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1906 Submissions

[507] viXra:1906.0579 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-14 12:33:50

'supralogic' or a Method for Predicting Stochastic Mapping Outcomes by Interpolating Their Probabilties

Authors: Adam Bourne
Comments: 5 Pages. Demonstration of method has been added to paper

In a stochastic mapping model, a method is described for interpolating un-sampled mapping probabilities given a successive set of observed mappings. The sampled probabilities are calculated from the observed mappings. The previously described method of interpolating values in code space is used to interpolate the un-observed mapping probabilities. The outcomes for subsequent mappings can then be predicted by finding the processes with maximal interpolated probability. Finally, a software package is created and demonstrated to implement the method and tested on a variety of situations for filling in missing element values or categorising data arrays.
Category: General Mathematics

[506] viXra:1906.0578 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 11:15:42

Ai Tool in Rna Video Game

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A new artificial-intelligence tool captures strategies used by top players of an internet-based videogame to design new RNA molecules. [31] A team of EPFL scientists has now written a machine-learning program that can predict, in record time, how atoms will respond to an applied magnetic field. [30] Researchers from the University of Luxembourg, Technische Universität Berlin, and the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society have combined machine learning and quantum mechanics to predict the dynamics and atomic interactions in molecules. [29] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts-a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[505] viXra:1906.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 11:22:05

The Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation with Infinite Mass Wave

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 10 Pages. The original ideas

The Schroedinger equation with the logarithmic nonlinear term is derived by the natural generalization of the hydrodynamical model of quantum mechanics. The nonlinear term appears to be logically necessary because it enables explanation of the infinite mass limit of the wave function. The article is the modified version of the articles by author (Pardy, 1993; 2001).
Category: Quantum Physics

[504] viXra:1906.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 14:03:25

Four Dimensionless Constants Are of Importance in MHCE8S Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The dimensionless constant 1.0000055 appears twice in MHCE8S theory for production of the proton and neutron and the dimensionless constant 1.000055 appears once for a date of extinction. The dimensionless constants 273.55 and 273.55488 also make single appearances
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[503] viXra:1906.0572 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-08 20:51:22

Stellar Metamorphosis: Maximum Mass and Density of a Dead Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. updated with K2-229b

The purpose of this paper is to re-interpret stellar evolution from physical observations in accordance with the General Theory. The maximum density of a dead star is, 8.9 ± 2.1 g cm−3, and the maximum mass is 0.0082 ± 0.0014 Jupiter masses. This is important as it sets an upper bound for dead stars, for the maximum size object a star can make, and allows us to reinterpret the interiors of gas giants as they evolve into life hosting worlds.
Category: Astrophysics

[502] viXra:1906.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 16:51:25

Is the Jump-Diffusion Model a Good Solution for Credit Risk Modeling? The Case of Convertible Bonds

Authors: Tim Xiao
Comments: 36 Pages. International Journal of Financial Markets and Derivatives, 4(1) 1-25, 2015

This paper argues that the reduced-form jump diffusion model may not be appropriate for credit risk modeling. To correctly value hybrid defaultable financial instruments, e.g., convertible bonds, we present a new framework that relies on the probability distribution of a default jump rather than the default jump itself, as the default jump is usually inaccessible. As such, the model can back out the market prices of convertible bonds. A prevailing belief in the market is that convertible arbitrage is mainly due to convertible underpricing. Empirically, however, we do not find evidence supporting the underpricing hypothesis. Instead, we find that convertibles have relatively large positive gammas. As a typical convertible arbitrage strategy employs delta-neutral hedging, a large positive gamma can make the portfolio highly profitable, especially for a large movement in the underlying stock price.
Category: Economics and Finance

[501] viXra:1906.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 18:22:13

Akalabu Emmanuel's Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Akalabu, Emmanuel Chukwuemeka
Comments: 8 Pages.

--
Category: Number Theory

[500] viXra:1906.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 18:51:51

Division by Zero Calculus in Equations and Inequalities

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 14 Pages. The division by zero calculus requests the essential arrangements for equations and inequalities in analytic functions.

In this paper, we will examine the division by zero calculus from the viewpoints of equations and inequalities as a starting new idea.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[499] viXra:1906.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 06:07:17

Information Teleport in Diamond

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers from the Yokohama National University have teleported quantum information securely within the confines of a diamond. [17] The experiment has managed to prepare a remote quantum state; i.e., absolutely secure communication was established with another, physically separated quantum computer for the first time in the microwave regime. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[498] viXra:1906.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 06:26:27

Low-Power Lighting Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences have designed and tested a prototype cathodoluminescent lamp for general lighting. [27] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Spain and the U.S. has announced that they have discovered a new property of light-self-torque. [26] When studying biological cells using optical tweezers, one main issue is the damage caused to the cell by the tool. Giovanni Volpe, University of Gothenburg, has discovered a new type of force that will greatly reduce the amount of light used by optical tweezers-and improve the study of all kinds of cells and particles. [25] The device, which works in the mesoscopic mass range for the first time, might not only be used to help solve fundamental problems in quantum mechanics, it might also find use in precision metrology applications. [24] Although previous research shows that metal nanoparticles have properties useful for various biomedical applications, many mysteries remain regarding how these tiny materials form, including the processes that generate size variations. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20] A remote command could one day send immune cells on a rampage against a malignant tumor. The ability to mobilize, from outside the body, targeted cancer immunotherapy inside the body has taken a step closer to becoming reality. [19] It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[497] viXra:1906.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 06:30:52

Solving the Shortest Path Problem By Genetic and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms

Authors: Eyman Yosef; A.A. Salama; M. Elsayed Wahed
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper I will present two different genetic and ant colony algorithms for solving a classic computer science problem: shortest path problems. I will first give a brief discussion on the general topics of the shortest path problem, genetic and ant colony algorithms.I will conclude by making some observations on the advantages and disadvantages of using genetic and ant colony algorithms to solve the shortest path problem and my opinion on the usefulness of the solutions and the future of this area of computer science
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[496] viXra:1906.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 09:51:27

.....dynamics of Time......

Authors: ....durgadas Datta....
Comments: 8 Pages. ...FOR FURTHER RESEARCH ...

...CONCEPT OF TIME IS A GREAT CONFUSION IN MODERN PHYSICS.
Category: Quantum Physics

[495] viXra:1906.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 10:06:13

Gerges Equations For Solar Group Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

During 2013-2019 – I have studied the solar group geometry and discovered the following 5 Equations: 1-Planet Gravity Equation(Point 2-1) 2-Planet Orbital Distance Equation (Point 2-2) 3-Planet Diameter Equation(Point 2-3) 4-The Sun Rays Production Equation (Point 2-4) 5-Venus Diameter Equation (Point 2-5) 6-An Argument against The Big Bang Theory (Point 2-6)
Category: Astrophysics

[494] viXra:1906.0563 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-09 17:45:04

Newton's Gravity Depending on the Topology of Space.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 34 Pages.

Taking into account the fact that gravity is a curvature of 3D space, it can be represented as a conic section. And this leads to the formulation of the law of I. Newton’s law in a general form, depending on the topology of space, which makes it possible to theoretically derive the speeds of the stars in galaxies. The theoretical derivation of the Hubble–Lemaître law is also given, and the relativistic form of the law of I. Newton is derived (in a generalized form). Explained relation between galaxies speeds with distance to it, on the basis of the A. Einstein's STR.
Category: Astrophysics

[493] viXra:1906.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 16:50:40

How the wu Experiment Can Interpreted as a Pseudo Symmetry Violation.

Authors: Bryn.s.Cat
Comments: 3 Pages.

How the Wu experiment as a Pseudo Symmetry Violation.Thus restoring Symmetry(Noether's theorem,laws of conservation,etc).
Category: Quantum Physics

[492] viXra:1906.0561 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 22:24:15

Emerging Trends Indigitalauthentication

Authors: Prajwal S Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

This manuscript attempts to shed the light on the authentication systems’ evolution towards Multi-factor Authentication (MFA) from traditional text based password systems. The evolution of authen-tication systems is commensurate with that of security breaching techniques. While many strongauthentication products, such as multi-factor authentication (MFA), single sign-on (SSO), biometricsand privileged access management (PAM), have existed for a long time, the constant deluge ofdata breaches and password database leaks has re-illustrated the weakness in many authenticationparadigms. As a result, the industry is both re-thinking they way we approach authentication andmaking efforts to simplify previously complex or expensive authentication technologies for the everyhuman being.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[491] viXra:1906.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 23:33:48

Can Electrons Move as Slowly as Nuclei? Something About the Born Oppenheimer Approximation and Electron-Pairing Medium in High Temperature Copper-Oxide Superconductors

Authors: Tiege Zhou
Comments: 7 Pages.

Real-time evolution of the electron densities under excitations in La2CuO4 was calculated by the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The author found, for the first time, the electrons (the electron cloud of Cu2+) in high temperature copper-oxide superconductors (La2CuO4) can move as slowly as nuclei. Under excitations, the electron cloud of Cu2+ changes obviously and the characteristic frequencies are 83 meV and 36 meV, respectively, for two different modes. The results are unexpected and close to that of lattice vibrations, because the change of the electron density should be very quick according to the Born Oppenheimer Approximation. The results show that the electron cloud of Cu2+ (just like the lattice) can be the electron-pairing medium in high temperature copper oxide superconductors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[490] viXra:1906.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 23:42:26

Massive Gravity Illustrated in the Mandelbrot Set (poster)

Authors: Jonathan J. Dickau
Comments: 1 Page. Poster for GR22 session A3 modified theories of gravity (theor.)

The long-range transition to 5-d or higher, seen in DGP gravity, cascading DGP, and some other theories, can be interpreted as a prior epoch or precursor universe. This transition has therefore been proposed to be a black hole in 5-d → 4-d white hole and a spacetime bubble that is our cosmos. The same transition is represented in the Mandelbrot Set at (-0.75,0i), where the cardioid meets the circular disc, mimicking Cartan’s rolling ball analogy for G2 symmetries – when M is extended into higher dimensions. We can therefore study this in an archetypical setting, and it suggests a unique exit from a higher-dimensional origin, which conveniently explains the weakness of gravity and accelerating expansion. Other analogies allow us to discuss graviton properties and phenomenology. Notably the Misiurewicz point at about (-1.543689,0i) represents the quantum critical point in BEC formation, which has been connected to black hole event horizons. A consistent model for gravity with higher-dimensional origins is offered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[489] viXra:1906.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 23:54:39

Theories of Quantum and Analog Gravity Represented in the Mandelbrot Set (Poster)

Authors: Jonathan J. Dickau
Comments: 1 Page. Poster for GR22 sess. D4 Quan. fields in curved spacetime, semi-Class. grav., Quan. grav. phen., & theor. of analogue grav.

The Mandelbrot Set displays features of the 5-d → 4-d transition in DGP gravity and in theories where a 5-d black hole gives rise to a 4-d white hole and spacetime bubble – which is our present-day cosmos – at (-0.75,0i). The ratio of radii here is 3:1 in imitation of Cartan’s rolling ball analogy for Lie group G2 symmetries. Holographic dualities are displayed across the boundary, linking the quantum mechanics in the precursor universe with the astrophysical realm in the current era, which we discuss. Then we examine the Misiurewicz point at about (-1.543689,0i) where is clearly depicted an analogy of BEC formation and Schwarzschild black hole event horizons, which forms an important part of the analog gravity program. The fact both of these dynamics are displayed in the same object indicates that the theories are not mutually-exclusive and could coexist in nature.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[488] viXra:1906.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 02:57:53

Confirmation of VŁ4 as Sound

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Logic VŁ4 is defined as a bivalent classical logic that maps tautology correctly and hence is sound. Because paraconsistent, non bivalent, vector logics cannot map non tautology correctly, they are defined as non tautologous fragments of VŁ4 as a universal logic.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[487] viXra:1906.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 03:35:25

Gene Electron Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen have developed a method to visualize gene expression of cells with an electron microscope. [23] Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22] MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[486] viXra:1906.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 04:04:30

Nanosphere Human B Lymphocytes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

By testing a variety of gold nanoparticles, researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and collaborators are providing first evidence of their impact upon human B lymphocytes—the immune cells responsible for antibody production. [24] Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen have developed a method to visualize gene expression of cells with an electron microscope. [23] Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[485] viXra:1906.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 04:58:23

Atomic Motion Captured in 4-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A UCLA-led team has gained a never-before-seen view of nucleation-capturing how the atomsrearrange at 4-D atomic resolution (that is, in three dimensions of space and across time). [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[484] viXra:1906.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 05:09:04

How Nanomaterials Form and Grow

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A new form of electron microscopy allows researchers to examine nanoscale tubular materials while they are "alive" and forming liquids-a first in the field. [29] A UCLA-led team has gained a never-before-seen view of nucleation-capturing how the atomsrearrange at 4-D atomic resolution (that is, in three dimensions of space and across time). [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[483] viXra:1906.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 05:43:24

Nanowires Energy Ranges

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Nanowires promise to make LEDs more colorful and solar cells more efficient, in addition to speeding up computers. [30] A new form of electron microscopy allows researchers to examine nanoscale tubular materials while they are "alive" and forming liquids-a first in the field. [29] A UCLA-led team has gained a never-before-seen view of nucleation-capturing how the atomsrearrange at 4-D atomic resolution (that is, in three dimensions of space and across time). [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[482] viXra:1906.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 06:24:24

Quasi-2D Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[481] viXra:1906.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 06:50:40

Generating Electricity from Waste Heat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Researchers at Osaka University have been able to enhance the power factor of a promising thermoelectric material by more than 100% by varying the pressure, paving the way for new materials with improved thermoelectric properties. [33] Wearable devices that harvest energy from movement are not a new idea, but a material created at Rice University may make them more practical. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[480] viXra:1906.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 08:00:40

Ground-State for 2D Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[479] viXra:1906.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 09:38:06

Shape and Dimensions of Space

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures

Contemporary physics states that space is an endless container. Therefore, the question about the shape of space is senseless. This statement is free imagination of the human mind. The other view is disclosed in GR that the shape of space corresponds to the shape of the Universe. This statement is a source of many speculations about the dimensions and shape of space. The article outlines the shape of general 3D space and that of particular 2D and 4D spaces, whitch are wrapped in general space.
Category: Classical Physics

[478] viXra:1906.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 09:48:23

Cuprate Superconductor Challenge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[477] viXra:1906.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 10:22:33

Quantum Computation Linked to Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists Paweł Caputa at Kyoto University and Javier Magan at the Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico de Bariloche in Argentina have published their paper on the link between quantum computing and gravity in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters. [21] Physicists in California have loaded a bunch of ultracold caesium atoms into the back of a van and driven them up a hill to demonstrate how quantum interference can be used to measure gravity outside the laboratory. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[476] viXra:1906.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 11:10:36

Les Nombres Premiers, Les Zéros de la Fonction ζ et la Fonction W de Lambert

Authors: Simon Plouffe
Comments: 8 Pages.

Un nouveau modèle est proposé pour représenter ces quantités. En premier lieu, 4 formules sont données qui sont déduites des résultats classiques, ensuite un principe est appliqué, appelé matriochkas ou des poupées russes qui permet de trouver des développements asymptotiques remarquablement simples et élégants. De plus, les développements obtenus sont tous très similaires. A new model is proposed to represent these quantities. In the first place, 4 formulas are given which are deduced from the classical results, then a principle is applied, called matriochkas or Russian dolls which allows to find remarkably simple and elegant asymptotic expansions. Moreover, the developments obtained are all very similar.
Category: Number Theory

[475] viXra:1906.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 12:10:06

Refutation of Scott’s Existence Axiom in Sheaf Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

In two non-tautologous equations we refute Scott’s existence axiom in sheaf theory. Therefore it does not follow that automating free logic is supported by using “modern proof assistants and theorem provers for classical higher-order logic”, such as the showcased tools Isabelle/HOL, Sledgehammer, and Nitpik. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[474] viXra:1906.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 16:30:51

Might Gravity be an Electromagnetic Phenomenon? Examining the “MYSTERY” of Monatomic Gold

Authors: Raymond H Gallucci
Comments: 5 Pages.

Speculation has long abounded that the Biblical Ark of the Covenant may have been an electrical device, perhaps a capacitor, given its construction as precisely described in the Bible. Its potential association as a container of monatomic gold, recently (re?)discovered accidentally as a potential superconducting powder with seemingly mystical properties, renders this as a possibility. Theories exist that equate gravity with electromagnetic phenomena, such that at least two confirmed observations associated with monatomic gold lend credibility to such theories.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[473] viXra:1906.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 21:06:26

Direction Of Energy Through The Solar Group

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

-The Solar Group Main Energy is sent from Jupiter to Pluto – This energy sending is continued for 2 sequence solar days -Neptune used Jupiter Sent Energy consuming 16% of this total energy and the rest of Energy Neptune reflected it toward the inner planets into 2 Energy Trajectories. o 1st Trajectory is sent to Earth (will be discussed Point No.4) o 2nd Trajectory is sent to Mercury -The 1st Trajectory of Energy is reached to Earth (with 86400mkm) – Where Earth reflected this energy into 2 new parts o Part 1 the energy is sent from Earth to Venus o Part 2 the energy is sent from Earth to (Jupiter & Uranus) -The total energy (90000mkm) proves that all energy gathered together on one point only and no contradiction is found… This explanation shows that the energy passes in cycle through the solar group The previous idea supports my claim: -The Solar Group is One Trajectory Of Energy and each planet is appoint on this same energy trajectory….. or -The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same geometrical structure (building)- i.e. Each planet data is created to be suitable for the required task of this planet in the whole building …..and -No solar planet can be found or move independently a.Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. All solar planets and their orbital distances are created by the same energy (by the same blood all body members are created) b.Or, The solar group be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine job depends on the gears different tasks.. and that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move.
Category: Astrophysics

[472] viXra:1906.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 00:27:22

Organic Agriculture in Australia: Attaining the Global Majority (51%)

Authors: John Paull
Comments: 5 Pages.

The latest statistics reveal that Australia now has more certified organic agriculture hectares than the rest of the world put together. Organics is a major success story for Australia and the achievement of global majority (51%) is an important organics milestone. Organic agriculture is reported from 181 countries. Australia reported 35,645,038 certified organic hectares and the world total is 69,845,243 hectares. Australia has been the world leader in organics, based on certified organic hectares, since global statistics of organics were first collated and published in 2000. In the two decades since then, global organics has grown at 12% per annum (pa), year on year, while Australian organics has grown at 16% pa. This growth in Australia has ramped up to 22% for the past five years. In Australia this has been achieved without government support and without institutional support. Australia is at no risk of being ‘knocked off the perch’ anytime soon. In second position is Argentina with 3,385,827 hectares, less than 10% of Australia’s tally. Third is China with 3,023,000 hectares, then comes Spain with 2,082,173 ha, then USA with 2,031,318 ha. Of eight states and territories in Australia, all report some organics. The states in the lead are South Australia and Queensland. Of the country’s agricultural land, 8.8% is certified organic, so there is still plenty of room for improvement. Organic agriculture produces premium products that attract a price premium in the market, whether at home or abroad. At the present rate of growth Australia can be expected to shortly join the ‘10% Club’, along with the leaders Liechtenstein (37.9%), Samoa (37.6%), Austria (24.0%), Estonia (20.5%), and ten others. The market for Australian organic produce is mostly driven by the world’s appetite for clean and nutritious food, ultimately that means by discerning consumers with the wherewithal to pay the organic premium. Meanwhile, the world’s consumers are becoming more informed, more discerning, more health conscious, and more wealthy. No one would eat glyphosated food if they had a choice, which is to say, an informed choice. The prospects for global and Australian organics are good.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[471] viXra:1906.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 03:29:32

Potential for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

A joint team of scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is getting closer to confirming the existence of an exotic quantum particle called Majorana fermion, crucial for fault-tolerant quantum computing—the kind of quantum computing that addresses errors during its operation. [39] A recent study led by Princeton University researchers, in collaboration with University of Maryland and IBM, explored the architectural design of quantum computers (QC). [38] Science at Princeton, identify three key difficulties in debugging quantum programs, and evaluate their solutions in addressing those difficulties. [37] Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[470] viXra:1906.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 03:51:17

Breakthrough in Superconductor Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Breakthrough in Superconductor Science Scientists at Harvard have developed a bismuth-based, two-dimensional superconductor that is only one nanometer thick. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[469] viXra:1906.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 04:15:44

New Property of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Spain and the U.S. has announced that they have discovered a new property of light-self-torque. [26] When studying biological cells using optical tweezers, one main issue is the damage caused to the cell by the tool. Giovanni Volpe, University of Gothenburg, has discovered a new type of force that will greatly reduce the amount of light used by optical tweezers-and improve the study of all kinds of cells and particles. [25] The device, which works in the mesoscopic mass range for the first time, might not only be used to help solve fundamental problems in quantum mechanics, it might also find use in precision metrology applications. [24] Although previous research shows that metal nanoparticles have properties useful for various biomedical applications, many mysteries remain regarding how these tiny materials form, including the processes that generate size variations. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20] A remote command could one day send immune cells on a rampage against a malignant tumor. The ability to mobilize, from outside the body, targeted cancer immunotherapy inside the body has taken a step closer to becoming reality. [19] It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[468] viXra:1906.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 05:45:03

Refutation of the Boone-Rogers Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The Boone-Rogers theorem states that the uniform word problem for the class of all finitely presented groups with solvable word problem is unsolvable. We show that is not tautologous. We further show that a universal, solvable word problem group is tautologous. The former forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[467] viXra:1906.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 15:25:48

Compton-Wavelength Minimum Position Uncertainty Due to Diversion of Momentum Uncertainty to Increased Particle Number

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 6 Pages.

In single-particle quantum mechanics there is no impediment to a particle's wave function having a significant amplitude for arbitrarily short wavelengths, i.e., for arbitrarily large momenta, so the iconic single-particle uncertainty relation permits a particle's position to be arbitrarily accurately ascertained. Once a single-particle theory is second quantized, however, the physics of imparting a particle's wave function with ever larger momenta eventually encounters stiff competition from the formation of multiparticle states wherein none of the individual particles is characterized by high momentum. In fact, the single-particle uncertainty principle itself is modified by the presence of the expectation value of the particle number operator on its right side. Since the threshold for the high-momentum-diverting formation of additional particles is set by the particle's rest mass, it stands to reason that particles have an irreducible position uncertainty of the order of their Compton wavelength, for which we develop a specific model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[466] viXra:1906.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 15:33:14

Roman Catholic Church: Magisterium

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Papal infallibility is refuted.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[465] viXra:1906.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 15:36:23

Contra Luther Proof, Vindicating Erasmus

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Erasmus did the logically correct thing.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[464] viXra:1906.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 15:38:40

Roman Catholic Church: Tradition Above Scripture

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Scripture is above tradition.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[463] viXra:1906.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 18:15:41

Oppermann Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 1 Page.

In this article, we use the sieve of Eratosthenes to prove the Oppermann Conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[462] viXra:1906.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 20:41:27

Auxiliary Brake System

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 21 Pages.

To brake system, we add an auxiliary brake system in which paddle at the front of steering wheel is an input device.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[461] viXra:1906.0529 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-29 20:14:05

Stellar Metamorphosis: Stellar Axial Angular Momentum During Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 11 pages of handwritten notes and calculations, 1 graph

A new branch to the general theory is described. The star's total axial angular momentum decreases as it evolves. Angular momentum is mathematically described as L = I*W. L is angular momentum, I is the moment of inertia, W is the angular velocity. As well, for future reference the moment of inertia factor will change for the Sun as it is a homogeneous body. Its moment of inertia factor is probably very close to .4, not .070 as purported by the dogma. The math is shown for I= 2/5Mr^2, and W = 2Pi rad/86,400 seconds, for the Earth. Plus a few additional notes are added to compare Mars to Venus to Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[460] viXra:1906.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 00:40:54

[ Itensor + a Quantum Device + Dlibc++machine Learning Library ] to Probe [ Hardware-Software-Firmware ] Interaction with [ Critical Infrastructure + Smart Device + Iot + HPC ] in the Context of Advanced Medical Imaging a Novel Suggestion in Designing I

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

[ ITensor + a Quantum Device + dlibC++Machine Learning Library ] to Probe [ Hardware-Software-Firmware ] Interaction with [ Critical Infrastructure + Smart Device + IoT + HPC ] in the Context of Advanced Medical Imaging - A Novel Suggestion in Designing Intelligent Wireless Medical Imaging Platform Using Related Machine Learning Informatics.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[459] viXra:1906.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 07:34:19

Exotic Graphene Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Researchers from Brown and Columbia Universities have demonstrated previously unknown states of matter that arise in double-layer stacks of graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[458] viXra:1906.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 08:33:44

Immigrant Syndrome

Authors: HaiYing Shen, BeiYuan Shen
Comments: 6 Pages.

Immigrant syndrome (or traveler syndrome) is a series of syndromes and disorders of the human body in response to the natural environmental changes when the immigrants or travelers migrate from their native homeland to another region. Based on the idea of improving the health status of immigrant groups and achieving the comprehensive healthcare of immigrants, this work for the first time reports the cause, disorders, epidemiology, management, prevention and healthcare of immigrant syndrome.
Category: Social Science

[457] viXra:1906.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 08:24:32

Architectural Design of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A recent study led by Princeton University researchers, in collaboration with University of Maryland and IBM, explored the architectural design of quantum computers (QC). [38] In the paper titled "Statistical Assertions for Validating Patterns and Finding Bugs in Quantum Programs," Huang and Margaret Martonosi, a professor of Computer Science at Princeton, identify three key difficulties in debugging quantum programs, and evaluate their solutions in addressing those difficulties. [37] Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[456] viXra:1906.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 09:01:51

An Explicit Mapping of the Real Numbers to the Set of Natural Numbers

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 1 Page.

By showing that Cantor’s diagonal technique that lists the real numbers does not even work to show the proper cardinality of the rational numbers, we refute his proof technique. To explicitly reference them the real numbers are represented as the limit of partial decimal sums. We show that the real numbers are a denumerable set. We create a new (Level Set Theory), where all infinite sets have the same cardinality as the set of natural numbers.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[455] viXra:1906.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 09:00:43

Topological Magnetic Quasiparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A team of researchers from Tohoku University, J-PARC, and Tokyo Institute of Technology conducted an in-depth study of magnetic quasiparticles called "triplons." [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[454] viXra:1906.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 09:35:38

Quantum Ghost Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[453] viXra:1906.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 10:31:50

Insight into Protein Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[452] viXra:1906.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 11:03:50

Islet Cells for Diabetes Treatment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[451] viXra:1906.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 11:12:46

Calculation of Energy Release in D-T Nuclear Fusion Reaction

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note can be very essential in studying the detailed properties of nuclear fusion reaction which is proposed to be our ultimate source of energy in near future. However we don’t know about future but here we will derive the alternate theoretical relation to compute the amount of energy release in deuterium- tritium fusion. The derivation may be kept confidential for security purpose
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[450] viXra:1906.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 11:09:09

Refutation of Hamkins’ Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Hamkins’ theorem claims “every countable model … of set theory embeds into its own constructible universe … x∈y ↔ j(x)∈j(y)”, which is not tautologous, forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[449] viXra:1906.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 11:10:14

Refutation of Keisler’s Ultraproduct Construction

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The ultraproduct construction of Keisler is based on definitions for proper filter in six equations and for ultrafilter in two equations. The definitions are not tautologous. This refutes the ultraproduct construction as “a uniform method of building models of first order theories which has applications in many areas of mathematics.” Claims by other writers to extend Keisler’s construction similarly fail, to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[448] viXra:1906.0515 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-14 06:10:36

The Dual Continuum: the Complete Symmetric Fundament of Physics, Unifying Quantum Physics, Gravity and Electromagnetism

Authors: R. Winnubst
Comments: 30 Pages.

Quantum Physics (QP) perfectly describes subatomic behaviour, yet it offers no fundamental explanation as to why it works. Moreover, it has weird asymmetric concepts like quanta, probability and entanglement and suffers from paradoxes. For nearly 100 years, physicists tried but failed to fundamentally grasp QP. This means either Nature is extremely complex or there is a crucial flaw in the physics we take for granted. Surprisingly, it is the latter: Used to only the physics of the ‘big’, physicists implicitly assumed that the relation between the four functions of our continuum (Grid, Clock, Potential, Inertia) and the SI base units (Space, Time, Energy, Mass) also applies at the subatomic scale. This assumption is incorrect: In this paper we will unambiguously prove that functions and units pivot symmetrically at the subatomic scale: SPACE and ENERGY switch orthogonally in their function of ‘Grid’ and ‘Potential’; Likewise, TIME and MASS switch in their function of ‘Clock’ and ‘Inertia’. In practical terms this subatomic ‘energymass’ continuum solves e.g. particle wave duality: A high-energy particle will increasingly display its spiralled ‘Energy as a grid’ property, next to its ‘Energy as potential’ particle property in spacetime. As demonstrated in this paper, this classic dual symmetric setup solves all QP paradoxes and explains gravity on all scales, linking it to electromagnetism. Additionally, it solves all major macro-issues like dark mass, dark energy, corona heating, matter / antimatter asymmetry. We have finally arrived at Einstein’s dream of a symmetric construct for physics on all scales. Yet, it remains to be seen if our institutions are willing to accept that physics at its very core is governed by utter binary simplicity in stead of extreme QP complexity… ‘…God does not play dice, he just plays on a double chessboard...’
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[447] viXra:1906.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 12:41:21

Speculations on Composite Quarks

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages. Scanned copy of the old preprint RITP 1-74.

We propose a simple field theoretic quark model in which the quarks are composite. This quark-hadron bootstrap is the new feature of the model. States like N*(1470) and p'(1600) are interpreted as containing quark excitations. The ratio sigma(e+e- -> hadrons)/sigma(e+e- -> mu+mu-) should grow with energy but not necessarily indefinitely. Remarks on proton-proton diffraction dissociation at the ISR energy range are made.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[446] viXra:1906.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 12:41:29

Quark Model Without Scaling Property

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 19 Pages. Scanned copy of the old preprint RITP 12-74. [In title, 'without Scaling' should read 'with Approximate Scaling'.]

We propose a simple field theoretic quark model in which the quarks are composite. This quark bootstrap is the new feature of the model. Applications to spectroscopy and deep inelastic processes are considered. A number of testable predictions are given. In particular, the ratio R = sigma(e+e- -> hadrons)/sigma(e+e- -> mu+mu-) is predicted to grow linearly with Q^2 at least until Q^2 ~ 36 GeV^2, where R is about 7, and drop thereafter towards a value of about one.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[445] viXra:1906.0512 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-29 20:53:04

Proving Physics with a Mathematical Model of Science

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 96 Pages.

We present a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. The model, which we name formal science, is constructed within the frameworks of algorithmic information theory and that of theoretic computer science. Formal Science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science as well as a 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics, and as such it is able to derive the corpus of physics as a theorem. Formal science reveals that the laws of physics, far from being arbitrary, are in fact, mathematically extremely special; they are, quite minimally, derivable as the laws that survive a specific type of falsification which we will refer to as universal falsification. After we present the model, we then begin the long program to derive all known physics using formal science as the sound, free of physical baggage, mathematical foundation of physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[444] viXra:1906.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 23:53:01

Refutation of First-Order Proofs Without Syntax

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Proof examples (3) in the introduction, modal combinatorial proofs (1), and rules in Gentzen’s classical sequent calculus (3) are not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture and approach of first-order proofs without syntax, to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[443] viXra:1906.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 03:07:38

Technical Comparison Aspects of Leading Blockchain-Based Platforms on Key Characteristic

Authors: Alexander Ivanov, Yevhenii Babichenko, Hlib Kanunnikov, Paul Karpus, Leonid Foiu­Khatskevych, Roman Kravchenko, Kyrylo Gorokhovskyi, Ievhen Nevmerzhitskyi
Comments: 7 Pages. Journal: NaUKMA Research Papers. Computer Science

Blockchain as a technology is rapidly developing, finding more and more new entry points into everyday life. This is one of the elements of the technical Revolution 4.0, and it is used in the field of supply, maintenance of various types of registers, access to software products, combating DDOS attacks, distributed storage, fundraising for projects, IoT, etc. Nowadays, there are many blockchain­platforms in the world. They have one technological root but different applications. There are many prerequisites to the fact that in the future the number of new decentralized applications will increase. Therefore, it is important to develop a methodology for determining the optimal blockchain­based platform to solve a specific problem. As an example, consider the world­famous platforms Ethereum, Nem, and Stellar. Each of them allows to develop decentralized applications, issue tokens, and execute transactions. At the same time, the key features of these blockchain­based platforms are not similar to one another. These very features will be considered in the article. Purpose. Identify the key parameters that characterize the blockchain­based platforms. This will provide an opportunity to present a complex blockchain technology in the form of a simple and understandable architecture. Based on these parameters and using the expertise of the article’s authors, we will be able to develop a methodology to be used to solve the problems of choosing the optimal blockchain­based platform for solving the problem of developing smart contracts and issuing tokens. Methods. Analysis of the complexity of using blockchain­based platforms. Implementation of token issuance, use of test and public networks, execution of transactions, analysis of the development team and the community, analysis of the user interface and the developer interface. Discussion. By developing a platform comparison methodology to determine optimal characteristics, we can take the development process to a new level. This will allow to quickly and effectively solve the tasks. Results. Creation of a methodology for comparison blockchain­based platforms.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[442] viXra:1906.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 03:36:56

A Discrete Regularization Method for Hidden Markov Models Embedded Into Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space

Authors: Galyna Kriukova
Comments: 6 Pages. Mohyla Mathematical Journal, Vol 1 (2018) http://mmj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/152601

Hidden Markov models are a well-known probabilistic graphical model for time series of discrete, partially observable stochastic processes. We consider the method to extend the application of hidden Markov models to non-Gaussian continuous distributions by embedding a priori probability distribution of the state space into reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Corresponding regularization techniques are proposed to reduce the tendency to overfitting and computational complexity of the algorithm, i.e. Nystr¨om subsampling and the general regularization family for inversion of feature and kernel matrices. This method may be applied to various statistical inference and learning problems, including classification, prediction, identification, segmentation, and as an online algorithm it may be used for dynamic data mining and data stream mining. We investigate, both theoretically and empirically, the regularization and approximation bounds of the discrete regularization method. Furthermore, we discuss applications of the method to real-world problems, comparing the approach to several state-of-the-art algorithms.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[441] viXra:1906.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 04:33:42

Periodic Biotope Spaces

Authors: Oksana Vozniuk, Bogdana Oliynyk, Roman Yavorskyi
Comments: 5 Pages. Text in Ukrainian. Mohyla Mathematical Journal, Vol 1 (2018) http://mmj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/152597

iotope spaces were introduced by Marchevsky-Steinhaus in for the needs of mathematical biology, namely the study of ecosystems. Biotope distance is defined on the set of all subsets of some finite set X. The distance between any subsets A1 and A2 of X is calculated by the rule: d(A1, A2) = (0, if A1 = A2 = ∅; |A1⊕A2| |A1∪A2| , if A1, A2 ∈ B(X)).We introduce a new generalization of a biotope metric to the infinite case using supernatural or Steinitz numbers. A supernatural number (or Steinitz number) is an infinite formal product of the form Y p∈P p kp where P is the set of all primes and kp ∈ N ∪ {0, ∞}. On the set of all periodic {0, 1}-sequences with the period that is a divisor of some supernatural u; we define the metric dB for any infinite periodic sequences x¯ and y¯ by the rule: dB(¯x, y¯) = dBn (¯xn, y¯n) where n is a common period of periodic sequences x¯ and y¯, and the formula dB(¯xn, y¯n) denotes the biotope distance between the first n coordinates of sequences x¯ and y¯ in the finite biotope metric space Bn. We denote the periodic biotope space that is defined by some Steinitz number u as B(u). If u is a finite Steinitz number, i.e. u is a positive integer, then B(u) is isometric finite biotope space Bu. We also prove that the introduced metric between such two periodic sequences does not depend on a choice of a common period. A family of such introduced periodic biotope spaces is naturally parametrized by supernatural numbers. More precisely, the family of these spaces forms a lattice that is isomorphic to the lattice of supernatural numbers. Moreover, each of these spaces B(u) is invariant with respect to the shift. We prove that the diametr of any periodic biotope space equals 1. We also show that any finite subset of a countable biotope space introduced in is isometric embedding in the periodic biotope space B(u) for any u.
Category: Number Theory

[440] viXra:1906.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 05:25:28

Bridge to Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical oscillator to produce entangled radiation. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[439] viXra:1906.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 07:00:50

Tartessos: Los Contrabandistas de Estaño Del Delta Del Ebro

Authors: Daniel Consalles
Comments: 19 Pages. Only in spanish

Para resolver el misterio de Tartessos debemos seguir el rastro del comercio del estaño, un metal imprescindible en la producción del Bronce. Hace 3.000 años el estaño de Oriente Medio se agotó y fue necesario importarlo desde las míticas islas Casitérides (Sur de Inglaterra). Los fenicios fueron los primeros en establecer una ruta comercial marítima desde el Líbano a Inglaterra pasando por el estrecho de Gibraltar. Esta ruta comercial se mantuvo en funcionamiento durante mil años y fue la base de la riqueza de fenicios y cartagineses, así como el principal motivo de enfrentamiento con sus competidores griegos. En este escenario es donde se sitúa el pequeño reino de Tartessos que, por azares del destino, se encontró en el centro de una nueva ruta comercial del estaño a través del Ebro creada por los Celtíberos. Gracias a la habilidad de su rey Argantonio, durante un siglo Tartessos pudo vender ese estaño a los comerciantes griegos y obtener importantes beneficios. Pero esas ganancias para tartesios y griegos implicaban pérdidas para fenicios y cartagineses. Desde el punto de vista de los fenicios, el comercio del estaño era su monopolio legítimo desde hacía siglos, lo que convertía a los tartesios en unos simples contrabandistas del estaño que venía de Inglaterra. Tartessos sobrevivió a la amenaza cartaginesa gracias a la protección de la poderosa flota griega. Pero tras la batalla naval de Alalia entre griegos y cartagineses, la flota griega quedó muy mermada y los griegos no pudieron continuar protegiendo a sus aliados tartésicos. Los cartagineses aprovecharon para destruir a sus molestos competidores y barrerlos de la historia.
Category: Archaeology

[438] viXra:1906.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 06:44:09

A Clock Paradox in Gravity

Authors: Karl De Paepe
Comments: 1 Page.

We consider a static spherically symmetric distribution of matter. Time intervals for a free falling and a stationary clock are compared. This does not agree with that calculated using Newton approximation to gravity and the equivalence principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[437] viXra:1906.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 06:56:38

Ultrafast, Coherent Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

"Regarding new perspectives, this could lead to similar fantastic developments as in the field of magnetism, such as electronic coherence in quantum computing," says Schultze hopefully, who now leads a working group focusing on attosecond physics at the Institute of Experimental Physics. [35] A team of researchers from Tohoku University, J-PARC, and Tokyo Institute of Technology conducted an in-depth study of magnetic quasiparticles called "triplons." [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[436] viXra:1906.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 07:17:35

Noise-Reducing Gravitational Wave Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Glasgow and collaborators have now developed a multimaterial coating design for the mirrors used in gravitational wave detectors. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories-located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US-double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[435] viXra:1906.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 07:21:45

The Construction of Cospectral Graphs with Respect to the Generalized Adjacency Matrix

Authors: Daria Grushka, Viktoriia Lebid
Comments: 4 Pages. Text in Ukrainian. Mohyla Mathematical Journal, Vol 1 (2018) http://mmj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/152600

Spectral graph theory uses the eigenvalues of matrices associated with a graph to determine the structural properties of the graph. The spectrum of the generalized adjacency matrix is considered in the paper. Graphs with the same spectrum are called cospectral. Is every graph uniquely determined by its spectrum (DS for short)? This question goes back for about half a century, and originates from chemistry. In 1956 Gunthard and Primas raised the question in a paper that related the theory of graph spectra to Huckel’s theory. At that time it was believed that every graph is determined by the spectrum, until in 1957 Collatz and Sinogowitz presented a pair of cospectral trees. In 1967 Schwenk proved that for almost all trees there is another tree with the same spectrum. Such a statement is neither proved nor refuted for the class of graphs in general. Till now, computational experiments were done on the set of all graphs on up to 12 vertices by Haemers. Computer enumerations for small n show that up to 10 vertices the fraction of graphs that are DS decreases, but for n = 11 and n = 12 it increases again. We consider the construction of the cospectral graphs called GM-switching for graph G taking the cycle C2n and adjoining a vertex v adjacent to half the vertices of C2n. For these graphs we determine the pairs of cospectral nonisomorphic graphs for small n. It is an operation on graphs that leaves the spectrum of the generalized adjacency matrix invariant. It turns out that for the enumerated cases a large part of all cospectral graphs comes from GM switching, and that the fraction of graphs on n vertices with a cospectral mate starts to decrease at some value of n < 11 (depending on the matrix). Since the fraction of cospectral graphs on n vertices constructible by GM switching tends to 0 if n → ∞, the present data give some indication that possibly almost no graph has a cospectral mate. Haemers and Spence derived asymptotic lower bounds for the number of graphs with a cospectral mate from GM switching.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[434] viXra:1906.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-22 12:27:42

Solving the N_1 X N_2 X N_3 Points Problem for N_3 < 6

Authors: Marco Ripà
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, we show enhanced upper bounds of the nontrivial n_1 × n_2 × n_3 points problem for every n_1 ≤ n_2 ≤ n_3 < 6. We present new patterns that drastically improve the previously known algorithms for finding minimum-link covering paths, solving completely a few cases (e.g., n_1 = n_2 = 3 and n_3 = 4).
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[433] viXra:1906.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 07:48:01

Record-Braking DNA Comparisons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[432] viXra:1906.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 08:02:39

The Existence of Equilibrium States in Dynamic Systems with Attractive Interaction

Authors: Elizabeth Lemeshko
Comments: 4 Pages. Text in Ukrainian. Mohyla Mathematical Journal, Vol 1 (2018) http://mmj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/152602

Nowadays, science is characterized by needs of the study of various complex processes and phenomena’s. Today’s research of complex and dynamical systems is one of the most advanced ways of research and evolution of the modern world. Models of biology and ecology, physical models, various economic and social models are typical examples of dynamic systems. The concept of an interactive complex system in modern science is a main tool for construction of mathematical models for solving modern civilization problems and development. The dynamical systems approach to conflict is relatively new, but it has beginning in different research fields. Theory of dynamic systems helps us to understand the experiments, build the mathematical model of iterations and examine behavior and relations between opponents, like distribution of resources and territory, population growing etc. This is a challenging problem of finding and achieving a compromise state for opponents on a common territory has different options to define the task and to choose conflict interaction. In 2016, the monograph by V. Koshmanenko where was introduced new approach for dynamic system of conflict that based on interactions of the opponents in the form probability distribution in the disputed area was published. In particular, presented the concept of a complex dynamic system with attractive interaction. The relevance of this research is improving new dynamical system and researching for a new application of abstract models in everyday life. In this paper briefly fundamentals of the theory of dynamical systems described and the theorem on the existence of a equilibrium state in a the new, perspective for research, dynamical system with attractive interaction in terms of probability distributions (measures) and their densities, formulated and proved.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[431] viXra:1906.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 08:44:40

Solutions to Erdos-Straus Conjecture

Authors: Nurlan Qasimli
Comments: 6 Pages.

History of conjecture
Category: Number Theory

[430] viXra:1906.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 11:51:19

Nanoparticles Kill Cancer with Heat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at Oregon State University have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach tumors. [22] MIT researchers have now come up with a novel way to prevent fibrosis from occurring, by incorporating a crystallized immunosuppressant drug into devices. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[429] viXra:1906.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 12:23:34

Refutation of Unification Nets (Canonical Proof Net Quantifiers)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Using the drinker’s paradox, as rendered in two equations, we evaluate the unification net, in two equations, as not tautologous. To extend the unification net to additives is similarly defective, forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4. We also supply analysis of Smullyan’s drinking principle.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[428] viXra:1906.0492 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-24 04:39:45

"AI" Physics – Energy Fields – Part 3.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: Patent Application for "Space Launch Vehicle" added. 32 pages.

In the first two papers on energy fields, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was used to analyze the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields. In this third paper, AI is used to develop advanced proposals for interactions between energy fields. The proposals are astonishing. These results may provide an explanation for passive-counter-rotation, super-conducting-levitation, an alternative approach to particle collider physics, an alternative explanation for the forces at the sub-atomic level, an alternative explanation for the ‘magnetic’ fields of the planets, an alternative explanation for the MOND theory of forces at the galactic level - the so-called 5th force, and a Patent Application for a Space Launch Vehicle.
Category: Classical Physics

[427] viXra:1906.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 08:05:42

Refutation of Computer-Simulation Model Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Computer simulation model theory (CSMT), as a substituted extension of mathematical model theory (MMT), is a conjecture that: for a formula φ, construct a computer simulation model S such that 1- φ does not hold in S, and 2- the reasoner I (human being, the one who lives inside the reality) cannot distinguish S from the reality (R), then I cannot prove φ in reality. The conjecture is not tautologous. While we show elsewhere that P=NP is not tautologous (via refutation of the Schaefer theorem), the unprovability of P=NP does not follow from this CSMT approach. This conjecture forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[426] viXra:1906.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 08:22:25

Compton Particles and Quantum Forces

Authors: Martin Mayer
Comments: 50 Pages.

An alternative physical model for fundamental particles, fundamental forces & black holes is presented based on classical physics, an unconventional variant of quantum physics as well as holographic & fractal principles. The presented model is primarily based on work from Horst Thieme and Nassim Haramein. In this document their concepts are combined, refined and extended into a joint model that is wider in scope. Furthermore elements were taken from the work of Randell Mills and Erik Verlinde. The deduced equations produce a good number of interesting results and new understandings which might be perceived as controversial with regard to contemporary physics. The presented content covers a broad range of topics in physics to demonstrate the model’s wide applicability and to spark more future research. Most notably probabilistic quantum physics is not necessary for the presented model and its noteworthy results.
Category: Quantum Physics

[425] viXra:1906.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 08:29:56

Dottie Number: a Simple Remark

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents a simple formula for Pi.
Category: Number Theory

[424] viXra:1906.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 08:32:45

Elementary Integral and Some Series

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

We recall a elementary integral and some series.
Category: General Mathematics

[423] viXra:1906.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 08:34:51

Three Equations

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

This note presents three series for Pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[422] viXra:1906.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 08:38:38

On the Equation 2*cosh(2x)*(tanh(exp(-X)))*(tanh(exp(-X)))-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

We give a formula for Pi.
Category: Algebra

[421] viXra:1906.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 13:01:43

Method Prove Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) introduces a novel technique to detect entanglement even in large-scale quantum systems with unprecedented efficiency. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[420] viXra:1906.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 15:40:42

The Scientific Study of History-Speculative Philosophy of History Explained

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper suggests ever increasing human knowledge of the world around us is the driving force for much social and cultural evolution. It examines the order of discovery of our knowledge of the world around us and notes this knowledge comes to us in a particular and necessary order from the easiest to discover to the more difficult to discover. The necessary order of the discoveries means they can be rationally analysed and understood and this enables the study of social and cultural evolution to be put on a scientific basis. It also enables us to make scientifically based predictions about the future for the human species.
Category: Social Science

[419] viXra:1906.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 16:22:14

Purification of Total Flavonoids from Aurea Helianthus Flowers and in Vitro Hypolipidemic Effect

Authors: Hyon-il Ri1, Un-hak Pak1, Myong-su Kang2, Tae-mun Kim2
Comments: 10 Pages.

The effects of purification methods and its hypolipidemic function on the total flavonoids of Aurea Helianthus flower were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction of ethanol extract from Aurea Helianthus flower was carried out by using different polar solvents. The extract with the highest total flavonoid content was selected, and the optimal conditions for purification of total flavonoids were determined by purification with macroporous resin. The human digestive environment was simulated in vitro, and the binding ability of different flavonoid samples to three kinds of cholate was compared. The results showed that the purity of total flavonoids in ethanol extract was 27.8%, the purity of total flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract was 46.4%, and the purity was increased by 18.6%. Subsequent purification with AB-8 macroporous resin; loading of total flavonoids at a concentration of 5.5 mg/mL, flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, 110 mL; use of 75% ethanol, 80 mL as eluent at a flow rate of 1.5 mL The elution at /min resulted in a total flavonoid purity of 83.5 % and an increase of 37.1%, and a good purification effect was obtained. The binding rate of total flavonoids purified by AB-8 macroporous resin to sodium taurocholate, sodium glycocholate and sodium cholate was 88.2%, 73.2% and 75.8 %, respectively. The binding ability was the strongest, and the others were ethyl acetate. Extract, ethanol extract. The purity of total flavonoids showed a good correlation with the binding capacity of cholate, and the correlation coefficient was between 0.963 and 0.988. The total flavonoids of Aurea Helianthus flower have good bile acid binding ability and can be used as the focus of natural hypolipidemic substances.
Category: Biochemistry

[418] viXra:1906.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 17:04:37

An Efficient Lattice Algorithm for the Libor Market Model

Authors: Tim Xiao
Comments: 32 Pages. Journal of Derivatives, 19 (1), 25-40, 2011

The LIBOR Market Model has become one of the most popular models for pricing interest rate products. It is commonly believed that Monte-Carlo simulation is the only viable method available for the LIBOR Market Model. In this article, however, we propose a lattice approach to price interest rate products within the LIBOR Market Model by introducing a shifted forward measure and several novel fast drift approximation methods. This model should achieve the best performance without losing much accuracy. Moreover, the calibration is almost automatic and it is simple and easy to implement. Adding this model to the valuation toolkit is actually quite useful; especially for risk management or in the case there is a need for a quick turnaround.
Category: Economics and Finance

[417] viXra:1906.0480 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-30 17:44:53

Calculating the Frame Dragging Effect Using a Classical Physics Model

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 5 Pages.

According to my theory [1], the space/medium field is an energy field comprised from the sum of the gravitational potentials of all masses in the Universe, with a total value of c^2 in empty space. The Frame Dragging effect is due to a percentage of that total energy being set in motion. The inertia of objects in this energy field is determined by reference to the state of motion of the field, thus if the field itself is set in motion, it affects the state of motion of objects within the field too. Due to this effect on the inertia, there is a difference in the energy of an object in orbit around a large spinning body compared to its orbits around a large stationary body.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[416] viXra:1906.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 21:05:45

Refutation of Program Verification by Reduction

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The formula for program verification by reduction is not tautologous, thereby refuting such an approach and forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[415] viXra:1906.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 01:23:55

Light-Based Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

University of Twente spinoff company QuiX is currently developing a photonic chip using the quantum properties of light for carrying out complex calculations. [37] A team of researchers at NTT Corporation has developed a way to use light-based computer hardware that allows it to to compete with silicon. [36] Called the Quantum Material Press, or QPress, this system will accelerate the discovery of next-generation materials for the emerging field of quantum information science (QIS). [35]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[414] viXra:1906.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 01:58:32

Form Invariant High Order Differentials

Authors: Han Xiao
Comments: 19 Pages.

Traditionally, an infinitesimal is regarded as a variable that runs toward 0. Since a differential is a kind of infinitesimal, a differential is essentially a variable running toward 0 too. As a result, differentials are form invariant but not meaning invariant. This paper proposes a Number Field of Ordered Infinitesimals and Infinities (OII Number Field) which can be seen as a kind of extension of real number field. The terminus of a variable running toward 0 is no longer 0, but a point in the OII Number Field, with an Order and a Weight. In this way, the process of running is recorded in the destination, making infinitesimals a kind of number which can be compared and operated easily. On this basis, the differential of a variable is invariant not only in form, but also in meaning. As a differential becomes a variable on another number axis parallel to the real number axis in OII Number Field, a differential can generate differential too, thus giving rise to high order differentials which are also invariant both in form and in meaning.
Category: Algebra

[413] viXra:1906.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 07:49:30

Refutation of Kripke Frames from Incompleteness of BAO’s with ◊⊥=⊥

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Because Kripke frames require ◊⊥=⊥, not tautologous, they are refuted. What follows is BAOs so defined are also refuted (which we respectively demonstrate elsewhere), namely: Jónsson-Tarski, Lemmon-Scott; Fine-Thomason, van Benthem, Boolos-Sambin, and Lindenbaum-Tarski. These results also make the Blok dichotomy suspicious. Therefore these conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[412] viXra:1906.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 08:20:39

Final Extra Credit Possibilities

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 17 Pages.

The teaching of college algebra or algebra 2 has been influenced a little by calculators, but not nearly enough. Currently algebra texts do not really develop their topics with programming calculators or making spreadsheets. This \emph{article} gives some of the ways students could program calculators. The article is glossed as extra credit possibilities. But really it should be hard to suggest that students, loaded up with their i-phones and computers, should ever think to use pencil and paper to solve quadratics, for example; it is embarrassing to the teaching profession. This is the sense in which algebra pedagogy has not changed nearly enough over the years. Regression analysis and programming calculators to solve real problems should be paramount, not doing algebra the same way it was done fifty or more years ago.
Category: General Mathematics

[411] viXra:1906.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 08:24:58

Doing Functions Right in 1105

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 8 Pages.

This powerpoint presentation gives a way to upgrade the treatment of functions in elementary algebra courses.
Category: General Mathematics

[410] viXra:1906.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 08:58:00

How to Bend Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

This kind of "branched flow" has first been observed in 2001. Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) have now developed a method to exploit this effect. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[409] viXra:1906.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 10:13:37

Individual Atoms Target

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

The technique is based on nuclear magnetic resonance, which takes advantage of the fact that certain atomic nuclei interact with a magnetic field. [39] This kind of "branched flow" has first been observed in 2001. Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) have now developed a method to exploit this effect. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[408] viXra:1906.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 10:38:02

The Physical Interpretation of Gravity Constants , Electron and Photons

Authors: Markos Georgallides
Comments: 121 Pages.

Article 81 is engaged with the Physical Interpretation of Gravity and Gravitational constants , the Origin of Hydrogen cave , Electron and Photon . The Analysis of Work which is Motion , or Energy is in priority .The Quantiation of Geometry and Energy results to the Material Geometry which was prior analyzed . A discussion on all referred Subjects follows with a mathematical analysis on every referred subject . A criticism is done on EPR Argument and is presented a current method to what is a Physical Quantity in cosmos .The Growth Golden ratio Pattern is analytically shown and also the How Electromagnetic issues and works everywhere in nature from the microcosm to the macrocosm
Category: Mathematical Physics

[407] viXra:1906.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 11:45:36

Research with Smartphone Cameras

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Although smartphones and other consumer cameras are increasingly used for scientific applications, it's difficult to compare and combine data from different devices. [40] Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have revealed surprising details about the structure of a key group of materials in nanotechology, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and the placement of their active chemical sites. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[406] viXra:1906.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 11:49:57

Euler's Formula Motivated, Trigonometric Derivatives Eased Too

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article gives a way to quickly understand Euler's formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[405] viXra:1906.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 12:22:08

Earth Velocity Proves "The Unit Definition Is Relative"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

This Paper tries To Prove The Following Hypothesis: Paper Hypothesis -The Solar Group is Created from One Energy. -This One Energy passes through the solar group – to create the planet diameter (matter) and orbital distance (Space)- So the Matter and Space are created from the same Energy to be complementary to each other -Because The Same Energy passes through the solar group – one thread- the similar values are seen in different units – and so – the different units are found for the same values because the energy is changed from one form to another –relative to the observer… so the energy is the same but the form is changed and that caused to change the used unit The Hypothesis Explanation -Imagine a light beam comes from the sun – it lights our room – and then – this same light beam moves inside a solar cell and produces some electric current – so where's the light beam? It lights the room AND produces the electric current…. The same energy (number) does 2 jobs – and be seen in 2 different units. (Note Please – the light beam energy –which lights our room – equal the energy which produces the eclectic current – 2 Equal Values but 2 different units)
Category: Astrophysics

[404] viXra:1906.0464 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-22 07:06:53

On Negative Mass Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new model that describes the interior of a black hole. The behaviour of spacetime and matter within a real black hole is discussed by the use of the theory of general relativity and relativistic particle physics, together with the fundamental symmetries in physics. Based on the mathematical indications and predictions of these theories, it is suggested that a time transformation takes place at the black hole’s event horizon, changing the signature of energies and masses of all particles inside the black hole. These negative mass particles would behave antigravitationally inside this one-way causally disconnected region of space, avoiding the collapse of the central singularity. It is demonstrated that the possibility of the time inversion does not require modifications of other current theories and it does not contradict any empirical results either. Additionally, this model solves fundamental problems of the real entity of the black hole, such as the gravitational singularity, and clarifies other questions like the Hawking radiation mechanism by which it reduces the mass of the black hole and the question of what is the mass of the black hole assigned to. One way to test one case of this model is proposed by simulating the inflation resulting from the interaction between negative masses inside, in order to explain supermassive black holes observations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[403] viXra:1906.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-25 11:55:41

Finding The Hamiltonian

Authors: Hung Tran
Comments: 5 Pages. Proof of the Riemann hypothesis using a Hamiltonian and a self-adjoint operator

We first find a Hamiltonian H that has the Hurwitz zeta functions ζ(s,x) as eigenfunctions. Then we continue constructing an operator G that is self-adjoint, with appropriate boundary conditions. We will find that the ζ(s,x)-functions do not meet these boundary conditions, except for the ones where s is a nontrivial zero of the Riemann zeta, with the real part of s being greater than 1/2. Finally, we find that these exceptional functions cannot exist, proving the Riemann hypothesis, that all nontrivial zeros have real part equal to 1/2.
Category: Number Theory

[402] viXra:1906.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 00:19:05

Арифметизация комбинаторного соотношения перестановок

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

Традиционно перестановки выражаются соотношением сдвига-оборота или перерасположения; но возможна и арифметизация совыражений перестановок на основе соответствия сложения по определённому счислению.
Category: General Mathematics

[401] viXra:1906.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 01:07:26

Trapping Light for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Quantum computers, which use light particles (photons) instead of electrons to transmit and process data, hold the promise of a new era of research in which the time needed to realize lifesaving drugs and new technologies will be significantly shortened. [38] In the paper titled "Statistical Assertions for Validating Patterns and Finding Bugs in Quantum Programs," Huang and Margaret Martonosi, a professor of Computer Science at Princeton, identify three key difficulties in debugging quantum programs, and evaluate their solutions in addressing those difficulties. [37] Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[400] viXra:1906.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 03:38:30

Solution of the Central Problem of Fluid Turbulence

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 42 Pages. c 2019 CC BY-NC-ND

The theory consists of: I. a clear formulation of the turbulence problem by 1. definition of a fluid continuum, 2. definition of a turbulent fluid continuum, 3. derivation, that Navier-Stokes-like equations cannot describe a turbulent fluid continuum II. solution of the turbulence problem by establishing the link between the theory of deterministic fluctuating vector fields and stochastic vector fields in the sense of an ensemble theory as a counterpart: 1. derivation of a deterministic equation system of coupled vector vortex and curvature vector fields 2. derivation of a complete equation set for turbulent fluid movements The formulation of geometrodynamics of turbulence does not need an existent local thermodynamic equilibrium. In the case of fluid turbulence there is no requirement for establishing chaos theories.
Category: Classical Physics

[399] viXra:1906.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 05:23:16

Goldilocks Principle to DNA Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[398] viXra:1906.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 09:18:35

Refutation of Formalization of Axiom of Choice and Equivalent Theorems Using the Coq Tool

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: Pages.

We evaluate two definitions for maximum and minimal set membership, for the nesting of sets, and the equivalence relations of axiom of choice, Tukey’s lemma, Hausdorff maximal principle, maximal principle, Zermelo’s postulate, Zorn’s lemma, well-ordering theorem. None is tautologous, refuting the claims. The authors conclude: “The whole process of formal proof demonstrates that the Coq-based machine proving of mathematics theorem is highly reliable and rigorous. The formal work of this paper is enough for most applications, especially in set theory, topology and algebra.” We refute those assertions based on the non-bivalent performance of the Coq proof assistant. Therefore, these formalizations and methodology render a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[397] viXra:1906.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 10:07:42

The Human Genetic Code and the I Ching's 64 Hexagrams

Authors: Deyi Wang
Comments: 27 Pages. translated from Chinese

Base Sequencing and Dui Gua Form By: Deyi Wang Summary: The alternation of bases composes the DNA chain. When this chain is deconstructed into units at the triplet level, we can see that this chain is actually connected in the form of dui gua, or “opposing hexagrams,” as dui means “opposing” and gua means “hexagram.” Since the 1980s’ discovery that the 64 hexagrams and the 64 codons correspond perfectly, the dui gua form of sequencing in DNA chains once again proves the intimate relationship between DNA and the 64 hexagrams, thereby setting the stage for further analysis of the sequencing of the four bases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[396] viXra:1906.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:24:44

Surface Tension/ Viscosity = Wave Speed

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters, Ruud Loeffen, Warren Giordano
Comments: 5 Pages.

Planck Units can be directly converted into Friedmann Units by way of Lorentz
Category: Quantum Physics

[395] viXra:1906.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:47:08

Design of a Domestic Defluoridizing Unit

Authors: Shaheda Parveen, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Sireesha Malladi, K. Kiram Kumar
Comments: 11 Pages.

While trace amounts of fluorine are essential for life, its excessive intake leads to a disease known as fluorosis. It is a predominant ailment in majority of the countries inclusive of India. It is caused also by drinking fluoride containing water. Retention of fluorine in bones and teeth occurs through F−–(OH−) exchange on their inorganic component known as hydroxylapatite. Endeavour of the present study is to design a column using activated alumina as an adsorbent for continuous defluoridation ofwater for domestic purpose. As a part of it, operational defluoridation capacity of aluminawas determined by variation of different factors (amount of alumina, time, temperature, added salts). A family of four members was taken as a model. The initial and final fluoride concentrations were taken as 2.0 and 0.7 ppm, respectively. Dimension of the unit (adsorbent bed diameter and height) was determined.
Category: Chemistry

[394] viXra:1906.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:48:48

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Watermelon Waste for Ethanol Production

Authors: Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, C. G. Prakasa Rao, Satya Sree
Comments: 13 Pages.

As the world oil reserves are draining day by day, new resources of carbon and hydrogen must be investigated to supply our energy and industrial needs. An extensive amount of biomass is accessible in many parts of the world and could be utilized either directly or as crude material for the production of different fuels. The motivation behind the present research is to find an appropriate strain for the fermentation of watermelon waste to get ethanol. Saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of watermelon waste were carried out simultaneously in the presence of A. niger and S. cerevisiae (toddy origin and baker’s yeast). Toddy originated S. cerevisiae culture is found to be more active than that of baker’s yeast. For the ethanol production, the optimized conditions for different parameters like temperature, time, strain and pH are finalized.
Category: Chemistry

[393] viXra:1906.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:51:30

A Glimpse on Tuberculosis and Scope of Inhalable Anti Tubercular Therapy

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 20 Pages.

A glimpse on tuberculosis and scope of inhalable anti tubercular therapy
Category: Biochemistry

[392] viXra:1906.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 12:06:00

Refutation of Free Choice Permission (FCP) in Deontic Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The formula for free choice permission (FCP) in deontic logic as P(p\/q)→(Pp/\Pq) (FCP) is not tautologous, not a paradox, and hence not applicable in Hilbert-style classical deontic logic as a guarded version. Therefore FCP forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[391] viXra:1906.0447 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-25 14:27:50

Study of (σ,τ)-Generalized Derivations with Their Composition of Semiprime Rings

Authors: Ajda Foˇsner, Mehsin Jabel Atteya
Comments: 22 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study and investigate certain results concerning the (σ,τ)-generalized derivation D associated with the (σ,τ)-derivation d of semiprime and prime rings R, where σ and τ act as two automorphism mappings of R. We focus on the composition of (σ,τ)-generalized derivations of the Leibniz’s formula, where we introduce the general formula to compute the composition of the (σ,τ)-generalized derivation D of R.
Category: Algebra

[390] viXra:1906.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 13:10:30

Fractal Organization of Nature: Metaphysical Realm; Intuitive Section

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 13 Pages.

For an organism that is divided into two sexes, nothing could be more natural than the concept of duality in Nature. We see many other natural forms of duality: the cycles of day and night, summer and winter, birth and death. The daily, seasonal, and lunar cycles have all been widely interpreted as analogs of the human cycle of life and death. For the intuitive, abstracting mind, it is but a small leap of faith to evolve in addition the duality of body-spirit, and all hominids we would care to classify as truly human have done so.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[389] viXra:1906.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 13:22:11

General Systems, Complex Systems

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 16 Pages.

General Systems, as I use the term, denotes a repeating pattern of natural organization - a fractal algorithm or ordering principle in the Cosmos. While not enforced with the same stringency as a natural law (such as energy conservation), the pattern-forming impulse is nevertheless all-pervasive in nature and seems to proceed from such fundamental principles as resonance and the pathway of least energy or least resistance. It is just simpler, more efficient, and takes less energy to create a universe using self-similar repeating patterns than following any other plan. The "Tetrahedron Model" of cosmic order presents a General System based on a 4x3 universal fractal algorithm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[388] viXra:1906.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 15:57:47

Stellar Metamorphosis: Differential Rotation in Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Differential rotation is when a portion of a star rotates faster than another. With young stars like the Sun, this is more pronounced, with the equatorial angular velocity being higher than the polar angular velocity. The angular velocity remains differential between the poles and equator when the star is young, and then equalizes as the star evolves. This means the oldest stars will not have differential rotation (as well as no global magnetic activity), and the youngest will have the most pronounced. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[387] viXra:1906.0443 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-19 16:14:23

Discrete Motives for Moonshine

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 35 Pages.

From the holographic perspective in quantum gravity, topological field theories like Chern-Simons are more than toy models for computation. An algebraic construction of the CFT associated to Witten's j-invariant for 2+1 dimensional gravity aims to compute coefficients of modular forms from the combinatorics of quantum logic, dictated by axioms in higher dimensional categories, with heavy use of the golden ratio. This paper is self contained, including introductory material on lattices, and aims to show how the Monster group and its infinite module arise when the automorphisms of the Leech lattice are extended by special point sets in higher dimensions, notably the 72 dimensional lattice of Nebe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[386] viXra:1906.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 20:18:18

Отбор аддитивных арифметических соответствий

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 6 Pages. in Russian

Сколько ни было неудач, но формализация математики, начиная с арифметики, начиная в ней с соответствия сложения и его выражений, когда-то должна была состояться. Это лишь ознакомительный обзор, но тому, кому доступно понимание формализации, этого достаточно для собственного осмысления, наконец-то пришедших к вам, возможностей.
Category: General Mathematics

[385] viXra:1906.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 00:22:43

The Conception of Time

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper, a follow-on from papers 1-9 [1-9], the idea of consciousness as a feature of the process itself of scientific inquiry shall come to attention; here, as per the previous papers and in alliance with contemporary notions of the idea of consciousness and time, the idea of “consciousness” shall be presented as the ideal “fixed” frame of reference with time, going a step beyond the concept both Descartes and Einstein assumed in their works as a requirement of scientific theory genesis for the ideas of time and space, and above all “our required ability to exercise certain conscious functions to fully utilise the associated theory of time and space”. Ultimately, this proposed model of consciousness shall be demonstrated to not only abide with contemporary models of consciousness and thought, yet take those ideas a step ahead, as much as the new theory for time and space presented here as the golden ratio algorithm for time is being considered as a step ahead of contemporary ideas in physics. The aim here is not to change the impetus of our thinking, our philosophizing, or our world-view, yet to assess how a new theory of time and space aligns with a new ability, a new exercise of our conscious ability, to achieve that ability, to theorize time and space anew, as a step ahead of what has been previously thought possible in defining not just time, yet that tagged reference to time as consciousness.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[384] viXra:1906.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-12 04:41:58

A New Unified Electro-Gravity Theory for the Electron

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 13 Pages. Revised version, with some refinement and a new validation of the theory.

A rigorous model for the electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb's Law or Gauss's Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality referred to as the Unifield Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a ``static'' electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically found to be closely related to the the fine structure constant. This possible origin of the fine structure constant is further strengthened by applying the proposed theory to successfully model the Casimir effect, from which approximately the same above relationship between the UEG constant, electron's mass and classical radius, and the fine structure constant, emerges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[383] viXra:1906.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:03:31

A Generalized Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Model Applicable to All Elementary Particles

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model an electron, is generalized to model a variety of composite charged as well as neutral particles, which may constitute all known elementary particles of particle physics. A direct extension of the UEG theory for the electron is possible by modifying the functional dependence between the electro-gravitational field and the energy density, which would lead to a general class of basic charged particles carrying different levels of mass/energy, with the electron mass at the lowest level. The basic theory may also be extended to model simple composite neutral particles, consisting of two layers of surface charges of equal magnitudes but opposite signs. The model may be similarly generalized to synthesize more complex structures of composite charged or neutral particles, consisting of increasing levels of charged layers. Depending upon its specific basic or composite structure, a particle could be highly stable like an electron or a proton, or relatively unstable in different degrees, which may be identified with other known particles of the standard model of particle physics. The generalized UEG model may provide a new unified paradigm for particle physics, as a substitute for the standard model currently used, making the weak and strong forces of the standard model redundant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[382] viXra:1906.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:13:56

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model a stable static charge, is extended to a spinning charge using a ``quasi-static'' UEG model. The results from the new theory, evaluated in comparison with concepts and parameters from basic quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum electrodynamics (QED), show that the QM and the QED trace their fundamental origins to the UEG theory. The fine structure constant and the electron g-factor, which are key QED parameters, can be directly related to the proportionality constant (referred to as the UEG constant) used in the UEG theory. A QM wave function is shown to be equivalent to a space-time ripple in the permittivity function of the free space, produced by the UEG fields surrounding a spinning charge, and the basic QM relationships between energy and frequency naturally emerge from the UEG model. Further extension and generalization of the theory may also explain all other quantum mechanical concepts including particle-wave duality, frequency shift in electrodynamic scattering, and charge quantization, leading to full unification of the electromagnetics and gravity with the quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[381] viXra:1906.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 03:32:58

The Pioneers of Biodynamics in USA: The Early Milestones of Organic Agriculture in the United States

Authors: John Paull
Comments: 6 Pages.

Biodynamics has played a key role in environmental and sustainable development. Rudolf Steiner founded the Experimental Circle of Anthroposophic Farmers and Gardeners at Koberwitz (now Kobierzyce, Poland) in 1924. The task for the Experimental Circle was to test Steiner’s ‘hints’ for a new and sustainable agriculture, to find out what works, and to publish and tell the world. Ehrenfried published his book Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening in New York in 1938, fulfilling Steiner’s directive. In the interval, 1924-1938, 39 individual Americans joined the Experimental Circle. They were the pioneers of biodynamics and organics in USA, and finally their names and locations are revealed. Of the 39 members, three received copies of the Agriculture Course in both German and English, while other copies were shared (n=6). Of the 35 Agriculture Courses supplied to American Experimental Circle Members, over half were numbered copies of the German edition (n=20), and the rest were the English edition (n=15). A majority of members were women (n=20), along with men (n=17), and undetermined (n=2). Members were from 11 states: New York (n=18), New Jersey (n=5), Ohio (n=4), Hawaii (n=3), Connecticut (n=2), Missouri (n=2), California (n=1), Florida (n=1), Maine (n=1), Maryland (n=1), and Pennsylvania (n=1). The revelation of the earliest pioneers of biodynamics, and thus organics, in USA provides 39 starting points for further research that their stories and achievements may be told.
Category: Social Science

[380] viXra:1906.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 03:42:06

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) as Invasive Species

Authors: John Paull
Comments: 7 Pages. CC-BY-4

This paper frames genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as invasive species. This offers a way of considering the reception, diffusion and management of GMOs in the foodscape. “An invasive non-native species is any non-native animal or plant that has the ability to spread causing damage to the environment, the economy, our health and the way we live” (NNSS, 2017). Without any social licence, pesticide companies have thrust GMOs into the foodscape. The release of GMOs has generally been unwelcome, there has been no ‘pull’ factor from consumers and there has been vocal resistance from many. The apologists for GMOs have argued the self-contradictory conceit that GMOs are ‘same but different’. Under this logically untenable stance, GMOs are to be excluded from specific regulation because they are the ‘same’ as existing organisms, while simultaneously they are ‘different’ and so open to patenting. GMOs are patented and this demonstrates that, prima facie, these are novel organisms which are non-native to the foodscape. GMO apologists have campaigned intensively, and successfully in USA, to ensure that consumers are kept in the dark and that GMOs remain unlabelled - as a consequence GMOs are ubiquitous in US consumer foods. In contrast, in Australia GMOs are required to be labelled if present in consumer products and, in consequence, Australian food manufacturers do not use them. The release of a GMO calls for biosecurity measures. After trial plots of Monsanto GM canola in Tasmania in the 1990s, the sites continue to be biosecurity monitored for GMO escape, and volunteer canola plants continue to appear two decades later. In Western Australia the escape of GMO canola into a neighbouring organic farm resulted in the loss of organic certification and the monetary loss of the organic premium for produce. GMO produce sells for a 10% discount because of market forces and the consumer aversion to GMOs. Where non- GM product is accidentally contaminated with some GM grain, the whole batch is discounted and is sold as GMO. There is a lack of evidence that GMOs can be contained and many jurisdictions have banned the introduction of GMOs. GMOs have the potential and the propensity to contaminate non-GMO crops and thereby devalue them. The evidence is that GMOs are invasive species, they are unwelcome by consumers, peaceful coexistence with non-GM varieties is a fiction, and GMOs are appropriately managed as a biosecurity issue.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[379] viXra:1906.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 04:16:00

A Molecular Structure of an Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work we extend our work on a quantum dynamics of beta decay to show that an atomic nucleus can be described as a molecule which is supposed to be formed by bonding atoms as described in molecular physics. However, there is only one type of atom in our formulation and that atom is the neutron which has been shown to possess the physical structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom under the influence of a generalised Yukawa MGESCP potential rather than the Coulomb potential as in the case of the normal hydrogen atom. We construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuteron as a molecular ion which has similar physical structure to the molecular ion of the hydrogen molecule. We also construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuterium and obtain the corresponding energy spectrum, by showing that the deuterium has a similar physical structure to that of a helium atom. As a further discussion, we suggest possible structures for nuclei with high numbers of protons and neutrons and show that these nuclei may form narrow lattices therefore they could fold to form three-dimensional spherical structures by layers of shells by bonding similar to hydrogen bonding.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[378] viXra:1906.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 04:49:03

Quantum Detection Diseases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

But one lesser-known field is also starting to reap the benefits of the quantum realm-medicine. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[377] viXra:1906.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 05:00:48

Evidential Distance Measure in Complex Belief Function Theory

Authors: Fuyuan Xiao
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, an evidential distance measure is proposed which can measure the difference or dissimilarity between complex basic belief assignments (CBBAs), in which the CBBAs are composed of complex numbers. When the CBBAs are degenerated from complex numbers to real numbers, the proposed distance will degrade into the Jousselme et al.’s distance. Therefore, the proposed distance provides a promising way to measure the differences between evidences in a more general framework of complex plane space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[376] viXra:1906.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 08:25:32

Topology in Symmetry-Broken Phase

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Current research in condensed matter physics aims to understand how symmetry breaking and symmetry protection compete, in particular in the presence of interactions. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28] Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[375] viXra:1906.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 08:36:57

Понятие основного математического предмета

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

Математические предметы полагаются до того невообразимо разнообразными, что некоторым математикам стыдно начинать свою теорию с примитивного понятия математической точки: вот вам элемент множества – мыслите настолько, насколько у вас развито математическое воображение… А мы, вот, начинаем с понятия точки.
Category: General Mathematics

[374] viXra:1906.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 10:14:31

Quantum Squeezing and Amplification

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[373] viXra:1906.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 12:22:25

Higher-Dimensional Relativity and the Wavefunction

Authors: Philip J. Carter
Comments: 18 Pages.

We approach the Nature and Ontology of Spacetime by considering the properties of the wavefunction. On the basis of observed retrocausal effects and consequent time-symmetric approaches to QM we conclude that the wavefunction is extended in time as well as in space, and hence is minimally a 4-dimensional entity occupying a 4-space resembling the Block Universe. On this basis we erect a higher-dimensional spacetime framework accounting for nonlocality and retrocausality while providing insight into the origins of time, space, mass and inertia. We elucidate relativistic mass and derive the mass transformation equation according to Special Relativity from quantum mechanical and relativistic principles. The framework is shown to provide a spatial context for Kaluza’s 5D Einstein-Maxwell theory and the internal symmetries of the Standard Model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[372] viXra:1906.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 12:54:14

Goldbach Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use method of a modified sieve of Eratosthenes to prove that any large even numbers can always be expressed as sums of two prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[371] viXra:1906.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 13:02:21

A Possible Sign of Critical Transition

Authors: Dhrubajyoti Mandal
Comments: 3 Pages.

Forecast of critical transitions in a dynamical system is one of the most important research problems in recent time. In this short communication, we discuss a possible novel sign of critical transitions in nonlinear systems. We have shown that the higher order terms of the Taylor series play an important role in determining critical transitions in a system. Moreover, we explain our approach using the Logistic map.
Category: Physics of Biology

[370] viXra:1906.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 15:55:33

Cousin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use method of a modified sieve of Eratosthenes to prove the cousin prime conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[369] viXra:1906.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 16:50:25

Irrationality

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 2 Pages.

Mostre que o seno de um arco na forma 1/p, com p inteiro, resulta em um irracional. Observe que
Category: Number Theory

[368] viXra:1906.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 20:43:47

Irrationality and pi

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 2 Pages.

Title, authors and abstract should also be included in the PdF file. These should be in English. If the submission is not in English please translate the title and abstract here.
Category: Number Theory

[367] viXra:1906.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 20:58:02

Prime Gap near a Primorial Number

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use method of sieve of Eratosthenes to prove that there is a larger prime gap near any primorial number.
Category: Number Theory

[366] viXra:1906.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 21:11:07

Irrationality and pi Other Transformation

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 2 Pages. irrationality and pi other transformation

irrationality and pi other transformationirrationality and pi other transformationirrationality and pi other transformationirrationality and pi other transformation
Category: Number Theory

[365] viXra:1906.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 05:01:48

Algorithms Developed for Two Porotypes of Airborne Vision-Based Control of Ground Robots

Authors: Ilan Ehrenfeld, Oleg Kupervasser, Hennadii Kutomanov, Vitalii Sarychev, Roman Yavich
Comments: 6 Pages. accepted to 9th Int. Conf. on Geotechnique, Construction Materials and Environment, Tokyo, Japan, 2019

Unmanned autonomous robots will be widely used very soon for land use, treatment, and monitoring. Our and the other groups already described technologies, that can be used for such robots (Kupervasser et al., International Journal of GEOMATE, May, 2018 Vol.14, Issue 45, pp.10-16; Djaja et al., International Journal of GEOMATE, Aug, 2017, Vol.13, Issue 36, pp.31-34). We continue developing these technologies and present here new patented technology of airborne vision-based control of ground robots. The main idea is that robot’s “eyes” is not located on robot, but are independent autonomous system. As a result, the “eyes” can go up and observe the robot from above. We present in this paper algorithms used for two real physical prototypes of a such system
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[364] viXra:1906.0415 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-26 21:17:19

A Positivity-Based Approach to Delay-Dependent Stability of Systems of Second Order Equations

Authors: Alexander Domoshnitsky, Oleg Kupervasser, Hennadii Kutomanov
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, new explicit tests for exponential stability of systems of second order equations are proposed. Our approach is based on nonoscillation of solutions of the corresponding diagonal scalar second order delay differential equations.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[363] viXra:1906.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 07:14:47

Machine Learning Quantum Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A Cornell-led team has developed a way to use machine learning to analyze the data generated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)-a technique that produces subatomic scale images of electronic motions in material surfaces at varying energies, providing information unattainable by any other method. [25] Physicists in the US have used machine learning to determine the phase diagram of a system of 12 idealized quantum particles to a higher precision than ever before. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data-with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[362] viXra:1906.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 07:35:00

Absolutely Secure Quantum Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The experiment has managed to prepare a remote quantum state; i.e., absolutely secure communication was established with another, physically separated quantum computer for the first time in the microwave regime. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[361] viXra:1906.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 08:05:11

Semiconductor Laser on Silicon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Electrical engineering researchers have boosted the operating temperature of a promising new semiconductor laser on silicon substrate, moving it one step closer to possible commercial application. [23] The high resolution and wealth of data provided by an experiment at Diamond can lead to unexpected discoveries. [22] Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[360] viXra:1906.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 08:23:06

Neurostimulation Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Purdue University researchers have come up with a solution to help—they are adding a graphene monolayer to the devices to protect the microelectrodes. [23] Researchers at the University of Twente have designed a tiny needle in which micro-channels can be used for extracting small liquid samples from a local area of the brain. [22] The ability to grow large protein crystals is the single biggest bottleneck that limits the use of neutron protein crystallography in structural biology. [21] The conclusion that proteins have a terrible conductance tallies well with their general physical characteristics – they lack both electronic conduction bands and high levels of structural order. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[359] viXra:1906.0410 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-02 14:40:22

Living Room in Stead of Green House Model

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 33 Pages.

By presenting the relevant, in relation to the climate problem, measured variables as exponential functions, truthfully representing the real values, surprising informative mutual relations show up. One of these relations led to the successful investigation of the possibility that the global temperature raise can not be caused by indirect heating, prescribed by the Green House model, but is caused by direct heating, prescribed by the here named Living Room model. It is of fundamental importance to realize that sun, wind and earth energy that is transformed to energy, intended to be consumed by mankind, also directly heats the atmosphere. The final outcome therefore is that aiming for reduced CO2 emissions will not result in any improvement of the climate. Only a drastically reduction of the consumed energy, of whichever kind, will help.
Category: Climate Research

[358] viXra:1906.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 11:57:48

Laser Organic Synthesis

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that organic synthesis is possible using a universal automatic machine
Category: Chemistry

[357] viXra:1906.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 13:40:49

Can Pi, i, and e Generate the Real Numbers

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 1 Page.

We show that attempting to map the set of real numbers to the natural numbers by listing them as infinite decimal fractions is futile. The real numbers are represented as the limit of partial decimal sums. This allows them to be explicitly referenced and makes them into a countable set. We conjecture that the Pi, i, and e generate the Real Numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[356] viXra:1906.0407 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-17 13:33:25

Visualizing the Distributions and Isosurfaces of Some Traditional and Non-Traditional Quaternion Fractal Sets

Authors: Shawn Halayka
Comments: 18 Pages.

After a concise introduction, the length, displacement, and magnitude distributions and isosurfaces related to some quaternion fractal sets are visualized.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[355] viXra:1906.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 18:25:03

Effect of Different Polarity Solvents on Total Phenols and Flavonoids Content, and in-Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Flowers Extract from Aurea Helianthus

Authors: Hyon-il Ri1, Un-hak Pak1, Jong-hyok Yang1, Kwen-il Son1, Yu-il Kim1, Kyong-chol Son1, Chol-jin Ri1, Myong-su Kang2, Tae-mun Kim2
Comments: 7 Pages.

The total phenols and flavonoids content of different polar solvent extracts from Aurea Helianthus flowers, and their antioxidant activity were determined. The ethanol extract of Aurea Helianthus flowers were suspended in water and fractionated using different polar solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The parameters of each extract mentioned above were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) method, AlCl3 colorimetry method, Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, total antioxidant activity (TAA) assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay. The highest total phenols content (516.21 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids content (326.06 mg QCE /g)were obtained in ethyl acetate extract, the correlation between TPC and TFC assay was found to be 0.967. All polar solvent extracts of Aurea Helianthus flowers showed significant antioxidant effects, the highest inhibition was obtained in ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts and the lowest inhibition in the water extract. There is a good correlation of total phenols and flavonoids content with antioxidant activity. This work indicated that the polar solvent extracts of Aurea Helianthus flowers contain high phenols and flavonoids content, and exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro, therefore, could be candidates for use as natural antioxidant.
Category: Biochemistry

[354] viXra:1906.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 18:36:27

Complex Nonlinear Fourier Optics: Nonlinear Singularities of Surface Second Harmonic and Bulk Third Harmonic Generation and Their Interface by Noncentrosymmetric and Centrosymmetric Media – New Solution of Mixed Nonlinear Optical Equation High Order

Authors: Peter Krampl
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we show a formulation of the nonlinear spectrum that predicts the real behavior of multiphoton matter (Centro Z.S. and noncentrosymmetric N.Z.S) interaction for the extremely nonlinear regime. In addition, it will be shown how this multiple nonlinear optical equation can be combined to describe the nonlinear dynamics in the time and Fourier domain for high harmonics of even and odd order and their interfaces. In addition to surfaces SHG and the bulk material with BULK THG, their interface will be investigated with their respective real damping behavior. With these expressions can be optical response tensors such as the nonlinear dispersion accurately predict.
Category: Condensed Matter

[353] viXra:1906.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 19:17:33

Via Geometric Algebra: Direction and Distance Between Two Points on a Spherical Earth

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 17 Pages.

As a high-school-level example of solving a problem via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra, we show how to calculate the distance and direction between two points on Earth, given the locations' latitudes and longitudes. We validate the results by comparing them to those obtained from online calculators. This example invites a discussion of the benefits of teaching spherical trigonometry (the usual way of solving such problems) at the high-school level versus teaching how to use Geometric Algebra for the same purpose.
Category: Geometry

[352] viXra:1906.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 20:54:02

Какой быть математике?

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

С некоторых пор математика обросла вызывающим разочарование, а ведь посылом было придание ей улучшающего её во всём, а ведь побуждением было некое современное просветление математического ума. Это и есть продолжение той математики, которая нас по-прежнему восхищает? Реплика.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[351] viXra:1906.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 01:17:46

Machine Learning Features for Malicious URL Filtering- The Survey

Authors: Smaranya Dey, Eshan Jain, Arunita Das
Comments: 8 Pages.

Malicious URL is the URL created for harmful purposes which contains spam, phishing, misleading applications like fake antiviruses or fake codecs. The use of this kind of URLs might lead to monetary loss, theft of sensitive information such as personal details or corporate data, disruption of operations, unauthorized access to system resources etc. Often these websites are built to look like a genuine website to deceive the users in installing malicious content in their systems. As per NetCraft January 2018 web server survey, there are 1.8 billion sites across 213 million unique domain names. According to Symantec Internet Security Threat Report 2018, 1 in 13 web requests lead to malware which is up 3% from 2016. Sudden rise of cyber-attacks in recent years makes this problem indispensable for both private and public organizations. The primary objective of the paper is to provide a near exhaustive set of meaningful features that can help professionals and practitioners to facilitate their own research and practical applications on malicious URL filtering. These features are systematically classified and described in keyword-based features, lexical features, content-based features (HTML and JavaScript), IP Address Properties based features, web-rank and score-based features. This paper also briefly discusses on how URL filtering techniques have evolved in the past. The paper talks about traditional techniques like blacklisting URLs, heuristic approaches while also highlighting the shortcomings of these approaches. We then touch upon newer machine learning based techniques like cosine similarity-based URL classification, Support Vector Machines and Neural Network based models.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[350] viXra:1906.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 01:34:13

Quantum Squeezing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have harnessed the phenomenon of "quantum squeezing" to amplify and measure trillionths-of-a-meter motions of a lone trapped magnesium ion (electrically charged atom). [36] Sebastian Krinner is the first winner of the Lopez-Loreta Prize at ETH Zurich. The physicist has a clear goal: he wants to build a quantum computer that is not only powerful, but also works without errors. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[349] viXra:1906.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 02:00:39

Proton Radius Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[348] viXra:1906.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 03:11:06

[ Halide/llvm/clang/dlibc++ Machine Learning Library Toolkit ] as hi-End Cryo-em Image Processing Software & Informatics Platform a Simple Short Communication on Using [ Halide/dlibc++ Machine Learning Library Toolkit/iot/hpc ]

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 7 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

[ Halide/LLVM/Clang/dlibC++ Machine Learning Library Toolkit ] as HI-END cryo-EM Image Processing Software & Informatics Platform - A Simple Short Communication on Using [ Halide/dlibC++ Machine Learning Library Toolkit/IoT/HPC ] in a Related Heterogeneous Computing Environment R&D.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[347] viXra:1906.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 03:36:13

NMR Captures Nanoparticle Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have revealed surprising details about the structure of a key group of materials in nanotechology, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and the placement of their active chemical sites. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38]
Category: Condensed Matter

[346] viXra:1906.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 04:00:03

Electron-Behaving Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Northwestern University researchers have made a strange and startling discovery that nanoparticles engineered with DNA in colloidal crystals-when extremely small-behave just like electrons. [40] Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have revealed surprising details about the structure of a key group of materials in nanotechology, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and the placement of their active chemical sites. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38]
Category: Condensed Matter

[345] viXra:1906.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 04:28:02

Refutation of Π1− of Self-Verifying Axioms for Grounding Functions and Relation Predicates

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate Π1− self-verifying axioms defining the grounding functions and the relation predicates as not tautologous. This refutes the approach for weak axiom systems to use subtraction and division primitives, rather than addition and multiplication, to encode formally theorems of arithmetic. Therefore the conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[344] viXra:1906.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-16 06:43:23

Steps to the Hilbert Book Model

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The Hilbert Book Model is a purely mathematical model of physical reality that starts with a solid foundation
Category: Quantum Physics

[343] viXra:1906.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 07:00:35

Path to Reliable Quantum Computation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[342] viXra:1906.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 07:44:19

Magnetic Singularity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

In many materials, electrical resistance and voltage change in the presence of a magnetic field, usually varying smoothly as the magnetic field rotates. [20] EPFL physicists have found a way to reverse electron spins using electric fields for the first time, paving the way for programmable spintronics technologies. [19] Manipulating light in a variety of ways-shrinking its wavelength and allowing it to travel freely in one direction while stopping it cold in another-hyperbolic metamaterials have wide application in optical communications and as nanoparticle sensors. [18] A new way of enhancing the interactions between light and matter, developed by researchers at MIT and Israel's Technion, could someday lead to more efficient solar cells that collect a wider range of light wavelengths, and new kinds of lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that could have fully tunable color emissions. [17] A team of researchers at the Center for Relativistic Laser Science, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have developed a method to measure the shape of laser pulses in ambient air. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[341] viXra:1906.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 07:58:50

Quantum Impedance Matching of Rabi Oscillations

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 3 Pages.

We present a model of Geometric Wavefunction Interactions, the GWI model, that offers an alternative (perhaps equivalent) representation of QED, and use it to explore the quantized impedance structure governing energy flow in Rabi oscillations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[340] viXra:1906.0391 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-05 10:36:01

The Inconsistency of Arithmetic – Expressed by a Sum

Authors: Ralf Wüsthofen
Comments: 2 Pages. Proof of the Goldbach conjecture on http://vixra.org/abs/1702.0300

Based on a strengthened form of the strong Goldbach conjecture, this paper presents an antinomy within the Peano arithmetic (PA). We derive two contradictory statements by using the same main instrument as in the proof of the conjecture, that is, a structuring of the natural numbers starting from 3.
Category: Number Theory

[339] viXra:1906.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 08:32:18

Точечные операнды арифметических соответствий

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

Как создавать точечные матметы, как обращаться к ним языковыми конструкциями поодиночно или сразу к нескольким.
Category: General Mathematics

[338] viXra:1906.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 08:54:41

Debugging Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

In the paper titled "Statistical Assertions for Validating Patterns and Finding Bugs in Quantum Programs," Huang and Margaret Martonosi, a professor of Computer Science at Princeton, identify three key difficulties in debugging quantum programs, and evaluate their solutions in addressing those difficulties. [37] Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[337] viXra:1906.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 10:05:52

The Law of Maxwell-Whittaker: Force of Gravity and Inertia

Authors: Sanchez Uriarte, Oscar
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, the Maxwell-Wittaker law is used to describe magnetic phenomena instead of the Lorentz Force. Certain similarities are mentioned with Weber's proposals and a more elementary interaction is proposed, which justifies it. From there, a possibility is obtained to explain the gravitational and inertial phenomena.
Category: Classical Physics

[336] viXra:1906.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 10:41:31

Gravity Wave Detector Mirrors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Hobart and William Smith Colleges has developed a new coating for mirrors used on gravity detectors that is 25 times less noisy than mirror surfaces used on LIGO. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[335] viXra:1906.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 11:01:50

AI Converts CT Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

An artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm can transform low-dose CT (LDCT) scans into high-quality exams that radiologists may even prefer over LDCT studies produced via commercial iterative reconstruction techniques. [31] A team of EPFL scientists has now written a machine-learning program that can predict, in record time, how atoms will respond to an applied magnetic field. [30] Researchers from the University of Luxembourg, Technische Universität Berlin, and the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society have combined machine learning and quantum mechanics to predict the dynamics and atomic interactions in molecules. [29] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts-a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[334] viXra:1906.0384 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-24 04:16:08

Who Needs Yukawa’s Wave Equation?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 20 Pages.

One can think of a wave equation for the nucleus based on the Yukawa potential. This paper is a didactic exploration of the rationale for such wave equation. We relate it to earlier discussions on an oscillator model for the nucleus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[333] viXra:1906.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 13:51:15

Supervised Dimensionality Reduction for Multi-Label Nearest Neighbors

Authors: Reda ALAMI
Comments: 75 Pages.

The ML-kNN algorithm is one of the most famous and most efficient multi-label classifier. Its performances are very remarkable when compared with the other state-of-art multi-label classifiers. Nevertheless, it suffers from two major drawbacks: its accuracy crucially depends on the metric function used to compute distances between instances, and when dealing with high dimensions data, the neighborhoods identification task becomes very slow. So, both metric learning and dimensionality reduction are essential to improve the ML-kNN performances. In this report, we propose a novel multi-label Mahalanobis distance learned via a supervised dimensionality reduction approach that we call ML-ARP. ML-ARP is a process that adapts random projections on a multi-label dataset to improve the ML-kNN performances. Unlike most state of art multi-label dimensionality reduction approaches that solve eigenvalue or inverse problem, our method is iterative and scales up with high dimensions. There is no eigenvalue or inverse problems to solve. Experiments show that the ML-ARP allows us to highly upgrade the ML-kNN classifier. Statistical tests assert that the MLARP is better than the remaining state-of-art multi-label dimensionality reduction approaches
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[332] viXra:1906.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 15:30:26

On the Ramanujan’s Mock ϑ-Functions of His Last Letter: Mathematical Connections with Some Expressions Concerning the Mass of Some Particles, the Black Hole Entropy and the Hypothetical Mass of Dark Matter Particles. II

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 234 Pages.

In this research paper we have obtained some interesting mathematical connections between the Mock Theta functions of the Ramanujan’s last letter and some expressions concerning the mass of some particles, the black hole entropy and the hypothetical mass of Dark Matter particles
Category: Mathematical Physics

[331] viXra:1906.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 18:01:16

(Lifeasemergent Version 1.0 6 Pages 20.06.2019) on the Very Low Probability of Complex Life Forms to be Just Emergent Phenomena and About the "Continuous" Versus "Intermittent" Free Will

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper discusses on: (1) the very low probability of complex life forms (LFs) to be just emergent phenomena based on simple but strong physic-chemical and biological arguments regarding the limits of DNA and RNA to store multidimensional hierarchical multiple-layered biological information (BI); (2) the continuous vs intermittent "quasi-quantum" free will (FW); (3) a hypothesis on the physical causes of the subjective sensation (illusion) of irreversible time arrow created by the human/animal mind;
Category: Physics of Biology

[330] viXra:1906.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 19:35:05

Refutation of Bob Boyer’s Paradox

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Bob Boyer’s paradox is as follows. “A question: It is generally granted that 'p implies p', which is to say, 'if p, then p'. So what about this claim: 'If any number is prime, then any number is prime'?” We find the sentences are unrelated. We then rewrite the second sentence as: “If at least one number is prime, then at least one number is prime”; or as “If at least one number is prime, then possibly all numbers are prime”. Both are trivial tautologies, meaning neither is a contraction or paradox, and therefore forming a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[329] viXra:1906.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 20:33:18

The Unit Definition Is Relative

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

This Paper provides a new claim as following: 1- The Unit Definition Is Relative that means Value as – one kilometer - one hour - one degree or one liter…etc- all such values and units are defined based on the observer position and situation That means What we see as a time value can work in another place as a distance value And What we see as a degree value can work in another place as a distance value 2- The Energy Different Types Depend On This Same Concept. Why Energy has different types? The energy gives energy whatever its form (oil- wood- electricity – magnetism – nuclear….etc) The result of all these forms are similar approximately – so why there are different types for the energy? Because of the observer position and situation This paper tries to discuss and prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[328] viXra:1906.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 21:47:44

Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use a modified sieve of Eratosthenes to prove twin prime conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[327] viXra:1906.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 22:02:41

Zero Points of Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this article, we assume that the Riemann Zeta Function equals to the Euler product at the non zero points of the Riemann Zeta function. From this assumption we can prove that there are no zero points of Riemann Zeta function, ς(s) in Re(s) > 1/2. We applied proof by contradiction.
Category: Number Theory

[326] viXra:1906.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 02:27:06

Quickly Fading Afterimages: Hierarchicaladaptations Inhuman Perception

Authors: Madeline E. Klinger, Christian A. Kell, Danko Nikolić
Comments: 13 Pages.

Afterimages result from a prolonged exposure to stillvisual stimuli. Theyare best detectable when viewed against uniform backgroundsand can persist for multiple seconds. Consequently, the dynamics of afterimages appears to be slow bytheir verynature. To the contrary, we report here that about 50% of an afterimageintensitycan be erased rapidly—within less than a second. The prerequisite is that subjectsview a rich visual contentto erase the afterimage; fast erasure of afterimages does not occur if subjects view a blank screen. Moreover, we find evidence that fast removal of afterimages is a skilllearned with practiceasour subjects were always more effective in cleaning up afterimages in later parts of the experiment. These results can be explained by a tri-level hierarchy of adaptive mechanisms, as has been proposed by the theory of practopoiesis.
Category: Mind Science

[325] viXra:1906.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 06:21:16

Refutation of Comorphism of Sites

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The complex equation evaluated is not tautologous, hence refuting the conjecture of comorphism of sites as a functor with a covering lifting property. What follows is that the following are also refuted: surjections, inclusions, localic morphisms, hyperconnected morphisms, and equivalences of toposes. This further relegates category theory of Grothendieck to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[324] viXra:1906.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 06:25:55

A Simple Proof for Catalan's Conjecture

Authors: Julian TP Beauchamp
Comments: 6 Pages.

Catalan's Conjecture was first made by Belgian mathematician Eugène Charles Catalan in 1844, and states that 8 and 9 (2^3 and 3^2) are the only consecutive powers, excluding 0 and 1. That is to say, that the only solution in the natural numbers of a^x - b^y=1 for a,b,x,y > 1 is a=3, x=2, b=2, y=3. In other words, Catalan conjectured that 3^2-2^3=1 is the only nontrivial solution. It was finally proved in 2002 by number theorist Preda Mihailescu making extensive use of the theory of cyclotomic fields and Galois modules.
Category: Number Theory

[323] viXra:1906.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 07:35:33

Algèbre D'appell

Authors: Méhdi Pascal
Comments: 20 Pages.

The bute of this algebra is to give a tool which makes it possible to find new formulas for the sequences of the numbers, for example, I take the numbers of Bernoulli (Bn), and the numbers of Fibonacci (Fn), and this algebra allows us the following formula: n*F(n)=sum(binomial(n,j)*(F(2n-2j+1)-F(n-j+1))*B(j)), From j=0 to j=n.
Category: Number Theory

[322] viXra:1906.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 08:41:48

Graphene Energy Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

As the graphene-based ink can be mass-produced in an inexpensive and environmentally friendly manner, the new methods pave the way toward developing a wide variety of printable energy storage devices. [29] Disperse graphene in a suitable solvent and the resulting nanofluid will have much better thermal properties than the original liquid. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[321] viXra:1906.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:09:51

Gold to Protein Cages

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Protein cages—capsule-like structures made up of numerous protein molecules—perform roles in nature that have inspired their application in areas such as drug delivery. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40]
Category: Physics of Biology

[320] viXra:1906.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:29:49

Formulation of the Classical Probability and Some Probability Distributions Due to Neutrosophic Logic and Its Impact on Decision Making (Arabic Version))

Authors: Rafif Alhabib, Moustafa Mzher Ranna, Haitham Farah, A.A. Salama
Comments: 169 Pages.

والجوهر الأساسي لبحثنا هو تطبيق منطق النيتروسوفيك على جزء من نظرية الاحتمالات الكلاسيكية وذلك من خلال تقديم الاحتمال الكلاسيكي وبعض التوزيعات الاحتمالية وفق منطق النيتروسوفيك ومن ثم د ا رسة أثر استخدام هذا المنطق على عملية اتخاذ الق ا رر مع المقارنة المستمرة بين المنطق الكلاسيكي ومنطق النيتروسوفيك من خلال الد ا رسات والنتائج. تضم الأطروحة خمسة فصول
Category: Statistics

[319] viXra:1906.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:29:33

Gold Nanoparticle Cluster Therapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

NUS chemists have found that gold nanoparticle clusters can be used in photo-thermal therapy for imaging and treatment of human prostate cancer. [43] Protein cages—capsule-like structures made up of numerous protein molecules—perform roles in nature that have inspired their application in areas such as drug delivery. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41]
Category: Physics of Biology

[318] viXra:1906.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:52:01

The Mass vs Nothingness12

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as a hypothesis a mass takes more volume outside of itself than inside of itself and that this mass(an accumulation of photons) which have seperation between themselves inside a mass
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[317] viXra:1906.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 10:20:12

A Study of Multi - Topological Spaces (Arabic Version)

Authors: Riad Khidr Al-Hamido
Comments: 137 Pages.

يتعمق موضوع الأطروحة بد ا رسة الفضاءات متعددة التبولوجيا ومجموعاتيا المفتوحة والمغمقة, وفقاً لممفيوم العادي ووفقاً لمنطق النتروسوفيك ذلك المنطق الجديد عالمياً والأعم من المنطق الضبابي, والذي أسسو العالم الأمريكي F.Smarandache عام 1995 الذي يدرس وييتم بالحياد, بحيث ياخذ ىذا المنطق الجديد بعين الاعتبار كل فكرة مع نقيضيا مع طيف الحياد , حيث ياخذ ىذا المنطق كل بيان بثلاث ابعاد ىي الصح ) T ( بدرجات والخطأ ) F ( بدرجات والحياد ) I ( بدرجات, نعبر عن ذلك بالشكل ) T,I,F ) وىذ يعطي وصفاً اكثر دقة من المنطق الضبابي والمنطق الحدسي. لقد قام العمماء بد ا رسة الفضاءات التبولوجية ومكوناتيا الأساسية من المجموعات المفتوحة والمغمقة, وبما أن المجموعات المفتوحة والمغمقة تعد المبنة الرئيسية في بناء التبولوجيا والفضاء التبولوجي فقد توسع العمماء والباحثون في د ا رستيا, حيث قدموا أنماطاً أضعف منيا مثل المجموعات المفتوحة )المغمقة( من نمط الفا, والمجموعات المفتوحة )المغمقة( من نمط بيتا, المجموعات شبة المفتوحة )المغمقة(, ومن ثم توسع الباحثون ومددوا مفيوم الفضاء التبولوجي الى الفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي عمى يد العالم كيمي عام 1965 في , - , ثم توسع الباحثون بد ا رستو وعمموا جميع تعاريف المجموعات المفتوحة )المغمقة( إلى الفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي. أما الفضاء التبولوجي الثلاثي فقد تم تعريفو ود ا رستو من قبل الباحث مارتن عام 2000 في , - . عرف Mrsevic و I. L. Reilly عام 1996 في , - المجموعات المفتوحة من النمط S , والمجموعات المغمقة من النمط S ( ,S-closed sets (S-open sets في الفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي. أيضاً عرف N. A. Jabbar و A. I. Nasir عام 2010 في , - المجموعات المفتوحة من النمط N في الفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي. عرف A. A. Salama and F. Smarandache , and V. Kroumov عام 2014 في , - مفيوم الفضاء التوبولوجي النتروسوفيكي اليش كما عرفوا المجموعة النتروسوفيكية اليشة المفتوحة والمغمقة والعمميات عمييا مثل التقاطع والاجتماع. أيضاً قدم البروفيسور المصري احمد سلامة A.A. Salama عام 2013 د ا رسة حول مفيوم النقاط النتروسوفيكية اليشة , - وعرف مفيوم انتماء عنصر ما لمجموعة نتروسوفيكية ىشة. 04 نتابع في ىذه الأطروحة د ا رسة الفضاءات التبولوجية ونركز د ا رستنا عمى الفضاءات متعددة التبولوجيا منيا, وندرس ونعرف أنماطاً جديدة من المجموعات المفتوحة والمغمقة فييا, كما ندرس ونعرف الفضاءات التبولوجيا النتروسوفيكية اليشة والفضاءات متعددة التبولوجيا النتروسوفيكية اليشة, ايضاً ندرس ونعرف الفضاءات التبولوجيا النتروسوفيكية الثنائية وأنماطاً جديدة من المجموعات النتروسوفيكية فييا, لتعطي إضافة ليا طابع ىام وجديد في ىذا المجال, حيث ركزنا عمى التعريف بمنطق النتروسوفيك الذي يفتح المجال أمام الباحثين في كل الاختصاصات لا سيما الطبية وعموم الفيزياء والرياضيات عموماً والتبولوجيا خصوصاً. تعد أطروحتنا الد ا رسة الأولى من نوعيا التي تقوم بتطبيق المنطق النتروسوفيكي الجديد عمى التبولوجيا والفضاءات التبولوجية في الجامعات السورية.
Category: Topology

[316] viXra:1906.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 10:31:01

Confirmation of Perez’ Definition of the Conceivable Statement

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 4 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Of the 16 equations evaluated, 15 are not tautologous. Elsewhere we correctly proved and confirmed most of the conjectures of the author such as refutations of ZFC, Cantor, and Gödel. The definition of a conceivable statement is confirmed as a theorem, with the other equations forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[315] viXra:1906.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 11:17:21

Geochronology and Movement of the Sun Around the Galaxy Center

Authors: V.F. Chekalev, E.V. Chekalev
Comments: 2 Pages.

The motion of Solar system round the Galaxy center is considered in this article. Joint use of geochronological and astronomical data allowed to determine parameters of galactic orbits of Solar system in the Phanerozoe. As a result of the analysis the duration of some geological periods are modified and the new geological period is entered. The future duration of the Quaternary period is calculated also and is defined more exactly duration of the first period of the Phanerozoe - Vendian.
Category: Geophysics

[314] viXra:1906.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 11:19:07

The Electromagnetic Nature of the Gravitational Field. Theoretical Value of G. Theoretical Value of Proton Radius

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo
Comments: 5 Pages.

The simplified introduction of ether and the theory of general relativity, allows us through an imaginary experiment, to demonstrate the electromagnetic nature of the gravitational field, to calculate the theoretical value of G and the theoretical value of the proton ray and experimental through the contributions of mass to the proton.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[313] viXra:1906.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 12:27:20

Energy-Momentum Density's Conservation Law of Electromagnetic Field in Rindler Space-time

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find the energy-momentum density of electromagnetic field by energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in Rindler space-time. We find the energy-momentum density's conservation law of electromagnetic field in Rindler Space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[312] viXra:1906.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 13:13:14

Step Toward Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team at the University of Tsukuba studied a novel process for creating coherent lattice waves inside silicon crystals using ultrashort laser pulses. [17] The experiment has managed to prepare a remote quantum state; i.e., absolutely secure communication was established with another, physically separated quantum computer for the first time in the microwave regime. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[311] viXra:1906.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 14:06:44

The Continued Fractions and the Real Numbers

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We give a new definition of the real numbers by mean of the continued fractions.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[310] viXra:1906.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 18:41:26

On Light Propagation and the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Georgi Stanimirov
Comments: 6 Pages.

We present evidence that physicists at the turn of the 20th century, including Lorentz, Poincare, and Einstein, have collectively misconstrued the result of the influential Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887. Physicists have incorrectly assumed that the experi¬ment measured the speed of light in space, when in actual fact it measured the speed of light inside the earth's atmosphere. In light of these findings, we conclude that the Special Theory of Relativity is not reflective of observation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[309] viXra:1906.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 21:04:15

Языковая конструкция соответствия и его совыражений

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

Языковая конструкция соответствия и конструкции его совыражений во многом определяют принципы на которых далее строится основное понятие группы.
Category: General Mathematics

[308] viXra:1906.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-19 00:54:54

The Placement of Two-sided Time in Physics

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 9 Pages.

This note describes two-sided time, as different to time as a one-way flow. Possible investigations of two-sided time in physics are recommended in areas pertaining to: the second law of thermodynamics; treating gravity as an echo returning through an aether; a chronology of cosmic inflation; in the standard model of physics; and in the holographic principle.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[307] viXra:1906.0352 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-15 15:03:16

Double Slit Interference and Doppler Effect

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The double-slit interference shows that the product of the wavelength and the distance from the slit plate to the projection screen is conserved in all inertial reference frames. This conservation ensures that the observed wavelength in any inertial reference frame is identical to the original wavelength in the rest frame of the light source. According to the Doppler effect, the observed frequency depends on the choice of inertial reference frame. With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of light is different in a different inertial reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[306] viXra:1906.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 01:37:26

Beta Decay Emits No Neutrino

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 11 Pages.

The 1927 Ellis-Wooster calorimetry experiment was an attempt to resolve the controversy over the continuous energy distribution spectrum of beta decay. A Radium E source was placed within a calorimeter in order to capture and measure the heat generated by beta decay. If the beta decay energy is assumed to be quantized, the captured heat energy should match the maximum spectrum energy of 1.05 MeV if the calorimeter captured all the disintegration energy. The result of the experiment gave the captured average heat of beta decay to be 350,000 eV instead of the expected 1.05 MeV. The 350,000 eV was accepted to be a match to the average spectrum energy of 390,000 eV. The experiment indicated some energy escaped the Ellis-Wooster calorimeter - thus the notion of "missing energy". The thesis of this paper is that the conclusion of the Ellis-Wooster experiment depends on whether the heat of calorimetry is consistent with relativistic kinetic energy or with classical kinetic energy. The spectrum energy used by the experiment was based on relativistic energy. If the values are converted to classical energy, the the maximum spectrum energy would only be 230,000 eV and the average 120,000 eV. The captured heat was much greater than the average of 120,000 eV. This reinterpretation would dismiss the notion of any missing energy in the experiment. The question of whether there was any missing energy is related to whether physical reality is consistent with special relativity or with Newtonian mechanics. The basis upon which Wolfgang Pauli proposed his 1930 neutrino hypothesis was the conclusion of the 1927 Ellis-Wooster experiment which supposedly supported the idea of "missing energy". The neutrino and the current neutrino physics would remain if special relativity is found to be the correct mechanics representing the physical world. On the other hand, if Newtonian mechanics is found to be correct, then all of neutrino physics would have to be dismissed. The one experiment that could decide on the issue is to determine the maximum speed with which beta particles are ejected in beta decay using the direct time-of-flight method. If Newtonian mechanics is correct, then there would be beta particles found to go beyond the speed of light; otherwise, it would be experimental evidence supporting special relativity. The result of this experiment would settle unequivocally the question concerning the nature of physical reality. But to date, this experiment has not been carried out.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[305] viXra:1906.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 03:54:55

On the Coloring of Graphs Formed by Cliques Sharing at Most One Common Vertex

Authors: Prajnanaswaroopa S, J Geetha, K Somasundaram
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short note, we give a coloring procedure for graphs which consist of cliques sharing at most one point
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[304] viXra:1906.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 05:09:07

Perfect Quantum Portal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Maryland have captured the most direct evidence to date of a quantum quirk that allows particles to tunnel through a barrier like it's not even there. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[303] viXra:1906.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 05:32:24

Neutrons Angle on DNA and RNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9]
Category: Physics of Biology

[302] viXra:1906.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 08:06:34

Ring Resonators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Researchers at the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) have created the first silicon chip that can reliably constrain light to its four corners. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[301] viXra:1906.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 08:33:45

Supercomputers aid Gamma Ray Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

UC San Diego mechanical and aerospace engineering graduate student Tao Wang recently demonstrated how an extremely strong magnetic field, similar to that on the surface of a neutron star, can be not only generated but also detected using an X-ray laser inside a solid material. [33] Combining principles from computational fluid dynamics and acoustics, researchers at the TU Berlin have developed an analytical model that could simplify the process of designing Helmholtz resonators, a type of noise cancelling structure used in airplanes, ships, and ventilation systems. [32] During this run, from 2015 to 2018, LHC experiments produced unprecedented volumes of data with the machine's performance exceeding all expectations. [31] The proposal envisages a new 100km circumference tunnel that would be bored through the Earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside. [30] On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[300] viXra:1906.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 09:09:35

{ e, (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3)} is Normal in the Symmetric Group of Degree 4

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

An addendum to group theory.
Category: Algebra

[299] viXra:1906.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 10:00:45

Note on Refutation of the Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The conjecture using a Bayesian pipe symbol (|), instead of the fractional division symbol (/) as originally published, is not tautologous, thereby relegating it to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Social Science

[298] viXra:1906.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 10:06:03

Co-Generation of Power and Distilled Water on Big Land by Solar-Osmosis Closed-Loop System

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper presents up-conversion methods on whatever available big land, e.g. backyard or vacant land or farmland for booming green economy with new invention of solar-osmosis tandem technology so as to maximize multi goals: co-harvest of summer solar distilled or winter frozen potable water + pressure retarded fluid power, as well as pool buffered energy storage. By estimation, 1 km^2 land annual yield: 88 GWH energy + 1 million tons H2O in average zones. Also interlaced with some relevant political views.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[297] viXra:1906.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 12:58:27

Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A team of researchers at RIKEN (Japan), Università di Messina (Italy) and the University of Michigan (U.S.) have recently carried out a study investigating this topic further. [29] Physicists envision that the future of quantum computation networks will contain scalable, monolithic circuits, which include advanced functionalities on a single physical substrate. [28] Engineering researchers have demonstrated proof-of-principle for a device that could serve as the backbone of a future quantum Internet. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[296] viXra:1906.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 13:50:28

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory11

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

matter act and do physics because its different from it surroundings
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[295] viXra:1906.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 18:12:46

A Simple and Precise Method for Pricing Convertible Bond with Credit Risk

Authors: Tim Xiao
Comments: 30 Pages.

This paper presents a new model for valuing hybrid defaultable financial instruments, such as, convertible bonds. In contrast to previous studies, the model relies on the probability distribution of a default jump rather than the default jump itself, as the default jump is usually inaccessible. As such, the model can back out the market prices of convertible bonds. A prevailing belief in the market is that convertible arbitrage is mainly due to convertible underpricing. Empirically, however, we do not find evidence supporting the underpricing hypothesis. Instead, we find that convertibles have relatively large positive gammas. As a typical convertible arbitrage strategy employs delta-neutral hedging, a large positive gamma can make the portfolio highly profitable, especially for a large movement in the underlying stock price.
Category: Economics and Finance

[294] viXra:1906.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 19:50:29

Contact and Notes

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 2 Pages. Notes

Some notes on early material and contact.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[293] viXra:1906.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 22:18:04

A Michelson-Morley Type Experiment Should be Performed in Low Earth Orbit and Interplanetary Space

Authors: James Marsen
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper supports those who have proposed that a Michelson-Morley type experiment (MMX) be performed in outer space. It predicts results that will falsify the foundational postulates of Einstein's relativity and it explains why these these unexpected results are predicted. The prediction is that a Michelson-Morley type experiment performed in low Earth orbit will show an unambiguous non-null result with a fringe or frequency variation proportional to the square of its orbital velocity (7.6km/sec for a 500 km orbital altitude). If performed in interplanetary space, the result will be equivalent to the space-craft's orbital velocity around the Sun (∼ 30km/sec). These predictions are based on an alternative ether concept proposed by the late Prof. Petr Beck-mann in 1986 and independently developed by late Prof. Ching-Chuan Su in 2000. Prof. Su called it the local-ether model. It explains that the reason terrestrial MMX type experiments have reported null results is not because there is no "ether-wind" to detect; it is because the actual value of the "ether-wind" is due only to the velocity of Earth's rotation at the latitude of the laboratory (464cosθ meters/sec). This is too small for even the most sensitive recent versions of the MMX to unambiguously detect. Finally we will discuss accomplishing the experiment with private funding.
Category: Classical Physics

[292] viXra:1906.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 00:16:59

Discovering Domain-Sensitive Topics in User-Reviews

Authors: Sarthak Kamat
Comments: 4 Pages.

Customer reviews are integral to retail businesses. This paper demonstrates new methods for ranking the most representative and interesting snippets within reviews posted by their customers.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[291] viXra:1906.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 00:26:41

Refutation of Predicative Collapse and Arithmetical Comprehension

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The four equations evaluated are not tautologous, hence refuting predicative collapsing principles such as arithmetical comprehension. Therefore these form a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[290] viXra:1906.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 01:25:19

Quantum Music

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The group at the National Institute for Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, spent a long six years finding a way to directly measure electric fields using atoms, so who can blame them for then having a little fun with their new technology? [28] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[289] viXra:1906.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:07:49

Magnetoelectric Switching

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

The high resolution and wealth of data provided by an experiment at Diamond can lead to unexpected discoveries. [22] Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[288] viXra:1906.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:28:58

Walk Through CERN Corridors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Forty years ago, in 1979, experiments at the DESY laboratory in Germany provided the first direct proof of the existence of gluons—the carriers of the strong force that "glue" quarks into protons, neutrons and other particles known collectively as hadrons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[287] viXra:1906.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:46:13

New Force for Optical Tweezers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

When studying biological cells using optical tweezers, one main issue is the damage caused to the cell by the tool. Giovanni Volpe, University of Gothenburg, has discovered a new type of force that will greatly reduce the amount of light used by optical tweezers-and improve the study of all kinds of cells and particles. [25] The device, which works in the mesoscopic mass range for the first time, might not only be used to help solve fundamental problems in quantum mechanics, it might also find use in precision metrology applications. [24] Although previous research shows that metal nanoparticles have properties useful for various biomedical applications, many mysteries remain regarding how these tiny materials form, including the processes that generate size variations. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[286] viXra:1906.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-21 07:53:29

Some Conjectures On Inequalities In Operator Axioms

Authors: Pith Peishu Xie
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Operator axioms have deduced number systems. In this paper, we conjecture some inequalities in Operator axioms. The general inequalities show the value of Operator axioms.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[285] viXra:1906.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 06:37:17

Tensile Structure, Membrane and Magnetic Potential Analogy

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I studied a particular problem, far from the one published here, ending up in a dead end. Some intermediate results are interesting and fun. I write the stationary state of a membrane like an electromagnetic problem, this analogy allows me to write the energy of the membrane
Category: Classical Physics

[284] viXra:1906.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 07:01:49

A Defense of Critique of the Simulation Argument and Critique of VŁ4 as Applied

Authors: Shreyansh Goyal
Comments: 3 pages

Colin James III critiqued the paper titled “Refutation of “Refutation of the simulation argument and incompleteness of information” [Goyal, S. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0126v1.pdf] in his paper titled “Mistakes in rebuttal of Refutation of the simulation argument and incompleteness of information” [James III, C. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0156v1.pdf] to show that the original paper makes a few mistakes and the refutation of the paper titled “The Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information” [Goyal, S. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0073v1.pdf] by Colin James III in the paper titled “Refutation of the simulation argument and incompleteness of information” [James III, C. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0090v1.pdf] is valid. I argue that the mistakes pointed out by Colin James III do not lead to the conclusions which he proposes and the refutation of his application of VŁ4 on the critique of simulation argument, as proposed, appears to be invalid.
Category: Social Science

[283] viXra:1906.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 07:12:50

Quantum Simulation Help Flights

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A powerful new form of computing could help scientists design new types of materials for nanoelectronics, allow airlines to solve complex logistical problems to ensure flights run on time, and tackle traffic jams to keep cars flowing more freely on busy roads. [19] "Digital quantum simulation is thus intrinsically much more robust than what one might expect from known error bounds on the global many-body wave function," Heyl says. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[282] viXra:1906.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 08:24:53

Heisenberg Quantum Uncertainty

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 97 Pages.

We don't have to get into what they claimed was the mechanism for destroying interference, because our experiment has shown there is an effect on the velocity of the particle, of just the size Heisenberg predicted. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[281] viXra:1906.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-18 08:47:27

A Reformulation of Classical Mechanics

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 6 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This paper presents a reformulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics

[280] viXra:1906.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 08:54:10

An Anomaly in the set of Complex Numbers

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 1 Page.

We exploit some rudimentary facts about the number one: (-1)(-1) = 1, 1 = sqrt(1 squared), and 1 squared = 1 to show an anomaly in the set of Complex Numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[279] viXra:1906.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 11:52:43

Struktur des Universums

Authors: Gerd Pommerenke
Comments: 321 Pages. German version of viXra:1310.0189

Bezugnehmend auf eine früher formulierte Idee von LANCZOS wird eine spezielle Lösung der MAXWELL-Gleichungen vorgestellt, die ein spezielles metrisches Wellenfeld beschreibt, das die Ursache aller relativistischen Effekte und der Gravitation sein soll. Die Gravitation läßt sich zurückführen auf ebendieses elektromagnetische Feld. Interessanterweise ähneln die Eigenschaften dieses Feldes denen, die das bereits seit einiger Zeit postulierten HIGGS-Feld haben müßte, um Widersprüche mit gesicherten Erkenntnissen und Beobachtungen zu vermeiden. Basierend auf dieser Lösung wird eine alternative Vakuum-Ausbreitungsfunktion für EM-Wellen entwickelt, die im Gegensatz zur bisher als einzig richtig angenommenen Standardlösung für ein verlustfreies Medium auch solche Effekte, wie die kosmologische Rotverschiebung und die nicht erwarteten Meßergebnisse des SN-Ia-Kosmologie-Experiments erklärt, ohne "Dunkle Materie" o.ä. zu bemühen. Ein ganzer Abschnitt ist den Ergebnissen dieses Experiments und deren Interpretation gewidmet. Die Beziehungen zwischen den fundamentalen Naturkonstanten, bei denen es sich nicht immer um echte Konstanten handelt, werden genauer untersucht. So gelingt es, einen Ausdruck für die Berechnung des HUBBLE-Parameters allein aus lokal meßbaren Werten, zu erarbeiten. Ausgehend von der alternativen Vakuum-Ausbreitungsfunktion wird im Anhang die Frage "Ist der Verlauf der Planckschen Strahlungsfunktion das Resultat der Existenz einer oberen Grenzfrequenz des Vakuums?" genauer untersucht. Kein Standardmodell, keine Inflation, keine Dunkle Materie, exakte Kosmologie. Fragen und Anregungen an gerdpommerenke@arcor.de. English version see viXra:1310.0189
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[278] viXra:1906.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 13:30:48

An Attempt to Colour Confinement

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note is presented with a single aim; the aim is to deduce a mathematical method to simply interpret the phenomena of color confinement. The derivation is something that arises from profound theoretical mechanisms of strong interaction.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[277] viXra:1906.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 16:18:42

Refutation of the Hol/isabelle Rejection of E.j. Lowe’s Modal Ontological Argument

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 5 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Of 20 equations evaluated, 16 are not tautologous. This effectively refutes Lowe’s proof, as rendered by the authors. This also invalidates the authors’ rejection of Lowe’s proof due to incompleteness (six of Lowe’s conclusions are dismissed without evaluation) and due to an interactive, trial by error approach to reconstruct Lowe. Therefore an ideal showcase for the computer-assisted interpretive method using HOL/Isabelle failed. These results form another non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[276] viXra:1906.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-18 12:20:34

Asymptotic Closed-form Nth Zero Formula for Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Alan M. Gómez
Comments: 2 Pages.

Assuming the Riemann Hypothesis to be true, we propose an asymptotic and closed-form formula to find the imaginary part for non-trivial zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function.
Category: Number Theory

[275] viXra:1906.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 19:51:32

Division By Zero: The Solution to Everything

Authors: Thomas Denley
Comments: 1 Page.

People have been adhering too rigidly to rules to divide by zero. Their calculators display it as undefined. The calculators were programmed by humans who did not yet understand what division by zero means.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[274] viXra:1906.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 21:05:35

Uranus Is Perpendicular on Earth Moon Orbit

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 22 Pages.

1-Uranus Is Perpendicular On Earth Moon Orbit 2-The Sun Also Is Perpendicular On Earth Moon Orbit (The Sun And Uranus Are On The Same Horizontal Level) 3-The Rest Planets Are Found On Stair Steps Relative To Each Other – (Graduated Horizontal Levels). 4-The Solar Planets revolve around the perpendicular line from the Sun to Earth. 5-The Solar Planets doesn't revolve around the sun herself.
Category: Astrophysics

[273] viXra:1906.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 22:43:25

Primality Test with Fibonacci Numbers

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 6 Pages.

All prime numbers are represented as factors of Fibonacci numbers, following a relationship with the corresponding Fibonacci number index.
Category: Number Theory

[272] viXra:1906.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 03:13:04

Magnetic Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers have discovered the first ever intrinsic magnetic topological insulator-a stoichiometric compound that boasts both inherent magnetic order and topological insulator characteristics. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene-the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms-by bathing it in light. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[271] viXra:1906.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 03:46:49

Silicon Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Photonics-based computing uses less energy and can transmit data faster than conventional approaches, but the costs of manufacturing silicon integrated circuits with embedded photonic elements have held back progress. [47] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[270] viXra:1906.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 04:12:05

Comment on “Misconceptions Regarding Conventional Coupling of Fields and Particles in XFEL Codes”

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra
Comments: 8 Pages.

We make some observations regarding a paper by Gianluca Geloni, Vitali Kocharyan and Evgeni Saldin (2016 Misconceptions Regarding Conventional Coupling of Fields and Particles in XFEL Codes, DESY 16017, ISSN 0418-9837).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[269] viXra:1906.0311 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-19 03:12:12

The Nature of Yukawa's Nuclear Force and Charge

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper builds on our previous paper and further explores the math and the physics of Yukawa’s potential function for the nucleus. It calculates forces and provides a formula for the nucleon charge (Yukawa's nucleon charge is the equivalent of the electron charge for the nuclear force). We find its numerical value is equal to (the square root of) the product of Euler’s number, the fine-structure constant, Planck’s constant and the speed of light. To make sense of this result, we need to accept the notion of a nuclear charge, which is nothing but the concept of the strong charge that goes with the strong force. The model is, of course, purely theoretical: the objective is to only to explore theoretical concepts using numerical data for protons and neutrons. Our next paper will try to see whether or not these explorations make sense when analyzed in the context of quark theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[268] viXra:1906.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 04:19:30

Comment on “On the Speed of Light”

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra
Comments: 4 Pages.

We make some comments on “a realistic experiment to determinate eventual anisotropies in the one-way speed of light independently of specific clock synchronization procedures. This establishes that we are not free to define either the one-way speed of light or time itself and must rely instead on further empirical observations to clarify these concepts, contrary to what was originally proposed in 1905” by Manuel Ricou [Physics Essays, 30, 4 (2017)].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[267] viXra:1906.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 05:29:28

Reduced Adhesion Create Tumors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Altering the adhesion at the interface between tissues with different steady-state pressures allows the stable coexistence of the tissues-according to simulations done by physicists in Germany. [45] The molecule has undergone unusually rapid development and is already being tested in a Phase I clinical trial in Japan, under a license from Harvard's Office of Technology Development (OTD) to Eisai. [44] A hair-sized probe that can measure key indicators of tissue damage deep in the lung has been developed by scientists. [43] Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[266] viXra:1906.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 07:45:57

Fluid Walls Around Living Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39]
Category: Physics of Biology

[265] viXra:1906.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 10:35:54

Refutation of Pseudo-Trinitarian Mapping of the Two Great Commandments Via Neutrosophy

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We map the two great commandments in Matt 22:37-40 as conjunction of God, self, and others. It is not tautologous and a gross misreading by forcing a pseudo-trinitarian theology. (We resuscitate the text as a theorem by expansion.) Hence, three-valued neutrosophic logic is insufficient to prove models of human consciousness, and thereby forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[264] viXra:1906.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 12:31:23

Refutation of the Axiomatic Translation Principle for Modal Logic Via Resolution Decision Procedure

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The basis of the axiomatic translation principle is that “no resolution decision procedures are known for decidable first-order logic fragments relevant to modal logics that include the formula ∀xyz(R(x,y)∧R(x,z)→R(y,z)) to express the Euclideanness of a relation R”. We prove a decision procedure for that equation, and hence refute the axiomatic translation principle on which the conjecture is based. Therefore, the axiomatic translation principle is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[263] viXra:1906.0304 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-17 10:29:26

On Vector Subspaces

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 2 Pages.

The short writing seeks to demonstrate certain lapses in the theory of the linear vector spaces.
Category: Algebra

[262] viXra:1906.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 19:22:18

A Trigonometric Proof of Oppenheim’s and Pedoe Inequality

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 7 Pages.

This problem first appeared in the American Mathematical Monthly in 1965, proposed by Sir Alexander Oppenheim. As a matter of curiosity, the American Mathematical Monthly is the most widely read mathematics journal in the world. On the other hand, Oppenheim was a brilliant mathematician, and for the excellence of his work in mathematics, obtained the title of “ Sir ”, given by the English to English citizens who stand out in the national and international scenario.Oppenheim is better known in the academic world for his contribution to the field of Number Theory, known as the Oppenheim Conjecture.
Category: Geometry

[261] viXra:1906.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 22:47:04

The Paradox of the Twins 100 Percent Shows the Inequality of the Reference Systems.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Einstein argued that in his Special Relativity Theory all systems are equal. However, Einstein refused to give a simple solution to the twin paradox, which I showed earlier. Because the solution to the twin paradox shows the inequality of the reference systems.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[260] viXra:1906.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 23:32:35

Физика, которая не стала реалистичной наукой

Authors: George Kirakosyan
Comments: 4 pages, article with illustration (Russ)

Естествознание вырождается в политизированно-конфессиональную доктрину
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[259] viXra:1906.0299 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 05:47:42

Analogy of Weber's Electrodynamics Formula for Gravitation may Explain Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Hubble’s Law and Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 6 Pages.

Weber's electrodynamics formula for the force of interaction between moving charged particles, which is a modification of Coulomb's law, may solve many of the paradoxes and puzzles in classical and relativistic electromagnetism. In this paper we propose modification of Newton's law of gravitation according to Weber's formula. This may solve many of the outstanding problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and the Pioneer anomaly.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[258] viXra:1906.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 03:38:13

Shed Light on Lung Disease

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

A hair-sized probe that can measure key indicators of tissue damage deep in the lung has been developed by scientists. [43] Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41]
Category: Physics of Biology

[257] viXra:1906.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 04:20:18

Potent Anti-Cancer Agent

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

The molecule has undergone unusually rapid development and is already being tested in a Phase I clinical trial in Japan, under a license from Harvard's Office of Technology Development (OTD) to Eisai. [44] A hair-sized probe that can measure key indicators of tissue damage deep in the lung has been developed by scientists. [43] Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35]
Category: Physics of Biology

[256] viXra:1906.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 07:40:12

Simplicity as Ultimate Sophistication?

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 2 Pages.

Simple Solutions, complex, problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[255] viXra:1906.0295 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-20 00:58:29

Expanding Universe from Weyl Cosmology and Asymptotic Safety in Quantum Gravity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 19 Pages.

A study of the simplest Jordan-Brans-Dicke-like action within the context of Weyl geometry, combined with the findings of Weinberg’s Asymptotic Safety program in quantum gravity, leads to a plethora of nice numerical results : (i) like singling out the quartic potential from all the others; (ii) having (Anti) de Sitter space as the most natural solution; (iii) furnishing the value of the observed vacuum energy density at the Hubble scale (3/8 pi G_N R_H^2) ~ 10^{−122} M_P^4 ; (iv) and a value of {3/8 pi) M^4_P for the vacuum energy density at the Planck scale; (v) interpreting the “Bang” of the Big Bang as the singularity of the Weyl gauge field of dilations at t = 0 ushering in the era of inflation, and (vi) allowing the possibility that our universe is a Black Hole whose horizon coincides with the cosmological Hubble horizon. It is warranted to explore deeper the interplay among Weyl geometry, Asymptotic safety and Maldacena’s AdS/CFT correspondence (holographic renormalization group flow). Also relevant is the work by Wetterich on the role of dilatation symmetry in higher dimensions and the vanishing of the cosmological constant. Last, but not least, we should also consider the implications of Penrose’ Conformal Cyclic Cosmology and Nottale’s Scale Relativity Theory with the key findings of this work.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[254] viXra:1906.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 08:44:32

An Outline of Extension from Neutrosophic Psychology to Pneumatic Transpersonal Psychology: Towards Relational Psychotherapy and Relational Pedagogy

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 22 Pages. This article was writen under guidance of Holy Spirit

Continuing our previous paper, we gave an outline of a new integral model of human consciousness scheme beyond Freudian mental model. We start from a recent book by one of us: Neutropsychic personality. Then we discuss possibility to reintroduce spirit into human consciousness. To emphasize what we have outlined in a preceding paper, we consider the following: that human consciousness model should take into consideration “spirit” role, i.e. the mind-body-spirit as integral aspect, which view is neglected in the Freudian mental model. In this paper, we consider a further step: introducing “soul” as a different element of human consciousness. We also discuss a few possible applications of such an integral model of human consciousness, including relational psychotherapy and relational pedagogy. While we are fully aware that much remain to be done and we admit that this is only a sketch, we hope that this paper will start a fresh approach of research towards more realistic nonlinear human consciousness model.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[253] viXra:1906.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 08:50:36

Wireless Technologies (4G, 5G) Are Very Harmful to Human Health and Environment: A Preliminary Review

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages. This article was writen under guidance of Holy Spirit

The intent of this article is to show that wireless technology is, without remedy other than termination, one of the most devastating environmental and health threats and threats to personal liberty ever created. It is becoming widely known that 4G and 5G technologies cause many harms to human health. Cancer is only one problem, and one that is easily solved. 4G and 5G cause 720! (factorial) different maladies in human beings, and can kill everything that lives but some forms of micro organisms. Some pathogens and certain parasites are made more virulent by selected frequencies of RF. Insects and birds are already being killed by the RF broadcasts. The broadcasts can be controlled to give selected individuals selected maladies. All this needs to be stopped. There are other ways to communicate that do not require radio waves, nor wires, which cause no damage to any form of life. We need to make those methods available to the public, while all the RF systems are being phased out.
Category: Physics of Biology

[252] viXra:1906.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 09:02:10

Carbon Nanotubes Membranes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[251] viXra:1906.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 09:30:42

Uniform-Shape Polymer Nanocrystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[250] viXra:1906.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 10:03:13

Opposite Piezoresistant Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30]
Category: Condensed Matter

[249] viXra:1906.0288 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-29 12:01:52

Local Symmetries in Theory of Emergent Spacetime and Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Local symmetries in the theory of emergent space-time are considered. It is shown that in this theory there are U(1), SU(2) and SU(3) local symmetries. The wave-particle duality is considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[248] viXra:1906.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 11:46:28

Single-Molecule Conductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Condensed Matter

[247] viXra:1906.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 12:14:43

Gold Nanoclusters in Drugs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[246] viXra:1906.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 12:15:45

Defining the Purpose and Source of the Universe Without Considering Religion

Authors: James R Johnson
Comments: 8 Pages.

Does our universe have a purpose and was it created by an external source? This paper, without considering religion, argues that it has a purpose and was designed by an intelligent designer. The first argument for a “Life” purpose is based on two special features of life, intelligence and consciousness. The second argument for purpose is an observation, the universe acts like it has a purpose. The rational for selecting the source of creation as an “Intelligent Designer” over the “Just Exists” option also has multiple arguments, such as: specifying universal rules and laws of physics; rationalizing the universe’s clever, ingenious design; explaining fine-tuning of particle masses and force strengths; and, defining Big Bang assumptions. The task is to understand what assumptions are currently most rational considering: the importance of life/consciousness; arguments for source of creation; and, processes for producing energy, such as, the speculative multiverse theories. Additionally, the analysis provides perspective on other source options for our universe: a Life Principle; a self-comprehending causal loop; and an advanced civilization.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[245] viXra:1906.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 14:05:16

Wether or Not the Strong Force is Included in MHCE8S Theory Produces Two Final Values of Ho l

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. I welcome the contribution of Bruce Wallman to my work

Abstract: If the strong force is included in MHCE8S theory a final value of Ho = 74.03 brings in the strong force safely energetically (0.86 %) to the theory whereas a reduction in Ho from 74.03 to 73.24 excludes the strong force by ~ 1/4 %.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[244] viXra:1906.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 15:13:56

Another Way to Sum up the Grandi Series.

Authors: Andrew W. Ivashenko
Comments: 2 Pages. ivashenko_a_v@mail.ru, language Russian

The original method is indicated in the article summation series grande considerations. The result is summed expected to match the result cesaro summation.
Category: General Mathematics

[243] viXra:1906.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 15:16:11

Maximum First Open Numbers and Goldbach’s Conjecture

Authors: Sally Myers Moite
Comments: 6 Pages.

For a fixed last prime, sieve the positive integers as follows. For every prime up to and including that last prime, choose one arbitrary remainder and its negative. Sieve the positive integers by eliminating all numbers congruent to the chosen remainders modulo their prime. Consider the maximum of the first open numbers left by all such sieves for a particular last prime. Computations for small last primes support a conjecture that the maximum first open number is less than (last prime)^1.75. If this conjecture could be proved, it would imply Goldbach’s Theorem is true.
Category: Number Theory

[242] viXra:1906.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 22:06:36

Rejection of the Quantified Modal Logic Theorem Proving (QMLTP) Library

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate five equations from the quantified modal logic theorem proving (QMLTP) library. None is tautologous for the status of the claimed conjecture, rejecting the approach and library. Other objections include: clarity such as not all problems are in English descriptions; skewed coverage such as about 50% the equations are assumed for Gödel’s embedding; and usability such as the utility tool, to translate QMLTP scripts for pre-selected provers, in Prolog source code which is not compiled into executables for major hardware/OS platforms. Based on these results, the QMLTP approach and library forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[241] viXra:1906.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 22:14:28

A Trigonometric Proof of Oppenheim’s Inequality

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 5 Pages.

This problem first appeared in the American Mathematical Monthly in 1965, proposed by Sir Alexander Oppenheim. As a matter of curiosity, the American Mathematical Monthly is the most widely read mathematics journal in the world. On the other hand, Oppenheim was a brilliant mathematician, and for the excellence of his work in mathematics, obtained the title of “ Sir ”, given by the English to English citizens who stand out in the national and international scenario.Oppenheim is better known in the academic world for his contribution to the field of Number Theory, known as the Oppenheim Conjecture.
Category: Geometry

[240] viXra:1906.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 23:53:20

Die Swastika Und Die Ringheiligtümer

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 5 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden die Zusammenhänge zwischen der Swastika und den Ringheiligtümern.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[239] viXra:1906.0275 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-27 04:23:26

Perfect Contrast Cannot be Obtained in the Electron Double-Slit Experiment

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura
Comments: 9 Pages.

Conventionally, the wave of particles which through the double-slit is assumed plane waves. In this research, we considered that the interference fringes built up through the double-slit have a difference amplitudes between the case of electrons and the case of photons. The difference between the two fringes is in the troughs of the waves. In this research, it is hypothesized that the amplitudes of waves passing through the left and right slits are not even in the double-slit experiment of electrons. Computer simulations performed to obtain the results supporting this hypothesis. The concept that waves of different amplitudes pass through a double-slit is reasonably to have the notion that two spinor particles pass through each slit.
Category: Quantum Physics

[238] viXra:1906.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 02:13:47

Novel 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Linked Amide Derivatives of Pteridone: Synthesis and Study of Anticancer Activities

Authors: Eeduri Ramya Devi, Reddymasu Sreenivasulu, Koya Prabhakara Rao, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Malladi Sireesha
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cancer is a second leading cause of death after heart attack, in developing as well as undeveloped countries. It is caused by unregulated growth and metastasis of the abnormal cancer cells. Cancer can be cured by radiation, immunotherapy and chemotherapy, among them; chemotherapy is a good treatment for cancer, in which chemotherapeutic drug is used. The anticancer activity of newly compounds (13a-j) was carried out on four different types of human cancer cell lines like MCF-7 (breast), A549 (lung), Colo-205 (colon) and A2780 (ovarian) by the MTT method, and compared to etoposide used as a positive control. Among them, compound 13g with electron-withdrawing (3,5- dinitro) group, exhibited more promising activity in all cell lines (MCF-7 = 0.10±0.076 μM, A549 = 0.17±0.039 μM, Colo-205= 0.13±0.022 μM and A2780 = 0.87±0.027μM). This compound may act as lead drug in cancer chemotherapy. In future, this compound can be examined for clinical studies.
Category: Chemistry

[237] viXra:1906.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 04:31:04

Is there an Order in the Distribution of Prime Numbers?

Authors: Silvio Gabbianelli
Comments: 14 Pages.

By arranging the prime numbers on four columns ten-to-ten (columns of one, three, seven, nine) and establishing a suitable correspondence between the quadruples obtained and the numbers between zero and fifteen, we obtain a synthetic representation of them which allows to establish that the order in the distribution of prime numbers among positive natural numbers is not random.
Category: Number Theory

[236] viXra:1906.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 06:24:38

Quantum Dot Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A team of researchers from Jülich in cooperation with the University of Magdeburg has developed a new method to measure the electric potentials of a sample at atomic accuracy. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[235] viXra:1906.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 06:57:39

Virtual Biopsy Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

A team headed up at Rutgers University has developed a device that performs virtual biopsies of skin lesions, by combining optical coherence tomography images with stiffness measurements performed simultaneously using vibrational analysis. [27] To diagnose and treat diseases like cancer, scientists and doctors must understand how cells respond to different medical conditions and treatments. [26] Following its recent release of a massive database of chest X-rays, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) has now made nearly 10,600 CT scans publicly available to support the development and testing of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for medical applications. [25] AI combined with stem cells promises a faster approach to disease prevention. Andrew Masterson reports. According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence-the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[234] viXra:1906.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 07:28:34

How does Geomagnetic Field form

Authors: Jianfei Chen
Comments: 5 Pages.

Geomagnetic field is important to every life, forming of which has not been explained well. This paper linked lodestone on earth and distance from earth to sun to explain forming of the geomagnetic field. Finally found that key to forming the geomagnetic field is distance from earth to sun. Affected by this distance, the matter earth gets from sun is special magnetic energy particles, which promotes to form lodestone, magnetic energy from which is stored in lodestone. Much lodestone on earth makes up a huge magnet, which release unified magnetic energy to make up the geomagnetic field. Email: eastear@outlook.com / eastear@163.com
Category: Geophysics

[233] viXra:1906.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 08:13:24

Light-Induced Ferroelectricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg have used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[232] viXra:1906.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 08:33:02

Refutation of Inquisitive Modal Logic Via Flatness Grade

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two seminal definitions for flatness grade with neither tautologous. This refutes inquisitive modal logic and relegates it to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[231] viXra:1906.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 08:34:23

Refutation of Category Theory by Lattice Identity, and Graph-Theoretic / Set-of-Blocks in Partitions

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate a definition and two models of a method in graph theory to define any Boolean operation. The definition is not tautologous, refuting that only partition tautologies using only the lattice operations correspond to general lattice-theoretic identities. Defined models of graph-theoretic and set-of-blocks do not produce a common edge, but rather show the graph-theoretic definition implies the set-of-blocks definition. This refutes the graph-theoretic model as defining any Boolean operation on lattice partitions of category theory. What follows is that general lattice theory is also refuted via partitions. Therefore the conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[230] viXra:1906.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 09:33:41

What Happens when Two Atoms Meet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

An international team of researchers has demonstrated a new way to gain a detailed understanding of what happens when two atoms meet. [33] New research, led by the University of St Andrews and the College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, has led to the ability to trap two minuscule spinning particles, which offers fascinating insights into the world around us and could help create future precise sensors for measurement. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[229] viXra:1906.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 10:01:54

Phase-Change Materials of Smartphones

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Phase-change materials that are used in the latest generation of smartphones could lead to higher storage capability and more energy efficiency. [23] A novel magnet half the size of a cardboard toilet tissue roll usurped the title of "world's strongest magnetic field" from the metal titan that had held it for two decades at the Florida State University-headquartered National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[228] viXra:1906.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 12:58:51

Oscillating Quasiparticles Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Theoretical physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems have discovered that things which seem inconceivable in the everyday world are possible on a microscopic level. [36] These exotic particles can, for example, emerge as quasi-particles in topological superconductors and represent ideal building blocks for topological quantum computers. [35] This event is considered as a striking proof of the existence of Majorana particles, and it represents a crucial step towards their use as building blocks for the development of quantum computers. [34] In the latest experiment of its kind, researchers have captured the most compelling evidence to date that unusual particles lurk inside a special kind of superconductor. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[227] viXra:1906.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 13:32:10

Electron Pairs Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[226] viXra:1906.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 21:06:48

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Phases of Sillimanite, Andalusite and Kyanite in Uranus's Atmosphere, and Thoughts on Ocean World Stage Beginnings

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The phases of sillimanite, andalusite and kyanite are placed in reference to the deep atmosphere of Uranus. This is to show that Uranus has the temperatures and pressures that can form rocks and minerals exactly like the Earth. As well some thoughts as to how we can pin point the exact moment in time the Earth moved into its own ocean world stages of evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[225] viXra:1906.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 22:47:13

Graph Signal Processing: Towards the Diffused Spectral Clustering

Authors: Reda ALAMI
Comments: 5 Pages.

Graph signal processing is an emerging field of research. When the structure of signalscanberepresentedasagraph,itallowstofullyexploittheirinherentstructure. It has been shown that the normalized graph Laplacian matrix plays a major role in the characterization of a signal on a graph. Moreover, this matrix plays a major role in clustering large data set. In this paper, we present the diffused spectral clustering: a novel handwritten digits clustering algorithm based on the normalizedgraphLaplacianproperties. It’saclevercombinationbetweenagraph feature space transformation and the spectral clustering algorithm. Experimentally, our proposal outperforms the other algorithms of the state-of-art.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[224] viXra:1906.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 23:51:52

Isotropy Of Light In Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The speed of light is identical in all directions in the rest frame of the light source. In a different inertial reference frame, the direction of light may change due to the motion of the light source. The speed of light in the longitudinal direction of the motion of the light source is compared to the speed of light in the transverse direction. The result shows that these two speeds are equal only if the speed of the light source is greater than the speed of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[223] viXra:1906.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 01:37:29

Christ and Socrates

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 1 Page. -

Whether their murders are crimes or is not present.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[222] viXra:1906.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 01:42:01

Liquid Gold on Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Condensed Matter

[221] viXra:1906.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 01:57:34

Laser Produces Terahertz Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of scientists from DESY and the University of Hamburg has achieved an important milestone in the quest for a new type of compact particle accelerator. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[220] viXra:1906.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 02:09:19

On the Ramanujan’s Mock ϑ-Functions of His Last Letter: Mathematical Connections with Some Sectors of Particle Physics, Cosmology, Some Expressions Concerning Monster Group, Black Hole Entropies and Hypothetical Mass of Dark Matter Particles.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 220 Pages.

In this research paper we have obtained some interesting mathematical connections between the Mock Theta functions of the Ramanujan’s last letter and some sectors of Particle Physics, Cosmology and some expressions concerning the Monster Group, the Black Hole entropies and the hypothetical mass of Dark Matter particles
Category: Mathematical Physics

[219] viXra:1906.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 02:12:16

Intense X-ray and Gamma-ray Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

International group of researchers including scientists from Skoltech have invented a new method for the generation of intense X-ray and gamma-ray radiation based on nonlinear Compton scattering. [37] This is where the concept of X-ray communications (XCOM) come into play, which offer even more in the way of advantages than lasers. For one, X-rays have much shorter wavelengths than both radio waves and lasers and can broadcast in tighter beams. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[218] viXra:1906.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 05:46:12

An Oscillator Model for Nuclear Mass

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper we use the oscillator or Zitterbewegung model of an electron to offer an equally elegant explanation of the mass of nucleons (equally elegant as the explanation we offered for the electron mass, that is). It is based on the same ideas: a nucleon charge with zero rest mass in orbital motion. The difference is the charge. The nucleon charge is a different charge (different from the electric charge, that is). A different charge implies a different force. A different force implies a different amplitude of the oscillation – and we, therefore, find a different Compton radius for the nucleon. Our interpretation of Wheeler’s idea of mass without mass – based on equating the E = m·a2·ω2 = m·c2 using the tangential velocity formula c = a·ω – remains valid. As an added bonus, we get an equally simple and elegant formula for the coupling constant for the strong force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[217] viXra:1906.0249 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-10 03:42:20

The Cosmos Fine Structure

Authors: José Alberto Pardi
Comments: 16 Pages.

The last century has left us four unresolved facts about a possible Cosmos structure that, according to some theories already existing at that time, it seems that could shed light on some of the great current frustrations of physics, such as, for example, the unification of Quantum Mechanics with the General Theory of Relativity. These facts have the characteristics of true mysteries because, although their existence has been verified independently by several researchers, they have not found a satisfactory explanation. They reveal a "fine structure" like that of the H atom, although it is more "discrete" because even though it has some of the characteristics of the quantization of the atom, it does not have all of them and is also less restrictive, more "soft". Due to these characteristics and the lack of an explanation, these facts have fallen into oblivion. One of the attempts at explanation wrongly used wave mechanics, due to the similarity with the quantization of the atomic orbitals, but the phenomenon is evidently independent of the mass, which makes the use of Quantum Field Theory more plausible. Although if the basic models of quantum gravity proposed at that time do not fit properly, a review of them shows that if a different constant is used to compute the field energy, everything square up. The computations of the Solar System orbits discretization seem to confirm it. This article is just an introduction of these mysteries and how they lead to discover a probable fine structure of the Cosmos, giving only a global view of the integration of theories that help explain it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[216] viXra:1906.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 07:25:23

Primordial Relic Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Previous attempts to measure the mass of the NGC 4395 black hole yielded results ranging from 1000-400,000 solar masses. [27] US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[215] viXra:1906.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 08:28:10

Small Currents in Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

University of Tokyo researchers have created an electronic component that demonstrates functions and abilities important to future generations of computational logic and memory devices. [30] Rice University researchers have simplified the synthesis of a unique, nearly two-dimensional form of iron oxide with strong magnetic properties that is easy to stack atop other 2-D materials. [29] Researchers at Delft University of Technology have recently carried out a study investigating spin-orbit interaction in Majorana nanowires. [28] Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with colleagues proposed using special diffraction gratings with gold plates instead of microlenses used in the classic configuration to obtain images in nanoscopes. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[214] viXra:1906.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 09:07:41

The Contributions of the Gallo Team and the Montagnier Team to the Discovery of the AIDS Virus

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I review the main works of the teams headed by Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier which led to the discovery of the HIV retrovirus and to the blood test with which one can prove HIV infection. I show that this discovery which saved millions of human lifes (and perhaps the survival of mankind) was made possible only (i) because Gallo's team discovered the T-cell lymphocyte growth factor with which they were able to discover the first retrovirus that infects humans (HTLV-I) and their hypothesis that AIDS is caused by a retrovirus, and (ii) because Montagnier's team detected an antibody against alpha interferon in order to enhance retrovirus production with which they were able to discover the HIV retrovirus and their examination and blood test that gave evidence that HIV causes AIDS. Their examination was improved by the Gallo team who proved without doubt that HIV is the cause of AIDS. I leave the question open whether Gallo deserved the Nobel Prize or whether the Nobel committee's decision to award the prize only to Montagnier and Barre-Sinoussi was correct.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[213] viXra:1906.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 11:24:19

Speed and Measure Theorems Related to the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: David Rudisill
Comments: 14 Pages.

We prove an important new result on this problem: Given any epsilon > 0 and k >= 5, and given any set of speeds s_1 < s_2 < ... < s_k, there is a set of speeds v_1 < v_2 < ... < v_k for which the lonely runner conjecture is true and for which |s_i - v_i| < epsilon. We also prove some measure theorems.
Category: Number Theory

[212] viXra:1906.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 11:35:10

Some Diophantine Approximation Problems Equivalent to the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: David Rudisill
Comments: 10 Pages.

We prove that the lonely runner conjecture is equivalent to a set of Diophantine approximation problems.
Category: Number Theory

[211] viXra:1906.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 11:51:58

Covering Problems That Imply The Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: David v. Rudisill
Comments: 8 Pages.

We prove some measure and covering problems related to the lonely runner conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[210] viXra:1906.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 13:15:24

Quantum Wigner Crystal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

When electrons that repel each other are confined to a small space, they can form an ordered crystalline state known as a Wigner crystal. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[209] viXra:1906.0239 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-16 10:24:38

A Mathematical Expression for Inverse Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Alan Michael Gómez Calderón
Comments: 2 Pages.

From the golden angle and the Pell constant, a simple, elegant and concise mathematical expression of the inverse fine-structure constant is given.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[208] viXra:1906.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 13:42:16

Quantitative Gravity Transverse Spatial Vibration of Dimensions

Authors: Yasser alsharif
Comments: 5 Pages.

I am talking about the vibrating position of the spatial dimensions of the Planck length scale. The speed of the light is affected by this vibration. It is also transmitted through it, also how gravity is weak and how the velocity of Blanc's vibration affects the mass so that this mass absorbs this direction to create an opposite gravity towards it.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[207] viXra:1906.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 14:10:23

Fractional Distance: The Topology of the Real Number Line with Applications to the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Jonathan W. Tooker
Comments: 66 Pages. This paper is undergoing some syntactical changes/improvements. The paper is fine as is, but there are some issues which are currently being improved. In the meantime, readers are directed to the finalized verisons of viXra:1811.0222 and viXra:1809.0234

Recent analysis has uncovered a broad swath of previously unconsidered real numbers called real numbers in the neighborhood of infinity. Here we extend the catalog of the rudimentary analytical properties of all real numbers by defining a set of fractional distance functions on the real number line and studying their behavior. The main results of this paper include (1) to prove that some real numbers are greater than any natural number, (2) to develop a technique for taking a limit at infinity via the ordinary Cauchy definition reliant on the classical epsilon-delta formalism, and (3) to demonstrate an infinite number of non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function in the neighborhood of infinity. The methods used in this analysis include nothing other than basic arithmetic, a little trigonometry, and Euclidean geometry. In addition to the zeros used to disprove the Riemann hypothesis in earlier work, here we present yet more zeros which independently constitute the negation of the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[206] viXra:1906.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-06 10:52:26

Quick Disproof of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Jonathan W. Tooker
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this brief note, we propose a set of operations for the affinely extended real number called infinity. Under the terms of the proposition, we show that the Riemann zeta function has infinitely many non-trivial zeros on the complex plane.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[205] viXra:1906.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 16:24:40

Quantized Space-Time and the Quantized Multiverse

Authors: Eran Sinbar
Comments: 2 Pages.

The many world interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, the extra dimensions of string theory, the unexplained entanglement in quantum theory, the mysterious dark energy and dark matter, all link together to the possibility that our three dimension universe is not the entire picture and that we need to find an improved model of space time that can deal with these new concepts. This paper will suggest a new way of looking at our three-dimension universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[204] viXra:1906.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 18:41:59

Calculating "Speeding to Andromeda" Easier

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 2 Pages.

I derive an equation to calculate the constant speed needed by an unpowered rocket, such that its crew ages a given time during a trip of a given distance.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[203] viXra:1906.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 19:14:16

High-Altitude and Space Towers

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 178 Pages.

A lot of new concepts, ideas and innovation in high altitude and space towers were offered, developed and researched in last years especially after 2000. For example: optimal solid space towers, inflatable space towers (include optimal space tower), circle and centrifugal space towers, kinetic space towers, electrostatic space towers, electromagnetic space towers, and so on. Given book summarizes there researches and gives the detail description them, note some their main advantages, shortcomings, defects and limitations.
Category: Classical Physics

[202] viXra:1906.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 22:47:57

I am the First Who Explained Religion with Science, Mathematics and Physics in Mankind History. Religion and Quantum Evolution

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 31 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“I am the first who explained Religion with Science, Mathematics and Physics in mankind history. Religion and Quantum Evolution” Adrian Ferent “Evolution: each time we are born, we are born with higher Consciousness, because Consciousness is a function of time” Adrian Ferent “Evolution: in time the Consciousness has a higher number of Qubits” Adrian Ferent “Evolution: in time the Consciousness has a higher number of Quantum Consciousness states” Adrian Ferent “We need 5000 years to Evolve, 70 years or one life is not enough” Adrian Ferent “If we are born with the same Consciousness, after a time t1 we will have the same Consciousness, which is not true, this means we are born with different Consciousness, this means it is Evolution” Adrian Ferent “In the Consciousness function, N is the number of Quantum Consciousness states” Adrian Ferent “In the Consciousness function, N is the number of Qubits. The Consciousness operates on its Qubits” Adrian Ferent “When you die, the highest probability is that you will not go to hell or heaven” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who discovered Ferent Quantum Evolution theory (FQE) based on Consciousness Evolution; I am the first who discovered the Soul equation; I am the first who discovered that Matter was first, not God I am the first who discovered the Spiritual Universe in Ferent Quantum Gravity theory” Adrian Ferent “For me Religion is Science, for the rest of the scientists Religion is Occultism” Adrian Ferent “The Future of Science: the Ignorant scientists must be replaced by new Wise Scientists” Adrian Ferent I am the first who discovered a Quantum Evolution theory (FQE) based on Quantum Consciousness evolution, a Quantum Gravity theory (Ferent Quantum Gravity - FQG), I explained the Electron and the Electron charge… “I am the first who explained Religion with Science, Mathematics and Physics in mankind history” Adrian Ferent All Religion says we are born with the same consciousness, but after a while some people are bad, some people are good and they go to Heaven in on life! If the children die they will go to Heaven, because of their consciousness. What is the truth? The Consciousness function: t – the time between 0 and T N0 – the initial number of quantum consciousness states N – the final number of quantum consciousness states T – the value of the human soul cycle (5000 years), for Christians, Muslims, Atheists (70 years) “Evolution: in time the Consciousness has a higher number of Quantum Consciousness states” Adrian Ferent Another way to look at this function: “In the Consciousness function, N is the number of Qubits. The Consciousness operates on its Qubits” Adrian Ferent The Christians, the Muslims, the Atheists … who say we have one life are wrong because if N0 = 0, T =70 years, for example after 30 years people will have the same consciousness, which is not true. My theory is a proof for reincarnation, Evolution! About Consciousness function: “At each time t, each of us is at a different level of consciousness” Adrian Ferent “Evolution: in time the Consciousness has a higher number of Qubits” Adrian Ferent Consciousness is a function of time! “If we are born with the same Consciousness after a time t1, we will have the same Consciousness, which is not true, this means we are born with different Consciousness, this means it is Evolution” Adrian Ferent Religion without Evolution is Communism, this means we are born with the same Consciousness; but we do not have the same Consciousness. “We need 5000 years to Evolve, 70 years or one life is not enough” Adrian Ferent Jesus answered him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.” “Evolution means after couple lives all of us will attain the same Consciousness, this means it is Reincarnation” Adrian Ferent “Evolution: each time we are born, we are born with higher Consciousness, because Consciousness is a function of time” Adrian Ferent “When you die, the highest probability is that you will not go to hell or heaven” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who discovered Ferent Quantum Evolution theory (FQE) based on Consciousness Evolution; I am the first who discovered the Soul equation; I am the first who discovered that Matter was first, not God I am the first who discovered the Spiritual Universe in Ferent Quantum Gravity theory” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists, from clerics… about Dark Matter, Matter and God is wrong” Adrian Ferent “For me Religion is Science, for the rest of the scientists Religion is Occultism” Adrian Ferent “The Future of Science: the Ignorant scientists must be replaced by new Wise Scientists” Adrian Ferent 1. I am the first who explained Religion with Science, Mathematics and Physics in mankind history 2. I am the first who discovered what Evolution is: each time we are born, we are born with higher Consciousness, because Consciousness is a function of time 3. I am the first who discovered what Evolution is: in time the Consciousness has a higher number of Quantum Consciousness states 4. I am the first who discovered what Evolution is: in time the Consciousness has a higher number of Qubits 5. I am the first who discovered that the Consciousness operates on its Qubits 6. I am the first who discovered that if we are born with the same Consciousness after a time t1, we will have the same Consciousness, which is not true, this means we are born with different Consciousness, this means it is Evolution 7. I am the first who discovered that when you die, the highest probability is that you will not go to hell or heaven 8. I am the first who discovered that we need 5000 years to Evolve, 70 years or one life is not enough 9. I am the first who discovered Ferent Quantum Evolution theory (FQE) based on Consciousness Evolution; I am the first who discovered the Soul equation; I am the first who discovered that Matter was first, not God. I am the first who discovered the Spiritual Universe in Ferent Quantum Gravity theory 10. I am the first who discovered that what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists, from clerics… about Dark Matter, Matter and God is wrong 11. I am the first who explained that for me Religion is Science, for the rest of the scientists Religion is Occultism 12. I am the first who discovered the Future of Science: the Ignorant scientists must be replaced by new Wise Scientists
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[201] viXra:1906.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 23:51:47

An Interesting Investigation Towards Understanding of [ Openjit Compiler Framework + Imagej Java Imaging Software ] Interaction with Jikesrvm [ RVM Research Virtual Machine ] in the Context of [byte Code Engineering Library(bcel) + Iot + High Performa

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

An Interesting Investigation towards Understanding of [ OpenJIT Compiler Framework + ImageJ - Java Imaging Software ] Interaction with JikesRVM [ RVM- Research Virtual Machine ] in the Context of [Byte Code Engineering Library(BCEL) + IoT + High Performance Computing (HPC)] related Java based Heterogeneous Image Processing Environments – A Simple Suggestion & Technical Notes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[200] viXra:1906.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 01:22:32

Majorana Quasiparticle for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

As mysterious as the Italian scientist for which it is named, the Majorana particle is one of the most compelling quests in physics. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[199] viXra:1906.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 02:44:16

Magnetic Field Compact Coil

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A novel magnet half the size of a cardboard toilet tissue roll usurped the title of "world's strongest magnetic field" from the metal titan that had held it for two decades at the Florida State University-headquartered National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[198] viXra:1906.0222 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-27 05:56:54

Relative Phase and Time States

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is pointed out that, while Suskind and Glogower claim “The phase operator for an oscillator is shown not to exist.”, they actually showed absolute phase operator, which is physically meaningless, does not exist. It is also pointed out that, they showed countably infinitely many trigonometric relative (relative between two oscillators) phase states, which form complete basis and are, in a sense, best possible quantum “phase states”, exist. In addition, continuously infinitely many phase states are constructed at classical, that is, infinitely many quanta, limit. Similarly, relative time states and operator are constructed with two oscillators with different angular velocities.
Category: Quantum Physics

[197] viXra:1906.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 06:47:57

Diamond Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Qubits from diamonds are of particular interest to quantum scientists because their quantum-mechanical properties, including superposition, exist at room temperature, unlike many other potential quantum resources. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[196] viXra:1906.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 07:30:21

Mysterious Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Cutting a magnet in half yields two magnets, each with its own north and south pole. This apparent absence of an isolated magnetic pole, or "magnetic monopole," has puzzled physicists for more than a century. [32] Such devices would use magnetic films and superconducting thin films to deploy and manipulate magnetic monopoles to sort and store data based on the north or south direction of their poles-analogous to the ones and zeros in conventional magnetic storage devices. [31] The vacuum is filled with quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field-virtual photons that pop in and out of existence-that are assumed to behave in the same way. To make the plates repulsive and tunable, Wilczek and Stockholm University colleague Qing-Dong Jiang inserted a material between the plates that breaks this behavior. [30] In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29] Engineers at MIT and Penn State University have found that under the right conditions, ordinary clear water droplets on a transparent surface can produce brilliant colors, without the addition of inks or dyes. [28]
Category: Condensed Matter

[195] viXra:1906.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 08:06:13

A New Theoretical Framework of Absolute and Relative Motion, the Speed of Light, Electromagnetism and Gravity

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 76 Pages.

In this paper, a new theoretical framework for absolute motion and the speed of light is presented. The new theoretical framework consists of two parts: 1. Constancy of phase velocity of light 2. Apparent Source Theory. The theory of constancy of phase velocity of light is a consequence of non-existence of the ether. Thus the phase velocity of light in vacuum is always constant c, irrespective of absolute or relative motion of the light source, the observer and the mirror, for uniform or accelerated motions. The constancy of phase velocity of light leads to a new Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c and λ' = λe-V/c , which fulfills the constant phase velocity condition : f ' λ ' = f eV/cλe-V/c = f λ = c . The Exponential Doppler Effect theory can also explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. The Michelson-Morley disproved the ether hypothesis but failed to detect absolute motion, which was decisively detected by the Silvertooth experiment, in combination with the NASA CMBR anisotropy experiment. Absolute motion is not motion relative to the ether. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the point of light emissionrelative to an inertial observer, in the reference frame of an absolutely moving inertial observer. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in point of light emission relative to the observer/detector will create only a small fringe shift for the same reason that an actual/physical change in the source position ( actual change in point of light emission ) will result only in a small fringe shift. This is the small fringe shift observed in the original Michelson-Morley experiment and in the Miller experiments. A profound prediction of Apparent Source Theory regarding the phenomenon of stellar aberration is that the apparent change in star position in not in the same direction as the observer's velocity, but in the opposite direction ! Thus, an observer in absolute motion needs to tilt his telescope backwards, not forward, to see star light.A formulation of Apparent Source Theory for a non-inertial observer is also presented. For a non-inertial observer/detector, the light speed experiment is analyzed based on the following principle.An imaginary inertial observer is assumed who will be at the same point and moving with the same velocity as the instantaneous velocity of the real accelerating observer at the instant of light detection. In other words, the real accelerating observer and the imaginary inertial observer will detect the light at the same point in space, simultaneously, while moving with the same instantaneous velocity.This general formulation ofApparent Source Theory is applied to analyze the Sagnac effect. The Sagnac effect is shown to be an acceleration effect, not an absolute motion effect. Apparent Source Theory is also applied to static electric, magnetic and gravitational sources. A qualitative analysis of Mercury perihelion advance is presented.It is proposed that magnetic field is a form of electric field as described by Weber's formula for electrostatic force between two charges.Weber's formula, which is a modification of Coulomb's formula, is adopted and combined with Apparent Source Theory, which may explain all electromagnetic phenomenon.Analogous Weber's formula for gravitation, which is a modification of Newton's law of gravitation, might solve some of the outstanding problems in physics, such as dark matter, dark energy and Pioneer anomaly.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[194] viXra:1906.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 08:13:55

CT Scanning and Diagnosis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

To diagnose and treat diseases like cancer, scientists and doctors must understand how cells respond to different medical conditions and treatments. [26] Following its recent release of a massive database of chest X-rays, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) has now made nearly 10,600 CT scans publicly available to support the development and testing of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for medical applications. [25] AI combined with stem cells promises a faster approach to disease prevention. Andrew Masterson reports. According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence-the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[193] viXra:1906.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 11:15:04

Perihelion Motion of Mercury//Движение перигелия Меркурия

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the article the author shows that the motion of the perihelion of Mercury can easily be explained within the framework of classical physics. To present this phenomenon, you can use a computer program in which models of celestial bodies give each other accelerations. This mutual acceleration takes place quite similar to that happening in nature.// В статье автор показывает, что движение перигелия Меркурия можно легко объяснить в рамках классической физики. Чтобы представить это явление, вы можете использовать компьютерную программу, в которой модели небесных тел придают друг другу ускорения. Это взаимное ускорение очень похоже на то, как это происходит в природе.
Category: Classical Physics

[192] viXra:1906.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 12:28:53

Field-Induced Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[191] viXra:1906.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-08 10:14:43

Exact Periodic Solutions of Truly Nonlinear Oscillator Equations and Quadratic Liénard-Type Equations

Authors: Y. J. F. Kpomahou, L. H. Koudahoun, K. K. D. Adjaï, J. Akande, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 15 pages

The present research contribution is devoted to solving the integrability problem of Liénard type differential equations. It is shown that such a problem may be solved by nonlocal transformation for some classes of equations. By doing so, it is observed that the integrability of a class of restricted Duffing type equations with integral power or fractional power nonlinearity may be secured by that of a general class of quadratic Liénard type differential equation, and vice versa. Such a restricted Duffing type equation is also shown to be closely related to a quadratic Li´enard type equation for which exact and explicit general solution may be computed. In this context it has been shown that exact and general periodic solutions may be computed for these two classes of restricted Duffing equations and quadratic Liénard type equations. The comparison of obtained solutions with some well-known results is carried out in some cases.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[190] viXra:1906.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 12:54:39

Descriptions of Elementary Particles plus Dark Matter plus Dark Energy and Explanations for Some Related Data

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 33 pages

We suggest united models and specific predictions regarding elementary particles, dark matter, aspects of galaxy evolution, dark energy, and aspects of the cosmology timeline. Results include specific predictions for new elementary particles and specific descriptions of dark matter and dark energy. Some of our modeling matches known elementary particles and extrapolates to predict other elementary particles, including bases for dark matter. Some modeling explains observed ratios of effects of dark matter to effects of ordinary matter. Some models suggest aspects of galaxy formation and evolution. Some modeling correlates with eras of increases or decreases in the observed rate of expansion of the universe. Our modeling framework features mathematics for isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators and provides a framework for creating physics theories. Some aspects of our approach emphasize existence of elementary particles and de-emphasize motion. Some of our models complement traditional quantum field theory and, for example, traditional calculations of anomalous magnetic dipole moments.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[189] viXra:1906.0212 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-08 10:22:02

Integrability Analysis of a Generalized Truly Nonlinear Oscillator Equation

Authors: L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, J. Akande, K. K. D. Adjaï, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 5 pages

The integrability of a general class of Liénard type equations is investigated through equation transformation theory. In this way it is shown that such a class of Liénard equations can generate a generalization of some interesting truly nonlinear oscillator equations like the cube and fifth root differential equations. It has then become possible to compute the exact and general solution to the generalized truly nonlinear oscillator equation. Under an appropriate choice of initial conditions, exact and explicit solution has been obtained in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[188] viXra:1906.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 14:18:43

Sparse Ensemble Learning with Truncated Convolutional Autoencoders for Cleaning Stained Documents

Authors: Anant Khandelwal
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper mainly focus on how to extract clean text from the stained document. It may happen sometimes that due to stains it becomes very difficult to understand the documents and from the previous work it has been seen that one particular modelling technique either through Image processing or Machine learning which alone can’t perform for all the cases in general. As we all know ensemble techniques combine many of the modelling techniques and result in much reduced error that would not be possible by just having single model. But the features used for different models should be sparse or non-overlapping enough to guarantee the independence of each of the modelling techniques. XGBoost is one such ensemble technique in comparison to gradient boosting machines which are very slow due to this it’s not possible to combine more than three models with reasonable execution time. This work mainly focus on combining the truncated convolutional Autoencoders with sparsity take into account to that of machine learning and Image processing models using XGBoost such that the whole model results in much reduced error as compared to single modelling techniques. Experimentation’s are carried out on the public dataset NoisyOffice published on UCI machine learning repository, this dataset contains training, validation and test dataset with variety of noisy greyscale images some with ink spots, coffee spots and creased documents. Evaluation metric is taken to be RMSE(Reduced Mean Squared Error) to show the performance improvement on the variety of images which are corrupted badly
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[187] viXra:1906.0209 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-14 21:14:57

On the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen Paradox and the Bell’s Theorem

Authors: Victor Paromov
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures

This letter attempts to show that the non-classical 5D spacetime geometry-based theory of electromagnetism (http://vixra.org/pdf/1811.0315v2.pdf) is able to preserve both realism and locality for the Bell test thus supporting Einstein’s argument in general. In addition, the theory is able to match the quantum-mechanical (QM) predictions for the correlation. With the above-mentioned theory, the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) paradox may be explained with the assumption that real values do exist, however, are inaccessible in principle due to the compactness of the extra spatial dimension.
Category: Quantum Physics

[186] viXra:1906.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-14 21:18:53

Quantum Supremacy: Reality or Myth?

Authors: Victor Paromov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Calculation supremacy is expected for quantum computers operating with about 50 qubits. However, in case the non-classical spacetime geometry-based theory (http://vixra.org/abs/1806.0181) of particle interactions is right, entanglement exists for the observer-bound coordinate systems only, thus requiring additional control. If so, quantum supremacy would be hardly achievable.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[185] viXra:1906.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 18:25:46

Preon Interaction Theory and Model of Universe (v.2)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 105 Pages.

Book contains researches six new ideas: new preon interaction theory of the micro World; relations between time, mass, space, charge and energy; possibility of creating the super-strong (in millions times) matter, having surprise properties; super-strong nuclear AB-needles, which allows to penetrate deep into the Earth and planets; the nuclear generator for converting of any matter into the energy and possibility of the artificial explosion of Sun.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[184] viXra:1906.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-25 08:33:51

The Magnitude of Electromagnetic Time Dilation.

Authors: Howard A. Landman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Theories unifying gravity and electromagnetism naturally give rise to the question of whether there might be a time dilation associated with the electromagnetic 4-potential. We show here that the magnitude of EM time dilation can be computed from elementary considerations that are independent of specific unified theories. We further show that the electrostatic part of the effect is well within reach of experiment, while the magnetic part is not.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[183] viXra:1906.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 22:52:57

Characteristic Frequency of the Orbital Fluctuation in the Unconventional Iron-Based Superconductor Bafe2as2: a TDDFT Investigation of the Electron Pairing Mechanism

Authors: Tiege Zhou
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is proposed that the electron-pairing medium of the iron-based superconductors may be the orbital fluctuation of the transition metal ions. But the characteristic frequency of the orbital fluctuation has not been given. For the first time, the author has calculated the real-time evolution of the electron clouds of transition metal ions in BaFe2As2 under excitations by the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). There are different modes of fluctuations. The characteristic frequencies are 150 meV, 160 meV, 250 meV, and 200 meV, respectively, for the modes the author observed. The results are unexpected, because the general view is that the change of the electron density is very quick, and the frequency is much higher than the lattice vibration. The frequencies the author obtained are close to that of the lattice vibration in conventional superconductors at normal and high pressures, indicating the orbital (or electron cloud) fluctuation can by the electron pairing medium. Based on the calculation results, the author proposed a new electron pairing mechanism.
Category: Condensed Matter

[182] viXra:1906.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 01:08:11

Graphene-Based Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Now, in work published in the journal Nature, Island, Young and their collaborators have found a way to turn graphene into a topological insulator (TI). [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz “could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates,” Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[181] viXra:1906.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 02:16:00

Hybrid Nanostructure Light-Harvesting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

They combined a light-harvesting protein from a cyanobacteria, semiconducting nanocrystals (quantum dots), and a two-dimensional (2-D) semiconducting transition metal only one atomic layer thick. [44] Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a completely new way of capturing, amplifying and linking light to matter at the nano level. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42]
Category: Physics of Biology

[180] viXra:1906.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 03:17:24

Wave-Paradox Micro-Robotics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Amoeba are unusual creatures that form when a dispersed population of cells spontaneously comes together and reorganizes itself into a multicellular macroscopic organism. [44] Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a completely new way of capturing, amplifying and linking light to matter at the nano level. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42]
Category: Physics of Biology

[179] viXra:1906.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 03:38:57

Expand Microlens Applications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Microlenses improve the performance of cameras and solar cells by concentrating light into the most sensitive areas of the devices. [44] Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a completely new way of capturing, amplifying and linking light to matter at the nano level. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[178] viXra:1906.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 03:52:16

A Classical Quantum Theory of Light

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 20 Pages.

The Zitterbewegung model of an electron offers a classical interpretation for interference and diffraction of electrons. The idea is very intuitive because it incorporates John Wheeler’s idea of mass without mass: we have an indivisible naked charge that has no properties but its charge and its size (the classical electron radius) and it is easy to understand that the electromagnetic oscillation that keeps this tiny circular current going – like a perpetual current ring in some superconducting material – cannot be separated from it. In contrast, we keep wondering: what keeps a photon together? Hence, the real challenge for any realist interpretation of quantum mechanics is to explain the quantization of light: what are these photons? In this paper, we offer a classical quantum theory for light. The intuition behind the model is the same as the one we developed for an electron: we think of the photon as a harmonic electromagnetic oscillator, and its elementary cycle determines its properties, including spin and its size (the effective area of interference).
Category: Quantum Physics

[177] viXra:1906.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 05:44:33

A Concise Proof for Beal's Conjecture

Authors: Julian TP Beauchamp
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we show how a^x - b^y can be expressed as a binomial expansion (to an indeterminate power, z, and use it as the basis for a proof for the Beal Conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[176] viXra:1906.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 06:10:22

Home work

Authors: Tuan Yugyi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Title, authors and abstract should also be included in the PdF file. These should be in English. If the submission is not in English please translate the title and abstract here. You can include basic HTML is the abstract for formatting if necessary. (e.g. subscripts, italics, line breaks and special characters) Please do not use links, images, bold, font changes or character sizes or colours.Title, authors and abstract should also be included in the PdF file. These should be in English. If the submission is not in English please translate the title and abstract here. You can include basic HTML is the abstract for formatting if necessary. (e.g. subscripts, italics, line breaks and special characters) Please do not use links, images, bold, font changes or character sizes or colours.Title, authors and abstract should also be included in the PdF file. These should be in English. If the submission is not in English please translate the title and abstract here. You can include basic HTML is the abstract for formatting if necessary. (e.g. subscripts, italics, line breaks and special characters) Please do not use links, images, bold, font changes or character sizes or colours.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[175] viXra:1906.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 06:59:26

Quantum Cryptography Double-Edged

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Quantum computers pose a big threat to the security of modern communications, deciphering cryptographic codes that would take regular computers forever to crack. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[174] viXra:1906.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 07:05:52

The Proof is in the Pudding: an Outline of New Proof of the Existence of God

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Starting with a review of few known arguments to prove the existence of God, we discuss our argument i.e. Nature's order, Pascal's void and Arrow of Time as Neutrosophic triadic to prove the existence of God. The most convincing one is what we call : the proof is in the pudding, i.e. how direct experience with God is the only way to fill everyone's inner void (cf. Pascal). To write shortly, our spiritual inner void can be filled by direct experience with God. This is what we suggest: the proof is in the pudding.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[173] viXra:1906.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-13 07:12:16

Intimations of the Irrationality of Pi From Reflections of the Rational Root Test

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 4 Pages. Additional comments and examples added.

The rational root test gives a means for determining if a root of a polynomial is rational. If none of the possible rational roots are roots, then if the roots are real, they must be irrational. Combining this observation with Taylor polynomials and the Taylor series for $\sin (x)$ gives intimations that $\pi$, and $e$, are likely irrational.
Category: Number Theory

[172] viXra:1906.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 07:25:53

Tiny Light Box into Nanoworld

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a completely new way of capturing, amplifying and linking light to matter at the nano level. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42] Antennas made of carbon nanotube films are just as efficient as copper for wireless applications, according to researchers at Rice University's Brown School of Engineering. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[171] viXra:1906.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 07:39:06

People Beat Machines Recognizing Speech

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Humans, on the other hand, are amazingly good at dealing with variations in language. We are so good, in fact, that we really take note when things occasionally break down. [27] A team of British researchers has developed a method that enables computers to make decisions in a way that is more similar to humans. [26] One of the most spectacular facts of the last two centuries of economic history is the exponential growth in GDP per capita in most of the world. Figure 1 shows the rise (and the difference) in living standards for five countries since 1000 AD. [25]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[170] viXra:1906.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 08:29:51

Hypersonic Matterwaves Atomtronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Atomtronics manipulates atoms much in the way that electronics manipulates electrons. It carries the promise of highly compact quantum devices which can measure incredibly small forces or tiny rotations. [43] Now, researchers fabricated an electron's spin-filtering device that can switch the spin polarization direction by light irradiation or thermal treatment. [42] Electrospinning, a nanofiber fabrication method, can produce nanometer- to micrometer-diameter ceramic, polymer, and metallic fibers of various compositions for a wide spectrum of applications: tissue engineering, filtration, fuel cells and lithium batteries. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[169] viXra:1906.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 09:10:08

Quantum Particle Physics and the Skirting of Unresolved Conundrums

Authors: Bruce A. Lutgen
Comments: 1 Page.

The study of quantum particle physics has been going on for a relatively long time. The chase was and is on to reduce the innate particles, which make up all things considered matter, to their most fundamental forms. The question is have we gotten ahead of ourselves?
Category: Quantum Physics

[168] viXra:1906.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 15:04:27

Понятие множества и его элементов

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian. Только e-meil диалог = onli e-meil dialogue

Понятие множества и его элементов полагается, в теории множеств, интуитивно известным и неопределяемо исходным. Однако, оно является обобщаемым на основе таких понятий как многообразие и разнообразие математических предметов.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[167] viXra:1906.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 16:29:50

The Solar Group Is One Body

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Solar Group Is One Body The Claim Explanation & Features 1-The Solar Group is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building ….Or 2-The Solar group is One Trajectory of Energy And Each Planet Is A Point On This Same Energy Trajectory…. Or 3-The Solar Group Is One Machine And Each Planet Is A Gear In It… Or 4-The Solar Group Is A Great River And Each Planet Is A Canal of this same river 5-The solar group has One Great Job which is divided into integrated tasks for each planet has one task which should be integrated and cooperated with other planets tasks to perform the General One Great Job…. i.e. 6-Each Planet Data (Diameter- Mass- Orbital Distance -…. etc) is created to be suitable for this planet required task in the whole building and No Solar Planet Single Data Can Be Created Independently That leads to this paper main hypothesis, let's refer to it in following… A Hypothesis:- "The Solar Planet Data Is Created Based On Geometrical And Physical Reasons" The previous hypothesis provides us 3 results: 1-The Solar Group Is One Building 2-The Solar Planets Motions Harmony Is Found Based On The Planet Construction & Formulation (Planet Data) And Not By The Gravity Forces 3-Any Planet Data Can Be Deduced From The Other Planets Data Analysis
Category: Astrophysics

[166] viXra:1906.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 18:20:16

An Accurate Solution for Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA) and Wrong Way Risk

Authors: Tim Xiao
Comments: 25 Pages. Journal of Fixed Income, 25 (1) 84-95, 2015

This paper presents a Least Square Monte Carlo approach for accurately calculating credit value adjustment (CVA). In contrast to previous studies, the model relies on the probability distribution of a default time/jump rather than the default time itself, as the default time is usually inaccessible. As such, the model can achieve a high order of accuracy with a relatively easy implementation. We find that the valuation of a defaultable derivative is normally determined via backward induction when their payoffs could be positive or negative. Moreover, the model can naturally capture wrong or right way risk.
Category: Economics and Finance

[165] viXra:1906.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 19:02:36

Enhancements in Audio Ads Delivery and Effectiveness

Authors: RJ Harry
Comments: 2 Pages.

This work details progress in audio ads - delivery and effectiveness. With the increased use of smart speakers and voice-based commands, a new ad avenue in the form of audio ads is rapidly emerging. Audio ads however are different in several aspects from traditional banner/image/video/text (email) ads. For one they’re richer in terms of contextual information as the user interaction with voice is more personal and can be used to determine various aspects from user mood to activity being preformed.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[164] viXra:1906.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 19:57:13

Planet Data Geometrical Significance

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

Planet Data Geometrical Significance This paper tries to answer a simple question Why Saturn diameter =120536 km?... of course not only Saturn…! Why Jupiter diameter = 142984 km?.... or Why Earth circumference = 40080 km? ………. Why the moon circumference = 10921 km? Why Earth axial tilt =23.4 degrees? Why Venus Orbital inclination =3.4 degrees? Shortly How The Planet Data Is Created? I would to answer the questions just directly… but because the questions are still unclear? We need to see deeply as possible what does such question mean? Let's try with the first 2 questions together … Why Saturn Diameter = 120536 km? and Why Jupiter Diameter = 142984km? For answer we need to provide the Data in groups then we'll discuss it Data (1st Group) 1-Jupiter Diameter = 2 Jupiter Circumferences – 2 Saturn Circumference. 2-Jupiter Diameter = 8 Solar Planets Diameters Total 3-Saturn Diameter + 2 Jupiter Diameters = the solar planets diameters total 4-Saturn Diameter + 2 Jupiter Diameters = Earth Moon Distance (Apogee Radius) 5-Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance (Total Solar Eclipse Radius). Data (2nd Group) (A) Saturn Diameter = Venus Diameter x π2 (Error 0.8%) (Venus Circumference)2= Saturn Orbital Distance (Error 1%) But we know that Saturn Orbital Distance = 1433.5million km= Saturn Uranus Distance = Mars Orbital Circumference = Pluto Eccentricity Distance = (Neptune Orbital Distance/π) = Mercury Jupiter distance x 2 (B) Mercury Day = 176 solar days (minus 5040 seconds) During 5040 seconds -Mercury moves a distance = 2 x Saturn Diameter -Mars moves a distance = Saturn Diameter -Saturn moves a distance = Neptune Diameter -Pluto moves a distance = Pluto diameter x π2 Note Please -2 Saturn diameter x 5040 = 1205 mkm (Mars Saturn Distance) -Data (3rd Group) -Jupiter Diameter x 5040 = 720.7 mkm (Mercury Jupiter Distance) -Jupiter Diameter = 1 million km / 7 (Note Please: Mercury Orbital Inclination = 7 degrees but Mercury orbital circumference =360 mkm = 360 degrees i.e. 1million km = 1 degree) -The Sin Diameter = Jupiter Diameter x π2 (Error 1.3%) Let's add the required Data for question no.3 (Why Earth Circumference = 40080 km) Data (4th Group) If Earth diameter = 12756 km, is considered to be = 1 So the following is correct Earth Circumference = Π Solar Inner Planets diameter total = Π Moon motion free space (from perigee to apogee) =Π (the free space without the moon diameter) Moon Perigee orbit radius = 9 Π Solar outer planets diameters total = 9 Π Moon orbit apogee radius =10 Π All solar planets diameters total =10 Π 2 Jupiter diameter + Saturn diameter =10 Π Saturn Circumference = 9.5Π = Moon orbit radius at total solar eclipse Jupiter Circumference =11 Π The Sun diameter =11 Π2 Let's Start our discussion immediately Discussion The previous Data is just example of many similar Data- Simply- Earth Circumference = 40080 km – but 40080 km is NOT mere number – There are many relationships and geometrical interactions are created based on this same number 40080 km (Earth Circumference)….. WHY? Let's ask the simpler question… How Earth Circumference is Created? No one knows! Let's make this discussion is so short as possible….. We have 2 visions in fighting The current theory tells us that the Planet is created independently in its Data – that means Earth Circumference is created without any effect from any planet Diameter on Earth Diameter Creation Process… i.e. this vision tells us that Solar Planet Behavior Is Individually I provide another vision The solar group is one building- The solar planets are components in this same building (members of the same body) i.e. Solar Planets Behavior Are Integrating And Cooperating Behavior It's The machine behavior- or the body behavior (all planets cooperate and integrate to do this same behavior) That's why There's One Equation Only controls all solar planets data This paper tries to prove basically this hypothesis So the paper contains the following -The Hypothesis Proves(Point No. 3) -How to analyze the planet Data (Point No. 4) -The Theoretical basics behind solar planets data Equation (Point No. 5)
Category: Astrophysics

[163] viXra:1906.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 20:12:46

Division by Zero Calculus in Multiply Dimensions and Open Problems (An Extension)

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 11 Pages. We propose new problems in several complex analysis from the viewpoint of division by zero calculus.

In this paper, we will introduce the division by zero calculus in multiply dimensions in order to show some wide and new open problems as we see from one dimensional case.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[162] viXra:1906.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 20:39:30

Core Issues in "Foundations of QFT: 2019 Annual Philosophy of Physics Conference"

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages.

This year's workshop is focused on three core issues. Paraphrasing and rearranging their order, we examine optimal mathematical formalisms for the wavefunction and its interactions (particularly in light of the problem of renormalization), phenomenological foundations, and relativistic extensions of quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[161] viXra:1906.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 00:23:25

Fundamentals of Electrical Phenomena-Theory of the Novak Electric Generator//Основы электрических явлений-Теория работы электрогенератора Новака

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article presents the basics of all physical phenomena. But the author focused on electrical and magnetic phenomena.//В статье представлены основы всех физических явлений. Но автор сосредоточился на на электрических и магнитных явлениях.
Category: Classical Physics

[160] viXra:1906.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 04:47:04

Atom-Resolved Magnetic Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Newly developed magnetic objective-lens system provides a magnetic-field-free environment at the sample position. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42] Antennas made of carbon nanotube films are just as efficient as copper for wireless applications, according to researchers at Rice University's Brown School of Engineering. [41]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[159] viXra:1906.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 03:56:17

A Quantum Dynamics of Heisenberg Model of the Neutron Associated with Beta Decay

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this work we re-examine a model of the nucleons that involve the weak interaction which was once considered by Heisenberg; that is a neutron may have the structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom. We formulate a quantum dynamics for the Heisenberg model of the neutron associated with interaction that involves the beta decay in terms of a mixed Coulomb-Yukawa potential and the More General Exponential Screened Coulomb Potential (MGESCP), which has been studied and applied to various fields of physics. We show that all the components that form the MGESCP potential can be derived from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations similar to Dirac relativistic equation in quantum mechanics. There are many interesting features that emerge from the MGESCP potential, such as the MGESCP potential can be reduced to the potential that has been proposed to describe the interaction between the quarks for strong force in particle physics, and the energy spectrum of the bound states of the dwarf hydrogen-like atom is continuous with respect to distance. This result leads to an unexpected implication that a proton and an electron may also interact strongly at short distances. We also show that the Yukawa potential when restrained can generate and determine the mathematical structures of fundamental particles associated with the strong and weak fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[158] viXra:1906.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 05:09:16

The Essence of Fundamental Particles of Matter and of Interactions//Суть фундаментальных частиц материи и воздействий

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 16 Pages.

In the article there is presented, what is most important in the structure of the fundamental particles of matter and what is the cause of interactions between them, and there are also presented in it the fundamentals of material structures. In the article are presented two faces of two most important particles, which are the basis of the structure of matter - protons and neutrons. There is also presented a third fundamental particle of matter - protoelectron. From a very large number of such protoelectrons when they end up in areas of other centrally symmetric fields (ie, in the areas of protons and neutrons, near the centers of these fields) there are forming complex structural systems, which have a certain durability. These structural clusters of protoelectrons are precipitated from protons and neutrons in the process of collisions between them and they are known as electrons and other particles of matter that occur during collisions.// В статье представлено то, что является наиболее важным в построении фундаментальных частиц материи и что является причиной взаимодействия между ними, а также представлены основы строения материальных структур. В статье представлены два лица двух наиболее важных частиц, которые являются основой для построения материи - протон и нейтрон. В ней также есть представлена третья фундаментальная частица материи - протоэлектрон. Из очень большого числа таких протоэлектронов, когда они расположены в областях других центрально-симметричных полей (т.е. в областях протонов и нейтронов, вблизи центров этих полей), образуются сложные структурные системы, которые имеют определенную прочность. Эти структурные скопления протоэлектронов выделяются из протонов и нейтронов в процессах столкновения между ними, и они известны как электроны и другие частицы материи, которые появляются во время столкновений.
Category: Classical Physics

[157] viXra:1906.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 09:04:39

D-Wave Quantum Machine Connectivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of researchers with members affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. and Japan reports that connectivity is more important than thought when building specialized optimizing machines. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[156] viXra:1906.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 09:52:21

Investigation After One Thousand Years

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 8 Pages. -

Origin and meaning of evangelical names Jesus and Ioann
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[155] viXra:1906.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 10:09:51

Casimir Effect Attract or Repulse

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has found a way to make the Casimir effect attract or repulse depending on the size of the gap between two objects. [35] Researchers from the University of Maryland have for the first time measured an effect that was predicted more than 40 years ago, called the Casimir torque. [34] The properties of matter are typically the result of complex interactions between electrons. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[154] viXra:1906.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 10:54:43

Fiber-Optic see Molecular Bonds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

The device is a high-efficiency round-trip light tunnel that squeezes visible light to the very tip of the condenser to interact with molecules locally and send back information that can decipher and visualize the elusive nanoworld. [40] "Smart glass," an energy-efficiency product found in newer windows of cars, buildings and airplanes, slowly changes between transparent and tinted at the flip of a switch. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[153] viXra:1906.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 11:06:38

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory10

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as a continuum to the last paper thr mass vs nothingness9 if you go at a speed that is fast and you have someone going at a slower speed you would beat him in distance covered that fine but then you have to look at stuff happening inside the faster person when he goes faster his subatomic particles spin slower as a compensation to the slower speed the other goes by but then the slower man have to pay tribute to the faster man and so the slower man goes faster in the eye of the faster man
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[152] viXra:1906.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 11:17:14

Dark Matter is Lighter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Dark matter could be much "lighter," or lower in mass and slighter in energy, than previously thought. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[151] viXra:1906.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 11:37:40

Flexible Nanotube Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Antennas made of carbon nanotube films are just as efficient as copper for wireless applications, according to researchers at Rice University's Brown School of Engineering. [41] The device is a high-efficiency round-trip light tunnel that squeezes visible light to the very tip of the condenser to interact with molecules locally and send back information that can decipher and visualize the elusive nanoworld. [40] "Smart glass," an energy-efficiency product found in newer windows of cars, buildings and airplanes, slowly changes between transparent and tinted at the flip of a switch. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[150] viXra:1906.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 13:46:01

Derivation of the Sum-of-Squares Relationship

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.

The sum-of-squares relationship connects the square of elementary particle masses to the square of the Fermi scale. It constrains the spectrum of free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) and it suggests a straightforward resolution to the hierarchy problem. Here we show that this relationship follows from the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near the Fermi scale and supports the view that Dark Matter behaves as long-range multifractal replica of the SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[149] viXra:1906.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 18:04:36

Complex Nonlinear Fourier Optics: Nonlinear Singularity of Surface Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Subharmonics (Subhg) by Noncentrosymmetric Media – New Extended Exact Solutions of the Surface Nonlinear Optical Equation

Authors: Peter Krampl
Comments: 12 Pages.

Based on the principles of non-linear optics, we calculate the exact nonlinear Amplitude ax^2 (parameter) for light-matter interaction on surfaces, which is so far unresolved and we give a numerical, as well as the corresponding analytical solution up to the 8th order. It is shown that with the developed formulas the problem of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, the impossibility of determining the place and impulse of a particle at the same time is solvable, or as Einstein already said, "Dogs cannot fly." With these developed formulas, it is also possible to determine the exact optical parameters, such as the non-linear susceptibility or the non-linear refractive index, analytically.
Category: Condensed Matter

[148] viXra:1906.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 00:26:19

Refutation of Two Variants of Noncontingency Operator

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Four axiomatizations of extensions of L(dot-box) over special frames are not tautologous. Those for symmetry and qe&pe are different, but the respective, second-order renditions are equivalent. This refutes the two variants of noncontingency operator. Therefore the conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[147] viXra:1906.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 00:27:28

Refutation of Templates for Converting Counterexamples to Necessitarianism and Into Internalism

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Five equations of counter-examples for two conjectures are not tautologous. Hence use of templates for metaphysical grounding is refuted in contingentism, externalism, internalism, and necessitarianism. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[146] viXra:1906.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 00:52:05

Total Frivolity of Physicists//Тотальная фривольность физиков

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article presents an example of frivolity of one of the physicists.// В статье представлен пример легкомыслия одного из физиков.
Category: Classical Physics

[145] viXra:1906.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 01:51:13

Detect new Candidate for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Two theoretical physicists at the University of California, Davis have a new candidate for dark matter, and a possible way to detect it. [22] Dark matter could be much "lighter," or lower in mass and slighter in energy, than previously thought. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[144] viXra:1906.0163 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-20 06:50:03

Maximal Generalization of Lanczos' Derivative Using One-Dimensional Integrals

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 8 Pages.

Derivative of a function can be expressed in terms of integration over a small neighborhood of the point of differentiation, so-called differentiation by integration method. In this text a maximal generalization of existing results which use one-dimensional integrals is presented together with some interesting non-analytic weight functions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[143] viXra:1906.0162 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-13 05:07:26

Photons and Independent E/m Waves

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

The independent E/M waves are created, during the electron oscillations at an emission antenna. These waves do not compose the constant photon length, in contrast to the fundamental E/M waves of photon. Additionally, the Compton phenomenon is interpreted, while the atomic orbitals are standing waves the self-superposition of the motion wave of electrons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[142] viXra:1906.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 04:33:10

Nanometer Scale Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42] Antennas made of carbon nanotube films are just as efficient as copper for wireless applications, according to researchers at Rice University's Brown School of Engineering. [41] The device is a high-efficiency round-trip light tunnel that squeezes visible light to the very tip of the condenser to interact with molecules locally and send back information that can decipher and visualize the elusive nanoworld. [40]
Category: Condensed Matter

[141] viXra:1906.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 05:44:11

Dirac's Philosophical Principles

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper examines Paul Dirac’s assumptions and principles in the introduction to his Principles of Quantum Mechanics as part of a larger logical, philosophical and epistemological reflection on why a realist interpretation of quantum mechanics would or would not be possible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[140] viXra:1906.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 09:14:14

Refutation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two composite modal atoms which turn out to be reductions into single modal operators. This refutes the notion that “new temporal modalities are obtained” and forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[139] viXra:1906.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-03 10:12:27

Some Problems About The Gravitational Wave

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 8 Pages.

The contribution of the dipole moment in the generation of the gravitational waves is reconsidered here whether it is useful or not. In this article, we find that the contribution of the dipole moment is nonzero. The gravitational wave is responsible for delivering the information of the spacetime structure and gravitational field from the source. Since the general relativity predicts the speed of gravity at most as fast as the speed of light, the change of gravity is not instantaneous and two cosmic objects must produce the gravitational waves to realize the gravitational attraction. The phenomenon that the gravitational wave cannot escape makes the black hole like an isolated system and it results in such black hole losing ability to attract other massive bodies. Therefore, we also discuss the possibility of the gravitational waves escaping the black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[138] viXra:1906.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 11:19:44

A New Model for Pricing Collateralized OTC Derivatives

Authors: Tim Xiao
Comments: 26 Pages. Journal of Derivatives

This paper presents a new model for pricing OTC derivatives subject to collateralization. It allows for collateral posting adhering to bankruptcy laws. As such, the model can back out the market price of a collateralized contract. This framework is very useful for valuing outstanding derivatives. Using a unique dataset, we find empirical evidence that credit risk alone is not overly important in determining credit-related spreads. Only accounting for both collateral arrangement and credit risk can sufficiently explain unsecured credit costs. This finding suggests that failure to properly account for collateralization may result in significant mispricing of derivatives. We also empirically gauge the impact of collateral agreements on risk measurements. Our findings indicate that there are important interactions between market and credit risk.
Category: Economics and Finance

[137] viXra:1906.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 11:34:07

Mistakes in Rebuttal of Refutation of the Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate six equations proffered as rebuttal, with two as trivially tautologous and four as not tautologous, to confirm the original refutation of the simulation conjecture. These results add to this established non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Social Science

[136] viXra:1906.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 11:36:26

Manipulating Electron Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Now, researchers fabricated an electron's spin-filtering device that can switch the spin polarization direction by light irradiation or thermal treatment. [42] Electrospinning, a nanofiber fabrication method, can produce nanometer- to micrometer-diameter ceramic, polymer, and metallic fibers of various compositions for a wide spectrum of applications: tissue engineering, filtration, fuel cells and lithium batteries. [41] Researchers of the Nanoscience Center (NSC) at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and Xiamen University, China, have discovered how copper particles at the nanometer scale operate in modifying a carbon-oxygen bond when ketone molecules turn into alcohol molecules. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[135] viXra:1906.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 12:11:02

Stellar Metamorphosis: True Lies, Learning to See How Pervasive Deception can Be in Astronomy

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In terms of deception and/or misperception in astronomy, geology and astrophysics, it is clear that uneducated, unsophisticated, unskilled and unequipped people can be immune. Not only can they be immune, but they can outclass the people who claim to be sophisticated, educated and equipped in terms of scientific ability. This immunity and superiority is explained with an example from WW2 with the English deception planners juxtaposed to the Japanese Intelligence community.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[134] viXra:1906.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 12:13:58

Refutation of Temporal Logic Via Instant and Interval/period-Based Models of Time

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The basic properties in seven equations are not tautologous. This refutes temporal logic via instant- and interval/period-based models of time and forms it as a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[133] viXra:1906.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 13:04:34

Probing Semiconductor Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Tohoku University researchers have developed a technique using a hollow sphere to measure the electronic and optical properties of large semiconducting crystals. [49] New research provides insight into the structure of silicon nanocrystals, a substance that promises to provide efficient lithium ion batteries that power your phone to medical imaging on the nanoscale. [48] Using a new technique, researchers were able to directly watch and image this process. To their surprise, they discovered that it included an extra step that had not been seen before: After the first elastic shock wave traveled through the silicon, a second elastic wave appeared before the final inelastic wave changed the material's properties. [47] The device was produced using conventional semiconductor manufacturing processes, and the team now hopes to scale up the technology to create a silicon-based quantum-computer chip. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[132] viXra:1906.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 13:31:10

E=mc2 Dimensional Descriptor Usage Error

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 2 Pages.

E=mc2 is Einstein's mass-energy equation. It is an algebraic equation that uses letters to represent single or composite numbers. Each number type on the right side of the equal sign, mass, distance and a unit time duration are defined as System International basic units. As described, they correctly represent a dimension type. Over a centuries ago, the unit time duration dimension, the second, was improperly used to represent the time duration for the longest wavelength an electromagnetic wave can have and it would have a frequency of “one”. As a result, all current physical law equations that contain a value for electromagnetic wave frequency or the speed of light are using a non-linear scale.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[131] viXra:1906.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 13:31:36

Polarization-Encryption Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

This sensitivity to polarization depended on the direction of the incoming light; for instance, light in a specific direction prompted the arrays to produce binary images, whereas light in the opposite direction could reproduce grayscale photographs. [37] From books to floppy disks to magnetic memory, technologies to store information continue to improve. Yet threats as simple as water and as complex as cyberattacks can still corrupt our records. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[130] viXra:1906.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 19:44:28

On Some Isoperimetric Inequalities for Dirichlet Integrals; Green's Function and Dirichlet Integrals

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 4 Pages. I gave a new type isoperimetric inequality and propose several fundamental open problems.

In this paper, as a direct application of Q. Guan's result on the conjugate analytic Hardy $H_2$ norm we will derive a new type isoperimetric inequality for Dirichlet integrals of analytic functions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[129] viXra:1906.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-10 10:03:03

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory9

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as in the paper the mass vs nothingness8 if you spin fast you will spin faster than other masses if you spin normal and you will precieve more stuff about normal spin objects and since there is not much to see about the normal spin objects the faster spin masses see the normal spin masses spin faster and if you spin slower you will precieve less about normal spin objects and so the slower spin masses would have more to see about the normal spin masses and so the slower spin masses see the normal spin masses slower hence the time dilation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[128] viXra:1906.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-16 12:48:21

The New Gyrochronology, Version 2

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 9 Pages.

Gyrochronology can be used to measure the age of a low mass, or highly evolved star. Depending on how fast the star is spinning, we can also determine how fast it lost its mass from earlier stages of evolution, which in turn tells us if it was orbiting very close to another host. This is all in accordance with the general theory, meaning the oldest, most highly evolved and/or dead stars will barely spin at all. Examples are provided with hand written notes to prove that I did not steal the idea from anybody, as it is a natural consequence of realizing stars are young hot planets, and planets are very old, slowly spinning stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[127] viXra:1906.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 22:32:11

Solutions to Problems in Abstract Algebra

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 2 Pages.

An addendum to group theory.
Category: Algebra

[126] viXra:1906.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 01:39:10

100th Anniversary of General Relativity

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 2 Pages. Record of blog post

On this historic day of the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the confirmation of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity with the solar eclipse of May 29th, 1919, I feel it is important to share my thoughts on this controversial topic, despite seemingly jumping in the proverbial deep end of classical physics! The trick in this theory is separating fact from fiction. I propose that gravity cannot distort space (& definitely not time!) as Einstein proposed since I concur with Gauss’ Law of Gravity (mathematician), who states that not only is gravity irrotational but it is also is a conservative force. Yes, indeed general relativity is obviously correct in many respects, but the vexed question of exactly WHAT Einstein’s field equations relate to in real life terms still remains a subject of debate.
Category: Astrophysics

[125] viXra:1906.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 04:43:41

Shoot it with a Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Faster computers. More efficient solar panels. More powerful electric cars. [38] This sensitivity to polarization depended on the direction of the incoming light; for instance, light in a specific direction prompted the arrays to produce binary images, whereas light in the opposite direction could reproduce grayscale photographs. [37] From books to floppy disks to magnetic memory, technologies to store information continue to improve. Yet threats as simple as water and as complex as cyberattacks can still corrupt our records. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[124] viXra:1906.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 05:03:24

Waltz of LHC Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Major endeavors are underway in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) over the past few weeks, with the extraction of magnets from the accelerator tunnel. [46] The energies of proton beams produced by laser-driven particle accelerators could be doubled, without any increase in laser intensity. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[123] viXra:1906.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-13 09:21:21

The Logical Content of Inequalities

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 20 pages. Copyright © 2019 by Ilija Baruk�?ić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by: Ilija Baruk�?ić "The Interior Logic of Inequalities" IJMTT, 65 (7) (2019): 146-155. doi: 10.14445/22315373/IJMTT-V65I7P524

Objective. From a theoretical point of view, the demarcation between science and (fantastical) pseudoscience is in necessary for both practical and theoretical reasons. One specific nature of pseudoscience in relation to science and other categories of human reasoning is the resistance to the facts. Methods. Several methods are analyzed which may be of use to prevent that belief is masqueraded genuinely as scientific knowledge. Results. Modus ponens, modus tollens and modus conversus are reanalyzed. Modus sine, logically equivalent to modus ponens is developed. Modus inversus and modus juris are described in detail. Conclusions. In our striving for knowledge, there is still much more scientific work to be done on the demarcation between science and pseudoscience. Keywords: non strict inequality, quantum mechanics, science, pseudoscience
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[122] viXra:1906.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-10 09:23:17

The Redshift Effect is Caused by the Decreasing Speed of Light Due to the Curvature of Space – a Proposed Experiment

Authors: Krzysztof Sudlitz
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the following work, a hypothesis is proposed in which the curvature of space modifies the basic equations of electrodynamics. This is done based on the assumption that the universe is a three-dimensional sphere in four-dimensional space. The modification of the equations results in the slowing of the speed of light over very large distances, which results in the observed redshift of distant galaxies. An experiment is proposed that would ultimately validate or refute the hypothesis: the experiment would require a direct comparison of the angles of incidence and reflection of light from very distant galaxies, and would need to be performed in outer space to avoid atmospheric blur.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[121] viXra:1906.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 07:29:57

Resolving the Tension Between Planck H0=66.931 and Riess et al H0=73.242

Authors: Bruce Wallman
Comments: 7 Pages.

There is an open question in cosmology about the significance of the difference between the 2016 Planck collaboration value H0=66.93±0.62 km/s/Mpc and the 2016 Riess et al value H0=73.24±1.74 km/s/Mpc. This paper shows that both the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values are valid. Tracing the cosmological redshift z from SN1a several thousand megaparsecs in the past to those that exploded closer to today describes an increase in our perception of Hv as distance to us lessens. A best fit power function of vr=73.227*Dp0.9907 for recessional velocity versus proper distance (where vr is recessional velocity and Dp is proper distance) is derived connecting these two values of H0 using 1836 SN1a in the NED database3. Taking the derivative of this formula to get Hubble slope gives the power function Hv=dvr/dDp= 72.546*Dp -0.0093. When this formula is used to describe an extrapolation of the universe from near the Milky Way galaxy to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), it describes a change of about 7 km/s/Mpc in the Hubble value for the observable universe increasing smoothly from 66.4 for our measures at the CMB to 73.4 km/s/Mpc locally as the universe expands. Most of the increase occurs in the last 1000 Mpc as was stated in Riess, Perlmutter, and subsequent SN1a studies. This is consistent with ΛCDM cosmology4. After converting distance in megaparsecs to light-seconds, it is possible to show Hv is an acceleration that varies from 6.45 angstrom/s/lt-s when measuring the CMB to 7.13 angstrom/s/lt-s in the local universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[120] viXra:1906.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 09:29:22

Microworld_56. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 16 Xxvi. the Quantum Theory – a Genius Invention or or a Proof of Unsatisfactory Knowledge of the “Classic” Physics?

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts

Due to the idea of atomism, there were discovered atoms, nucleons, and electrons. The atomic theory incorporated seeds of the idea of infinite divisibility of matter aimed at perceiving the structure of the entire material world. The next step in that perceiving should have been the recognition of ether discovered in Fizeau’s experiment. However, physicists did not recognize the discovery. The neglect of ether in physical theories resulted in physicists’ failure to use the methods of “classic”, Newtonian physics to gain a detailed understanding of atomic structure, and to build a “classic” microworld theory. As consequence, there emerged the quantum hypothesis that became a basis for the quantum physics of microworld. As the quantum hypothesis appeared to be in irreconcilable contradiction with the idea of infinite divisibility of matter, because of the neglect of ether, the quantum physics failed to understand the real structure of electrons and nucleons, even though all the necessary and ample experimental facts there had been obtained on microobject accelerators. Instead of objective ideas of the structure of electrons and nucleons or further development of knowledge regarding the structure of matter, there appeared fake concepts of quarks, myons, pions, bosons, etc., that do not exist in the real material world Experimental evidence as to the lack of indivisible quanta in nature [1] seemed to have fixed the intolerable situation but quantum physicists did not “notice” that.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[119] viXra:1906.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 11:30:26

Four Numbers Having the Digits 1 and 5 Are of Importance in MHCE8S Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The 3-digit dimensional constants 0.511, 15.5, 1.55, and 155 are 4 constants based on the 2 digits 1 and 5 and they appear in 4 places in MHCE8S theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[118] viXra:1906.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 11:18:27

Graphene Drug Delivery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Researchers from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Tsinghua University (THU) report a sandwiched superstructure for graphene oxide (GO) that transports through cell membranes. [49] The wonder-material graphene could hold the key to unlocking the next generation of advanced, early stage lung cancer diagnosis. [48] Now, researchers from Brown University's School of Engineering have explained how the phenomenon works, and that explanation could pave the way for a new type of controlled molecular self-assembly. [47] The team has turned graphene oxide (GO) into a soft, moldable and kneadable play dough that can be shaped and reshaped into free-standing, three-dimensional structures. [46]
Category: Physics of Biology

[117] viXra:1906.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 12:26:20

The New Electrodynamic Processes of Distribution Electromagnetic Waves Inside of Moving Inertial System.

Authors: Valentín Ibáñez Fernández
Comments: Pages.

Abstract The new special theory of relativity gives in this paper. The new theory presents the new ideas of the processes occurring inside of the inertial moving systems. The new theory opens up news laws of motion of light wave inside of moving inertial systems and developing the new leys of physical process. The potential energy of the inertial moving system depends on its velocity and the conservation law of energy of the moving system are need to achieve a consistent theory of special relativity with absolute time. All experimental practice of the wide range of moving systems shows the integrity of the findings in this work. The theoretical and experimental conclusions drawn in this work convincingly confirm the importance and authenticity of these new scientific discoveries.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[116] viXra:1906.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 12:31:25

Structure of Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

New research provides insight into the structure of silicon nanocrystals, a substance that promises to provide efficient lithium ion batteries that power your phone to medical imaging on the nanoscale. [48] Using a new technique, researchers were able to directly watch and image this process. To their surprise, they discovered that it included an extra step that had not been seen before: After the first elastic shock wave traveled through the silicon, a second elastic wave appeared before the final inelastic wave changed the material's properties. [47] The device was produced using conventional semiconductor manufacturing processes, and the team now hopes to scale up the technology to create a silicon-based quantum-computer chip. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40]
Category: Condensed Matter

[115] viXra:1906.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 13:04:44

How Cells Regulate Division

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Combining tissue imaging and artificial intelligence, Hollings Cancer Center researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina probed deeper into how cell division cycles are regulated, in this study released online in the May 2019 issue of Cell Reports. [27] It's a remarkable choreography. In each of our bodies, more than 37 trillion cells tightly coordinate with other cells to organize into the numerous tissues and organs that make us tick. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12] Thumb through any old science textbook, and you'll likely find RNA described as little more than a means to an end, a kind of molecular scratch paper used to construct the proteins encoded in DNA. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[114] viXra:1906.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 13:38:48

Properties of Data Sets that Conform to Benford's Law

Authors: Robert C. Hall
Comments: 46 Pages.

The concept and application of Benford's Law have been examined a lot in the last 10 years or so, especially with regard to accounting forensics. There have been many papers written as to why Benford's Law is so prevalent and the concomitant reasons why(proofs). There are, unfortunately, many misconceptions such as the newly coined phrase "the Summation theorem", which states that if a data set conforms to Benford's Law then the sum of all numbers that begin with a particular digit (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) should be equal. Such is usually not the case. For exponential functions (y=aexp(x) it is but not for most other functions. I will show as to why this is the case. The distribution tends to be a Benford instead of a Uniform distribution. Also, I will show that if the probability density function (pdf) of the logarithm of a data set begins and ends on the x axis and if the the values of the pdf between all integral powers of ten can be approximated with a straight line then the data set will tend to conform to Benford's Law.
Category: Number Theory

[113] viXra:1906.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 14:57:12

Exploration of the Fundaments of Oncogenesis: A Unified Field Approach to Aetiology

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 13 Pages. Preprint: Amoroso, R L. (2018.) pp. 557-569, in Unified Field Mechanics II: Formulations and Empirical Tests, London: World Scientific (https://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/10764)

Oncology, a complex multifactor etiology has eluded all-inclusive prevention and remission by a lack of comprehensive understanding of a singular causation at the most fundamental physical level. Current physiological models address the myriad branches but not the global biophysical root of aetiology. Current thinking claims that underlying quantum field dynamics are the ‘basement of reality’. Einstein emphatically stated comparably to his General Relativity, that ‘it was merely a convenient stopping place on the road to a more unified theory’. We propose that oncogenesis (for the several hundred tabulated cancers) occurs from one single causative factor at the root of the three considered branches of causation. Physical science (which includes chemistry, biochemistry or biophysics) has evolved from 3D Newtonian classical mechanics to the current vogue (albeit experimentally verified) of 4D quantum mechanics. Empirical access to the 3rd regime of unified field mechanics (UFM) with inherent additional degrees of freedom is imminent. In regards to that perspective, it is proposed, that a ‘telergic stressor’ mediated by noetic action of the unified field produces conformal change in protein molecules that can cascade into a system of oncogenic specificity. Although the action of this fundamental stressor appears extracurricular to the current investiture on the ‘branches of causation’: Environmental (radiation, chemical), genetic/epigenetic, or psychosomatic; this paradigm shift is in process as threshold violations of QED (Quantum Electrodynamics) are occurring in more than one arena. The epigenome is involved in regulating gene expression, development, tissue differentiation, and suppression of transposable elements. Unlike the underlying genome which is largely static within an individual, the epigenome can be dynamically altered by external conditions. Numerous mutations occur on the pathway to the onset of a cancer; we quantify a single Unified Field noetic effect that applies to the aetiology of all cancer.
Category: Physics of Biology

[112] viXra:1906.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-13 02:32:06

The Physics Chimera

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper the Standard Model of physics shall be examined for harbouring what can be demonstrated to be a faulty definition for space, a chimera, which has prevented physics from joining electromagnetism with gravity as theoretical and physical field driven entities. This chimera will be exposed to be “inertia”, which has led to absurd conclusions in ultimate equations of field forces across the expanse of space, most notably the need for dark energy and dark matter. An alternative approach in replace of this chimera is proposed, as a new concept for time examining bodies in motion, namely the idea of time as “the” most fundamental concept, and not space as it has been assumed as a field of inertial potential, from which a golden ratio “scaling system” for time shall calculated, making the the idea of space evident as emergent from the dimension of time, and most importantly describe how time behaves as light in regard to space. Upon that emergent space, a list of all the features derived from the golden ratio algorithm shall be once again brought to attention as per the previous papers [1-8] in being married up with known observed physical data. Such a process of examination shall highlight the fundamental failure of the idea of “inertia” in physical equations of bodies in space, and expose those equations as the “chimera” of modern-day physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[111] viXra:1906.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 00:31:52

Refutation of “Refutation of the Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information”

Authors: Shreyansh Goyal
Comments: 2 pages

Colin James III used VŁ4 in his paper titled “Refutation of the simulation argument and incompleteness of information” [James III, C. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0090v1.pdf] to show that the equation used to refute Nick Bostrom’s argument [Philosophical Quarterly. 2003, 53, 243‐255] in the original paper titled “The Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information” [Goyal, S. (2019; http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0090v1.pdf] is non tautologous and hence the refutation fails. In this paper, I attempt to show how the use of Meth8/VŁ4 as done in the refutation of the original paper critiquing Bostrom’s argument is itself non tautologous and hence the refutation fails.
Category: Social Science

[110] viXra:1906.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 01:23:57

Nanoscale Light in Nanocavity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Manipulating nanoscale light in scanning tunneling microscope junctions is attained by nanofabrication of gold tips using a focused ion beam technique. [29] Researchers at Tokyo Tech have developed a nanosized container bearing photoswitches that takes up hydrophobic compounds of various size and shape in water and subsequently releases them quantitatively by non-invasive light stimulus. [28] By studying how electrons in two-dimensional graphene can literally act like a liquid, researchers have paved the way for further research into a material that has the potential to enable future electronic computing devices that outpace silicon transistors. [27] This research is a therefore a step towards basic and technological research into 3-D analogues of QSH insulators, and may ultimately lead to new electronic and spintronic technologies. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[109] viXra:1906.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 01:43:01

Smart Glass at Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

"Smart glass," an energy-efficiency product found in newer windows of cars, buildings and airplanes, slowly changes between transparent and tinted at the flip of a switch. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36] Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35]
Category: Condensed Matter

[108] viXra:1906.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 07:31:57

Neutron Analysis of Polymer Gels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Polymer gels, a gel type with unique properties, have piqued the interest of researchers because of their potential uses in medical applications. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin-orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[107] viXra:1906.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 08:20:03

Molecular Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

From books to floppy disks to magnetic memory, technologies to store information continue to improve. Yet threats as simple as water and as complex as cyberattacks can still corrupt our records. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[106] viXra:1906.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 08:28:35

A Simple Representation for pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

We recall a simple representation for Pi.
Category: Number Theory

[105] viXra:1906.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 08:34:30

On the Equation 8*x*x*(cos(x))*(cos(x))-(4-2*sqrt(2))*x*x-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

We give some roots of the equation: 8*x*x*(cos(x))*(cos(x))-(4-2*sqrt(2))*x*x-1=0.
Category: Algebra

[104] viXra:1906.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 08:36:28

Three Arcsin Type Formulas for pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

We give three arcsin type formulas for Pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[103] viXra:1906.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 08:38:18

Two Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

This note presents two Elementary integrals.
Category: General Mathematics

[102] viXra:1906.0117 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-14 13:38:00

The Copenhagen Trip

Authors: Jeremy Fiennes
Comments: 100 Pages.

Quantum physics works exceptionally well in practice. It has justifiably been called "the most successful scientific theory ever". Its problems are interpretational: how to make sense of its various rational contradictions. The question having occupied some of humanity's best brains for nearly a century, with spectacular lack of success, one is led to suspect its fundamental assumptions. Two such are that a) the quantum/photon is the minimum existing energy/matter packet; b) subatomic reality is inherently indeterminate. Neither is justified. The quantum could be our minimum observable energy/matter packet. Physical reality could be essentially determinate. But due to quantum measurement uncertainty, in the subatomic domain it appears to be indeterminate. In each case there are two hypotheses, neither of which can be proved nor refuted, meaning that both must be considered. Mainstream QM fails to do this. The present article adopts a realist approach. Physical reality is conceived as essentially classical and determinate. But due to the limitations of our neurone-based perceptual mechanism, we experience it in terms of three 'perceptual categories': 1) 'classical', where observations don't affect the observed, and our knowledge is certain to within experimental error; 2) 'quantum' where they do, and our knowledge is uncertain; 3) a hypothetical undetectable 'subliminal substrate'. Our overall universe view is then inherently incomplete, and apparent quantum indeterminacy is due to this. Imagine trying to model the behaviour of icebergs based only on what we see above the sea surface. We would be postulating 'dark iceberg matter'. Being based on the differing ways in which we obtain knowledge, we call it the Epistemological Interpretation of quantum physics. It is conceptual and 98% non-mathematical.
Category: Quantum Physics

[101] viXra:1906.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 09:02:08

Quantum Trap of Casimir Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Physicists in the US have worked out a way of making the Casimir force repulsive and attractive at different locations in a gap between two surfaces. [35] Researchers from the University of Maryland have for the first time measured an effect that was predicted more than 40 years ago, called the Casimir torque. [34] The properties of matter are typically the result of complex interactions between electrons. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[100] viXra:1906.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 09:41:06

Refutation of Self-Referential Sentences and Provability: Antimony of the Liar

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The seven definitions evaluated are not tautologous. The first four equations refute the author’s abstract that “a sentence cannot be denominated by p and written as p is not true”. The next three refute that “in a system in which q denominates the sentence q is not provable it is not provable that q is true and not provable”. The net result is refutation of the liar’s antimony as a paradox (contradiction) and concludes that self-referential sentences are in fact provable as not tautologous. These findings provide a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[99] viXra:1906.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-16 14:40:47

Disproof of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Igor Hrnčić
Comments: 4 Pages. Rectified an obvious small error, sigma>1 instead of sigma>1/2, in the section Disproof of RH.

This paper disproves the Riemann hypothesis by generalizing the results from Titchmarsh's book The Theory of the Riemann Zeta-Function to rearrangements of conditionally convergent series that represent the reciprocal function of zeta. When one replaces the conditionally convergent series in Titchmarsh's theorems and consequent proofs by its rearrangements, the left hand sides of equations change, but the right hand sides remain invariant. This contradiction disproves the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[98] viXra:1906.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 09:50:24

Pentaquark Molecule-Like Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team of researchers working on the LHCb collaboration has found evidence showing that a pentaquark they have observed has a molecule-like structure. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[97] viXra:1906.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 11:38:42

Orduality vesus Flausible Falsifiability & Inference Criteria Explicated: None (All) is a Proof?

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 8 Pages. bridging

Some testing criteria or decision-procedures, notably when deployed as part of automated proving vehicles, might pose more of an AI threat than they do in terms of an opportunity leverage. In particular, tautology, unless rethought, will likely prove just that--irrelevant and inefficient. Mochizuki's IUT, referred to for benchmarking and illustration purposes, may well bear fruit beyond ABC if shown to be Teichmueller legacy-invariant.
Category: Number Theory

[96] viXra:1906.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 13:37:28

When a Boson is Filled Into Specific Territory Densely, What Should Happen?

Authors: Junnichi Fujii
Comments: 6 Pages.

When there is an action target, a graviton should be quantized and behave himself like a particle. The number of existence of the boson is limited in that case.
Category: Classical Physics

[95] viXra:1906.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 18:15:12

The Planck Voltage and Gravitation

Authors: Dennis A. Bluver
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, the implications of the Planck Voltage as a universally constant voltage are explored. In particular, a surprising result is demonstrated, which is that the resulting modified voltage transformation laws demand the existence of a gravitational interaction. Therefore, there is a strong suggestion that gravitation and electrostatics can naturally be unified through the existence of the Planck voltage. This is directly analogous to the way that electricity and magnetism are unified through the constancy of the speed of light. The impli- cations and also limitations of this new framework are explored, highlighting the analogy with special relativity. It is believed that the general method of unification through Planck units outlined in this paper may ultimately be very fruitful for the unification of classical fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[94] viXra:1906.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 20:49:14

Stellar Metamorphosis: Stellar Shrapnel Exclusion Zones on the WT Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Exclusion zones are outlined and explanation is provided as to why this is important to the development of 21st century astrophysics. The zones are in line with the general theory and can be used in a dynamic fashion. These basic astrophysical facts are up for revision and refinement. In short, ring material from Saturn could be pieces of the Earth's ancient oceans.
Category: Astrophysics

[93] viXra:1906.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 23:49:45

A Possible Solution to Gauss Circle Problem

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 4 Pages.

The method used in this article is based on analytical geometry, abstract algebra and number theory.
Category: Number Theory

[92] viXra:1906.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 01:22:53

Standing Wave And Doppler Effect

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The harmonic mode of standing wave requires the number of nodes to be conserved in all inertial reference frames. The half wavelength is proportional to the width of the microwave cavity. The same cavity width is observed by all stationary observers in the same inertial reference frame. All observers observe the same wavelength from the standing wave in a moving cavity. According to the Doppler effect, the observer will detect a higher frequency if the microwave cavity is approaching. The observer will detect a lower frequency if the microwave cavity is receding. With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of microwave in the standing wave is different for different observer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[91] viXra:1906.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 01:35:05

Modern Physics on Cosmic Dance of Absolute Time.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 8 Pages. For further research.

The pilot waves and the dynamism of gravitoethertons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[90] viXra:1906.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 01:33:28

Quantum Simulation of Unruh Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Chicago (UChicago) have recently reported an experimental observation of a matter field with thermal fluctuations that is in accordance with Unruh's radiation predictions. [16] Now scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using an innovative quantum simulation technique have made one of the first observations of a mobility edge in a low-dimensional system. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[89] viXra:1906.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 03:19:32

Perovskite a Single Crystal Unit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Perovskites may be the next material to get the full 2D makeover, according to studies by a team of researchers at Nanjing University in China and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and University of California, Irvine, in the US. [20] A new joint Tel Aviv University (TAU) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) study published in Nature Communications on February 28 demonstrates remarkable continuous lasing action in devices made from perovskites. [19] Efficient near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes of perovskite have been produced in a laboratory at Linköping University. The external quantum efficiency is 21.6 percent, which is a record. The results have been published in Nature Photonics. [18] Very recently, an NTU team lead by Assoc. Prof. Wang Hong, demonstrated high light extraction efficiency of perovskite photonic crystals fabricated by delicate electron-beam lithography. [17] A quasiparticle is a disturbance or excitation (e.g. spin waves, bubbles, etc.) that behaves as a particle and could therefore be regarded as one. Long-range interactions between quasiparticles can give rise to a 'drag,' which affects the fundamental properties of many systems in condensed matter physics. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission-a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[88] viXra:1906.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 03:49:56

Invisibility Cloaks for Stress Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Despite casting deep doubt on dozens of theoretical papers on "elastodynamic" cloaking, the new study's authors from the Georgia Institute of Technology don't think civil engineers should completely give up on it, just on the idea of an ideal cloak. [19] University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called “dark photons” in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon’s magnetic moment. [16]
Category: Geophysics

[87] viXra:1906.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 04:13:44

Infrared Measure Biological Signatures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and collaborators have demonstrated a compact frequency-comb apparatus that rapidly measures the entire infrared band of light to detect biological, chemical and physical properties of matter. [34] Studying the brain involves measuring the activity of billions of individual brain cells called neurons. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[86] viXra:1906.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 04:19:06

Availability of Meth8/VŁ4

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Manifest of files distributed in current release 2019 June 4 ver 10 (2019.06.04.10)
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[85] viXra:1906.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 04:29:33

Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Liquids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A collaborative investigation has revealed new insight into how room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) conduct electricity, which may have a great potential impact for the future of energy storage. [18] The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[84] viXra:1906.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 05:09:59

Cosmos Without Big Bang

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 6 Pages.

I summarize my new theory for the universe in a nutshell. We are a variable hologram in a Rotating Torus Hologram Universe (RTHU). The moment I began to think the Big Bang did not exist, the universe has changed already. That was in 2004, 5 years before I started to write my articles in 2009. The main issue since then is: There is no darkness. Events happen everywhere, but rather in the RTHU than in the Postmodern Big Bang Universe (PBBU). According to all of my theoretical results a lot of events, however, remain temporarily invisible due to being shifted in the variable hologram-universe. The main cause thereto is, that a dark matter force, marked as duo-bits, is the engine of the hologram-rotation, while being located below the Planck-boundary. Hence this deeper area must be a part of a universe, the RTHU. A new parameter Tdan is the hologram-dynamic parameter and in size equivalent to the RTHU as well as in size equivalent as a building-stone of the RTHU. In that sense an under laying information is variable-divided but continuously in order to remain all the information that shapes the RTHU. Furthermore I refer to practical evidence-issues. Study my recent articles.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[83] viXra:1906.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 05:14:23

Refutation of Conditional Necessitarianism

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The seminal definition of conditional necessitarianism is not tautologous. The spin-off is to deny the following five conjectures, so based thereon: Truthmaker-dependence (TD); Truthbearer-requirement (TB); Aboutness-requirement (AC); and versions of tf named deflationary and inflationary. Therefore these six conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[82] viXra:1906.0090 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-09 09:49:55

Refutation of the Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The equation for Bayesian analysis is not tautologous, thereby refuting the conjecture and relegating it to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Social Science

[81] viXra:1906.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 08:35:01

Brest Cancer Spreads to Bone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women, and almost 30% of primary breast tumours metastasize to other organs, with bone among the most frequent metastatic site. [33] According to the Mayo Clinic, about 20% of breast cancers make abnormally high levels of a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). [32] A nanotechnology treatment derived from bone marrow stem cells has reversed multiple sclerosis symptoms in mice and could eventually be used to help humans, according to a new study led by University of California, Irvine researchers. [31] In a recent study in mice, researchers found a way to deliver specific drugs to parts of the body that are exceptionally difficult to access. [30] Now MIT engineers have come up with a tissueengineering design that may enable flexible range of motion in injured tendons and muscles during healing. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[80] viXra:1906.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 08:59:00

Single-Spin Breaks Quantum Symmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Researchers say they have observed parity-time symmetry breaking for the first time in an experiment. [44] Quantum symmetry breaking has been demonstrated in the lab for the first time-with startling implications for the ability to better control quantum systems. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[79] viXra:1906.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 09:33:34

Laser Boost Proton-Beam Energies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

The energies of proton beams produced by laser-driven particle accelerators could be doubled, without any increase in laser intensity. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[78] viXra:1906.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 10:25:34

Giant Molecules Observation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Physicists at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) achieved to form giant diatomic molecules and optically detect them afterwards by using a high-resolution objective. [41] Specifically, the authors model the impact of an incoming photon on electrons and nuclei as the electrons approach an excited state. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Stanford University and Europe has captured the clearest glimpse yet of a photochemical reaction-the type of light-fueled molecular transformations responsible for photosynthesis, vision and the ozone layer. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[77] viXra:1906.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 10:48:57

Quantum Information Storage and Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[76] viXra:1906.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 15:04:58

An XAS And SCDFT Analysis of HTSC Structural Characterization for RTSC Parametrization

Authors: Mahesh Chandra Shah, Tara Prasad, Tanveer Ahmad Wani
Comments: 5 Pages. The paper was previously submitted to Physica C - not accepted for publication. Resubmitted to IOP Science and under review process.

The proposal presents the performance of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in combined local-field time-dependent density functional theory (LFTDDFT)+Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) formalism within real-space Green’s Function (RSGF) approach with computer programme FEFF9 beyond an independent-electron model and the superconducting DFT (SCDFT) analysis with computer programme Quantum ESPRESSO for the high critical-temperature (Tc ) SC (HTSC) characterization leading to microscopic mechanism of SC in strong electron-phonon interaction coupling with sensitivity of Tc as a function of dopant content and levels to approach room- temperature SC (RTSC) exploration as unique probe of RTSC parameterization.
Category: Condensed Matter

[75] viXra:1906.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 00:09:17

Philosophy and Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 20 Pages.

This paper offers a philosophical-epistemological basis for the realist interpretation of quantum mechanics on the basis of the Zitterbewegung model of an electron. It does so by a detailed analysis of the logic and assumptions underpinning the mainstream (Copenhagen) interpretation of quantum mechanics. For ease of reference, we use the logic and analytical pieces which Richard Feynman developed for his Lectures on quantum mechanics for sophomore students.
Category: Quantum Physics

[74] viXra:1906.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 02:42:53

Microworld_55. UNSOLVED PROBLEMS OF PHYSICS_ 15 XXV. Experimental Verification of Ethereal Nature of Electron and Neutron Structures

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 17 Pages. English and russian texts

The theory of non-linear oscillations found that elementary microobjects – electrons and neutrons – consist of multiple ether elements and have vortex-like shapes [1]. Can this be verified in direct experiments? Diffraction methods fail here. At maximum juxtaposition of these microobjects, electrons and neutrons should “disperse” into ether elements. Such juxtaposition results in nature from enormous pressure inside a confined space (“black holes”), and at collision of high-energy microobjects – tetraelectronvolt cosmic rays. In the Earth environment, it is yet impossible to observe processes happening in confined spaces at super-high pressure. Tetraelectronvolt juxtaposition of two protons has recently become possible in LHC. We further discuss how such protons collide and what LHC detectors record in such cases.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[73] viXra:1906.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 05:07:02

Catch Quantum Jump

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Is it possible to know if a quantum jump is about to occur? Researchers have been asking themselves this question for a long time, and the answer is a resounding “yes”, according to a new study by a team at Yale University in the US. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[72] viXra:1906.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 07:19:20

Quantum Optics Computational Complexity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

In recent years, the unique properties of linear optical systems have also inspired the development of computational complexity theory. [41] Multinational corporations, such as IBM and Google, are now building intermediate-size quantum computers with increasing number of quantum units or qubits. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1906.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 07:47:15

Deeper Understanding of Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Network functioning and dynamical properties have more and closer connections with higher-order network topological features, homogeneous substructures and topological invariants. [42] In recent years, the unique properties of linear optical systems have also inspired the development of computational complexity theory. [41] Multinational corporations, such as IBM and Google, are now building intermediate-size quantum computers with increasing number of quantum units or qubits. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[70] viXra:1906.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 08:13:02

Magnetic Shape Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and ETH Zurich have developed a new material that retains a given shape when it is put into a magnetic field. [27] Probing magnetic materials with extreme ultraviolet radiation allows to obtain a detailed microscopic picture of how magnetic systems interact with light—the fastest way to manipulate a magnetic material. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[69] viXra:1906.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 08:30:08

Length Contraction and Solution Ladder Paradox.russian Language.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Сокращения размеров в Теории Относительности Пуанкаре.И решение парадокса Шеста и Сарая ,впервые за 100 лет
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[68] viXra:1906.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 12:20:10

The SUSY Non-Commutativ Geometry

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We define the notion of SUSY non-commutativ geometry as a supersymmetric theory of quantum spaces.
Category: Geometry

[67] viXra:1906.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 12:48:05

The Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information

Authors: Shreyansh Goyal
Comments: 20 pages

Nick Bostrom, in his paper titled “Are you living in a computer simulation?” [Philosophical Quarterly. 2003, 53, 243‐255], presented an argument as to why the possibility of an advanced human civilization that can generate human-like observers greatly bolsters the view that we might be living in a simulation. Bostrom argues why the fraction of simulated observers among all types of observers with human-like experiences would be close to one, provided one accepts some assumptions, and then the bland principle of indifference dictates as to why one must thus, assuming himself to be a random observer, put the highest credence in the option which is the most common. Bostrom’s case rests on the idea that we lack evidence to shift our credence the other way, against the probabilistic conclusions, significantly, however, I argue that we are justified in doing so and a priori. Using Bayesian analysis, I show that the conclusion of the argument need not possess similar credence as the argument suggests, even granting all its assumptions.
Category: Social Science

[66] viXra:1906.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 12:58:07

Microworld_54. Unsolved Problems of Physics_ 14 Xxiv. Big Neutrino Embarrassment of “New Physics”

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 13 Pages. English and russian texts

The theory of non-linear oscillations established the hypothesis that there exists an object called “neutrino” is a consequence of misinterpretation of a system of tracks that occur after neutron-to-proton transformation. The reason for such misinterpretation was bad knowledge of the basic “classic” physics and the lack of necessary “classic” physical intuition. This explains sixty years of failed neutrino experiments. Identification of structures of electrons, neutrons, protons, and photons allowed for a detailed “classic” understanding of neutron-to-proton transformation mechanism, and a detailed “classic” clarity of atomic nucleus structures at an imaginative level.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[65] viXra:1906.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 21:30:23

Indirect Quicksort and Mergesort

Authors: Takeuchi Leorge
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper estimates indirect quicksort and mergesort for various sizes of array element, and suggests a data structure to guarantee time complexity of O(n log(n)) in C language.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[64] viXra:1906.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 23:46:47

Cross-Double-Slit Experiment and Delayed-Choice-Cross-Double-Slit Experiment

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 8 Pages.

We have performed cross-double-slit experiment and delayed-choice-cross-double-slit experiment, denoted as extended double-slit experiments. The cross-double-slit experiments show that the cross-double-slit apparatus creates not only two interference patterns, but also four cross-interference-patterns, which are created by two double-slit. The delayed-choice-cross-double-slit experiments disclose new phenomena: (1) photons behave as both wave and particle in the same experiment simultaneously, which violate Bohr’s complementarity; (2) the cross-interference-pattern is created by one double-slit and one single-slit; (3) photons passing through the same slit behave as both wave and particle, referred it as the Wave-Particle-Paradox, which demands extensive study. We suggest to re-study wave-particle duality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[63] viXra:1906.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 23:59:34

Partition Of The Primorial Square By Remainder Agreement Counts

Authors: Sally Myers Moite
Comments: 8 Pages.

For the n-th prime P, P# or P primorial is the product of all the primes up to and including P. Let (c, d) be a pair of integers that represents a point in the primorial square, 1 < c, d < P#. For each prime p, 2 < p < P, the remainders of c and d mod p may be the same, opposite (sum to a multiple of p) or neither. Count the number of remainders of (c, d) which have same, opposite or either agreement for any such P. This gives three partitions of the primorial square, by counts for same, opposite and either agreement. Polynomial multiplication is used to find the number of points in each part of these partitions.
Category: Number Theory

[62] viXra:1906.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 00:50:43

Quantum Supremacy Certification

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

In quantum computing, the issue of certification is crucial for formally verifying the superior computing power of quantum devices. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[61] viXra:1906.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 02:07:25

Plasma Using Nanowires

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Physicists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena have now managed to solve some of these problems, and they have reported on their results in the renowned research journal Physical Review X. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[60] viXra:1906.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-24 00:54:22

Proof of Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: K.H.K. Geerasee Wijesuriya
Comments: 12 Pages.

Twin prime numbers are two prime numbers which have the difference of 2 exactly. In other words, twin primes is a pair of prime that has a prime gap of two. Sometimes the term twin prime is used for a pair of twin primes; an alternative name for this is prime twin or prime pair. Up to date there is no any valid proof/disproof for twin prime conjecture. Through this research paper, my attempt is to provide a valid proof for twin prime conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[59] viXra:1906.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 03:31:45

Simulation of Black Hole Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

An international team has constructed the most detailed, highest resolution simulation of a black hole to date. [22] Physicists in Israel have shown that radiation from an analogue black hole has a thermal spectrum. This allows them to assign the "black hole" a temperature, providing indirect experimental evidence for the existence of Hawking radiation. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[58] viXra:1906.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 05:00:38

Nanotechnology Against Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A nanotechnology treatment derived from bone marrow stem cells has reversed multiple sclerosis symptoms in mice and could eventually be used to help humans, according to a new study led by University of California, Irvine researchers. [31] In a recent study in mice, researchers found a way to deliver specific drugs to parts of the body that are exceptionally difficult to access. [30] Now MIT engineers have come up with a tissueengineering design that may enable flexible range of motion in injured tendons and muscles during healing. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[57] viXra:1906.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 05:14:23

DNA Nanorobots Brest Cancer Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

According to the Mayo Clinic, about 20% of breast cancers make abnormally high levels of a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). [32] A nanotechnology treatment derived from bone marrow stem cells has reversed multiple sclerosis symptoms in mice and could eventually be used to help humans, according to a new study led by University of California, Irvine researchers. [31] In a recent study in mice, researchers found a way to deliver specific drugs to parts of the body that are exceptionally difficult to access. [30] Now MIT engineers have come up with a tissueengineering design that may enable flexible range of motion in injured tendons and muscles during healing. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[56] viXra:1906.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 05:53:21

Bsoft-Ruby/ruby Based Machine Learning(ml)-LLVM-Tcl/Tk Based Analysis of Cryo-em Images Using Mathematical Software in Probing the Nano-Bio Systems – an Interesting Insight Into Ruby/ruby-ML and Tcl/Tk Interfacing in the Context of Electron Microscopy Ima

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

In this communication the importance of BSOFT-Ruby-LLVM-Tcl/Tk systems based imaging framework to probe Cryo-EM images is presented from a practical implementation point of view. Cryo-EM Technique holds an excellent future.Ruby-LLVM based imaging algorithms could form a powerful informatics framework for researching the challenges arising in the domains of nanotechnology. It is very much useful and important to study the behavior of cross-platform interfacing of existing software tools,fine tuning and adapting them to the domains where the models make bold predictions which could form the basis for the discovery of new nanoscale phenomena. All the methods presented here are also applicable to TEM/SEM/other EM Image Processing tasks as well. Aimed at writing better image processing software directly in Ruby in the near future as Ruby is already a promising tool in medical imaging areas like DICOM and other applications.Ruby also easily interacts with software already developed using C/C++/Java/Tcl/Tk/LLVM with its own extension capabilities.BSOFT, a well established Electron Microscopy Image Processing Software is chosen to experiment with,hence this presentation.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[55] viXra:1906.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 06:30:17

Super Quasars

Authors: Владимир Пастушенко
Comments: 41 Pages.

Super quasars
Category: Astrophysics

[54] viXra:1906.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 06:43:17

Organic Quantum Cascade Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new way of operating miniature quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to rapidly measure the absorption spectra of different organic molecules in the air simultaneously. [42] Yale researchers have figured out how to catch and save Schrödinger's famous cat, the symbol of quantum superposition and unpredictability, by anticipating its jumps and acting in real time to save it from proverbial doom. [41] Multinational corporations, such as IBM and Google, are now building intermediate-size quantum computers with increasing number of quantum units or qubits. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[53] viXra:1906.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 07:10:26

Perovskite Continues Lasing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A new joint Tel Aviv University (TAU) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) study published in Nature Communications on February 28 demonstrates remarkable continuous lasing action in devices made from perovskites. [19] Efficient near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes of perovskite have been produced in a laboratory at Linköping University. The external quantum efficiency is 21.6 percent, which is a record. The results have been published in Nature Photonics. [18] Very recently, an NTU team lead by Assoc. Prof. Wang Hong, demonstrated high light extraction efficiency of perovskite photonic crystals fabricated by delicate electron-beam lithography. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[52] viXra:1906.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-27 19:00:42

Le Monde Dans Une équation :Une Réévaluation Des Rayons Cosmiques Fossiles de Lemaître

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 30 Pages. « Le Monde dans une équation : une réévaluation des rayons cosmiques fossiles de Lemaître » is the French version of «The World in an Equation: A Reappraisal of the Lemaître’s Primeval Cosmic Rays» on viXra.org/abs/1906.0036

Prenant appui sur les phénomènes radioactifs (force faible), Georges Lemaître conçoit, dès 1927, l’univers primitif comme un « quantum super-dense unique », dont la désintégration a donné naissance à tous les composants actuels de l’univers [1, 2]. En s’aidant de la mécanique quantique, il se propose d'expliquer les origines du monde du point de vue de la théorie quantique. Il croit trouver dans les rayons cosmiques la manifestation de la fragmentation initiale. Toutefois, quel que soit la cosmologie adoptée, l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif (big bang froid) n’eut aucune équation pour la soutenir et ne fut pas retenue. Comme tous les autres cosmologistes, il se rabattit sur l’équation Friedmann-Einstein avec une constante cosmologique répulsive qui, d’après les observations de supernovae en fin du millénaire, propulse l’expansion vers l’infini. À cette équation de cosmologie relativiste nous juxtaposons notre équation de « cosmologie quantique ». Nous avons déjà proposé cette équation dans un travail antérieur [3], elle prend sa source dans la mécanique quantique et cadre avec l’hypothèse de « l’atome primitif » de Lemaître. C’est une équation dans lequel le concept de la matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électrogravitation. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à une « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Par surcroît, l’équation indique une expansion constamment décélérée. La concentration du milieu matériel et l’importance de l’énergie décroissante du vide concourent à l’augmentation progressive de la pression positive qui devient responsable de la décélération croissante de l’expansion. Est-ce à dire que notre équation nous porte inéluctablement à l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif pour l’ensemble du cosmos ? Certainement pas, puisque notre modèle englobe autant le modèle chaud de Gamow que le modèle froid de Lemaître. L’expression « évolution dynamique » (employée au début par les spécialistes pour les modèles de big bang) convient à notre modèle étant donné qu’il y a à la fois une origine explosive et, tout au long de l’expansion, une désintégration d’une matière hyperdense. La découverte du rayonnement de fond cosmologique a confirmé le modèle de big bang chaud, que Gamow et son équipe ont réalisée. La lumière prédite l’emporta sur les rayons cosmiques (particules) primitifs suggérés par Lemaître. Néanmoins, nous pensons que Lemaître avait également raison. La théorie dite du big bang (explosion cataclysmique singulière), outre qu’elle ne répond pas à des critères élémentaires de la science, est contredite par plusieurs observations dont on se refuse à tenir compte. Par exemple, les travaux des astronomes arméniens nous ont convaincus que l’origine des particules cosmiques résulte non seulement des explosions de supernovae, mais encore de la division de radiogalaxies, non seulement de la mort de mondes, mais encore de leur naissance.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[51] viXra:1906.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 08:10:10

Model Heavy Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Modelling the properties of atomic nuclei is a demanding task. It requires a theory that we can apply to a large variety of nuclear species regardless of their masses. [31] A careful re-analysis of data taken at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has revealed a possible link between correlated protons and neutrons in the nucleus and a 35-year-old mystery. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[50] viXra:1906.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 08:22:22

Refutation of the Predicatively Unprovable Termination of the Ackermannian Goodstein Process

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the Goodstein theorem which is not tautologous. This refutes such follow-on as the Ackermanian Goodstein process and conjecture of its predicatively unprovable termination. Therefore that segment is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[49] viXra:1906.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 09:15:19

The Fermionic Quantum Plane

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

Here is defined the fermionic quantum plane and the fermionic quantum group of transformations of it.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[48] viXra:1906.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 09:18:42

On the Origins and Histories of the Martian Moons

Authors: Alex Soumbatov-Gur
Comments: 42 Pages.

The moons are confirmed to be ejected parts of Mars’ crust. After explosive throwing out as cone-like rocks they plastically evolved with density decays and materials transformations. Their expansion evolutions were accompanied by global ruptures and small scale rock ejections with concurrent crater formations. The scenario reconciles orbital and physical parameters of the moons. It coherently explains dozens of their properties including spectra, appearances, size differences, crater locations, fracture symmetries, orbits, evolution trends, geologic activity, Phobos’ grooves, mechanism of their origin, etc. The ejective approach is also discussed in the context of observational data on near-Earth asteroids, main belt asteroids Steins, Vesta, and Mars. The approach incorporates known fission mechanism of formation of miniature asteroids, logically accounts for its outliers, and naturally explains formations of small celestial bodies of various sizes.
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1906.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 10:05:37

Refutation of the Cabannas Conjecture of Objectivity

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the 13 atomic equations, with none tautologous. This refutes the Cabannas conjecture of objectivity, forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[46] viXra:1906.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 11:48:09

Relation Between Mean Proportionals of Parts and the Whole of a Line Segment

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 4 Pages. 4

Galileo derived a result for the relation between the two mean proportionals of the parts and the whole of a given line segment. He derived it for the internal division of the line segment. We derive in this note, a corresponding result for the external division of a given line segment.
Category: Geometry

[45] viXra:1906.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 12:53:37

Superconducting Quantum Refrigerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Imagine a refrigerator so cold it could turn atoms into their quantum states, giving them unique properties that defy the rules of classical physics. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[44] viXra:1906.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 13:18:56

Quantum Error-Correcting Codes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Two researchers at Université de Sherbrooke, in Canada, have recently developed and trained neural belief-propagation (BP) decoders for quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. [41] Multinational corporations, such as IBM and Google, are now building intermediate-size quantum computers with increasing number of quantum units or qubits. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:1906.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 13:37:51

3-D Magnetic Interactions Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A new form of magnetic interaction which pushes a formerly two-dimensional phenomenon into the third dimension could open up a host of exciting new possibilities for data storage and advanced computing, scientists say. [42] Two researchers at Université de Sherbrooke, in Canada, have recently developed and trained neural belief-propagation (BP) decoders for quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. [41] Multinational corporations, such as IBM and Google, are now building intermediate-size quantum computers with increasing number of quantum units or qubits. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[42] viXra:1906.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 14:09:09

Equivalence Principle and GPS ( in Russian )

Authors: L.Rimsha, V.Rimsha
Comments: 7 Pages.

Критика статьи N.Ashby,M.Weiss "Why there is no noon-midnight red shift in GPS"
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[41] viXra:1906.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 16:52:18

Testing Cosmological Models Based on Compilations of Supernovae Sne ia "Union" and "Union2"

Authors: A.P. Mahtessian, G.S. Karapetian, V.H. Movsisyan, L.A. Mahtessian
Comments: 20 Pages.

In the present work, on the basis of compilations of supernovae Sne Ia Union and Union2, two cosmological models describing the Universe are considered. One of them (a model with a cosmological constant of zero) was widespread until 1998 when a study of type Ia supernovae showed that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. After that, a model for the case of a flat universe, which is also discussed in this paper, received great recognition. To accept or reject any cosmological model, it is proposed to carry out a test based on the statement that the absolute magnitude of type Ia supernovae should not depend on the redshift (M_SNeIa≠ M_SNeIa (z)), i.e. these supernovae are distance indicators. It turns out that the values of the model parameters obtained according to this principle are also confirmed by the Hubble diagram. It is with these data that the best approximation of the observed data is obtained. Mathematical analysis of the Hubble diagram speaks in favor of a model with a cosmological constant of zero. This model also has one important advantage: it does not need to accept the idea of such a hypothetical substance as “Dark Energy”. Thus, it turns out that we are in open space, filled to about 30% of the critical density of matter, which participates in gravitational interaction and expands with deceleration. This value coincides with the accepted amount of visible and dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[40] viXra:1906.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-14 13:25:32

Proposal for Definition and Implementation of a Unified Geodetic Referential for North Africa

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem, Magtouf Rezgui
Comments: 6 Pages. In French. It is a numerical version of the original paper.

In this paper, we present the details of the proposal for definition and implementation of a unified geodetic referential for the countries of North Africa as : - the choice of the system of the referential, - the steps of the realization of the project, - the training of the geodesists working on the project.
Category: Geophysics

[39] viXra:1906.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 00:21:36

El Algoritmo de Hugo Para Hallar el Máximo Común Divisor Fácilmente

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 6 Pages.

Con este algoritmo podrás encontrar el máximo común divisor de dos polinomios o de números complejos y por supuesto también de números naturales de una manera fácil.
Category: Number Theory

[38] viXra:1906.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 01:16:23

Hugo's Algorithm to Find the Greatest Common Divisor Easily

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 6 Pages.

With this algorithm you can find the greatest common divisor of two polynomials or complex numbers and of course also natural numbers in an easy way.
Category: Number Theory

[37] viXra:1906.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 05:15:15

Computer Make Decision like Humans

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

A team of British researchers has developed a method that enables computers to make decisions in a way that is more similar to humans. [26] One of the most spectacular facts of the last two centuries of economic history is the exponential growth in GDP per capita in most of the world. Figure 1 shows the rise (and the difference) in living standards for five countries since 1000 AD. [25] While it is undeniable that AI has opened up a wealth of promising opportunities, it has also led to the emergence of a mindset that can be best described as "AI solutionism". [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[36] viXra:1906.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 05:25:36

Deep Learning Retrosynthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Researchers, from biochemists to material scientists, have long relied on the rich variety of organic molecules to solve pressing challenges. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24] Citizen science is a boon for researchers, providing reams of data about everything from animal species to distant galaxies. [23] In early 2018, with support from IBM Corporate Citizenship and the Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, IBM and the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) embarked on a partnership aimed squarely at the need to better understand migration drivers and evidence-based policy guidance for a range of stakeholders. [22]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[35] viXra:1906.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 06:12:09

Probable Origin of the Word Simeon

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

The possible Russian origin of the word Simeon is offered
Category: Linguistics

[34] viXra:1906.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 06:12:39

On the Possible Mathematical Connections Between Various Ramanujan’s Equations and Some Sectors of Particle Physics, String Theory and Physics of Black Holes

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 172 Pages.

In this research paper, we have described and analyzed the possible mathematical connections between various Ramanujan’s equations and some sectors of Particle Physics (rest mass of meson f0(1710), mass of proton, electric charge of positron, mass of Higgs boson), String Theory and Physics of Black Holes (entropy)
Category: Mathematical Physics

[33] viXra:1906.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-27 18:53:41

Le Monde Dans Une équation :Une Réévaluation Des Rayons Cosmiques Fossiles de Lemaître

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 28 Pages.

Based on radioactive phenomena (weak force), Georges Lemaître conceives, as soon as 1927, the primeval universe as a "unique super-dense quantum", whose disintegration gave birth to all the current components of the universe [1, 2]. Using quantum mechanics, he proposes to explain the origins of the world from the point of view of quantum theory. He believes to find in the cosmic rays the manifestation of the initial fragmentation. However, regardless of the adopted cosmology, the hypothesis of the primeval atom (cold big bang) had no equation to support it and was not retained. Like all other cosmologists, he fell back on the Friedmann-Einstein equation with a repulsive cosmological constant which, according to supernova observations at the end of the millennium, propels expansion towards infinity. We juxtapose our equation of "quantum cosmology" to this equation of relativistic cosmology. We have already proposed this equation in an earlier paper [3], it has its source in quantum mechanics and fits Lemaître's hypothesis of the "primeval atom". It's an equation in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electrogravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated in a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and the space. Moreover, the equation indicates a constantly decelerated expansion. The concentration of the material medium and the importance of the decreasing energy of the vacuum contribute to the progressive increase of the positive pressure which becomes responsible for the increasing deceleration of the expansion. Does this mean that our equation leads us inevitably to the hypothesis of the primeval atom for the whole cosmos? Certainly not, since our model includes both the hot Gamow model and the cold Lemaître model. The term "dynamic evolution" (used in the beginning by specialists for big bang models) is appropriate for our model since there is both an explosive origin and, throughout the expansion, a disintegration of a hyper-dense matter. The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation has confirmed the hot big bang model that Gamow and his team have achieved. The predicted light prevailed over the primitive cosmic rays (particles) suggested by Lemaitre. Nevertheless, we think that Lemaitre was also right. The so-called big bang theory (singular cataclysmic explosion), in addition to not meeting basic criteria of science, is contradicted by several observations that are ignored. For example, the work of Armenian astronomers has convinced us that the origin of cosmic particles results not only from supernova explosions, but also from the partition of radio galaxies, not only from the death of worlds, but also from their birth.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1906.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-22 01:15:47

Gravitation based on Scalar Fields and Black Holes

Authors: Mark Titleman
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper puts forward the concept that the universe possesses two scalar fields similar to those proposed by E.T. Whittaker in which waveforms travel longitudinally. It is proposed that these scalar fields form through black holes, creating both normal transverse EM radiation as well as gravity. This conception of the universe opens up new methods of analyzing the universe and black holes, allows for an increase of the speed limit of light to 1.14c within a black hole, applies parsimonious explanations of dark matter and dark energy, and accounts for theories such as MOND. These conclusions are arrived at on the basis of an original cosmology as well as mathematical representations of universal rudiments and gravity. Newton’s gravitational constant is given a range that may be used at long distances.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1906.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 09:42:28

Limits of Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Multinational corporations, such as IBM and Google, are now building intermediate-size quantum computers with increasing number of quantum units or qubits. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:1906.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 10:57:30

Predict the Jumps of Schrodinger Cat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Yale researchers have figured out how to catch and save Schrödinger's famous cat, the symbol of quantum superposition and unpredictability, by anticipating its jumps and acting in real time to save it from proverbial doom. [41] Multinational corporations, such as IBM and Google, are now building intermediate-size quantum computers with increasing number of quantum units or qubits. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1906.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 12:10:14

Die Würfelschlange

Authors: Henning Thielemann
Comments: 5 Pages. Language: German

The dice sequence The dice sequence is an adaption of Kruskal's card trick to dice. We compute precise and approximated probabilities that the trick works. The adaption to dice simplifies the problem considerably because the probabilities of the dice rolls are independent. Initially I wrote the text for Wikipedia but in order to meet Wikipedia's exclusion of original research I wrote up this paper.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[28] viXra:1906.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 13:00:17

3-D Bose-Einstein Condensates Laser Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Researchers at the MIT-Harvard Center for ultracold atoms and research laboratory of electronics have proposed a new method for producing 3-D Bose-Einstein condensates using laser cooling only. [43] Researchers have developed a new way of operating miniature quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to rapidly measure the absorption spectra of different organic molecules in the air simultaneously. [42] Yale researchers have figured out how to catch and save Schrödinger's famous cat, the symbol of quantum superposition and unpredictability, by anticipating its jumps and acting in real time to save it from proverbial doom. [41] Multinational corporations, such as IBM and Google, are now building intermediate-size quantum computers with increasing number of quantum units or qubits. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1906.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 13:34:08

Probing Magnetism with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Probing magnetic materials with extreme ultraviolet radiation allows to obtain a detailed microscopic picture of how magnetic systems interact with light—the fastest way to manipulate a magnetic material. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[26] viXra:1906.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 18:13:17

A Survey Of The Riemann Zeta Function With Its Applications

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 20 Pages.

This paper explicates the Riemann hypothesis and proves its validity. [The paper is published in a journal of number theory.]
Category: Number Theory

[25] viXra:1906.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-17 20:11:00

Studies on the Formation and the Nuclear Structure of an Atom

Authors: Nakyoung Seong
Comments: 19 Pages.

A new approach on the formation and the nuclear structure of an atom and its components are developed throughout the following paper. We provided more intuitive interpretations of the physical phenomena that can be found in the nature of the atom, which can be quite controversial with the orthodox view and the interpretations in modern physics. Readers can expect the original viewpoints and explanations on the atomic nuclei and its foundations from the three-dimensional nuclear structure of the atom and interpretations of phenomena. Most of the ideas provided in this paper can be seen as unconventional since the portions of bases are fairly the opposite of the established notions. However, the three-dimensional nuclear structure of an atom presents more plausible and practical interpretations on the physical phenomena compared to the current the field of physics can provides. Potential future applications and the necessary scientific proofs to strengthen the theories are discussed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[24] viXra:1906.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 03:57:36

A New Proof of the ABC Conjecture

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages. Submitted to the Ramanujan Journal. Comments welcome.

In this paper, using the recent result that $c<rad(abc)^2$, we will give the proof of the $abc$ conjecture for $\epsilon \geq 1$, then for $\epsilon \in ]0,1[$. We choose the constant $K(\epsilon)$ as $K(\epsilon)=e^{\frac{1}{\epsilon^2} $. Some numerical examples are presented.
Category: Number Theory

[23] viXra:1906.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 07:58:03

AI the Future of Work and Inequality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

One of the most spectacular facts of the last two centuries of economic history is the exponential growth in GDP per capita in most of the world. Figure 1 shows the rise (and the difference) in living standards for five countries since 1000 AD. [25] While it is undeniable that AI has opened up a wealth of promising opportunities, it has also led to the emergence of a mindset that can be best described as "AI solutionism". [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[22] viXra:1906.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 08:29:21

Quantum Symmetry Breaking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Quantum symmetry breaking has been demonstrated in the lab for the first time-with startling implications for the ability to better control quantum systems. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1906.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 10:29:01

Nanocatalyst Works at Atomic Level

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers of the Nanoscience Center (NSC) at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and Xiamen University, China, have discovered how copper particles at the nanometer scale operate in modifying a carbon-oxygen bond when ketone molecules turn into alcohol molecules. [40] The research is carried out in the Quantum Photonics Group at the Niels Bohr Institute, which is a part of the newly established Center for Hybrid Quantum Networks (Hy-Q) [39]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20] viXra:1906.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 11:07:53

Electrospinning More Affordable

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Electrospinning, a nanofiber fabrication method, can produce nanometer- to micrometer-diameter ceramic, polymer, and metallic fibers of various compositions for a wide spectrum of applications: tissue engineering, filtration, fuel cells and lithium batteries. [41] Researchers of the Nanoscience Center (NSC) at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and Xiamen University, China, have discovered how copper particles at the nanometer scale operate in modifying a carbon-oxygen bond when ketone molecules turn into alcohol molecules. [40]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19] viXra:1906.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 11:33:02

Nanoscale Bioabsorbable Wound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Scientists at Texas A&M University are harnessing the combined power of organic nanomaterials-based chemistry and a natural product found in crustacean exoskeletons to help bring emergency medicine one step closer to a viable solution for mitigating blood loss, from the hospital to the battlefield. [41] Researchers of the Nanoscience Center (NSC) at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and Xiamen University, China, have discovered how copper particles at the nanometer scale operate in modifying a carbon-oxygen bond when ketone molecules turn into alcohol molecules. [40]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18] viXra:1906.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 14:21:43

Stellar Metamorphosis: A Pongola-like Glaciation on Uranus

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

If Uranus is on a similar transformation curve as Earth was, then it is just beginning its own Pongola glaciation. Diagrams and explanation are provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1906.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 15:45:53

Denial of A.v. Shevenyonov’s Proof for the Abc Conjecture

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The six seminal equations evaluated are not tautologous, refuting the subsequent claimed proof of the ABC conjecture, and forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Number Theory

[16] viXra:1906.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 16:07:32

The Rebuttal of Colin James III's Refutation of Vidamor Cabannas’ Theory of Objectivity

Authors: Vidamor Cabannas
Comments: 11 Pages. More information and comments on Theory of Objectivity and Author Vidamor Cabannas can be found at www.theoryofobjectivity.com

I analyzed the refutation of the Theory of Objectivity performed by Colin James III in vixra.org/abs/1904.0549 and verified that the applied method as well as the values found were correct. However, there is an error in the conclusion, as it refutes the Theory of Objectivity instead of confirming it. The values found in Colin James III's refutation confirm the exact findings of the Theory of Objectivity. Therefore, as the values that were found confirm those presented by the theory, these values are a confirmation and not a refutation of the theory. In other words, the equation N + 1 = n – 1 is tautological, confirming the existence of a geometric entity that occurred before the onset of the universe, which the Theory of Objectivity calls Nothing. However, Nothing is a geometric entity incompatible with the existence of the universe, which forms a contradiction with non-tautological values at the atomic level. This is because in the era of Nothing, there is no space nor any other element other than the geometrical point known as Nothing. There is no reference. This geometric Nothing does not signify absolute zero and has an informative value. The Theory of Objectivity uses a logical and geometric model to demonstrate how the spherical point called Nothing transformed itself into universal space. Thus, it proves that absolute Nothing does not exist.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[15] viXra:1906.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 00:26:36

The World is Different the Gam-Hypothesis

Authors: Hartmut Balke
Comments: 17 Pages. These idea can be verified by the fact, that everything can be explained with it.

I will show that matter does not exist in the classical sense. Matter is the representation by units originating in the Primordial Nothingness and made- up by a single force, which I name here Gam. Everything consists of Gam and their interactions. All processes of the universe can be explained without contradiction with the help of these findings. This essay contains only the most basic thoughts, which nevertheless allow us to find explanations for all questions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14] viXra:1906.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 03:35:48

Refutation of the Gödel-Mckinsey-Tarski Translation of Intuitionistic Logic (Ipc)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the Gödel–McKinsey–Tarski [GMT] translation of IPC “by reduction from intuitionistic logic (IPC) using a series of translations”. The equation is not tautologous. This refutes GMT, the method approach using a series of translations, and IPC itself which form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[13] viXra:1906.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 04:37:32

Refutation of Shevenyonov Extension Nary Antropic to Propositional Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Out of 18 equations evaluated, two were trivial theorems, and 16 were not tautologous. This refutes the Shevenyonov extension nary antropic to propositional logic and relegates it to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[12] viXra:1906.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 05:49:07

Laser Generation Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

In 2004, researchers discovered a super thin material that is at least a 100 times stronger than steel and the best known conductor of heat and electricity. [45] Researchers from Japan have demonstrated that a long-elusive kind of laser diode based on organic semiconductors is indeed possible, paving the way for the further expansion of lasers in applications such as biosensing, displays, healthcare and optical communications. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1906.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 12:48:11

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory8

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

all objects time dilate just as photons redshift as in my paper photons redshift0 now when all masses start slowing down they vibrate at lower frequencies and they end up seeing stuff slower even thoug they gone at a faster speed and they end up being like at rest and so they see the speed of light constant
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1906.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 14:44:08

Riemann Hypothesis Yielding to Minor Effort--Part III: Ubiquitous Matching Paradox Irrelevant if Reduced to Extensions

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages. pre-ordual

While seeking to bypass the complex matching/ordering/comparability issue, the paper appears to have straddled areas seemingly as diverse as RH, Mikusinski operators, Euler equation for variations, and Veblen ordinals.
Category: Number Theory

[9] viXra:1906.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 17:17:34

Extreme-Ultraviolet Plasma Radiation Source with Wide-Angle Plasma Irradiation and Collection

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 35 Pages.

A variety of source collection mirror designs can provide an output beam with a wide collection angle and good uniformity, for an EUV lithography system using a laser-produced plasma source. The collection mirror can also perform the dual-use function of focusing wide-angle laser radiation onto the plasma as well as collecting EUV emission from the plasma.
Category: Classical Physics

[8] viXra:1906.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 18:49:00

Special Theory Of Relativity (Questions For Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper provides many difficult questions concerning Special Theory of Relativity To explain that the theory needs extension. In fact – the theory is so hard to be understood – and I try to prove that this theory is a correct theory but it's just a part of a general one which is NOT GR ! Let's define the discussion content in following Discussion Content 1-Special Theory of Relativity Hypothesis 2-The Relativistic Effects (Length Contraction As Example) 3-Matter Creation (Preferred Reference of Frame) 4-The Relative Concept 5-A New Relativistic Feature (My Conclusion)
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1906.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 03:33:03

The Anomalous Magnetic Moment: Classical Calculations

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 15 Pages.

Critics of the Zitterbewegung model often ask what predictions come out of the model. The answer to this question is quite simple: in order to gain credibility, the model would need to explain the anomalous magnetic moment as measured in experiments. If it can do this, then it should probably be recognized as a valid and alternative interpretation of quantum mechanics. This paper explores the geometry of the model in very much depth and, as such, lays the foundations for such explanation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1906.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 03:45:36

Magnetized Plasma Jet in Laboratory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

The team created the jets using the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[5] viXra:1906.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 04:11:51

DNA Origami Molecular Motors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Researchers have successfully used DNA origami to make smooth-muscle-like contractions in large networks of molecular motor systems, a discovery which could be applied in molecular robotics. [22] Researchers have devised a magnetic control system to make tiny DNA-based robots move on demand-and much faster than recently possible. [21] Humans have 46 chromosomes, and each one is capped at either end by repetitive sequences called telomeres. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[4] viXra:1906.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 04:19:26

Interview with God

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

a humorous essay explaining the position of God with respect to our species, homo sapiens
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[3] viXra:1906.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 04:33:09

Magnetically Actuated Microrobots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in South Korea and one in Switzerland has demonstrated that it is possible to use magnetically actuated microrobots to deliver stem cells to targeted tissue. [23] Researchers have successfully used DNA origami to make smooth-muscle-like contractions in large networks of molecular motor systems, a discovery which could be applied in molecular robotics. [22] Researchers have devised a magnetic control system to make tiny DNA-based robots move on demand-and much faster than recently possible. [21] Humans have 46 chromosomes, and each one is capped at either end by repetitive sequences called telomeres. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[2] viXra:1906.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 04:49:44

On Alternating Group of Degree 4

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

An addendum to group theory.
Category: Algebra

[1] viXra:1906.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 04:51:32

Flexible Energy Generators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Wearable devices that harvest energy from movement are not a new idea, but a material created at Rice University may make them more practical. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy