[173] **viXra:1406.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 16:56:02*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 15 pages, 5 figures, submitted to the Hadronic Journal

In this preliminary work, we propose a hypothesis and launch a procedural upgrade to magnecules by equipping these new iso-chemical creatures with topological deformation order parameters (OP) of fractional statistics to encode the spontaneous superfluidic gauge symmetry breaking (which we expect to be restored at the iso-topic level), correlated helices with long range order, and wave-packet wave-functions for the electron toroidal polarizations. For this initial "base case", we consider a single magnecular bond between dual inter-locked protium atoms in a magnecule. The results of this equipment support our hypothesis and are significant because the OP configuration arms us with an extra degree of freedom for encoding a magnecule's states and transitions; this may enable us to further decode and comprehend the underlying physical mechanisms and features associated with these state-of-the-art magnecular bonds for direct industrial application. Hence, these outcomes should be subjected to additional stringent examination and improvement.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[172] **viXra:1406.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-28 19:18:28*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis, which is, as Universal Algebra and Category Theory, a complete theory, proving that
the infinite initial ordinals and the transfinite cardinals are isomorphic universal algebras.
For isomorphic universal algebras are isomorphic categories, isomorphic categories are isomorphic theories, by the Fundamental Theorem of Categorical Logic, and so, isomorphic universal algebras are isomorphic theories.

**Category:** Algebra

[171] **viXra:1406.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-03 17:24:37*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Final edits added

The Weyl conformal tensor describes the distorting but volume-preserving tidal effects of gravitation on a material body. A rather complicated combination of the Riemann-Christoffel tensor, the Ricci tensor and the Ricci scalar, the Weyl tensor is used in the construction of a unique conformally-invariant Lagrangian. In 1938 Cornelius Lanczos discovered a clever simplification of the mathematics that eliminated the RC term, thus considerably reducing the complexity of the overall Lagrangian. Here we present an equivalent but simpler approach to the one Lanczos used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[170] **viXra:1406.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 05:01:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nearly all tools that quantum physicists use are in some way based on the concept of the wave function. This means that such tools deliver a blurred view of the fine grain structures and fine grain behavior that these tools describe. This appears no handicap for applied physics. The tools fill the complete need of applied quantum physics. However, the blurred view hampers the search for the origins of features and phenomena, because they must be sought in the fine grain structure and the fine grain behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[169] **viXra:1406.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-02 10:00:12*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of the paper is to develop a gauge theory, which shall be on the one hand as similar as possible to the original ansatz of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and on the other hand in agreement with other gauge theories as, for instance, those of the electroweak or of the strong interaction. The result is a nonabelian gauge theory with the general linear group GL(4,R) as its gauge group.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[168] **viXra:1406.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 07:43:45*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A critical inspection of quantum field theory will reveal that
quantum field theory can be reconstructed only by means of
classical field theory. In detail the following six assertions
are claimed and proved: (1) Perturbation theory can be achieved
by means of classical field theory. (2) Particles that are
independent of one another are not correlated. This is especially
true for the ingoing particles of scattering processes. (3)
Outgoing particles in scattering processes are correlated. But the usual justification of
quantum statistics is faulty. (4) In quantum field theory there
is an amazing multitude of particle concepts. But a concise description of real existing elementary particles is lacking. (5) The path integral representation is not clearly defined in the particle picture of quantum mechanics. In the wave picture it is only another description of the expansion of a quantum state. (6) Functional representation is nothing else than a comprehensive version of perturbation theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[167] **viXra:1406.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-09 05:50:05*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Commonsense local realism (CLR) is the fusion of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively). Advancing our case for a wholly CLR-based quantum mechanics, we use undergraduate maths and logic to factor the quantum entanglements in EPRB and Aspect (2002). Such factors (one factor relating to beables in Alice's domain, the other to beables in Bob's), refute Bell's theorem and eliminate the need for ‘t Hooft's superdeterminism. An obvious unifying algorithm (based on spin-s particles in a single thought-experiment) is foreshadowed and left as an exercise. That is, to emphasise the physical significance of our results, we here factor EPRB and Aspect (2002) separately and in detail.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[166] **viXra:1406.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-09 15:56:12*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 182 Pages. Corrected figure caption of Figure 50.

The cycle graphs for all finite abstract groups up to order 37 are plotted, except the trivial ring graphs of the cyclic groups themselves.

**Category:** Algebra

[165] **viXra:1406.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 01:00:00*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Auther presents a conjecture related to distribution of a kind of special prime factors of Fermat numbers, which may imply existence of infinitely many primes of the form x^2+1.

It is well known that there are infinitely many prime factors of Fermat numbers, because prime factor of a Fermat prime is the Fermat prime itself but a composite Fermat number has at least two prime factors and Fermat numbers are pairwise relatively prime. Hence we conjecture that there is at least one prime factor (k^(1/2)*2^(a/2))^2+1 of Fermat number for F(n)-1≤a<F(n+1)-1 (n=0,1,2,3,…), where k^(1/2)is odd posotive integer, a is even positive integer and F(n) is Fermat number. The conjecture holds till a<F(4+1)-1=4294967296 from known evidences. Two corollaries of the conjecture imply existence of infinitely many primes of the form x^2+1, which is one of four basic problems about primes mentioned by Landau at ICM 1912.

**Category:** Number Theory

[164] **viXra:1406.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 02:05:49*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Author presents a conjecture on composite terms in so-called generilized Catalan-Mersenne number sequence, and tries to find a new way to imply existence of infinitely many composite Mersenne numbers whose exponets are primes.

We conjecture that there is at least one composite term in sequence generated from Mersenne-type recurrence relations. Hence we may expect that all terms are composite besides the first few continuous prime terms in Catalan-Mersenne number sequence and composite Mersenne numbers with exponets restricted to prime values are infinite.

**Category:** Number Theory

[163] **viXra:1406.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 02:12:30*

**Authors:** S.kalimuthu

**Comments:** 8 Pages. NA

In this work a new topological non linear differential equation has been formulated

**Category:** Topology

[162] **viXra:1406.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-29 12:02:50*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 12 pages, 32 references

World – Universe Model (WUM) is based on two fundamental parameters in various rational
exponents: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q
increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
WUM predicts that there exist two additional fundamental interactions – Super-Weak and
Extremely-Weak – in addition to four commonly described. The cross-section of Super-Weak
interaction is about 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the Weak; Extremely-Weak interaction is
10 orders of magnitude smaller still. These ratios are in good agreement with the published
theoretical models concerning the origin of Strangeness and CP violation.
In this paper, we examine the role of super-weakly interacting sterile neutrinos in the structure of
galaxies and galaxy clusters.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[161] **viXra:1406.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-29 07:40:11*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract
This paper contains the background and protocol for a basic 2-way communication between the human mind and plants via their auras.
Key words
Auras, the mind, consciousness, plants, dowsing, communication

**Category:** Mind Science

[160] **viXra:1406.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-22 04:47:58*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Incorrect expressions are fixed, and appendix for correction is added.

Indefinite metric vectors are absolutely required as the physical states in Minkowski space because that is indefinite metric space and the physical space-time. For example, Maxwell equations are wave equations in Minkowski space.
However, traditional Quantum theory ordinarily has been studied only in definite metric space, i.e., Hilbert space. There are no clear expression for indefinite metric vectors.
Here we show a wave function example using Dirac's delta function for indefinite metric vectors in Minkowski space. In addition, we show the vectors can interfere with itself. This example also suggests indefinite metric will be absolutely required.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[159] **viXra:1406.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-28 21:37:22*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

The Universe and all its parts, made to the image and likeness of the whole, are ten dimensional Superorganisms.
The substances of those Superorganisms are lineal space=energy and cyclical time=information, 2 dual concepts that express the fundamental duality of the Universe between lineal distances/motions and cyclical clocks/forms. The mind perceives in stillness the moving energy of the vacuum as lines of space=distance – the shortest geometry between two points - and the in-form-ation of the Universe carried in the temporal, cyclical clocks and frequencies, traced by vortices of charges and masses, as spherical particles – the geometry, which stores more information in lesser space. Yet the substances of reality are quantum, lineal forces of energy and cyclical vortices of time, which combine to create the ∞ complementary superorganisms of the Universe, all of them made with spherical particle/heads of information sum of multiple time cycles, fields/limbs of energy that move them & waves/bodies that reproduce the system.
As a result of this duality all systems perform only 2x2 type of dimensional actions: Individually they absorb Energy for its body/limbs (feeding/motion) and Information for its mind; socially they use their surplus of energy to reproduce its form, (ExI) and they gather in herds around networks of energy and information that distribute efficiently those 2 elements, creating bigger whole superorganisms, fitter to survive than the individual ‘cell’.
The complex sum of all those time cycles and lineal energy motions give birth to the fundamental ‘species’ of the Universe, a 10D superorganism, composed of 3 elements - heads/particles of information that guide limbs/fields of energy, and combine in waves/bodies that reproduce the system - which extend through:
-3 local, organic, finite dimensions of spatial energy: length, the direction of limbs/fields in motion; height the location of informative particles/heads; and its re-product-ive product, width.
Those superorganisms grow through their 3 diffeomorphic dimensions, which enact its 3 organic functions in time, with a temporal order given by the dominance and increase of its information from birth to extinction, in a life-death cycle of 3±i ages:
+i: Birth in a lower ‘fractal scale of space-time’
- Max. E: Past =youth or ‘energy age’ of maximal lineal motion.
- E=I: Present=steady state maturity, or age of balance between energy and information when the system iterates its form, creating its clonic offspring that makes the Universe both dynamic and immortal=seemingly unchanged.
- Max.I: Future, 3rd age of information, as energy warps into form (forces into masses & charges) till becoming exhausted.
-i: Death: The system dissolves into its parts, in a big-bang of energy that returns its form back to its cellular scale.
Thus, Universal systems extend through 3 ±i scales of complexity, its i-1 cellular, seminal scale, from where they emerge as individuals to become Relative Fractal, cellular units/points/parts of their bigger i+1 social scale or whole 3x3+i=10 Di superorganism, till death dissolves it back. While from a continuous p.o.v. all those fractal i-scales form a 5th ‘classic’ Dimension.
Thus all life-death cycles are a journey through 3x3±i relative scales of the 5th dimension; defined by a metric equation, Se x Ti=K, such as smaller scales have more information as its time clocks run faster, but their product remains co-invariant, reason why superorganisms of different scales have the same power and lifespan. I.e. insects perceive 10 times faster than humans but live a maximal of 7 years, which insects will perceive as 7 x 10=70 life years of experience, the humans age.
Thus all superorganisms show 5 isomorphisms: 1) Duality of Energy and Information; 2) Ternary, topological, organisms dimensions of space; 3) 3±i ages and life-death cycle; 4) 4 actions: Max. E, Max. I, Exi, ∑Ex∏I 5) 3 scales of existence. General Systems Sciences (abb.GS2) is the science that studies them.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[158] **viXra:1406.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-29 03:24:15*

**Authors:** J. Smulko

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The manuscript has been accepted for publication in Fluctuation and Noise Letters.

The Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key distribution system provides a way of exchanging theoretically secure keys by measuring random voltage and current through the wire connecting two different resistors at Alice's and Bob's ends. Recently new advanced protocols for the KLJN method have been proposed with enhanced performance. In this paper we analyze the KLJN
system and compare with the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme. That task requires determination
of the applied resistors and identification of various superpositions of known and unknown noise components. Some statistical tools will be explored to determine how the duration of the bit exchange window (averaging time) influences the performance of the secure bit exchange.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[157] **viXra:1406.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-28 14:18:33*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A basic overview of the photon four-frequency is given, demonstrating its use in the explanation of the aberration of starlight and the Doppler shift, at a mathematical level suitable for undergraduate students in the physical sciences.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[156] **viXra:1406.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-10 06:39:59*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 20 pages. OALib Journal, Vol. 3, P. 1-15 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102459.

A hypothesis is suggested that the fields associated with macroscopic bodies, such as classical electromagnetic and gravitational fields, acceleration field, pressure field, dissipation field, strong interaction field and weak interaction field, are the manifestations of a single general field. Using the generalized four-velocity as the four-potential of the general field, with the help of the principle of least action it is shown that each of these seven fields contributes linearly to the formation of the total four-force density. The general field equations, equation of the particles’ motion in this field, equation for the metric and the system’s energy are determined. It should be noted that the stress-energy tensor of the general field includes not only the stress-energy tensors of these seven fields, but also the cross terms with the products of various field strengths. As a result, the energy and momentum of the system with several fields can differ from the classical values, not taking into account such cross terms in the general field energy and momentum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[155] **viXra:1406.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-28 09:35:05*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Fixed typos in Eqs. 6.2 and 6.3

A very elementary overview of the original Kaluza-Klein theory is presented, suitable for undergraduates who want to learn the basic mathematical formalism behind a revolutionary idea that was proposed one hundred years ago, yet today serves as the template for modern higher-dimensional particle and gravity theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[154] **viXra:1406.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 18:57:06*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: Sun's corona appears much hotter than its surface. Temperature of coronal region, which is farther from the surface by more than eight times the radius of sun, is estimated to be over 1 million degrees Kelvin while temperature of sun’s surface is only about 6000 degrees Kelvin. (Temperature at the center of sun is estimated at about 15 million degrees Kelvin). Earth, with average matter-density of 5515 Kg/m^3 and mean radius of 6360 km, has an atmosphere that extends to about 700 km (about 11% of radius). Beyond this distance there is no perceptible concentration of 3D matter-particles. On the other hand, sun with average matter-density of 1408 kg/m^3 and mean radius of 696000 km is determined to have an atmosphere that extends to its coronal region at a distance of about eight times its mean radius (about 800% of radius). It is absurd to think that sun can sustain concentration of matter-particles at this distance, with sufficient matter-density that can heat up to the estimated temperature of coronal region. As contemporary physical theories are unable to explain any logical mechanism that can produce this difference, it is considered as ‘coronal heating problem’ in physics. Alternative concept, presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ has a logical mechanism that can produce observed radiation from coronal region (which is far beyond the limit of its atmosphere).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[153] **viXra:1406.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 13:38:45*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This paper shows that the fine structure constant is a special case of the above mentioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[152] **viXra:1406.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-18 07:34:15*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We show that the Standard Model (SM) represents a self-contained multifractal set on spacetime having arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensionality ( ). All coupling charges residing on this background (gauge, Higgs and Yukawa) satisfy a closure relationship that a) tightly constrains the flavor and mass content of the SM and b) naturally solves the “hierarchy problem”, without resorting to new concepts reaching beyond the physics of the SM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[151] **viXra:1406.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 09:08:52*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The contact potential difference this is the potential difference, which appears between the located in the electrical contact conductors under the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Between two conductors, led to the contact, occur the electron transfer, as a result of which they are charged (conductor with the smaller work function positively, and with larger - negatively) until electron streams in both directions are balanced also in the entire system the level of electrochemical potential (Fermi level) becomes identical. The established contact potential difference is equal to difference the work function of conductors, referred to the electron charge. But from the attention of researchers slipped off still one type of contact potential difference, which occurs with the flow of the current through the superconductors. This type of contact potential difference is examined in this article.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[150] **viXra:1406.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 10:37:09*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

We define the Weyl geometry and we establish two types: integrable and nonintegrable. We obtain the equation of motion for a free particle in Weyl integrable geometry. We analyze the ways to obtain the field equations: take the components of the metric tensor as the only potentials or take the components of the metric tensor and the components of the metric connexion as the potentials of the field. We analyze how the calibration is imposed on each of these two options. We finished applying the results to the equations derived from some Lagrangian densities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[149] **viXra:1406.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 02:44:50*

**Authors:** S.kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. NA

According to Einstein and his followers space time geometry is gravity. Gravity is the manifestation of distortion of geometry of space due to presence of matter. The heart of these physical and cosmological phenomena is the line element or metric. This metric generated the field equation of Einstein general relative theory. Space time curvature, geodetic effect, frame tracking, gravitational lenses, gravitational red and blue shifts, block holes, dark matter, dark energy, big bang singularity, expansion of the universe and gravitational waves are the predictions of Einstein general relative theory. All these theoretical findings expect gravitational waves have been experimental test at to a very high degree of accuracy. In this work, the authors introduce an entirely new type of polar spherical triangle. The application of this triangle has been extended to Gabuzda- Wardle-Roberts superluminal motion equation and the consecution is noted

**Category:** Geometry

[148] **viXra:1406.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-26 18:35:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This article shows that the formula for the Schwarzschild radius (black hole radius) is a special case of the abovementioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[147] **viXra:1406.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 16:02:17*

**Authors:** François Barriquand

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The impact of linear superpositions of magnetic potentials on the physical robustness of “patchings” used to build up the “wave section” of an electron orbiting around a magnetic monopole is examined. It is shown that most of these linear superpositions must be discarded if one wishes to preserve the possibility that magnetic monopoles may exist.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[146] **viXra:1406.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 16:47:07*

**Authors:** Isaac Mor

**Comments:** 3 Pages. I got rid of the power of p when n=P*Q^2 with a simple proof

if n is an Odd Perfect Number then n=P*Q^2
I got rid of the power of P with a simple proof

**Category:** Number Theory

[145] **viXra:1406.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 17:18:39*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that displacement and conductivity currents must be defined as the convective derivative of the induction vector and oppositely directed. Therefore chain AC currents are broken by capacitors and do not form a vortical electric field. It is concluded that the electrodynamics needs revision revision of some of its provisions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[144] **viXra:1406.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-26 02:15:46*

**Authors:** I.I. Guseinov, B.A.Mamedov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is devoted to examine a physical nature of quantum self-frictional atomic potentials and nuclear attraction forces. Using analytical formulas for the – generalized Laguerre polynomials ( -GLPs) and - generalized exponential type orbitals ( -GETOs), the self-frictional atomic potentials and nuclear attraction forces are investigated, where and is the integer ( , ) or noninteger ( , ) self-frictional quantum number. We notice that the -GLPs, the origin of which is the quantum self-frictional fields, are the radial parts of the -GETOs. The dependence of the quantum self-frictional potentials and nuclear attraction forces as a function of the distance from nucleus is analyzed. The relationships presented are valid for the arbitrary values of quantum numbers and scaling parameters.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[143] **viXra:1406.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 05:41:55*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Portuguese language.

We develop a solution in an infinite degree polynomial for the Schwarzschild equation and obtained some numerical results. Conclude that their solution seems to converge to a spiraling motion that converges to the center point, and not an ellipse that has precession.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[142] **viXra:1406.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 09:02:51*

**Authors:** Arnaud Dhallewyn

**Comments:** 1 Page. Tout droit réservé

Nouvelle formule pour pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[141] **viXra:1406.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 09:04:18*

**Authors:** Arnaud Dhallewyn

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Tout droit réservé

Différente démonstration du postulat de Bertrand

**Category:** Number Theory

[140] **viXra:1406.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 04:20:07*

**Authors:** Danny Kirmse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The electric space-propulsion (EP) bases on the mechanism of ionizing the propellant. The now charged propellant can be influenced by external electric and magnetic fields; with the objective to generate thrust. The ionizing technique differs with the kind of EP. The Radio-Frequency Ion-Thruster (RIT) uses electric eddy-fields for ionization; the eddy-fields accelerate electrons, which transfer their additional kinetic energy to the neutral propellant-particles via collision. If the transferred energy is high enough, the particles are ionized in this way. Origin of the eddy-fields is a coil that surrounds the region of ionization. The interaction of coil and plasma is the core-mechanism of a RIT. This interaction and its effect on the coil behavior are discussed in the following paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[139] **viXra:1406.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 18:39:44*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, S. A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In Geographical information systems (GIS) there is a need to model spatial regions with intuitionistic
boundary. In this paper, we generalize the topological ideals spaces to the notion of intuitionistic set; we construct the
basic fundamental concepts and properties of an intuitionistic spatial region. In addition, we introduce the notion of
ideals on intuitionistic set which is considered as a generalization of ideals studies in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
15, 16]. The important topological intuitionistic ideal has been given. The concept of intuitionistic local function is also introduced for a intuitionistic topological space. These concepts are discussed with a view to find new intuitionistic topology from the original one. The basic structure, especially a basis for such generated intuitionistic topologies and several relations between different topological intuitionistic ideals are also studied here. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[138] **viXra:1406.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 22:00:18*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 6 pages. 2 figures.

Galaxies demonstrate spectacular structure and ordinary spiral galaxies are simply an exponential disk. A rational structure has at least one net of orthogonal Darwin curves, and the exponential disk has infinite nets. This paper proves that the nets of Darwin curves of exponential disk define an intrinsic vector field in the disk plane. Finally, a proposition is given that the vector field should connect to the phenomenon of constant rotation curves.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[137] **viXra:1406.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 02:27:25*

**Authors:** Radhakrishnamurty Padyala

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In classical dynamics binary elastic collision problems are solved using the two laws of conservation – the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of kinetic energy. The requirement of conservation of kinetic energy is less restrictive than the Huygens’ requirement (kinematics model) of reversal of relative velocity for an elastic collision. We demonstrate in this article that the dynamics model breaks symmetry and leads to paradoxical solutions in multi dimensional collisions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[136] **viXra:1406.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 14:35:36*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At least a couple of vixra postings aim at debunking Einstein’s seminal paper on Special Relativity. We point out that, some time ago, Prof. Jeremy Dunning-Davies has refuted these claims with clear-cut explanations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[135] **viXra:1406.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 03:43:52*

**Authors:** B. Ravi Sankar

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Special Relativity can not be derived as shown by Einstein's 1905 paper “ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES”.

The purpose of this paper is to point out a major derivational error in Albert Einstein’s 1905 paper
titled “ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES”. An alternate expression for coordinate transformation is derived which shows that the time co-ordinate of the moving clock cannot be expressed in terms of the temporal and spatial co-ordinate of the stationary system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[134] **viXra:1406.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-03 10:08:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

There are the two strong evidences of existence of God i.e. the imprinted on Europe the arrangement of the 7 stars/”sisters” in the Pleiades and the numerical connections between science and religion. There are the two (N)ucleons, seven (H)yperons and four (D)elta ground resonances. They all are the (B)aryons. On the other hand, the distinguished first letters N.H.D. B are the initials of Niels Hendrik David Bohr. It suggests that atom-like structure must concern the baryons as well and it is in the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory. The crucial numbers in the Revelation of St. John and the Scale-Symmetric Theory are the same so God knows the ultimate theory. If the knowledge deciphered by Albert Slosman from hieroglyphs and manuscripts is correct then the Revelation of St. John and Scale-Symmetric Theory lead to some Cataclysm in 2016. I showed also that the Maya Calendar is associated with the Scale-Symmetric Theory as well. There are a few fundamental mistakes in mainstream cosmology and particle physics.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[133] **viXra:1406.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-24 03:05:09*

**Authors:** Andrey Loshinin

**Comments:** 75 Pages.

Collected back formulas of the solutions of certain Diophantine equations and their systems. These decisions were not known earlier.

**Category:** Number Theory

[132] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-31 17:52:13*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

a slideshow/presentation file outlining of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[131] **viXra:1406.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 17:29:27*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I propose that, (1) dark matter is nothing more and nothing less than dark energy itself, (2) an object that is far away from the boundary of the universe makes the dark energy to "appear" to behave like dark matter towards it, (3) an object near the boundary of the universe makes the dark energy to behave like dark energy towards it, (4) the appearance of quantum entanglement to be instantaneous is only an illusion due to the speed of the particle involved in transferring the information between them to be much greater than that of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[130] **viXra:1406.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-26 16:42:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote an article entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle(The Scale Law). In that article I formulated a new law which all laws of physics obey. The purpose of this article is to show that the Einstein’s relativistic energy
formula is a special case of the present formulation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1406.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 10:25:37*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 649 Pages.

Folclor umoristic internetist (Vol. VI).

**Category:** Linguistics

[128] **viXra:1406.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 04:05:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I combine two of my objects of study, the Poulet numbers and the different types of pairs of primes and I state two conjectures about few ways in which types of Poulet numbers could be associated with types of pairs of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[127] **viXra:1406.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 04:44:21*

**Authors:** Frank Martin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A model of time is described which is based on presentist ideas. The main issue facing presentism is the apparent contradiction it brings when one is faced with considering the future and the past as being existent exclusively in the present. The model presented herein relates time to the constant change of energy in the universe. In particular, parallels are drawn between future, present and past, representing time, and potential energy, kinetic energy and entropy representing change. This model includes the future and the past as integral parts of the present.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[126] **viXra:1406.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-13 15:56:03*

**Authors:** Patrick D. Shaw Stewart

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza A and B, and many unrelated viruses including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the abundant scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical, and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, as well as studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that ambient temperature dips and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible mechanisms, M1 – 4, that can explain this link; M1: increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; M2: lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; M3: chilling may increase host susceptibility; M4: lower temperatures or host chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for M1 or M2, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations. M3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the repeated simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with M4, but not M3 (at least not in its simple form). M4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory virus strains, and the frequent recovery of ts mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that M4 is the main driver of seasonality, but M3 may also play an important role.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[125] **viXra:1406.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-22 13:49:27*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

English (traslation): The current model of the structure of the planets at issue in this article. Arguing that probably your inner core is composed of hydrogen (like the stars), and temperature Hartree.
It is also proposed that the age of the planets is the same as that of the stars. And while they generate electromagnetic radiation, the planets would generate matter.
Spanish (original): Se cuestiona en éste artículo el actual modelo de la estructura de los planetas. Argumentando que probablemente su núcleo interno esté compuesto por hidrógeno (al igual que las estrellas), y a la temperatura de Hartree.
Se propone asimismo que la antigüedad de los planetas es la misma que la de las estrellas. Y que mientras éstas generan radiación electromagnética, los planetas generarían materia.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[124] **viXra:1406.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-22 09:41:45*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 2 Pages. no

As my hobby and having a long time dormant interest in Special and General Relativities I have decided in 2004 to start looking into these topics in more detail and most of all to satisfy my curiosity. The main problem and irritation were the claims of existence of Black Holes with Event Horizons and generally the claims that the Big Bang formed the universe we are living in. These claims seemed to me totally absurd and preposterous. The described study addresses these points, it does not follow the main stream theory, rather it is based on the engineering approach and a philosophy that the results must be reasonable and most of all supported by experimental test results, observations, or at least by thought experiments without contradictions. I have thus started to look closely into the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and gradually progressed towards the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and finally to the alternate model of the universe as is outlined in the step by step fashion below. Each point and the accompanied statements are therefore documented in detail by referenced publications, which in most cases were refereed, and can be easily accessed by the included internet links.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[123] **viXra:1406.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-21 16:43:37*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

Marginalii la o dragoste care poate fi, dar poate să nu fie, vrea să fie şi dă să fie, dar nu ajunge (încă) la împlinire, o dragoste care era să fie cândva şi, totodată, stă să fie, fără obligativitatea de a deveni…
Flor este bărbatul la maturitate, înflorind prin dragoste.
Erato este muza poeziei şi erosului, împrumutându-şi numele din mitologie, dar evadând din aceasta pentru a deveni femeia senzuală care se înfloreşte pe sine şi înfloreşte bărbatul căruia i se dăruie…

**Category:** Linguistics

[122] **viXra:1406.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 08:11:39*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 9 pages. Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, Vol. 8, 2014, no. 18, 771 - 779. http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/astp.2014.47101.

A method allowing us to introduce into the Lagrangian the terms, which characterize an arbitrary vector field of a system, is described. As a result of applying the principle of least action it becomes possible to find all the main characteristics of this field, including its energy and momentum, field equations, force of interaction with the matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[121] **viXra:1406.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-22 03:17:08*

**Authors:** Ivar Nielsen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper discards the very idea of dark matter and reveals the illogical and inconsistent consensus hypothesis of gravity.
Astrophysicists hypothesized dark matter because of discrepancies between the mass of large astronomical objects determined from their gravitational effects and the mass calculated from the "luminous matter" they contain: stars, gas, and dust. Dark matter was first postulated by Jan Oort in 1932 to account for the orbital velocities of stars in the Milky Way and by Fritz Zwicky in 1933 to account for evidence of "missing mass" in the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters. Subsequently, many other observations have indicated the presence of dark matter in the universe, including the rotational speeds of galaxies by Vera Rubin.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[120] **viXra:1406.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-24 19:11:49*

**Authors:** David Harding

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This study concludes that the universe is necessarily in equilibrium, that all black holes weigh the same per meter, exibit the same force, and that the universe “sees” a specific value as the Graviton, the quintessence of existence. This virtual particle is equal to the Schwarzschild /de Broglie product of any mass or particle whatsoever. The relation confirms that the source of all things is the Planck Interaction, and also, that all particles and all masses should be defined by their Schwarzschild radii, as well as by their de Broglie radii. Further we conclude that the universe is indeed holographic (as described above), yet with the appearance that it is also a finite black hole, and we being observers within it, exist within a predefined space, as governed by the natural constants. It was noted, that we can only observe matter that has not fallen into smaller event horizons. As such, this state includes us as observers. We can observe all matter within our defined space (the universal event horizon), but beyond this space (either larger or smaller) we can observe nothing.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[119] **viXra:1406.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-02 17:51:03*

**Authors:** Allan Cacdac

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Revised.

Using visualization of the pattern by providing examples and an elementary proof, we are able to prove and show that A,B and C will always have a common prime factor.

**Category:** Number Theory

[118] **viXra:1406.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-09 03:08:00*

**Authors:** K. Sugiyama

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

We derive the reflection integral equation of the zeta function by the quaternionic analysis.

Many researchers have attempted proof of the Riemann hypothesis, but they have not been successful. The proof of this Riemann hypothesis has been an important mathematical issue. In this paper, we attempt to derive the reflection integral equation from the quaternionic analysis as preparation proving the Riemann hypothesis.

We obtain a generating function of the inverse Mellin-transform. We obtain new generating function by multiplying the generating function with exponents and reversing the sign. We derive the reflection integral equation from inverse Z-transform of the generating function.

Probability is proportional to the number of elementary events, and the number of elementary events is the square of the number of elementary state. The number of elementary states is proportional to the surface area of the manifold, and the surface area of the manifold is the absolute value of the wave function. Therefore, the probability is proportional to the absolute square of the wave function.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[117] **viXra:1406.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-21 00:57:26*

**Authors:** Eui Heung Jeong

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We propose a model of interactions
in which two states of a quark, a colored and electrically charged state and a colorless and electrically neutral state, can transform into each other through the emission or absorption of a colored and electrically charged gauge boson.
A novel feature of the model is that the colorless and electrically neutral quarks carry away the missing energy in decay processes as do neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[116] **viXra:1406.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 16:20:33*

**Authors:** Kiryan D. G., Kiryan G. V.

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 11 Figures, English

The paper presents the novel results obtained by more comprehensively analyzing well-known and clearly visible physical processes associated with gravitational interaction in the system of material bodies in the medium of non-zero density. The work is based on the statement that the "buoyancy" (Archimedes) force acting on the material body located in a medium of non-zero density is of the gravitational nature. Due to this approach, we managed, staying in the framework of classical physics and mechanics definitions, to introduce the concept of the body's gravitating mass as a mass determining the gravitational interaction intensity and also to establish an analytical relation between the gravitating and inertial masses of the material body. Combining the direct and indirect (Archimedes force) gravitational effect on the material body in the medium, we succeeded in distinguishing from the total gravitational field of this system a structure with a dipole-like field line distribution. This fact allows us to assert that, along with the gravitational attraction, there exists also gravitational repulsion of material bodies, and this fact does not contradict the meanings of existing basic definitions and concepts of classical physics and mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[115] **viXra:1406.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-03 13:34:50*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is the final version for publication

Considering that each quark is composed of two prequarks it is shown that the recently
found Higgs boson belongs to a triplet of neutral bosons, and that there are two quadruplets of charged Higgs-like bosons. The quantum numbers of these bosons are calculated and shown to be associated to a new kind of hypercharge directly linked to quark compositeness. Particularly, the quantum number of the recently found Higgs boson is identified. A chart for quark decays via virtual Higgs-like bosons is proposed. Justifications for quark compositeness
are presented.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[114] **viXra:1406.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-20 07:47:03*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

By utilizing the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis we can come to the conclusion that rocks and minerals are electron degenerate matter, thus atomic bonding dogma with electron shells and electrons themselves is false. As well the dogma of atoms themselves consisting of many layers of electrons is also false as we refer to their natural properties.

**Category:** Geophysics

[113] **viXra:1406.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 17:56:51*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A concise algebraic definition of the associahedra and permutohedra polytopes is given in terms of canonical coordinates for discrete simplices.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[112] **viXra:1406.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-27 23:38:47*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Accepted for publication in Entropy (open access)

We introduce the so far most efficient attack against the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system. This attack utilizes the lack of exact thermal equilibrium in practical applications and is based on cable resistance losses and the fact that the Second Law of Thermodynamics cannot provide full security when such losses are present. The new attack does not challenge the unconditional security of the KLJN scheme, but it puts more stringent demands on the security/privacy enhancing protocol than for any earlier attack. In this paper we present a simple defense protocol to fully eliminate this new attack by increasing the noise-temperature at the side of the smaller resistance value over the noise-temperature at the at the side with the greater resistance. It is shown that this simple protocol totally removes Eve’s information not only for the new attack but also for the old Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv attack. The presently most efficient attacks against the KLJN scheme are thereby completely nullified.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[111] **viXra:1406.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 11:36:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[110] **viXra:1406.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 06:34:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[109] **viXra:1406.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 07:06:35*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article analyzes the properties of information in discrete structure of space-time. In this model, each cell structure has its 1 bit of information that is stored, regardless of the state of the whole system. However, in addition to its own 1 bit each cell is stored foreign information about other cells. This way you can ensure data transmission throughout the discrete structure of space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[108] **viXra:1406.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 04:00:18*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The electric forces are immensely great in comparison with the gravitational forces. There have already been many attempts to explain the gravitation by the immense electric forces. Thanks to the quantization of the electrical energy I have succeeded in it here now. And this in conformity with general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[107] **viXra:1406.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 04:03:27*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The magnetic force can be described very simply as a result of relative velocities of electric charges. Transformations in inertial reference systems are very well described by special relativity. However, magnetism nevertheless is simply regarded as given. There isn't an explanation for the emergence of magnetism yet. I have found a quite simple way to explain the emergence of magnetism, that is, I have discovered, how the electric field changes so that magnetism is created. I would like to introduce this idea here.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[106] **viXra:1406.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-11 09:48:15*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 6 pages

The validity of Planck's constant in gravitational wave detection experiments is brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. It is shown that in the absence of a purely gravitational measurement of Planck's constant one cannot at present rule out the possibility that gravitational quanta may be scaled by a more diminutive "action." An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[105] **viXra:1406.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 11:23:35*

**Authors:** Michael Pogorsky

**Comments:** 2 pages

Any odd perfect number is unknown. Simple analysis valid almost for all combinations of odd prime divisors proves that odd numbers constituted of them cannot be perfect.

**Category:** Number Theory

[104] **viXra:1406.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 12:02:18*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper introduces a new type of set called the Sohraab-Hyder set or the SH set which is quite different from the well known and studied set of the Set Theory. This new set theory is logically consistent and leads to some fascinating results such as, (1) the necessary existence of an ultimate SH set that created itself in pre-eternity and will continue to exist to post-eternity, (2) the ultimate SH set is self sufficient, (2) the ultimate SH set must give rise to infinite number of other SH sets which represent logically consistent algebras and geometries, (3) the ultimate SH set must give rise to the existence of infinite universes, including our own, (4) the ultimate SH set must give rise to mathematical cells, organs and organisms which undergo must undergo evolution, (5) some of these mathematical cells, organs and organisms are same as the organic cells, organs and organisms which leads to the conclusion that the evolution of organisms is a mathematical fact and finally, (6) it is shown that every living and non-living entity in the universe, with the universe included of course, is a matrix of 0's and 1's.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[103] **viXra:1406.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 04:35:50*

**Authors:** Andrey Loshinin

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Collected formula of the solution of Diophantine equations. All the formulas given to me. There are solutions of the equations in General form.

**Category:** Number Theory

[102] **viXra:1406.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 05:10:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The human body is a constant@@ flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[101] **viXra:1406.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 05:16:00*

**Authors:** Xu Feng

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The Best Formula on the Prime Numbers is awesome.

**Category:** Number Theory

[100] **viXra:1406.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-17 16:35:35*

**Authors:** BASSERA Hamid

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

No doubt, there is a continuity of physical laws. Here I show a link between general and special relativity and especially a kind of gravitational trace or signature in a moving frame, means a memorising of initial process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[99] **viXra:1406.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-17 18:40:14*

**Authors:** George Rhude

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Why the Michelson-Morley experiment was a bust.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[98] **viXra:1406.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 23:26:11*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

These ideas – about 1) a world of male-to-female transsexuals producing offspring (a world with only one sex – either male or female – may be disadvantageous: see asterisked addition to Content’s 1st paragraph), 2) scientifically achieving immortal life, 3) intergalactic and time travel, 4) descendants who appear to be nonhuman ancestors, and 5) how to reap the benefits of a world without money - are adapted from my previous articles at http://vixra.org/author/rodney_bartlett. My reluctance about trying to write “scientifically” has been increasing for years, and has been very intense during the past couple of years. As the song (by the group REM) says, "I can't fight this feeling anymore".

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[97] **viXra:1406.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-17 12:16:46*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Needs background of viXra:1311.0078 and viXra:1311.0089

This paper follows on from the exposition of the new temporary magnetic remanence cycles and looks at the similarities and subtle differences in the electrostatic analogue. Only the electromagnetics is analysed as the kinetic theory and thermodynamic analysis is almost exactly the same as the magnetic case.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[96] **viXra:1406.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-17 07:42:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[95] **viXra:1406.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-16 18:39:38*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

One of the fundamental objectives of mathematical modeling is to interpret past and present, and, based upon this interpretation, to predict future. The use at time t of available observations from a time series to forecast its value at some future time t+l can provide basis for 1) model reconstruction, 2) model verification, 3) anomaly detection, 4) data monitoring, 5) adjustment of the underlying physical process. Forecast is usually needed over a period known as the lead time that is problem specific. For instance, the lead time can be associated with the period during which training data are available. The accuracy of the forecast may be expressed by calculating probability limits on either side of each forecast. These limits may be calculated for any convenient set of probabilities, for example, 50% and 90%. They are such that the realized value of the time series, when it eventually occurs, will be included within these limits with the stated probability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[94] **viXra:1406.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-16 21:09:22*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

A novel hypothesis concerning motion through the vacuum is presented. The hypothesis relates the complex time exponential of Quantum Mechanics (QM) to absolute motion through a wave medium. The hypothesis is combined with Special Relativity (SR). The two most significant results from this are that this combination produces a term that is consistent with angular momentum and that the direction associated with time is the direction of motion through the vacuum. These relations are presented in Equations 12.0/12.1 and Equation 4 respectively. Equation 12.4 then describes the electron-positron. These are a direct explanation for wave-particle duality and an explanation for the "arrow of time", thereby eliminating time as a fourth dimension. The hypothesis predicts a distinction between the emission and the absorption of energy. The hypothesis requires a tangible wave medium. A variation of the Stern-Gerlach experiment is proposed as empirical verification.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[93] **viXra:1406.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-16 23:54:50*

**Authors:** Guang-Sheng Chen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Micro Course (Micro lecture) refers to the use of constructivist methods into to
online learning or mobile learning for the purpose of practical teaching content. Micro-Flip
classroom curriculum as part Keqianyuxi important carrier, causing the majority of teachers
and school management's attention, and gradually become a new topic of education reform
and development of education information. In this paper, Higher Mathematics Teaching, for
example, outlines the current situation and development trend of the implementation of
advanced mathematics courses micro computer network technology based under.
Key words: Higher Mathematics; Micro lecture; Computer network technology;

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[92] **viXra:1406.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-16 07:41:22*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In establishment dogma, a star is classified as a Population I (young) or a Population II (old) star. This is based on Big Bang Creationism. Stellar metamorphosis offers a replacement understanding.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[91] **viXra:1406.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 16:31:31*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and also combined with positive intrinsic energy hadrons and leptons to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two such negative intrinsic energy bosons are a spin 0 particle and a spin 1 particle, known to us as dark energy and dark matter respectively. The positive intrinsic energy forms of these particles also exist as the the Higgs and the Zo particles. The negative intrinsic energy entities cannot form in our epoch with E8 symmetry broken to E8 x U(1).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1406.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 18:28:07*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 264 Pages.

Study of soft sets was first proposed by Molodtsov in 1999 to deal with uncertainty in a non-parametric manner. The researchers did not pay attention to soft set theory at that time but now the soft set theory has been developed in many areas of mathematics.
Algebraic structures using soft set theory are very rapidly developed. In this book we developed soft neutrosophic algebraic structures by using soft sets and neutrosophic algebraic structures. In this book we study soft neutrosophic groups, soft neutrosophic semigroups, soft neutrosophic loops, soft neutrosophic LA-semigroups, and their generalizations respectively.

**Category:** Algebra

[89] **viXra:1406.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 18:33:23*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

It is explained in simple terms the differences between establishment dogma’s interpretation of stellar structure versus Stellar Metamorphosis of Kepler-138c

**Category:** Astrophysics

[88] **viXra:1406.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 20:29:16*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This article has never been submitted in a journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This article consists of 50 questions related to astrophysics, climate, and other issues. These questions were posted in www.researchgate.net since Aug. 24, 2013 until June 16, 2014. Hopefully these questions can motivate further investigations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[87] **viXra:1406.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 14:44:24*

**Authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Constructive comments are welcome

An ab initio scrutiny of the structure and genesis of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and a close look into its rare ‘materialization’ to produce a pair of electron (e-) and positron (e+), coupled with the examination of the relationships among their various dynamic parameters, have revealed that just like torque (F x r), angular momentum (mv x r), and spin (m0c x r), the charge interaction (Epot x r) also has a cross product relation between the potential energy and the lever arm of the interacting particles. Further, it has been found that the EM frames of photons and leptons, herein called the ‘Energetic Capsules’, have higher energy with respect to the zero-energy state of the vacuum, determined by the quantum relations: E = ħc/r (photons) and E0 = ħc/2r (leptons). This means that the inner and surface energy potential of these ‘Energetic Capsules’ is higher than that of the normal vacuum and their charge interaction is given by ħc = ie2, the square of the intrinsic charge (ie). Consequently, the ‘Close Contact’ or Strong Force interactions of these ‘Energetic Capsules’ should reflect this difference, when compared with their long-range interactions through the free space / vacuum. Therefore, as the elementary charge interaction (in vacuum) is given by e2, while the ‘Close Contact’ strong force interactions correspond to ħc, the ratio between these two parameters provides the value of alpha, α = e2/ħc = 1/137, which resolves the century-old enigma of the Electromagnetic Coupling Constant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[86] **viXra:1406.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 10:21:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[85] **viXra:1406.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 11:47:29*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

From Mach's principle, the speed of light is shown to be decreasing as the universe expands. The rate of decrease in the speed of light is equivalent to Hubble's constant within accuracy of the cosmological parameters. Modelling the universe as two dimensional quantum well for the plane of traveling quantum waves and their associated energy being equivalent to the rest energy of all particles results in a wavelength-mass relationship for quantizing the gravitational field. This formula predicts the most fundamental wavelenth as corresponding to the mass of the photon which is 1E-68 Kg

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1406.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 04:45:58*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Maiella

**Comments:** Pages 205, 11 figures

The present book is devoted to the construction of a new theory for the elementary particles. This theory was born in order to resolve some open issues of the Standard Model, among which the research of a general equation for the description of all quantum particles in a unique way. Starting from the Pauli equation, two relativistic partial differential equations are obtained, one to the first and other to the second order, which are able to describe particles with arbitrary spin. The analysis of the energetic spectrum concerning such equations puts in evidence that the particles they describe have an imaginary mass. Then, the probability density study of these equations shows the principle of causality is not satisfied. Therefore, these equations characterize the tachyonic universe. We can see such a universe admits spontaneous symmetry breaking. In general terms, we can establish the broken symmetry might be a global characteristic of the tachyonic universe, due to its negative square energy, which made it unstable. Hence, it is possible to assume that after the hot Big-Bang there was another catastrophic cosmological event – said Big-Break – which made to break down the tachyonic universe in a positive square energy one (bradyonic universe), and from which the four fundamental interactions are probably generated. The transition from tachyonic to bradyonic universe transforms the tachyonic equations in bradyonic ones, being then able to describe elementary particles with arbitrary spin. The first order partial differential equation gives asymmetric quantum states, while the second order partial differential equation gives symmetric quantum states and so they describe different theories. In the course of this work, both these theories will be studied. Either way, only one of the two could be the right theory of the elementary particles. Since this theory follows on from the Big-Bang, from the resultant tachyonic universe and from Big-Break, it has been called α-Theory, i.e. the “beginning theory.” The α-Theory may theoretically predict the experimental properties of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos and allows, thanks to the appendix A, to generalize the concepts of the Dirac sea, Pauli exclusion principle and spin-statistics theorem, thus giving rise to “s-matter” and “multi-statistics,” which are able to take an interesting approach for the explanation of the Dark Matter. Furthermore, it expects on large-scale the “double inflation” mechanism, which, without the Dark Energy, could explain the acceleration of our universe (bradyonic universe). From the α-Theory, two string actions can be deduced too, by which new ideas can be developed. Practically, the α-Theory wants to be a GUT, able to describe the quantum particles and our universe in a simple and elegant way.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[83] **viXra:1406.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 16:53:14*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is a correction to my previous paper relating the probabilities for gravitational attraction and repulsion to mass. Here I resolve the contradiction that exists between the probability for gravitational attraction when M approaches infinity and r approaches infinity. The result is that, (1) there is maximum mass at which the probability for attraction reaches maximum value after which it starts to decrease with any further increase in the mass, (2) there is a non-zero mass which has zero net gravitational field around it, in contradiction to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, (3) one can do astronomical observations to find objects with zero gravitational fields, (4) unlike Einstein's GTR it is not necessary that a non-zero mass must produce a gravitational field around itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1406.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-19 01:08:46*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 125 Pages.

General Relativity’s Schwarzschild solution describes a spherically symmetric gravitational field as an utterly static thing. The Space Generation Model (SGM) describes it as an absolutely moving thing. The SGM nevertheless agrees equally well with observations made in the fields of the Earth and Sun, because it predicts almost exactly the same spacetime curvature. This success of the SGM motivates deepening the context—especially with regard to the fundamental concepts of motion. The roots of Einstein’s relativity theories thus receive critical examination. A particularly illuminating and widely applicable example is that of uniform rotation, which was used to build General Relativity (GR). Comparing Einstein’s logic to that of the SGM, the most significant difference concerns the interpretation of the readings of accelerometers and the rates of clocks. Where Einstein infers relativity of motion and spacetime symmetry, it is argued to be more logical to infer absoluteness of motion and spacetime asymmetry. This approach leads to reassessments of the essential nature of matter, time, and the dimensionality of space, which lead in turn to some novel cosmological consequences. Special emphasis is given to the model’s deviations from standard predictions inside matter, which have never been tested, but could be tested by conducting a simple experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1406.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 09:41:55*

**Authors:** Yu. N. Bratkov

**Comments:** 18 pages, Russian

By comparing homological algebra and socionics, so-called intuitive space is a kind of a Grothendieck topos (some category of sheaves). Thus, one could look for sheaf structures in the intuitive space. Examples of such sheaf structures are demonstrated.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[80] **viXra:1406.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 11:50:07*

**Authors:** Arnaud Dhallewyn

**Comments:** 102 Pages. Tout droit réservé

Présentation globale de la fonction zêta de Riemann

**Category:** Number Theory

[79] **viXra:1406.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 07:00:34*

**Authors:** N. Murata, Yoja Panchan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a circuit was conceptually designed which can excite either a positive or a negative mass, using the mass equation derived from the g_equation on the assumption of certain conditions.
This study examined the construction of an element from positive mass in order to establish the above excitation, and how to apply the element.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[78] **viXra:1406.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 04:09:22*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of relativity is a joke.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1406.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 16:45:10*

**Authors:** David Radice

**Comments:** PhD Thesis, 269 Pages

Strong gravity and relativistic plasma flows are among the fundamental ingredients powering high-energy astrophysical phenomena such as short and long gamma ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and relativistic outflows from black-hole accreting systems. General-relativistic hydrodynamics is also essential in modelling the merger of neutron stars binaries and black-hole neutron- star binaries that are among the best sources for future gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo or KAGRA.
Over the past decade, the understanding of these phenomena has benefited significantly from the results obtained through non-linear numerical calculations. Key factors in this progress have been the switch to more advanced numerical schemes that are able to properly treat relativistic shock waves, and the progressive inclusion of more “physics”, such as magnetic fields or realistic equations of state. Following this trend, even better numerical tools and more accurate physical description will be be essential to understand these phenomena. This thesis aims at contributing to both of these aspects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1406.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 15:14:44*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The paper describes a simple solution based on a relativistic extension of Newton-Galileo physics to the purely gravitational, spherical supermassive black hole. The solution yields a black hole size that equals the Schwarzschild radius, but without an interior singularity. For a supermassive black hole residing at the center of a galaxy, the theory yields a simple expression for the dynamics of the host galaxy, according to which the black hole is part of a binary system, together with a naked spatial singularity at redshift z = 2^(-1/2) ≈ 0.707, suspected to be a quasar with extreme velocity offsets or an active galactic nucleus. Another redshift, z ≈ 2.078, is also predicted to be associated with quasars and AGNs. The derived results are contrasted with observational data and with a recent ΛCDM model.
Taken together, the derived galaxy dynamics, and the aforementioned results, could shed some light on the role played by supermassive black holes in the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[75] **viXra:1406.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-25 14:09:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The present article introduces a numeric expression for the electron spin g-factor. This formula is accurate, at least, to twelve decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[74] **viXra:1406.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 17:49:37*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present investigation is concerned with the numerological formulation for the mass of the proton. The formula presented here is accurate to 8 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[73] **viXra:1406.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 20:26:37*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Quantum computing by simulations is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an extrenum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process. In this chapter, a quantum version of recurrent nets (QRN) as an analog computing device is discussed. This concept is introduced by incorporating classical feedback loops into conventional quantum networks. It is shown that the dynamical evolution of such networks, which interleave quantum evolution with measurement and reset operations, exhibit novel dynamical properties. Moreover, decoherence in quantum recurrent networks is less problematic than in conventional quantum network architectures due to the modest phase coherence times needed for network operation. It is proven that a hypothetical quantum computer can implement an exponentially larger number of the degrees of freedom within the same

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[72] **viXra:1406.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 21:45:42*

**Authors:** John Frederic Sweeney

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Western nuclear physics contains six types of Quarks, while Vedic Nuclear
Physics accounts for 18 types of Quarks and 18 types of anti – Quarks. The
process of Quark formation is given here, as well as that of Gluons. Moreover,
none of the 89 particles discovered by western physics, including the Higgs
Boson, is a fundamental particle in the sense of the ten fundamental particles
of Vedic Particle Physics. The so – called “God Particle” is a farce of western
physics, since Vishnu resides in every particle. Every particle is a God Particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[71] **viXra:1406.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 15:03:54*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make three conjectures about a type of triplets of primes related in a certain way, i.e. the triplets of primes [p, q, r], where 2*p^2 – 1 = q*r and I raise an open problem about the primes of the form q = (2*p^2 – 1)/r, where p, r are also primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1406.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-09 17:31:31*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Astrophysical safety assurances based on White Dwarf (WD) longevity and Neutron Star (NS) longevity were proposed by Giddings and Mangano in the 2008 safety report [1] commissioned at CERN regarding the existential risks to Earth from hypothetical micro black holes (MBH) theorised as potentially creatable in Proton-Proton (P-P) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the event that such TeV-scale MBH once produced would be stable. The WD safety assurance being stated as only applicable to MBH of dimensions D<8 and at no greater than 14 TeV energy levels, the NS safety assurance was therefore provided as the main astrophysical safety assurance (besides Hawking Radiation theory, and accretion estimates) outside these limits.
Amid suggestions in outsider-debate [2][3][4] that the process of Hawking Radiation (HR) theorised on such TeV-scale MBH may prove less effective in practice than in its mathematical model, a closer look at the NS assurance is reasoned herein. This short paper presents concerns regarding the NS safety assurance as a solitary safety assurance for MBH of greater dimensions, and/or for MBH created at greater energy levels (> 14 TeV) than of those which a solid WD safety assurance [3] can provide.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[69] **viXra:1406.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-12 11:49:24*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 32 Pages. 32

New astronomical discoveries have recently questioned about our current standard model
based understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The distribution of dark matter point
sources around galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies, the so called “Red Nugget” galaxies and
strange behaviour of dwarf galaxies concentrated into layers at both sides of spiral galaxies
are examples of this standard model deviation.
Reason to search for possible solutions, which I present here, based on the Quantum FFF
Theory. ( Function Follows Form in sub quantum stringy particle physics)

**Category:** Astrophysics

[68] **viXra:1406.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-12 19:29:46*

**Authors:** Taiki Takahashi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Connections between information theory and decision under uncertainty have been attracting attention in econophysics, neuroeconomics and quantum decision theory. This paper proposes a psychophysical theory of Shannon entropy based on a mathematical equivalence of delay and uncertainty in decision-making, and psychophysics of the perception of waiting time in probabilistic choices. Furthermore, it is shown that the well-known Shannon entropy is a special case of the general psychophysical entropy. Future directions in the application of the present theory to studies in econophysics and neuroeconomics are discussed.

**Category:** Mind Science

[67] **viXra:1406.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 01:00:31*

**Authors:** Nikolay V. Dibrov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract. An expression for the energy fations absorbed by the fundamental sub-particle (FSP) is derived.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[66] **viXra:1406.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-18 08:43:50*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the mass can not conservation in the β+ decay of a proton

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[65] **viXra:1406.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 14:53:41*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to analyze thermal anomalies associated with pre- seismic activities, to develop a model that explains effects of relatively fast appearance and disappearance of the ground temperature increases, and to apply that model to several hours prediction of the parameters of a potential earthquake. The approach is based upon the so-called snap-of –a-whip effect when an S-wave penetrates the upper soil/sand layer and releases its potential energy into heat at the very surface. This effect (that mathematically is equivalent to a snap of a whip) has been described by M.Zak, in [1], [2], and [3]. Special discussion is devoted to the inverse problem of prediction of expected earthquake parameters based upon observed time-series as well as to proposed experiment.

**Category:** Geophysics

[64] **viXra:1406.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-12 10:44:51*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. English version

We analyze the solution of 2nd order of the Schwarzschild equation and made the observation that the motion of bodies can be a spiral modulated by trigonometric functions, which may be more important than simply means a shift of perihelion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1406.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 10:13:14*

**Authors:** Nikolay V. Dibrov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract. Problem of a derivation of the mass density of the E-corona as a function of spherical coordinates was formulated

**Category:** Classical Physics

[62] **viXra:1406.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 10:50:17*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

A single photon is well known to have spin S = hbar, which would correspond to circular polarization, and all quantum transitions with photon absorption or emission correspond to DeltaS = ±hbar. However, it is also widely believed that a single photon may be linearly polarized, which would correspond to a state with S = 0. Indeed, linearly polarized single photons are central to most quantum entanglement experiments. On the contrary, it has recently been suggested (based on a realistic spin-quantized wave picture of quantum states) that a linearly polarized photon state must be a superposition of a pair of circularly polarized photons, each with S = ±hbar. This question cannot be resolved using a conventional photon detector, which generally cannot distinguish one photon from two simultaneous photons. However, it can be addressed using a superconducting microcalorimeter detector with sub-eV energy resolution and high quantum efficiency (QE). A careful experiment demonstrating this photon pairing could place in question some of the paradoxical central foundations of modern quantum theory, including quantum entanglement and nonlocality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1406.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-14 11:28:23*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, Ramesh Radhakrishnan, V Pugazhendi, Raminder Kaur, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This article can be published or reproduced for non commercial purposes by acknowledging the authors, we are copy-left, Joseph Makkolil, email: jmjcusat@gmail.com

An accident in which six workers received burn injuries, three of them severely, occurred on 14 May 2014 at the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) which is under the last phase of commissioning in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu, South India. The Press Information Bureau of the Government of India states that the reactor was on a maintenance shut down and that the workers were repairing a valve at the time of the accident at 12.10 on 14 May, 2014. According to the Southern Regional Load Distribution Centre (SRLDC), the reactor was on a forced shut down since 14.36 on 12 May due to tripping of the main feed-water pump. At the time of the accident, the reactor was critical, and hence no maintenance activity is possible. The incident on 14 May was in fact an accident in the feed-water pipeline. It is an irony of history that this accident began on 9 May 2014, a day after the Supreme Court of India “dismissed the petition to stall the commissioning of the plant, expressing satisfaction at the government’s steps towards safety measures.”
* Corresponding author: vtpadman@gmail.com

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[60] **viXra:1406.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 06:18:07*

**Authors:** Diego Marin

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We define an infinite summation which is proportional to the reverse of Riemann Zeta function \zeta(s). Then we demonstrate that such function can have singularities only for Re s = 1/n with n in N\0. Finally, using the functional equation, we reduce these possibilities to the only Re s = 1/2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[59] **viXra:1406.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-12 09:28:02*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We analyze the solution of Schwarzschild Equation taking mathematically the observation that the motion of bodies can be a spiral modulated by trigonometric functions, which may be something more important than simply mean a shift of perihelion.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[58] **viXra:1406.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 09:16:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The present investigation is based on a simple quantum mechanical model of elementary particles used to unveil the size the electron. The formulation uses the Special Universal Uncertainty Principle (SUUP) also developed by the author. This principle is a generalization of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The result of this research indicates that the diameter of the electron is smaller or equal than 10 times the Planck length, approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[57] **viXra:1406.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-10 10:50:27*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In prior articles was shown that all Monads are Dipole , z = (a+i.v)^ n =1/w, on nth power where
issues their Binomial nature and also on exponential power of the natural logarithm base ,e, as
→ z^n = (s +v̄ i )¹/ w = |zo| ̄ w. [cos.(φ+2kπ)/w + i.sin.(φ+2kπ)/w] = |zo| ̄ w .e^ i.(φ+2kπ) / w ←
meaning that these are of wave and sinusoidal nature . This Quaternion exponential form of the quantized Spaces , Anti-Spaces , Sub-Spaces and Energy as logarithm on decimal base ,b, is the
,Monads geometrical interpretation, measured on the three natural and constant numbers e , π , i ,
on bases which are independent of any Space and coordinate system one of them is Planck length's
Lp = 8,906.10 ^ -35 m (10 - 35 m).
Moreover , Diffraction cavities are created for storing Energy of all types , and for Temperature in
the Tank cavity Lt = 1,781.10 ^ -7 m (10-7m) from where is then dissipated and damped in Planck's Tank cavity Lp following the two ideal Gas equations [Λ= nRT/V] of Entropy in Thermodynamics
(perfectly elastic) and the Temperature of the Black-body which is quantized and dissipated per circle ( from the Balance Tank energy ) following Stefan - Boltzmann law Wd = σ.T 4 where then
the Temperature in this Ideal Tank T t = 2,213.1010 K which absorbs and emits all types of the electromagnetic radiations .
Energy (Heat ) causes Monads (molecules) to vibrate . More Heat creates higher frequency vibrations and increasing also the Intensity = Pressure of the radiation . Boltzmann's constant
σ = 5,67.10– 8 (W/m².K 4) = 1,38066.10– 23(J/K) is the quantized Energy [Vibration in magnitude L < 3,9698.10 – 62 m , under Heat cause] into a new monad , the Intensity . In this magnitude is emitted Graviton particle (radiation) in Gravity's Length Lg = e ^ -i.(9π/2).b = e - i.( 9π/2 ).10 =
e ̄ ( 141,372 ) = 3,969.10 ̄ 62 m , and now Gravity is Incorporated into Quantum mechanics .

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[56] **viXra:1406.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-10 11:20:18*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A new form of matter-antimatter transformation is described in this work. The transformation of matter into cold neutral antimatter (low-energy antimatter atoms) is achieved simply by means of the application of an ultra strong magnetic field upon the matter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[55] **viXra:1406.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-22 13:04:11*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

his paper provides a realistic approach to remove end of life geostationary satellites and GEO orbital debris into geostationary orbit (GEO), using ground-based masers. This method can also be used to put spatial probes and spacecrafts in orbit of the Moon, and also in orbit of the planets of the solar system, launching these artifacts from an Earth orbit.

**Category:** Geophysics

[54] **viXra:1406.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-10 08:09:18*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Subdivision surfaces with sharp creases are used in surface modeling and animation. The framework that derives the volume formula for classic surface subdivision also applies to the crease rules. After a general overview, we turn to the popular Catmull-Clark, and Loop algorithms with sharp creases. We enumerate common topology types of facets adjacent to a crease. We derive the trilinear forms that determine their contribution to the global volume. The mappings grow in complexity as the vertex valence increases. In practice, the explicit formulas are restricted to meshes with a certain maximum valence of a vertex.

**Category:** Geometry

[53] **viXra:1406.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-14 19:45:00*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper I propose a quantization of general relativity of Einstein which leads to photon mediates gravitation. My quantization of GR depends on the modified special relativity MSRT which introduces a new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations depending on quantum theory (Copenhagen school) [25, 26, 27, 43]. My new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation leads to the Lorentz transformation is vacuum energy dependent instead of the relative velocity in Einstein’s interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations in the SRT. Furthermore the Lorentz factor is equivalent to the refractive index in optics. In my interpretation to the Lorentz transformation I refuse the reciprocity principle which was adopted by Einstein in the SRT. Refusing the reciprocity principle in my theory leads to disappearing all the paradoxes in the SRT; the Twin paradox, Ehrenfest paradox, Ladder paradox and Bell's spaceship paradox. Furthermore, according to my interpretation I could reconcile and interpret the experimental results of quantum tunneling and entanglement (spooky action), —Casimir effect, Hartman effect— with the SRT in this paper. My new interpretation leads also to the wave-particle duality as in quantum theory, and thus agrees with Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The generalization of my transformation leads also the concept of acceleration or deceleration is vacuum fluctuations as in quantum field theory. In my proposed quantized force, the force is given as a function of frequency [1]. Where, in this paper I defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the relativistic kinetic energy held by a body and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently I introduce Newton’s second law as it is relativistic quantized force, and then I introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then by my equivalence principle which agreed completely with the experimental results of QFT, I introduce the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[52] **viXra:1406.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 11:35:46*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect quantum mechanics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of an information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. It has been suggested that quantum mechanics should be complemented by the intelligent particle as an independent entity, and that will be the necessary step to physics of Life. At this stage, the intelligent particle is introduced as an abstract mathematical concept that is satisfied only mathematical rules and assumptions, and its physical representation is still an open problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[51] **viXra:1406.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 20:06:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

This article is a summary of discussion in researchgate.net. In a rather old paper, Wagenmakers, Farrell and Ratcliff (2005) suggest that it is difficult to introduce Self-Organized Criticality and nonlinear dynamics to explain human behavior. They write: "the absence of a specific model for how self-organized criticality produces the observed behavior makes it very difficult to derive testable predictions. The authors conclude that the proposed paradigm shift is presently unwarranted." See the paper included here or find their paper in this link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1404501/pdf/nihms2267.pdf.

**Category:** Mind Science

[50] **viXra:1406.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-30 22:00:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome

According to the Standard Model cosmology, the universe experiences accelerating expansion, which creates the need for Dark Energy models. But I read other possible theories, for example Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model which suggests that there are large structures (void) which introduce inherent inhomogeneity in the Universe. See for instance: http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.2044. Therefore it seems that the homogeneous-isotropic assumption of the Standard Model is questionable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1406.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 20:08:12*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

Abstract
This article summarizes a discussion in researchgate.net. My hypothesis is that SOC can be used to explain the origin of the solar system too, especially planetary orbits, alas so far I do not find any equation yet which is based on SOC and can be used to derive numerical predictions of planetary orbit distances in solar systems. We know that planetary orbit distances in solar systems can be explained by many models such as Titius-Bode law, wave mechanics, wave equation and Lane-Emdeen equation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[48] **viXra:1406.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 20:57:31*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I use the fictional Absolute inertial reference frame and Absolute Newtonian Time together with the Newton's second law for motion and the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum to find a relationship between the Newtonian Time and Einstein Time. Using this relationship as the stepping stone I then construct a set of relativistic transformation equations between two realistic non-newtonian inertial reference frames associated with Einstein Time. These transformation equations lead to some very interesting consequences such as: (1) There is no upper limit on the relative speed of a moving inertial reference frame with respect to a "stationary" inertial reference frame, (2) There is no length contraction in the moving frame, (3) There is time dilation in the moving frame that is qualitatively similar to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, (4) Supra-luminal relative speeds are allowed for the moving reference frame, (5) With supra-luminal relative speed of moving frame the Einstein Time in it moves backwards, (6) The mass/energy relation of Einstein is preserved, (7) Current and as yet unexplainable cosmic and quantum mechanical events can be used to see if the theory is able to explain them. After this the theory can be used to prediction as yet unknown phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1406.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 20:31:04*

**Authors:** John Frederic Sweeney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Relativity, supposedly one of the great achievements of Albert Einstein, was in fact a minor corollary of natural processes, from the perspective of Vedic Particle Physics. This paper discusses the relative unimportance of the so – called Theory of Relativity, which probably was not even a true theory, since it failed to make correct predictions. Yet one further indication of the need for paradigm change in Physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1406.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 22:14:23*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Macroeconomics is the key economics branch to describe gross economy behavior of one country or the world. However, the detailed demand-supply graph representing the macroeconomics is not clearly explicit. Here, I will use the demand-supply curve to explain the detailed macroeconomics contents (GDP=C+I+G+NX) in the graph. I propose the demand-supply curve is likely the typical demand-supply curve with upward and downward slopes. The detailed components will be shown in the following graph in the content.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[45] **viXra:1406.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-23 04:33:09*

**Authors:** Wan-chung Hu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[44] **viXra:1406.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 05:58:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

A first reading of the way it calculates the precession of the perihelion of Mercury on General Relativity is taken. It is shown that the equation of motion obtained for this precession does not solve the differential equation that originated, as it is only approximate, and so we can not be sure about the fact of General Relativity to explain this precession through its solution. We also show that even in classical mechanics can obtain a False precession orbit for the planets, through the use of small quantities considered. We solve exactly the differential equation Binet to General Relativity (Schwarzschild equation) for some cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1406.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 05:22:33*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article, a basic human "thought" procedure is described. It is employed to demonstrate the simplest and, yet, most significant aspect of the General Intelligent Design Model (GID-model). This aspect is related to descriptions for ordinary human experiences. It is shown how these statements are translated rationally into statements that describe the behavior of a higher-intelligence.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[42] **viXra:1406.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-08 13:20:23*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Following up on an earlier, De Broglie-Bohm approach within the framework of quantum gauge theory of gravity, and based on the Schrödinger-Dirac equation for gravitons, we argue that gravitons are effectively massive due to their localized circulatory motion. This motion is analogous to the proposed zitterbewegung (ZB) motion of electrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[41] **viXra:1406.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-08 11:29:29*

**Authors:** John Frederic Sweeney

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Euler Number, or e logarithm, arises naturally from our combinatorial universe, the result of the interactive combination of three distinct states of matter. This paper provides the details about how this combinatorial process takes place and why the range of visible matter extends from Pi to the Euler Number.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[40] **viXra:1406.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-06 00:19:49*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** Apparent contradiction resolved, pages 17, 18

A new interpretation and theory of absolute motion/ absolute space and the speed of light is proposed. Ether theory and emission theory are not completely wrong, but only incomplete separately. The ether doesn’t exist. This paper proposes a new theory, Apparent Source Theory (AST), that is a fusion of ether theory and emission theory. 1. Space can exist independently of matter. In such an ideal empty universe/space, Galileo’s principle of relativity and (modified) emission theory (in which group velocity of light is constant relative to source, and phase velocity constant independent of source or observer velocity) hold. Sagnac, Michelson-Gale, Silvertooth effects do not exist in such space. 2. In our real universe, all matter in the universe create absolute space. Every cosmic massive object defines, or 'fixes' the space in its vicinity, the effect diminishing with distance. The absolute velocity of a body is the (mass and inverse squared distance ) weighed vector sum of the velocity of the body relative to all cosmic massive objects in the universe. Imagine a universe in which only the sun and a small comet exist and assume that they are in relative motion near to each other. Which one is moving? The sun is at rest (mass= 1.988x1030 Kg !) and the comet is moving! The sun defines, ‘fixes’ the space in its vicinity. 3. The effect of absolute motion is to create a change in path length, and not the speed, of light. There will be aberration for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The past position of a light source apparently changes relative to an observer due to absolute motion. The velocity of light is constant c relative to the apparent source, and not relative to the source. The center of the wave fronts neither stays at the point in space where the source was at the instant of emission (as in SRT and ether theories), nor move with the source as in emission theories. The center of the wave fronts moves with the apparent source. Relative to a detector on a rotating Sagnac device, the source appears farther away when 'looking' in the backward direction than when 'looking' in the forward direction. In free/empty space (or region of space far from cosmic massive objects) there will be no absolute motion and hence no ‘aberration’ for co-moving source and observer. 4. The speed of light is not affected by (distance from) cosmic massive objects. An experiment is proposed to repeat the Rosa and Dorsey experiment (1907) at different distances from the Earth to see any effect on vacuum permittivity and permeability. 5. In Galilean space and in absolute space with source at absolute rest, the phase velocity of light is always constant c independent of source or observer velocity, whereas the group velocity is variable. The apparent phase velocity c' of light relative to the source increases or decreases by the same amount of the velocity (V) of the observer, so that the phase velocity of light relative to the observer is always equal to c: c' + V = c (algebraic sum). Einstein’s thought experiment is interpreted or modified as follows: for an observer moving at the speed of light away from a light source that is at (absolute) rest, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light whereas the group will be frozen. This paper discloses the mystery behind the failure of many experiments to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of the source. A fundamental flaw in conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments is disclosed. 6. The 'group' velocity of electrostatic fields is infinite, as confirmed by experiment done by A. Calcaterra, et al. But Coulomb’s law has to be modified for charge and observer in relative motion. The constancy of phase velocity of light is interpreted and extended to explain the ‘relativistic mass increase’ of the electron. The field gets apparently expanded or compressed for a moving observer or, equivalently for a moving charge. This is summarized as infinite 'group' velocity and constant (c) 'phase' velocity for electrostatic fields. The speed of gravity is shown to be equal to the speed of light, based on observed direction of Sun’s gravity on Earth, such as during eclipses. But it is not clear what is propagating in the case of gravity. The usual analogy between the electrostatic field and gravity may not be correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1406.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-13 19:56:25*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 129 Pages.

We fill a plane up regularly using painting algorithms(2).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[38] **viXra:1406.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-08 03:12:08*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I just enunciate a formula which often leads to primes and products of very few primes and I state five conjectures about the pairs of primes of the form [(q^2 - p^2 – 2*r)/2,(q^2 – p^2 + 2*r)/2], where p, q, r are odd primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[37] **viXra:1406.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 12:40:19*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Corrected with errata on June 15, 2014

It is shown in this outline that, in view of the perspectives of human settlement in the Solar System, and in the intragalactic space, a new complex approach is required for human security during interplanetary and interstellar space flights. The theory of Geopathogenic Radiations is suggested as such a complex viewpoint — it particularly includes a framework for the explication of the theory of spectrocolour time streams of the energetic world. According to the new theory, man is a part of the common organism of our planet, the Earth, and he is in the continuous energy exchange with all the planetary environments. This energy exchange is done within the spectral range of energies, which is particular to our planet. Having this theory as a base, a general concept of the biological evolution of man is introduced, including the transformation of the biological species of Modern Man (Homo Sapiens), step-by-step, into the new biological species that we refer to as Solar Man (Homo Solis) — and then into Galactic Man (Homo Galactic).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[36] **viXra:1406.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 12:43:01*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Translation of "From Homo Sapiens to Homo Galactic" to Esperanto. Corrected with errata on June 15, 2014

En la broŝuro montrade, ke por ŝato de perspektivoj de la loĝatiĝo de la homaro al la apudsuna kaj la galaksia spaco necese havi kompleksan aliron al la problemo de sendanĝereco de la homo dum interplanedaj kaj interastraj flugadoj. Tiu kompleksa vidpunkto estas la teorio de Geopatogenaj Radiadoj. Laŭ tiu teorio, la homo estas la parto de la unueca organizmo de nia planedo, kaj la homo seninterrotempe interŝanĝas kune kun ĉiuj planedaj medioj en la spektrodiapazono de energioj, karaktera por nia planedo. Sur tiu bazo estas konstruita la koncepto de la evolucio de Homo Samtempa biospecio (Homo Sapiens) en la novan biospecion de Homo Suna, kaj poste en la biospecion de Homo Galaksia.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[35] **viXra:1406.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 12:44:27*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Rabunskiy

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Translation of "From Homo Sapiens to Homo Galactic" to Russian. Corrected with errata on June 15, 2014

В этой брошюре показано, что для оценки перспектив освоения человечеством околосолнечного и галактического пространства необходим комплексный подход к проблеме обеспечения безопасности человека в межпланетных и межзвёздных полётах. В качестве такой комплексной точки зрения предложена теория Геопатогенных Излучений. Согласно этой теории, человек является частью единого организма нашей планеты, и находится со всеми планетными средами в непрерывном энергообмене, который происходит в спектродиапазоне энергий, характерном для нашей планеты. На этой основе разработана общая концепция эволюции человечества и последовательного преобразования Человека Современного (как биовида Homo Sapiens) в новый биовид Человека Солнечного (Homo Solis), а затем и Человека Галактического (Homo Galactic).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[34] **viXra:1406.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-07 09:39:52*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this letter we investigate the Left-Right Symmetric Model, in the framework of evolution theory. We calculate the sufficient number of K-meson decays, where heavy Right hand Majorana neutrinos are suppressed. The evolution pattern of Left-Right neutrinos modeling population is also studied. The proposed evolution pattern yields to the possible heavy Right hand Majorana neutrinos observation in single isolated K-meson decay in energy scale of 14 TeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[33] **viXra:1406.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-19 12:23:12*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Version 2 corrects some misalignment in equation numbering and some typographical anomalies.

Although no theory is complete in that it is perfect and never needing update or modification with the discovery of new experimental facts, that is very different to a theory being logically inconsistent and also different to a theory being in conflict with a fundamental principle in physics that has been established by a vast array of experiments. Relying upon the incompleteness of a theory as an argument to keep it despite inconsistencies in logic and experiment is therefore unjustifiable, and this is particularly so in the case of General Relativity for which proponents thereof plead incompleteness to ignore inconsistencies. Logical inconsistency alone invalidates a theory. General Relativity is logically inconsistent and so that alone invalidates it. It is also in conflict with a fundamental principle of physics, determined by many experiments, to wit, in General Relativity the usual conservation of energy and momentum for a closed system is violated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1406.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-07 08:17:28*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Professor Brian Martin, a physicist and now professor of social sciences at Wollongong University, Australia, has published a Controversy Manual (Irene Publishing, 2014). It’s blurb states: “If you care about an issue, how can you be more effective in arguing for your viewpoint and campaigning in support of it? ... The Controversy Manual provides information for understanding controversies, arguing against opponents, getting your message out, and defending against attack. ... the emphasis is on fostering fair and open debate and opposing those who use power and manipulation to get their way.” On page 112, Martin explains how controversies are resolved: “a controversy is closed. What this means is that there is little or no debate. It doesn’t necessarily mean that everyone agrees, just that the weaker side is hardly trying any more, or perhaps is totally excluded from public arenas.”

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] **viXra:1406.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-17 11:44:25*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The present research is concerned with the problem of finding a quantum gravitational description applicable to all phenomena including black holes. Thus, this paper introduces the universal uncertainty principle which is an extension of Heisenberg uncertainty relations. While this universal principle includes the Planck length (as the minimum length with physical meaning) and the zero point momentum due to the quantum fluctuations of empty space, the effects of the latter are neglected. This approach predicts the two thermodynamics properties of black holes: temperature and entropy. The general equation for the temperature of the black hole shows a surprising result: the temperature depends not only on the mass of the black hole but also on its radius. Therefore this formulation desagrees with Hawking's theory which claims that the temperature of the black hole does not depend on its radius. However, the impact of the radius of the black hole on its temperature is relatively significant for radii smaller or equal than 3 times the Planck length only. Finally, the black hole's entropy law emerges naturally from this formulation without needing the inclusion of additional postulates. The entropy law derived in this paper fully agrees with the Berkenstein-Hawking's entropy formula and except for the Schwarzschild radius formula, this formulation does not use any other equations derived from general relativity. The preliminary results of the general quantum gravitational theory of black holes is given in section 5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] **viXra:1406.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-06 14:07:33*

**Authors:** Sebastian Aloys

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This theory will be able to create the theory of everything

In this paper I am trying to say that, the laws of universe are same in everywhere and every action. We can explain everything in the same mode. According to me there is no any specialty in black body radiation or photoelectric effect. We can explain them naturally like every action occurring in our surroundings. Nature is giving us the answers if we observe it clearly. We can observe everything as simple even big bang, inflation or any action happening in our surroundings as the same. Everything in the nature is working under the same laws. I am trying to say we can observe inflation in every action where a force is applying. Here I am trying to understand about the force and energy. If we can understand very well, what is happening, when a force is applying to an object? It will give us the answer for everything. For me kinetic energy or potential energy of the object will not change the equilibrium of the system, so it is not mingling with the stored energy in it. I am not adding any new ideas here; I am just explaining what we know. A single photon doesn't have a rest mass but it can show gravity and it can add a mass to a system. I am trying to state that, gravity is closely related to the frequency of a particle than its mass. For me to explain the quantum gravity we have to bring the planks relation into macroscopic level. If bring it into the macroscopic level we can find the relationship between mass and frequency in macroscopic level.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29] **viXra:1406.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-06 11:08:24*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

At least since the age of the ancient Greeks, humanity has understood the importance of the term Pi, or at least modern humanity has assumed so. Pi, in fact, contains a deeper meaning in a combinatorial universe, one long - forgotten, bypassed by the geometrical significance of Pi. This paper explains the importance of Pi as a value in a combinatorial universe. Along the way, the paper proves that half - spin fermions do not exist in reality.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[28] **viXra:1406.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-25 18:03:32*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A special case of the cubic equation is shown to possess
three unusually economical solutions. A minimal case
associated with these solutions is then shown to yield
a congruous set of numbers that
fit the fine structure constant,
the sines squared of the quark and lepton mixing angles,
as well as the Weinberg angle.
Had Renaissance mathematicians probed the cubic equation's
solutions more deeply these numbers
might have formed a well-known part of algebra
from the 16th century.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[27] **viXra:1406.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-05 18:27:45*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper can be considered as Applied Physics. It is not an Engineering article. Here I apply the two theories on gravity which I had proposed before and derive a theoretical application from them. In this paper I construct a vehicle which uses anti-gravity as it's power source and show the interesting capabilities it will have and some of the limitations which can be easily inferred. One of the beauty of this type of vehicle is the absence, atleast in theory, of any type of radiation from it. I hope the reader will like it.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[26] **viXra:1406.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-05 13:50:53*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I eliminate hundred years old notion of `plug-flow' in electro-osmosis, which was predicted by incomplete `electric double layer' (EDL) theory. A recently developed `electric triple layer' (ETL) theory removes some serious shortcomings of EDL theory regarding conservation of electric charge, and when applied to electro-osmosis, shows that the velocity profile is not `plug-like' at all, but more like a parabola; it agrees with experiments and molecular dynamical simulation (MDS) results. Also, I redefine ‘Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity-scale’, which clears certain misunderstandings regarding representation of flow direction, and accommodates solution and geometrical properties within it. I describe some novel electro-osmotic flow controlling mechanisms. The entire electrokinetic theory must be modified using these concepts.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[25] **viXra:1406.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-05 14:30:24*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make few conjectures about a way to write an odd prime p, id est p = q – r + 1, where q and r are also primes; two of these conjectures can be regarded as generalizations of the twin primes conjecture, which states that there exist an infinity of pairs of twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[24] **viXra:1406.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 19:31:41*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I start by proposing that the theory of gravity based on quantum interactions and the definition of an object in it can be looked in terms of fluid mechanics and fluid dynamics. From this I show, qualitatively, that practical results can be obtained. I also go into a brief discussion on the abstract entity of "time". I end the article with a statement that one should be able to make predictions based on this theory of gravity which will be both testable and cannot be explained by any other theory on gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1406.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 06:23:27*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Generalizing Bell 1964:(15) to realizable experiments, CHSH (1969) coined the term “Bell's theorem”. Despite loopholes, but as expected, the results of such experiments contradict Bell's theorem to our total satisfaction. Thus, for us, at least one step in Bell's supposedly commonsense analysis must be false. Using undergraduate maths and logic, we find a mathematical error in Bell (1964) --- a false equality, uncorrected and thus continuing, undermines all Bell-style EPRB-based analyses, rendering them false. We again therefore predict with certainty that all loophole-free EPRB-style experiments will also give the lie to Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1406.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-22 06:52:47*

**Authors:** Ramón Ruiz

**Comments:** 34 Pages. This document has been written in Spanish. This research is based on an approach developed solely to demonstrate the binary Goldbach Conjecture and the Twin Primes Conjecture.

Goldbach's Conjecture statement: “Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes”.
Initially, to prove this conjecture, we can form two arithmetic sequences (A and B) different for each even number, with all the natural numbers that can be primes, that can added, in pairs, result in the corresponding even number.
By analyzing the pairing process, in general, between all non-prime numbers of sequence A, with terms of sequence B, or vice versa, to obtain the even number, we note that some pairs of primes are always formed. This allow us to develop a non-probabilistic formula, to calculate the approximate number of pairs of primes that meet the conjecture for an even number x.
The result of this formula is always equal or greater than 1, and it tends to infinite when x tends to infinite, which allow us to confirm that Goldbach's Conjecture is true.
The prime numbers theorem by Carl Friedrich Gauss, the prime numbers theorem in arithmetic progressions and some axioms have been used to complete this investigation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1406.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-22 13:56:43*

**Authors:** Ramón Ruiz

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This document has been written in Spanish.

Twin Primes Conjecture statement: “There are infinitely many primes p such that (p + 2) is also prime”.
Initially, to prove this conjecture, we can form two arithmetic sequences (A and B), with all the natural numbers, lesser than a number x, that can be primes and being each term of sequence B equal to its partner of sequence A plus 2.
By analyzing the pairing process, in general, between all non-prime numbers of sequence A, with terms of sequence B, or vice versa, we note that some pairs of primes are always formed. This allow us to develop a non-probabilistic formula to calculate the approximate number of pairs of primes, p and (p + 2), that are lesser than x.
The result of this formula tends to infinite when x tends to infinite, which allow us to confirm that the Twin Primes Conjecture is true.
The prime numbers theorem by Carl Friedrich Gauss, the prime numbers theorem in arithmetic progressions and some axioms have been used to complete this investigation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1406.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 12:51:50*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We give some necessary and sufficient conditions for (global) continuity of the limit of a pointwise convergent net of cone metric space-valued functions, defined on a Hausdorff topological space, in terms of weak filter exhaustiveness. In this framework, we prove some Ascoli-type theorems, considering also possibly asymmetric and extended real-valued distance functions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[19] **viXra:1406.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-08 18:05:07*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We analyze the anatomy of critical line. In this paper, we change the center of coordinate. Hence, we obtain the minimum quantity of the critical line. Meanwhile, we investigate further many characteristics of *T* and σ.

**Category:** Number Theory

[18] **viXra:1406.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-02 19:52:35*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If space is curved, then the nature of the cosmological redshift and time dilation is the same effect as the gravitational redshift and time dilation in a gravitational field. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio between redshift and time dilation is the same for both gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1406.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 08:37:05*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 32 Pages. 32

There is still large uncertainty on the foundation of Black hole theory principles even recently created by new ideas of Stephen Hawking and others,
As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a new Black Hole alternative model already described in my Vixra recorded Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form). It seems to be crucial for the interpretation and solution of a number of unsolved physics problems, from quantum to astronomical scales.
This new black hole model has a major impact on how we could interpret the universe as a real raspberry shaped Charge Parity symmetric multiverse with full entanglement down to each anti-copy mirror quantum at long distant to solve the way God plays dice with dual entangled dice inside distant copy universe.
At the same time I found possibilities to compare these ideas as possible answers on well known physics problems such as described at the Wikipedia site.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1406.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-20 02:06:53*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 25 pages, 10 figures, 82 references

World – Universe Model is based on two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
The Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter (DM) particles and explains the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray background radiation as the sum of contributions of multicomponent self-interacting dark matter annihilation.
The signatures of DM particles annihilation with predicted masses of 1.3 TeV, 9.6 GeV, 70 MeV, 340 keV, and 3.7 keV, which are calculated independently of astrophysical uncertainties, are found in spectra of the diffuse gamma-ray background and the emission of various macroobjects in the World. The correlation between different emission lines in spectra of macroobjects is connected to their structure, which depends on the composition of the core and surrounding shells made up of DM particles. Thus the diversity of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources in the World has a clear explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1406.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-11 09:18:56*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 13 pages. International Journal of Thermodynamics. Vol. 18 (No. 1), pp. 13-24, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.5541/ijot.5000034003.

From the principle of least action the equation of motion for viscous compressible and charged fluid is derived. The viscosity effect is described by the 4-potential of the energy dissipation field, dissipation tensor and dissipation stress-energy tensor. In the weak field limit it is shown that the obtained equation is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation. The equation for the power of the kinetic energy loss is provided, the equation of motion is integrated, and the dependence of the velocity magnitude is determined. A complete set of equations is presented, which suffices to solve the problem of motion of viscous compressible and charged fluid in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[14] **viXra:1406.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-03 06:45:44*

**Authors:** F. Ben Adda

**Comments:** 11 Pages. it was impossible to post it in arxiv because of the size of the pictures

In this paper, we reproduce the interference pattern using only space-time geodesics. We prove that fringes and bands can be reproduced by using fluctuating geodesics, which suggests that the interference pattern shown to occur with electrons, atoms, molecules and other elementary particles might be a natural manifestation of the space-time geodesics for the small scale world.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1406.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 15:56:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the evolution of massive galaxies. Within the new cosmology, applying very simple mathematics, we can answer following questions. Why many of the oldest most massive galaxies reside in clusters? Is the gravitational redshift important for the E/S0 galaxies? What is contribution of the kinematical Doppler effect of Special Relativity to the total cosmological redshift? Is the acceleration of expansion of the Universe an illusion? Why the massive red evolved galaxies are already in place at high redshift? Why the red-sequence has a boundary at z = 0.44? When and how were produced the first-generation stars the E/S0 galaxies consist of? What was the origin of a rapid build-up of the red sequence and why it is quiescent i.e. why there do not appear numerous new stars i.e. what are the phenomena responsible for the powerful shut-down mechanism of new-star formation i.e. why E/S0 galaxies evolve in a purely passive way? Why evolution of the most massive E/S0 galaxies was quicker for lower redshift i.e. why number of massive red galaxies is greater for redshift smaller than 0.7? Why there is a significant population of massive blue galaxies at high redshift?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1406.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 21:07:58*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 16 Pages. 3 figures, Mathematica code; keywords: Andrica's conjecture, Brocard's conjecture, Legendre's conjecture, Oppermann's conjecture, prime numbers, triangular numbers. This paper (with plots as ancillary files) is also available at arxiv.org/abs/1406.4801.

Let $n\in\mathbb{Z}^+$. In [8] we ask the question whether any sequence of $n$ consecutive integers greater than $n^2$ and smaller than $(n+1)^2$ contains at least one prime number, and we show that this is actually the case for every $n\leq 1,193,806,023$. In addition, we prove that a positive answer to the previous question for all $n$ would imply Legendre's, Brocard's, Andrica's, and Oppermann's conjectures, as well as the assumption that for every $n$ there is always a prime number in the interval $[n,n+2\lfloor\sqrt{n}\rfloor-1]$.

Let $\pi[n+g(n),n+f(n)+g(n)]$ denote the amount of prime numbers in the interval $[n+g(n),n+f(n)+g(n)]$. Here we show that the conjecture described in [8] is equivalent to the statement that

%

$$\pi[n+g(n),n+f(n)+g(n)]\ge 1\text{, }\forall n\in\mathbb{Z}^+\text{,}$$

%

where

%

$$f(n)=\left(\frac{n-\lfloor\sqrt{n}\rfloor^2-\lfloor\sqrt{n}\rfloor-\beta}{|n-\lfloor\sqrt{n}\rfloor^2-\lfloor\sqrt{n}\rfloor-\beta|}\right)(1-\lfloor\sqrt{n}\rfloor)\text{, }g(n)=\left\lfloor1-\sqrt{n}+\lfloor\sqrt{n}\rfloor\right\rfloor\text{,}$$

%

and $\beta$ is any real number such that $1<\beta<2$. We also prove that the conjecture in question is equivalent to the statement that

%

$$\pi[S_n,S_n+\lfloor\sqrt{S_n}\rfloor-1]\ge 1\text{, }\forall n\in\mathbb{Z}^+\text{,}$$

%

where

%

$$S_n=n+\frac{1}{2}\left\lfloor\frac{\sqrt{8n+1}-1}{2}\right\rfloor^2-\frac{1}{2}\left\lfloor\frac{\sqrt{8n+1}-1}{2}\right\rfloor+1\text{.}$$

%

We use this last result in order to create plots of $h(n)=\pi[S_n,S_n+\lfloor\sqrt{S_n}\rfloor-1]$ for many values of $n$.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11] **viXra:1406.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 22:34:15*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Prisoners’ dilemma is a key problem in oligopoly. When the two sides are facing the prisoners’ dilemma, they will both pick the worse situation due to Nash equilibrium. Thus, how to solve prisoners’ dilemma is important in business as well as many aspects during our choices in daily life. Here, I will propose several methods to solve prisoners’ dilemma. 1. Final strong award 2. Final strong punishment 3. Strong coherence 4. Friendly 5. Repeated games. By using these strategies, we will be able to solve the prisoners’ dilemma.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[10] **viXra:1406.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-03 03:19:22*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

In recent papers a microscopic model for the SM Higgs mechanism has been proposed, and an idea how to determine the 24 quark and lepton masses of all 3 generations has emerged in that framework. This idea is worked out in detail here by accommodating the fermion masses and mixings to microscopic parameters. The top quark mass turns out to be $m_t\approx 170$GeV and can be given in terms of the weak boson masses and of certain exchange couplings of isospin vectors obeying a tetrahedral symmetry. The observed hierarchy in the family spectrum is attributed to a natural hierarchy in the microscopic couplings. The neutrinos will be shown to vibrate within the potential valleys of the system, thus retaining very tiny masses. This is related to a Goldstone effect inside the internal dynamics. A discussion of the quark and lepton mixing matrices is also included. The mixing angles of the PMNS matrix are calculated for an example set of parameters, and a value for the CP violating phase is given.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1406.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 13:17:10*

**Authors:** Peter Schorer

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

We present several proofs of the 3x + 1 Conjecture, which asserts that repeated iterations of the function C(x) = (3x + 1)/(2^a) always terminate in 1 Here x is an odd, positive integer, and a is the largest positive integer such that the denominator divides the numerator. Our first proofs are based on a structure called “tuple-sets” that represents the 3x + 1 function in the “forward” (as opposed to the inverse) direction. All of our proofs are counter-intuitive, but not for that reason wrong. In “Most Recent Proof of the Conjecture” on page 11, we show that, because the “number” of tuples in each tuple-set is the same, regardless if counterexamples exist or not, and because the set of all non-counterexamples is the same, regardless if counterexampels exist or not, it follows that counterexamples do not exist. In our next two proofs, we show, by a simple inductive argument, that the contents of the set of all tuple-sets is the same, regardless if counterexamples exist or not, and from this we conclude that counterexamples do not exist. “Third Proof” is based on a structure called “recursive ‘spiral’s” that represents the 3x + 1 function in the inverse direction. We show that, because a large number of consecutive odd, positive integers are known, by computer test, to be non-counterexamples, it follows, by an inductive argument based on certain fundamental properties of recursive “spiral”s, that the set of all tuples in each infinite set of recursive “spiral”s is the same regardless if counterexamples exist or not. We infer from this that counterexamples do not exist.
As far as we have been able to determine, our approach to a solution of the Problem is original.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8] **viXra:1406.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 14:37:14*

**Authors:** S.V. Asadchenko, I.N. Ignatenko

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article analyzes the dynamics of trends on the stock market using the symbols of the sequence of model macromolecules such protein molecule. Considered natural sciences study the forecast of dynamics of mass processes in
the economy.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[7] **viXra:1406.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 07:39:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1406.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 05:50:28*

**Authors:** Ugo Fabbri

**Comments:** 77 Pages. freelance researcher, work recognised in the proceedings of the 92nd SIF Congress, Turin 2006, p. 93. See also: FQXi “Genesis: The Origin of Quarks, From the Number Alpha to the Materiality of the Universe”

Galileo was convinced that the book of the Universe was “written in the language of mathematics, [whose] characters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth” [1].
Similarly, Albert Einstein, at a conference at Kyoto University in 1922, stated: “The fundamentals of geometry have a physical significance” [2].
These observations, made by the two noble fathers of modern physics, have the potential to subvert the standard perspective of present-day science. The principal of complementarity has, however, been underestimated and has not produced the effects that it might.
In contrast, the holistic theory of limits (unknown in the literature) – in ideal continuity with Galileo and Einstein – unifies the quantum fundamentals of geometry with the laws of physics and creates the initial conditions for elaborating a theory of the Whole that can describe physical reality in a unitary context and on all scales of magnitude.
In accordance with the premise, the holistic theory of limits enunciates the following theorem:
The interaction of a flow of radial energy with the fundamentals of geometry generates a virtual quantum configuration (of ideally spherical symmetry) known otherwise in the literature as quantum void. This configuration is the geometrical locus within which energy is converted into corresponding mass and where the principal physical-numerical magnitudes that confer materiality to the Universe, from quarks to the universal physical constants, are generated.
The dynamics of events thus triggered generate the number alpha, fine structure constant, dominus of the universe (said by Nobel laureate Feynman to be “one of the most enigmatic riddles”).
Einstein spent the last years of his life in a vain attempt to find a theory capable of unifying the electromagnetic field with the interaction of gravity: the holistic theory provides the trigonometric solution of the phenomenon.
Geoffrey Chew, a pupil of Fermi, asserted that the universe was unitary, everything in it being correlated with the Whole. The holistic theory of limits extends that theory from the infinitely great to the microcosm, and this unification makes it possible to reconstruct the shared origin of matter and of the interaction of gravity.
The results shown have been obtained by applying the multidisciplinary method of inquiry suggested by Descartes.
[1] Galileo Galilei, Il Saggiatore, 1623. chap. VI (published in English under the title The Assayer, translation by Stillman Drake, 1957).
[2] ex multis: A. Einstein Come io vedo il mondo Ed. Newton p.45, 92, University of Bologna progettomatematica.dm.unibo.it/NonEuclidea/File/ellittica6.htm

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1406.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-01 15:20:31*

**Authors:** T. Marshall Eubanks

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper is intended fro internet distribution only.

This document provides a graph representing the current constraints on Compact Ultra-Dense Objects (CUDOs). It is intended to be updated as new constraints are published or found.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[4] **viXra:1406.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 00:27:52*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Some text appears in Devanagari which may not appear in some browsers.

Since the 19th Century, many famous western thinkers and important people, including philosophers, have regarded the Bhava Gita as an important philosophical work, worthy of guiding the life of an individual. None realized that they were in fact reading a Vedic Nuclear Manual. In fact, the major works of Vedic Literature were written to serve at least two purposes: to describe particle physics and at the same time to prescribe via metaphor the optimum way to live life on Earth for soul purposes. The two purposes remain inextricably entwined.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] **viXra:1406.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-01 10:20:35*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

So far all theoretical models claiming to explain the Fractional Quantum
Hall Effect are macroscopic in nature. In this paper we suggest a truly microscopic structure of this phenomenon. At the base is how electron charge is
defined in the group SU(N) for arbitrary values of integer N. It is shown how
all discovered charges in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect are accounted
for in this model. We show how Greenberg Parafermions, obeying parastatistics,
are fundamentally required within this picture to explain the Fractional
Quantum Hall Effect. We also show how both the Fractional Quantum Hall
Effect and the Integral Quantum Hall Effect are explained in a common
unified description in this microscopic model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1406.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-01 02:25:45*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The 21-centimeter absorption line from the direction of Taurus A showed a shift in frequency when the source passed near Sun. The observed redshift can be explained by an energy loss of electromagnetic waves, when the electric component accelerates unbound electrons in the thin plasma surrounding the sun. A reexamination of the recorded radio signals corroborates the predicted redshift of electromagnetic waves. This allows to determine the number of free electrons in the corona.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1406.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-01 02:43:16*

**Authors:** Xue -You Lee

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Geometrical optics has high similarity with classical particle mechanics. After first
quantization program classical particle mechanics can obtain non-relativistic quantum mechanics
that suitable for micro, but quantum mechanics does not describe the photon that its static mass is zero. So whether there is a kind of "quantization" approach for geometrical optics, by which non-relativistic quantum mechanics that can be used to describe the photon can be obtained. It’s quantum mechanics of photon similar to the Schrödinger wave mechanics under the neglection of
the formation and annihilation of photon. In this paper, several methods that can be used to find
the first quantization theory of photon are given.

**Category:** Quantum Physics