of the experiment. It is proved that the resulting theory is empirically equivalent to the standard quantum mechanics but it is also shown that these two theories are (theoretically) different.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[70] **viXra:1603.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 17:51:23*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I share a very interesting discovery made more or less by accident: taking a number having just even digits, like for instance 224866802226608 (I have chosen this randomly right now when I am writing the Abstract) and concatenating it three times with itself and then to the right with the digit 1 (like in the example taken 2248668022266082248668022266082248668022266081) seems that are great chances to obtain a number with very few prime factors (in the case taken just 4 prime factors).

**Category:** Number Theory

[69] **viXra:1603.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:18:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Article written around 5 years ago. See also viXra 1603.0107: "Languages Varying in Time and the Problem P x NP".

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade constante O(1) em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[68] **viXra:1603.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:23:32*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of all the tetraquarks and dimeson molecules (mesomesonic particles) there exist in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[67] **viXra:1603.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:32:49*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Article written around 5 years ago. See also viXra 1603.0107: "Languages Varying in Time and the Problem P x NP".

Is proved that P ≠ NP, showing 2 problems that are executed in constant complexity time O(1) in a nondeterministic algorithm, but in exponential complexity time related to the length of the input (input size) in a deterministic algorithm. These algorithms are essentially simple, so they can not have a significant reduction in its complexity, what could cause the proofs shown here to become invalid.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[66] **viXra:1603.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:45:49*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Article written around 5 years ago. It is an enhancement over version 1. See also viXra 1603.0107: "Languages Varying in Time and the Problem P x NP".

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade constante O(1) em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[65] **viXra:1603.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-05 21:50:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[64] **viXra:1603.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-07 10:35:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[63] **viXra:1603.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 00:23:32*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** three figures were cleaned up, as well as a discussion of results on pages 34-35 which discusses relationships of paper findings to the recent LIGO GW discovery

This paper is a revisit to a 2011 document , with the addition of results pertinent to singularities in the case of a single repeating universe, as well as when the multiverse voids the necessity of a classical GR singularity. When a classical singularity does not exist, it impacts the formation of a massive graviton for reasons brought up, and allows for re acceleration of the universe due to massive gravitons. The existence of massive gravitons would also affect initial entropy, and also lead to the datum, that a calculated inflaton may re-emerge after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The inflaton may be a contributing factor to, with non-zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the universe a billion years ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[62] **viXra:1603.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 05:08:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1603.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 15:25:15*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I show an interesting sequence of numbers created concatenating to the right the digit 1, twice, with a prime of the form 6*k – 1 (example of such numbers, terms of this sequence: 12929 and 15353), sequence that has, from the first 50 terms, 21 terms that are primes and 22 that are semiprimes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[60] **viXra:1603.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 11:03:50*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** Pages.

In the article the author draws attention to the fact that the same experimental facts can be seen and interpreted in different ways. There are presented two different images of the structure of matter and phenomena occurring in it. One image is presented in quantum mechanics and Einstein's theories of relativity, and the second image is presented in Constructive Field Theory. Renovation of sense of criticism can help you choose the correct image, in which is contained both imagination and logical thinking. // В статье автор обращает внимание на то, что одни и те же экспериментальные факты можно видеть и интерпретировать по-разному. Представлены два различные образы строения материи и происходящих в ней явлений. Один образ представлен в квантовой механике и в теориях относительности Эйнштейна, а второй образ представлен в Конструктивной Теории Поля. Реновация чувства критицизма может помочь в выборе правильного образа, в котором содержится и воображение, и логическое мышление.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[59] **viXra:1603.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 11:05:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers have observed spin-dependent thermoelectric currents in superconductors—a finding that could lead to precise cryogenic thermometers. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[58] **viXra:1603.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 11:28:43*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following observation: the formula 529 + 60*10^k, where k positive integer, seems to generate a large amount of big primes and semiprimes. Indeed, up to k = 32, this formula generates 11 primes and 11 semiprimes!

**Category:** Number Theory

[57] **viXra:1603.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 11:30:05*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: there are many primes among the numbers of the form p*q + 10^k, where p and q are emirps (reversible primes but different one from the other) and k is a positive integer; to highlight the observation I will search the least k for which the number p*q + 10^k is prime, for few pairs of emirps [p, q].

**Category:** Number Theory

[56] **viXra:1603.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 07:46:51*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We show the real roots of a transcendental equation

**Category:** General Mathematics

[55] **viXra:1603.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 07:50:50*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[54] **viXra:1603.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 07:53:11*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We give some formulas for constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[53] **viXra:1603.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 07:56:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[52] **viXra:1603.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 08:47:17*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation the author presents a novel measure of 'Standard Deviation'.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[51] **viXra:1603.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 08:50:23*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article the author presents a few examples of the specific behavior of neutrons. These examples of behavior were identified during physical experiments. With reference to the experimental facts in the article there are presented properties of fundamental particles of matter - such as those presented in Constructive Field Theory - there is presented the role of these characteristics in the process of creating of material structures. There is presented secondary importance of electrons for these processes. There are presented causes of two various ways of manifestation of properties of particles of matter - in some conditions, the particles behave as should behave particles, and in other circumstances behave like waves. // В статье автор представляет несколько примеров особенного поведения нейтронов. Эти примеры поведения были обнаружены во время физических опытов. Ссылаясь на эти экспериментальные факты, в статье представлены свойства фундаментальных частиц материи - такие как представленные в Конструктивной Теория Поля - представлена роль этих свойств в процессах создания материальных структур. Представлено вторичное значение электронов для этих процессов. Представлены причины двух различных способов проявления свойств частиц материи - в некоторых условиях частицы ведут себя так, как должны вести себя частицы, а в других обстоятельствах ведут себя как волны.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[50] **viXra:1603.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-05 12:15:30*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 7 Pages.. (C) Ilija Barukcic, Jever, Germany, 2016. PUBLISHED BY:Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 4, 749-761. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.44085

Modern scientist come close to Einstein, the most prominent physicist of the twentieth century and may be of all time. Still, the question is justified, can there be ever another Einstein? Less well known, though of fundamental importance, are Einstein's contributions to the philosophy of science. Einstein's is well known for his conviction that scientist should trust simplicity. Einstein proclaimed that we can discover the true laws of nature or proof theorems by seeking those with the most simple mathematical formulation. Einstein's faith in the supreme power of mathematical simplicity was strong. Such an approach to scientific investigation is of strategic use, since by time the hypotheses from which scientists starts become ever more abstract and more remote from experience. Especially, under conditions where scientific investigations are moving steadily into domains ever further removed from direct contact with an experiment or observation, the starting point should be as simple as possible. This point of view, whose exact formulation while investi-gating the problem of the division of zero by zero may meet with great difficulties, may justify our trust that the problem of the division of zero by zero is solved.

**Category:** Number Theory

[49] **viXra:1603.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 10:21:03*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article is presented the structure of a hydrogen atom and the importance of its structural components. The structure of the hydrogen atom is described by a different concept than shown in quantum mechanics. In the Constructive Field Theory fundamental components of hydrogen atoms and all other atoms are protons, neutrons and protoelectrons, not quarks. These three constituents of matter have very simple properties. Despite this, they suffice for logical description of all natural phenomena. In the article are minutely described interactions that occur between the fundamental constituents of matter, which are the basis for the formation of the existing structures of matter and the creation of all phenomena in nature. // В статье представлено строение атома водорода и важность его структурных компонентов. Конструкция атома водорода описывается по иной концепции, чем показано в квантовой механике. В Конструктивной Теории Поля фундаментальными компонентами атомов водорода и всех других атомов есть протоны, нейтроны и протоэлектроны, а не кварки. Эти три составляющие материи имеют очень простые свойства. Несмотря на это, они достаточны для логического описания всех явлений природы. В статье подробно описаны взаимодействия, происходящие между фундаментальными составляющими материи, которые являются основой для формирования существующих в материи структур и создания всех природных явлений.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[48] **viXra:1603.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 04:11:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: Any square of a prime larger than 11 can be written as 60*n^2 + 90*n + p, where p prime or power of prime and n positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[47] **viXra:1603.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 04:38:37*

**Authors:** Na Liu, Xihua Xu, Yibing Chen

**Comments:** 24 Pages. numerical method in CFD

In this paper, an arbitrary high-order compact method is developed for compressible
multi-component flows with a stiffened gas equations of state(EOS).
The main contribution is combining the high-order, conservative, compact spectral
volume scheme(SV) with the non-oscillatory kinetic scheme(NOK) to solve
the quasi-conservative extended Euler equations of compressible multi-component
flows. The new scheme consists of two parts: the conservative part and the
non-conservative part. The original high order compact SV scheme is used to
discretize the conservative part directly. In order to treat the equation of state
of the stiffened gas, the NOK scheme is utilized to compute the numerical flux.
Then, careful analysis is made to satisfy the necessary condition to avoid unphysical
oscillation near the material interfaces. After that, a high-order compact
scheme for the non-conservative part is obtained. This new scheme has the following
advantages for numerical simulations of compressible multi-component
stiffened gas: high order accuracy with compact stencil and oscillation-free near
the material interfaces. Numerical tests demonstrate the good performance and
the efficiency of the new scheme for multi-component flow simulations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[46] **viXra:1603.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 04:54:06*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: Any square of a prime larger than 7 can be written as 30*n^2 + 60*n + p, where p prime or power of prime and n positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1603.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-26 14:37:27*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A solution to the 6th millenium problem, respect to breakdown of Navier-Stokes solutions and the bounded energy. We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces f(x,t) such that there is no physically reasonable solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for t>0, which corresponds to the case (C) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute. Three examples are given.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[44] **viXra:1603.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 05:28:19*

**Authors:** Elias Khalil

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article deals with the investigation on the effect of the acid washing (with thermocol balls and potassium permanganate) on different properties of three knitted garments (Single Jersey 100% Cotton T-shirt, Single Jersey 95% Cotton 5% Spandex T-Shirt and 1×1 Rib100% Cotton T- Shirt). Typical washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physical properties were analyzed under standard condition. It is observed that fabric weight, CPI, WPI, spirality and shrinkage increase while bursting strength, stitch length absorbency decrease after washing treatment. PH of all the samples is under controlled and lies between 7 – 8. There is no change in pilling, colorfastness to wash, water and dry rubbing while a little bit decrease in wet rubbing.

**Category:** Chemistry

[43] **viXra:1603.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 05:35:17*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

G matrices are matrices with single entries 1,i. It is shown that linear sums of G matrices generate the SU(n), SO(n) generators. The Kronecka sums of the unitary representations of so(n) and su(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be restricted to 3 dimensions. It is shown that the allowable unitary representations of so(3), are the spin spaces of spin ½,1. It is shown that there are 3 generations of chiral electroweak doublets of quarks and leptons. Exponentiation of differential operators acting on spinors results in the Lagrangians of Gravitation with Dark Energy and the Fermion sector of the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[42] **viXra:1603.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 21:33:52*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Originally published in 1987 in Optoelectronics - Devices and Technologies

A new model that describes the diffraction effect is presented, based on the concept of streamlined flow similar to that in fluid or aerodynamics.
The field's energy follows curved paths around the diffracting obstacle,
unlike the complicated network of straight interfering rays used in the
Huygens-Fresnel wavelet concept or Young's explanation of diffraction
as scattering of radiation from the aperture rim. Streamline Diffraction
Theory (SDT), based on the equation of continuity In Maxwell's
formulation for electromagnetic fields, suggests that it is possible to
rectify or de-diffract (DD) the field by simple focusing methods near the
aperture edge, thereby obtaining superresolution in the focused image,
and non-diverging beams such as lasers. These concepts are describe
qualitatively and heuristically, and some simple experiments that
demonstrate DD are given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[41] **viXra:1603.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 21:36:37*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

De-diffraction (DD), a new procedure to totally cancel diffraction effects from wave-fields is presented,
whereby the full field from an aperture is utilized and a truncated geometrical field is
obtained, allowing infinitely sharp focusing and non-diverging beams. This is done by reversing a
diffracted wave-fields’ direction. The method is derived from the wave equation and demonstrated
in the case of Kirchhoff’s integral. An elementary bow-wavelet is described and the DD process is
related to quantum and relativity theories.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[40] **viXra:1603.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 00:00:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a series of papers, Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. However, as far as I know there is no paper yet for extending his RQED to fractal media and Cantor Sets. Drawing similarity between Proca and Maxwell equations, in the present paper I extend RQED further based on a recent paper published at Advances in High Energy Physics (AHEP) journal, where Yang Zhao et al. derived Maxwell equations on Cantor sets from the local fractional vector calculus. It can be shown that Maxwell equations on Cantor sets in a fractal bounded domain give efficiency and accuracy for describing the fractal electric and magnetic fields. I also extend RQED to anisotropic fractal media based on the work of Martin Ostoja-Starzewski. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model in fractal media. It may be expected to have some impact to fractal cosmology modeling too.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[39] **viXra:1603.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 01:04:37*

**Authors:** Karlo Moistsrapishvili

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The given paper studies conditions of the equilibrium stability of a cylinder – shaped homogeneous body. Thus, conditions of the equilibrium stability of different proportion upright standing men were studied. A new method allowing determination of a man’s common center of gravity was developed. An optimal bending forward angle at which the degree of the equilibrium stability of an upright standing man reaches its maximum value was determined. Hence, the appropriate conclusions were drawn.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[38] **viXra:1603.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 13:48:34*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 illustration

Since it is well known that establishment astrophysics/astrochemistry experts are confused concerning the formation of Earth and everything physical in outer space, a simple correction is made on the formation of their presolar dust grain page.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[37] **viXra:1603.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 10:06:19*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages. http://www.newtheory.org

In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[36] **viXra:1603.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 10:23:06*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures on the numbers of the form n = 6*p*q + 1, where p and q are primes and q = 2*p – 1: (I) There exist an infinity of n primes; (II) There exist an infinity of n semiprimes; (III) There exist an infinity of n composites with three or more prime factors, 7 being one of them. Note that for all the first 46 pairs of primes [p, q] with the property mentioned (see the sequence A005382 in OEIS for these primes) the number n obtained belongs to one of the three sequences considered by the three conjectures above.

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:1603.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 10:44:37*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Annihilation of spin 0/spin 1 negative-energy mc^2 H and Z bosons generates dark "energy" of 1/2-spin character which produces simple expansion of space but requires 72.8% of our universe's energy production. The expansion of space reduces CM radiation loss beyond the universe. The 72.8% is entirely consistent with just 2 entities being disrupted, the ttH and ttZ fermibosons (processes) of an assumed broken E8 symmetry cyclic universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1603.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 10:54:20*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following conjecture on the numbers of the form n = 6*p*q + 1, where p and q are primes and q = k*p – k + 1: There exist an infinity of n primes for any k positive integer, k > 1. Note that the conjecture implies that there exist an infinity of pairs of primes [p, q] such that q = k*p – k + 1, for any k positive integer, k > 1, which I already conjectured in previous papers, as well as that there exist an infinity of pairs of primes [p, q] such that q = k*p + k - 1, for any k positive integer, k > 1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1603.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-14 08:14:33*

**Authors:** Norbert Pionka

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A novel approach is proposed. Known microscopic time-symmetrical laws of physics, or phenomena underlying them, are a source of variation for natural selection mechanism that is driven by information-related criteria. From this evolutionary mechanism entropic force emerges. This force not only implies second law of thermodynamics but may be interpreted as the origin of other forces found in nature, including gravity. Therefore, I argue that force is an emergent phenomenon and also show evidence suggesting that indeed laws of nature may be reformulated as purely entropy-driven.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] **viXra:1603.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 04:42:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: let n1, n2,..., ni be the ordered set of the odd semiprimes not divisible by 3; then the period of the rational number which is the sum 1/(n1 – 1) + 1/(n2 – 1) +...+ 1/(ni - 1) seems to be always (for any i) divisible by 48. This is not the fact when the semiprimes n1, n2,..., ni are not the ordered set of such semiprimes but few randomly taken (even consecutive) such semiprimes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1603.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 09:40:27*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Significant alterations, as to be congruent with objections by a reviewer

The quantum gravity problem that the notion of a quantum state, representing the structure of space-time at some instant, and the notion of the evolution of the state, does not get traction, since there are no real “instants”, is avoided by having initial Octonionic geometry embedded in a larger, nonlinear “pilot model” (semi classical) embedding structure. The Penrose suggestion of re cycled space time avoiding a ‘big crunch’ is picked as the embedding structure, so as to avoid the ‘instants’ of time issue. Getting Octionic gravity as embedded in a larger, Pilot theory embedding structure may restore Quantum Gravity to its rightful place in early cosmology without the complication of then afterwards ‘Schrodinger equation ‘ states of the universe, and the transformation of Octonionic gravity to existing space-time is explored via its possible linkage to a new version of the HUP involving metric tensors. We conclude with how specific properties of Octonion numbers algebra influence the structure and behavior of the early-cosmology model. This last point is raised in section 14, and is akin to a phase transition from Pre Octonionic geometry, in pre Planckian space-time, to Octonionic geometry in Planckian space-time. A simple phase transition is alluded to, making this clear is as simple as realizing that Pre Octonionic is for is Pre Planckian Space-time and Octonionic is for Planckian Space – time, with the resumption of the Standard Model in physics occurring in Planckian Space-time and the Standard Model of Physics NOT applying in Pre Planckian Space-time. This is commensurate with the Octonion number system NOT applying in Pre Plankian Space-time, but applying in Plankian Space-time. And the Last line of Eq. (54) giving a minimum time step in Pre Planckian Space-time which is when we do NOT have the Standard Model of physics, or Octonionic Geometry.
Key

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] **viXra:1603.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 05:53:11*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: let p1, p2,..., pi be the ordered set of the 2-Poulet numbers; then the length of the period of the rational number which is the sum 1/(p1 – 1) + 1/(p2 – 1) +...+ 1/(ni - 1) seems to be always (for any i > 2) divisible by 240. This is not the fact when the numbers p1, p2,..., pi are not the ordered set of 2-Poulet numbers but few randomly taken (even consecutive) 2-Poulet numbers. For a related topic see my previous paper “A pattern that relates Carmichael numbers to the number 66” where I noticed that the length of the period of the rational number which is the sum 1/(c1 – 1) + 1/(c2 – 1) +...+ 1/( ci - 1), where c1, c2, ..., ci is the ordered set of Carmichael numbers, seems to be always divisible by 66.

**Category:** Number Theory

[29] **viXra:1603.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 06:53:11*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article there are presented phenomena, which are not met in everyday life. Shown in the phenomena behaviours of matter as a result of action of sound waves requires to preserve of special conditions. These phenomena confirm the existence of subtle matter, which in the nineteenth-century physics was called ether. // В статье представлены явдения, которые не встречаются в ежедневной жизни. Показанное в явлениях поведение материи в результате воздействия звуковых волн требует сохранения особых условий. Эти явления подтверждают существование тонкой материи, которая в физике девятнадцатого века называлась эфиром.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[28] **viXra:1603.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 07:16:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[27] **viXra:1603.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 07:19:35*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

The article describes the law of insignificant action. It is presented by using an example in which there undergoes interaction between the two models of particles in a computer program. To modeling the course of the phenomenon of particles collision served modeling computer program BlowStand1.exe. // В статье описан закон ничтожного действия. Он представлен с использованием примера, в котором происходит взаимное воздействие моделей двух частиц в компьютерной программе. Для моделирования течения явления столкновения частиц была использована моделирующая компьютерная программа BlowStand1.exe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[26] **viXra:1603.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 07:53:59*

**Authors:** Valery B. Smolensky

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this article the author presents an original theoretical method of determining accurate values of the dimensionless fundamental physical constants: fine structure constant, of constant of the strong interaction, the anomaly of the magnetic moment of the electron, the mass ratio of the electron and proton, the mass ratio of the electron and the neutron. Presents the final results of analytical calculations determining the of exact values of these constants.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[25] **viXra:1603.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 07:56:01*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article is presented an error associated with magnetism that has existed in theoretical physics for over two hundred years. The author corrects the mistake, explaining its essence and giving the correct interpretation of the phenomenon of magnetism. // В статье показана связанная с магнетизмом ошибка, которая в теоретической физике существует уже свыше двести лет. Автор в статье исправляет эту ошибку, выясняя её суть и представляя правильную интерпретацию явления магнетизма

**Category:** Classical Physics

[24] **viXra:1603.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 08:06:23*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

The presented in the article two-hundred-year deception consists in the fact that the current knowledge on interactions of magnets and electromagnetism has been shaped without a rigorous experimental testing. Researchers of nature either didn't notice that the interaction (attraction and repulsion) between two electric cables, with the same distance between them is different, or noticed it, but did not reveal this fact, because they couldn't logically explain it. // Представленное в статье двухсотлетнее мошеничество заключается в том, что теперешнее знание на тему воздействия магнитов и электромагнетизма было сформировано при отсутствии строгих экспериментальных исследований. Исследователи природы либо не заметили, что воздействие (притяжение и отталкивание) двух проводников с электрическим током, при одном и том же расстоянии между ними, имеет различную величину, либо заметили это, но не раскрыли этого факта, потому что не умели его логически объяснить.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[23] **viXra:1603.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 19:06:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Acest nou volum de cititoriri (al șaselea), Publicații românești de dinainte de Revolutiei, este un jurnal de lecturi instante compilat din câteva caiete de însemnări din adolescența consemnatorului; caietele datează din anii 1979-1982, când deschiderea culturală a anilor 70 își dădea ultima suflare. Publicațiile listate sunt, în marea lor majoritate, reviste de cultură, și o simplă răsfoire a numelor care publicau în aceste gazete are darul de a aminti, celor care au uitat, că, în acele vremuri tulburi, românii au rezistat mai ales prin cultură.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[22] **viXra:1603.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 19:09:31*

**Authors:** Eugen Petrescu, Gabriela Crăciun

**Comments:** 400 Pages.

Coordonator: Eugen Petrescu.
Autori şi colaboratori: Preasfințitul Emilian Lovişteanul; Ioan Barbu,
Ion Buga, Mihai Călugăriţoiu, Dumitru Căţoi, Gabriela Crăciun, Viorel
Dianu, Fenia Driva, Gheorghe Dumitraşcu, Carmen Mărculescu Farcaş, Ion
Gavrilă, Stelian Titus Gomboş, Ilie Gorjan, Emil Istocescu, Ioan St. Lazăr,
Constantin Mănescu-Hurezi, Alexandru Popescu-Mihăeşti, Nicolae Moga,
Gheorghe Pantelimon, Marian Pătraşcu, Eugen Petrescu, Ion Longin Popescu,
Constantin Samoilă, Ionuţ Săraru, Violeta Scrociob, Ion Soare, Gheorghe
Stancu, Zenovia Zamfir.
Prefaţator: Ioan Barbu.
Vâlceni omagiaţi în anul 2014:
• Constantin Mateescu, 31 ianuarie 2014, 85 de ani;
• Nelu Barbu, 1 februarie 2014, 70 de ani;
• Corneliu Medvedov, 17 februarie 2014, 60 de ani;
• Nicolae Radu, 25 februarie 2014, 80 de ani;
• Chesarie Gheorghescu, 12 martie 2014, 85 de ani;
• Elena Georgescu, 17 martie 2014, 75 de ani;
• George Anca, 12 aprilie 2014, 70 de ani;
• Florin Zamfirescu, 12 aprilie 2014, 65 de ani;
• George Mirea, 25 aprilie 2014, 85 de ani;
• Laurenţiu Stilea, 26 aprilie 2014, 80 de ani;
• Nicolae State-Burluşi, 20 mai 2014, 65 de ani;
• Lazăr Comănescu, 4 iunie 2014, 65 de ani;
• Felix Sima, 6 iunie 2014, 65 de ani;
• Doru Moţoc, 12 iunie 2014, 75 de ani;
• Viorel Dianu, 16 iunie 2014, 70 de ani;
• George Rotaru, 16 iunie 2014, 65 de ani;
• Petru Pistol, 23 iunie 2014, 70 de ani;
• Veniamin Micle, 7 iulie 2014, 75 de ani;
• Leon Dură, 9 iulie 2014, 55 de ani;
• Titina Nica Ţene, 10 iulie 2014, 70 de ani;
• Virgil Oprescu-Runceanu, 12 iulie 2014, 55 de ani;
• Iulian Comănescu, 19 iulie 2014, 75 de ani;
• Nineta Popa, 19 iulie 2014, 55 de ani;
• Mugur Constantin Isărescu, 1 august 2014, 65 de ani;
• Gheorghe Deaconu, 22 august 2014, 70 de ani;
• Gelu Stratulat, 27 septembrie 2014, 65 de ani;
• Ion Parhon, 7 octombrie 2014, 70 de ani;
• Dumitru Bondoc, 16 octombrie 2014, 65 de ani;
• Nicolae Bănică-Ologu, 21 noiembrie 2014, 65 de ani;
• Nicolae Manolescu, 27 noiembrie 2014, 75 de ani;
• Adina Daniela Dumitrescu, 1 decembrie 2014, 70 de ani;
• Florentin Smarandache, 10 decembrie 2014, 60 de ani.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[21] **viXra:1603.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 21:19:25*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We first of all consider what if the initial inflaton, were nearly zero instead of proportional to a Planck mass, in a SUSY type potential. Using the construction of Padmanabhan about general inflaton physics and the conditions of what are usual constituent slow roll requirements for inflation, and also of Kolb, Pi and Raby about a SUSY potential, we come up with the counter intuitive formulation of how usual tests for slow roll give the standard answers even if the inflaton in the SUSY potential as given by Kolb, Pi, and Raby is initially zero. The result, gives support to a formulation of VEV conditions used right after a Planck instant of time. As it is, we will from first principles examine what adding acceleration does as to the HUP previously derived.. In doing so we will be tying it in our discussion with the earlier work done on the HUP. The HUP results, so modified are appropriate for the Pre Planckian results and may explain why the slow roll formulation as given by Padmanabhan holds where there is the phenomenon of for Pre-Planckian space-time . This leads to a very paradoxical result that in Pre Planckian physics that the traditional slow roll formulas are satisfied even if .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1603.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 01:04:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Strong enough magnetic field can break electron pairs and destroy superconductivity. Surprisingly, experimental groups led by Prof. Ye and Prof. Zeitler in Groningen and Nijmegen found that superconductivity in thin films of MoS2 could withstand an applied magnetic field as strong as 37 Tesla. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[19] **viXra:1603.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 02:55:42*

**Authors:** Orgest ZAKA

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper i have presented a partial solution of open problem so called Goldbach’s
conjecture in number theory, which consists in the fact that: “Every even number can be
expressed as a sum of two prime numbers”. In this paper I have set up a hypothesis, which helps
in my line of proof of Goldbach hypothesis. I very much hope that this hypothesis be easier to
prove.

**Category:** Number Theory

[18] **viXra:1603.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-11 08:09:16*

**Authors:** Hans van Leunen

**Comments:** 158 Pages.

The Hilbert book test model is a purely mathematical test model that starts from a solid foundation from which the whole model can be derived by using trustworthy mathematical methods. What is known about physical reality is used as a guidance, but the model is not claimed to be a proper reflection of physical reality. The mathematical toolkit still contains holes. These holes will be encountered during the development of the model and suggestions are made how those gaps can be filled. Some new insights are obtained and some new mathematical methods are introduced. The selected foundation is interpreted as part of a recipe for modular construction and that recipe is applied throughout the development of the model. This development is an ongoing project. The main law of physics appears to be a commandment: “Thou shalt construct in a modular way”. The paper reveals the possible origin of several physical concepts. This paper shows that it is possible to discover a mathematical structure that is suitable as an extensible foundation. However, without adding extra mechanisms that ensure dynamic coherence, the structure does not provide the full functionality of reality. These extra mechanisms apply stochastic processes, which generate the locations of the elementary modules that populate the model.
All discrete items in universe are configured from dynamic geometric locations. These items are stored in a repository that covers a history part, the current static status quo, and a future part. The elementary modules float over the static framework of the repository. Dedicated mechanisms ensure the coherent behavior of these elementary modules. Fields exist that describe these elementary modules. An encapsulating repository supports these fields. Both repositories are formed by quaternionic Hilbert spaces.
The model offers two interesting views. The first view is the creator’s view and offers free access to all dynamic geometric data that are stored in the eigenspaces of operators. The second view is the observer’s view. The observers are modules that travel with the vane, which represents the static status quo. The observers only perceive information that comes from the past and that is carried by the field that embeds them. This view sees the model as a spacetime based structure that stores its dynamic geometric data with a Minkowski signature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1603.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-01 11:35:05*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A solution of Maxwell's equations for the wire with Alternating Current is presented. We consider the structures of currents and energy flows. \\ Предлагается решение уравнений Максвелла для провода переменного тока. Рассматривается структура токов и потоков энергии.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[16] **viXra:1603.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 11:08:18*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article the author presents an example of the non-absolute truth according to the Galileo-Pinopa version. This non-absolute truth refers to interaction of all components of matter. But at the same time it refers to the only one phenomenon that controls all these interactions and on which depends the course of all the phenomena that occur in matter. All these phenomena we see as very complex, because the perception and logical description of phenomena takes place thanks to very complex properties of our consciousness. // В статье автор представляет пример неабсолютной истины в версии Галилея-Пинопы. Эта неабсолютная истина касается взаимного воздействия друг с другом всех компонентов материи. Но одновременно касается единственного явления, которое управляет этими всеми воздействиями и от которого зависит течение всех явлений, которые проявляют себя в материи. Все эти явления мы видим как очень сложные, потому что восприятие и логическое описание явлений происходит благодаря очень сложным свойствам нашего сознания.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1603.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 11:08:27*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

The author presents a phenomenon that depends on the mutual repulsion of magnets (like poles). Changes in action of magnets, occurring with a change in the distance, however, take other course than shown in today's academic physics. The author explains the reasons for such behaviour of magnets. For this purpose, he presents the mathematical dependence, which correctly describes the nature of magnets in their mutual repulsion. // Автор представляет явление, которое заключается на взаимном отталкивании магнитов (одноименными полюсами). Однако изменения воздействия магнитов в зависимости от расстояния проходят совсем другим способом, чем это представляет современная академическая физика. Автор выясняет причины такого поведения магнитов. Для этого он представляет математическую зависимость, которая правильно описывает характер воздействия магнитов при их взаимном отталкивании.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1603.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 07:33:24*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Using articles http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?action=felblog;sa=view;cont=5065;uid=17499

Installation Method hours Einstein always gives the result as the mean speed of
light in any experiment. But in the real physical world not measured speed of light.
Therefore, there may arise the forces due to the different speeds of light in one
direction. Change the way to set the clock to the speed of light in one direction. We
estimate the results in different directions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1603.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 10:12:44*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This document is correct below.
viXra1603.0008
The unification of gravity and electromagnetism.
Image picture.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1603.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 10:13:48*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Each dynamical system is Hamiltonian.
Each dynamical system is quantizable.
Each quantum system is a classical system.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1603.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 06:20:53*

**Authors:** XiaoLin Li

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Old version paper,http://vixra.org/abs/1401.0014

Special Relativity Theory can be derived out from quantum mechanics. Special Relativity Theory is not a independent theory. Special Relativity Theory is included in the quantum mechanics.There exist a new physics view. Real physical world is 5-dimensional space-time.Human world is 4-dimensional space-time,it’s only the projection of real physics world.Quantum mechanical particle-wave is present in 5-dimensional space-time.So we can derive out Mass-energy equation.So we can derive out Special Relativity Theory.In 5-dimensional space-time,all the particles speed is the light speed c.That is reason that the light speed c is very special.Discuss some questions in the new physics view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1603.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 06:46:24*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

If follow the laws of quantum mechanics , it turns out that the vacuum energy density at the Big Bang emerged as a result of the decoherence of the quantum state of the universe. Perhaps our universe emerged due to the destruction of the state of quantum entanglement of the physical vacuum .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1603.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 17:19:57*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 10 references

It is applied the Holographic Principle as a means to estimate the neutron decay time. A stationary condition for a free energy is also considered. The spherical surface at the boundary of this universe having the radius of the neutron is tiled with unit cells of area equal the Planck length times a length related to the weak interaction. It is also considered an energy difference tied to the electromagnetic interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1603.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-16 02:01:59*

**Authors:** Anton A. Lipovka

**Comments:** 8 Pages. submitted to journal

In this paper we suggest a natural interpretation of the de Broglie-Bohm quantum potential, as the energy due to the oscillating electromagnetic
field (virtual photon) coupled with moving charged particle. Generalization of the Schr\"{o}dinger equation is obtained. The wave function is shown to be the eigenfunction of the Sturm - Liouville problem in which we expand virtual photon to include it implicitly into consideration. It is shown the non - locality of quantum mechanics is related only with virtual photon. As an example, the zero - energy of harmonic oscillator is obtained from classical equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1603.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 21:01:52*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjo

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The unification of gravity and electromagnetism.
[1]... to the goal of modern physics and the Super grand unified theory hypothesis.
[2]. elementary pulsation principle announced in 1980, with the physical society of Japan.
[3]... article published in 1980, has been kept on the cinii National Institute of Informatics, Japan physical society.
[4]... on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles.
[5]... an illustrated guide to the nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force.
[6]... unity based on elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force.
[7]. structure of pulsating principle model for finite nuclei.
[8]. it front and back of the same photon-photon and quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1603.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 02:38:48*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

The author presents the changes that may occur in the near future in recognizing and understanding of the essence of matter. To these changes may contribute the already posessed knowledge about the distances between atoms in various material structures. In this knowledge about the distances is hidden information about the properties of atoms, which are waiting to be discovered.
// Автор представляет изменения, какие могут произойти в ближайшее будущее в теме разпознавания и разумения сути материи. К этим изменениям может причиниться уже известное знание о расстояниях между атомами в различных материальных структурах. В этом знании о расстояниях скрывается информация о свойствах атомов, которые (эти свойства) ждут своих открывателей.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1603.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 02:39:13*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article the author presents the different types of polarization that can occur in the material structures. In the article are presented the causes of polarization, types of actions, which are their basis, as well as mechanisms of their course. // В статье автор представляет разные виды поляризации, какие могут иметь место в материальных структурах. В статье есть представлены причины этих поляризаций, виды воздействий, которые являются их основой, а также механизмы их течения.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1603.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 10:26:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, the scientists went one step further. They trapped a pair of atoms with well-defined relative positions in such a resonator and scattered light from this "double slit". They observed interference phenomena that contradict well-established intuition. These results were enabled by the development of a technique that allows for position control of the atoms with an accuracy well below the wavelength of the scattered light. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1603.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-02 09:26:03*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover New Einstein’s gravity field equation. We solve the dark matter problem of the cosmology by the New gravity field equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1603.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 08:49:21*

**Authors:** Shariq Aziz Butt

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is used to sense data and event where human can’t reach. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is made up with small size of nodes which need battery’s power to sense Data. Energy Eﬃciency is a primary requirement in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The Battery power to sense data is major issue in the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Therefore the Network’s life is dependent on the Energy. There are many different Types of Techniques such as Sleep/Awake, AAS (Automatic Active and Sleep State) and Location Aware (LA) that are used to manage the power consumption of Nodes. In this paper we will cover the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Issues with the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Sleep/Awake Technique. We will discuss the Environmental deployment of Sleep Awake Protocol and Location Aware Protocols and Deployment issues with them.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[1] **viXra:1603.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-12 03:28:28*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Distributional spacetime in classical and quantum cosmology are considered. Distributional quantum spacetime with distributional Ashtekar connection also are in detail considered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory