Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[667] viXra:1412.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-18 09:45:54

The CMB and the Last-Scattering Cosmological Spheres

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the very early Universe was the loop composed of protogalaxies built of the neutron black holes. Due to the succeeding inflows of the dark energy, there was the exit of the loop from its black-hole state and the loop transformed into the expanding sphere. The Milky-Way Galaxy is very close to the centre of the expanding Universe so we cannot see directly the first stage of evolution of the early Universe. But due to some phenomena, the early binary systems and clusters of protogalaxies are imprinted on the CMB. Due to the mergers of the protogalaxies during the unseen period of evolution, the number of observed today clusters of galaxies should be smaller than it follows from the CMB and such conclusion is consistent with the observational facts. Here, I answered following question: Why we cannot see directly the evolution of the early Universe whereas we can see the CMB with coded initial number of clusters of protogalaxies?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[666] viXra:1412.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-18 13:14:19

Cuboctahedron Sphere Theory of the Universe Shows the Aether to be Composed of Smaller and Smaller Hidden Dimensions of Spheres Until Reaching the Perfect Packing of a Cuboctahedron Packed Spheres

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure. In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe. In “New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe” 2 It was shown that the number of particles of mass in the Hubble Sphere Universe was related to the number of particles of mass in the Planck Spinning Sphere. This relationship, if extended all the way down through the layers of the universe yields the basic unit of the universe, which is a unit cuboctahedron. This paper will go through the math to show how this is possible.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[665] viXra:1412.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-16 06:23:13

Wolframian String Theory and the MOND Acceleration Constant

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.

Based upon the space roar and speculative ideas of Fredkin and Wolfram, I have suggested that the Big Bang recurs every (81.6 ± 1.7) billion years. (81.6 billion years)/(Planck time) = 4.773 * 10^61 where Fredkin-Wolfram-constant * (Planck time) is approximately 81.6 billion years. G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.165 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.773 * 10^61, where G is Newton’s gravitational constant. Note that in Milgrom’s MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics) the fundamental MOND acceleration constant a0 is 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. Newtonian-Einstein string theory needs to be replaced by Milgromian string theory. Why? There are 2 basic alternatives: Alternative (1). Milgrom is the greatest astrophysicist of his generation. Alternative (2). Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically wrong. Alternative (2) is not a real possibility, because if MOND were wrong then Milgrom could never have convinced McGaugh and Kroupa. This brief communication considers ideas concerning Milgromian string theory and Wolframian string theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[664] viXra:1412.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-16 06:53:46

Quantum Gravity in Reality

Authors: Aloysius Sebastian
Comments: 6 Pages.

Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance of the object. Still we are following the Newtonian concepts of gravity to measure the gravity of objects. Albert Einstein has made a great work on the concept of gravity, after Newton. But still we are trying to know more about gravity. According to me gravity is the property of energy. One must have to explain gravity on the basis of energy. I am agreeing that mass is also a form of energy. But I prefer to find gravity in accordance with the total energy of a system. Here I am making an attempt on this field. I am sure that I am on the right track. I am not placing any new equations here. I am using the existing equations in physics to find the gravity through my thoughts. The way which I am using these equations are may be strange. Sometimes I am thinking in reverse order, first I have found the gravity with the concept of energy. For that I am applying a constant ‘’A’’ and I am getting the value of ‘’A’’ from the last part of equations. Because the value of gravity is still with Newtonian concepts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[663] viXra:1412.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-16 08:01:11

The Correct Age of the Universe

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ludwig et al. (2009) derived solar ages from 1.7 to 22.3 Gyr. The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the age of the Universe, about 13.8 Gyr, calculated within the mainstream cosmology. A change of the Ludwig interval in such a way that the lower limit is zero causes that the upper limit is 20.6 Gyr. This value is very close to the age of the Universe obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), about 20.9 Gyr. G. Hasinger et al. (2002) obtained that the Fe/O abundance in a high-redshift quasar is significantly higher than solar (Fe/O = 2 - 5). This result as well is inconsistent with mainstream cosmology and suggests that age of the Universe is bigger than assumed or that there is an unknown mechanism for production of iron in the very early Universe. The S-SET shows that both conclusions are correct. The big mistake in the mainstream cosmology follows from the wrong interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment. In reality, due to the quantum entanglement, the speed of light c is the speed of photons in relation to the source or in relation to the last-interaction object. Detectors are always the last-interaction objects so measured speed of photons is the c always. But it is untrue that a photon has simultaneously the speed c in relation to all reference systems. The S-SET shows that the wrong assumption leads to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe about 5 Gyr ago. The S-SET shows as well that the wrong assumption leads to the incorrect age of the Universe. In reality, the observed most distant cosmological objects are in the time distance 13.4 Gyr but they are already 7.5 Gyr old. In reality, the era of quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the end of this era i.e. the last 2.5 Gyr. The quasars transformed into the massive galaxies whereas in explosions of the quasars were produced the satellite/dwarf galaxies - generally, it happened during the unseen 7.5 Gyr. Moreover, due to the duality of relativity, which follows from the quantum entanglement, there is discrepancy between the time distance and spatial distance to an object. The spatial distance to the observed most distant objects is 4.8 Gyr only.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[662] viXra:1412.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-12 15:17:06

The Origin of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the dark energy consists of the additional unentangled Einstein-spacetime components whereas the dark-matter mechanism follows from existence of regions in the Einstein spacetime with lowered dynamic pressure. Such regions mimic gravitational attraction and were produced due to the flows in the ferromagnetic filaments in the era of quasars. In the limit, we can treat the ferromagnetic filaments as the dark matter. At the end of the era of the quasars, there was about 4 times more the dark matter than the hydrogen-helium visible matter. The dark energy and dark-matter mechanism do not follow from existence of some exotic particles. Both are associated with Einstein spacetime. The dark energy or regions with lowered dynamic pressure can be detected indirectly only: via expansion of the Universe, via increased spin speed of stars, gravitational lensing or ferromagnetic filaments.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[661] viXra:1412.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-08 13:32:39

The Confinement and Mexican-Hat Mechanism for Baryons, Atomic Nuclei, Neutrinos and Einstein-Spacetime Components

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the confinement and Mexican-hat mechanism for baryons, atomic nuclei, neutrinos and Einstein-spacetime components is described qualitatively and quantitatively. In core of baryons there appears the circle/compactified-fifth-dimension. The range of confinement of the strongly interacting parts of baryons is defined by the circumference of the compactified fifth dimension. Ranges of Mexican-hat mechanism depend on radiation mass of the circles/loops produced inside the charges/tori. There are only five main shells inside the atomic-nucleus Mexican-hat well i.e. the maximum number of electrons inside the well can be 110 and it should be the upper limit for the Mendeleev’s table. Of course, we can produce nuclei containing more protons than 110 but such objects cannot be electrically neutral i.e. they cannot contain more than 110 electrons. The mean distance between the Einstein-spacetime components in the Einstein spacetime is only about 0.8% higher than the Mexican-hat range. It leads to conclusion that it is relatively very easy to transform, due to the Mexican-hat mechanism for the Einstein-spacetime components, the gravitationally interacting Einstein-spacetime components into condensates with a little higher mass density. In such a way are produced the W and Z bosons. Just the transition from the zero-mass state (the energy of photons and gluons) to the non-zero-mass states is due to the Mexican-hat mechanism for the Einstein-spacetime components. Such is the mechanism which leads to the confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components. This mechanism solves the mass gap problem.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[660] viXra:1412.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-05 11:07:01

Physical Interpretation of the Mathematical 10 and 26 Dimensions of Spacetime

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

To eliminate the useless mathematical expressions from the perturbative string theory, we must assume that spacetime is 10-dimensional (the 9 spatial dimensions and 1 time dimension). Why string theory is still fruitless? To describe position, shape and motions of spinning physical circle/closed-string (it has thickness not equal to zero), we need 10 degrees of freedom. Six of the ten degrees of freedom lead to circles i.e. to the ‘compactified’ spatial degrees-of-freedom/dimensions. In an effective theory, the ten-degrees-of-freedom spacetime transforms into 4-dimensional spacetime. To describe within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET) position, internal structure and motions of a neutrino (it is torus and condensate in its centre both composed of the spinning physical circles), we need 26 degrees of freedom. In the S-SET, stability of the neutrinos follows from the interactions (due to the dynamic viscosity) of the closed strings with the superluminal modified Higgs field. The modified Higgs field is the radion field and it is the six-degrees-of-freedom subspacetime. On the other hand, in M-theory there appears the extra eleventh compact dimension associated with a radion field. Due to the succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs fields, there appear the more and more complex structures and number of degrees of freedom increases - there is following series: 6, 10, 26, 58 and 122. There as well appear new radion/scalar fields with very different properties. This causes that a complete description of Nature within one type of equations is impossible. We can partially unify all the main partial theories only via the theory of the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal modified Higgs field and it is the lacking part of ultimate theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[659] viXra:1412.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-02 13:03:31

Time Travel as a Result of Paranormal Abilities and Long-Time Experimental Research

Authors: Akhmat Gemuev
Comments: 2 Pages.

My research affects study of time as a physical phenomenon and its management capacity, as well as the possibility of providing physical effects on living and non-living objects remotely (and through the time). Also, my research provides understanding the general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical sense, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[658] viXra:1412.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-01 12:48:20

The Correct Interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the correct interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein theory (KK theory) is presented. In S-SET, the charges are the spinning tori whereas in KK theory they are the masses moving along circle-like fifth dimension. Spinning torus collapses to spinning circle. In reality, the fifth dimension is the additional degree of freedom which follows from the real structure of charges. The fifth-dimension simplification causes that we lose information about internal structure of charges i.e. the KK theory is an effective theory of the S-SET. Radions are the components of the fifth dimensions. The S-SET shows that gravitational radions are superluminal whereas electromagnetic radions are luminal i.e. we cannot unify the two different radion fields within the same methods and it concerns the generalizations of the KK theory also (for example, the Yang-Mills theories). The S-SET shows that the cylinder condition in the KK theory follows from the fact that there are the spinning tori/charges and spinning loops. The luminal electromagnetic radion field leads to photons but the superluminal gravitational radion field does not lead to gravitons and gravitational waves. Emission of gravitational energy, i.e. a decrease in inertial-mass density of the modified Higgs field, is due to increase in gravitational-mass density of a system or due to emission of gravitational mass which carries non-gravitating gravitational field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[657] viXra:1411.0588 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 20:37:39

What Is Quantum Gravity? What Is Graviton?

Authors: Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu
Comments: 24 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(11): pp. 1003-1026

The natures of quantum gravity and graviton are reviewed and explored from the non-mainstream perspectives. It turns out that quantum gravity is likely manifestation of quantum entanglement and mediated by wave-functions of elementary particles as nonlocal objects. Thus, each elementary particle has its corresponding gravitons comprised of its external and internal wave-functions as nonlocal objects. This new understanding allows one to reconcile quantum mechanics with general relativity and explain dark matter and dark energy as nonlocal effects on the cosmic scales. To make the transition from quantum gravity to general relativity, it is theorized that: (1) Ricci scalar R and metric tensor guv are originated from and determined by the collective internal and external wave functions of the matter present; (2) in the absence of nonlocal effect of remote matter through quantum entanglement, R and guv are only correlated to momentum-energy tensor of the local matter; (3) in the presence of nonlocal effect of remote matter through quantum entanglement, R and guv are also influenced by the nonlocal effect of the remote matter currently interpreted (or seen) as dark matter and/or dark energy. Some of the important consequences of this theory are the following: (1) gravitational fields (gravitons as nonlocal objects comprised of internal and external wave functions) may not carry localized or directly detectable momentum and energy; and (2) there may be no gravitational wave since gravity is nonlocal and instantaneous.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[656] viXra:1411.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 13:31:56

Dependence of Gravitational Constant on Gravitational-Mass Density

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the constancy of gravitational constant is discussed. For gravitational-mass density about 48 powers of ten higher than density of the Einstein spacetime, the gravitational constant is equal to zero. Such increase in mass density causes that the Einstein spacetime decays into the modified Higgs field. In our Cosmos, the maximum change in the gravitational constant can be about one part in 37 powers of ten parts i.e. the possible changes are very, very small.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[655] viXra:1411.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 06:03:45

How to Eliminate the Messy Mathematical Methods from Physics and Cosmology?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The gauge invariance of equations follows from constancy of charges. There appear arbitrary functions so to obtain quantized values we must apply approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The second messy mathematical method applied in physics follows from the wrong assumption that the bare particles are sizeless and that there are in existence interactions with infinite range (it follows from the massless carriers of interactions). In such method, to obtain theoretical results consistent with experimental data, there must appear the mathematical indeterminate forms so they are incoherent as well. Such messy method cannot be eliminate via vibrating flexible strings, as it is in the M/string theory, because such assumption cannot lead to constancy of physical constants. What we should do to eliminate the arbitrary functions, sizeless bare particles, infinite ranges of forces and flexible strings? And some extension to the General Relativity is the answer.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[654] viXra:1411.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 09:13:07

The Origin of the 30 and 18 Million-Light-Year Separation of Single Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies in the Filamentary Cosmic Network

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the origin of the 30 and 18 million-light-year separation of single galaxies and clusters of galaxies in the filamentary cosmic network is presented. It follows from the atom-like structure of the Steinhauer black holes with two horizons described within S-SET. The calculated dominating time-length of the pattern is around 30 million light-years (for h = 0.75). There as well should appear a weaker signal for 18 million light-years and much weaker signals for about 43 and 68 million light-years. The two first results are consistent with the observational facts whereas the two last results are some predictions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[653] viXra:1411.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 10:49:59

The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry: Is Our Universe the One and Only in Our Cosmos?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Some extension of the General Relativity leads to the superluminal nontransparent infinitesimal pieces of space (plenums/tachyons). Due to their dynamic viscosity, in the infinite cosmos can appear pieces of space with different sizes and velocities. Due to collisions of very big pieces of space, there can appear cosmoses with stable boundary. Inside some of them can appear universes. Here, I discuss the possibility that in our Cosmos, our Universe is the one and only. We can calculate the period of the oscillations of our Universe. We as well can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe. It follows from the transitions of the electron-positron pairs into the electron-proton pairs in a vortex with left-handed internal helicity produced in the Einstein spacetime.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[652] viXra:1411.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 13:31:20

The Origin of the Two New Baryon Resonances with a Mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV Observed in LHCb Experiment

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory, the origin of the two new baryon resonances with a mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV observed in LHCb experiment is presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[651] viXra:1411.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:04:06

The Constructive Criticism of the Mainstream Theories

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here is a very short recapitulation concerning the basic problems solved within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET) that are not solved or are described incorrectly within the mainstream theories. Incompleteness and partial incorrectness of the internal structure of the modified Higgs field and Einstein spacetime applied in the predominant mainstream theories cause that there appear many wrong interpretations. In the Einstein spacetime, energy is equivalent to mass but direct transformation of mass into pure energy and vice versa is impossible. Due to the quantum entanglement, there is the wrong interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment which leads to the illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe. Why we cannot detect the gravitational waves moving with the luminal speed? Why the Cosmos did not collapse at the beginning of the big bang and where is the antimatter? Why the Universe is flat? The rest mass of the Higgs boson is wrongly interpreted so there appears the hierarchy problem. The assumed origins of dark matter are incorrect. The many-worlds interpretation within the Quantum Physics (QP) is incorrect. The three-valence-quarks model of baryons is incorrect (for a half of century we cannot calculate exact mass, spin and muon radius of proton). QED neglects the weak interactions of electrons but due to the free parameters gives to correct results. The flexibility of the closed strings in M/string theory cannot lead to constancy of the gravitational constant. The origin of DNA must follow from ultimate theory (in the very early Universe there appeared the neutrino precursors of the DNA).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[650] viXra:1411.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-16 13:31:43

The Origin of Unification of Mathematics and Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the limit we obtain grainy mathematical spacetime with grains composed of infinite sets of finite velocities of sizeless points placed in nothingness. On the other hand, we do not lose information about inertial-only mass if in nothingness are moving the physical plenums i.e. some grains as well. It causes that mathematical and physical descriptions are compatible. There are not in existence real numbers composed of infinite number of digits (there are gaps between the centres of the tangent mathematical grains or physical plenums). It leads to the calculus of finite differences. Similarity in behaviour of grains and plenums (the kinematics of fluids) causes that Platonism is partially correct. Such initial conditions lead sometimes to life and mind.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[649] viXra:1411.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 09:40:57

Is the Physical World the Math/Platonic-World Only?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Mathematical states of the infinite cosmos should be preferred as the initial conditions. Creation of physical world is impossible without two different ground states. In the limit we obtain grainy mathematical spacetime with grains composed of infinite sets of finite velocities of sizeless points placed in (true) nothingness. Such model is coherent for nontransparent grains. Can the mathematical grains be nontransparent? Probability that we cannot formulate coherent mathematical theory of Nature without plenums moving in nothingness is very high. Existence of the plenums causes that in the limit we do not lose information about inertial mass. Next, due to the inertial mass directly proportional to volume of the grains of velocities, we can replace densities by dimensionless numbers i.e. there is possible the transition from the dynamical quantities to kinematical ones. Can be the infinite physical cosmos built from mathematical objects only? What is the transition from math to physics? What are the moving pieces of space? What is the origin of their inertia? What is the origin of the critical/Planck values? Is there a lower limit for the General Relativity and Quantum Physics? Do we need new physics?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[648] viXra:1411.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-14 10:09:33

The 3D Visualization of E8 using an H4 Folding Matrix

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: Appendix split off with 22 pages that includes E8 root list, Hasse diagram and a complete particle list.

This paper will present various techniques for visualizing a split real even E8 representation in 2 and 3 dimensions using an E8 to H4 folding matrix. This matrix is shown to be useful in providing direct relationships between E8 and the lower dimensional Dynkin and Coxeter-Dynkin geometries contained within it, geometries that are visualized in the form of real and virtual 3 dimensional objects. A direct linkage between E8, the folding matrix, fundamental physics particles in an extended Standard model, quaternions, and octonions is introduced, and its importance is investigated and described.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[647] viXra:1411.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-14 04:18:00

Cosmological Constant Puzzle Explained

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple formula from the 3D Universe Theory giving the value of the Dark Energy Density.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[646] viXra:1411.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-12 09:36:11

Gravitational Arrow of Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[645] viXra:1411.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-11 12:03:13

Light Cone Gauge Quantization of String, Dynamics of D-Brane and String Dualities

Authors: Muhammad Ilyas
Comments: 98 Pages.

This review aims to show the Light cone gauge quantization of strings. It is divided up into three parts. The first consists of an introduction to bosonic and superstring theories and a brief discussion of Type II superstring theories. The second part deals with different configurations of D-branes, their charges and tachyon condensation. The third part contains the compactification of an extra dimension, the dual picture of D-branes having electric as well as magnetic field and the different dualities in string theories. In ten dimensions, there exist five consistent string theories and in eleven dimensions there is a unique M-Theory under these dualities, the different superstring theories are the same underlying M-Theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[644] viXra:1411.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-10 04:37:27

What Is the Meaning of Milgrom's Acceleration Constant?

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 4 Pages.

G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.2 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.634 * 10^61 where Milgrom’s acceleration constant is approximately 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. What (if anything) is the meaning of such a large number? What is Milgromian string theory? The answer might (or might not) be Wolframian string theory. Wolfram’s mobile automaton allegedly builds each Planck time interval through a huge number of updates by the updating parameter. Energy, spacetime, and string theory are supposedly approximations generated from a network of nonmeasurable Fredkin time, Fredkin distance, and Fredkin digit transition. Wolframian string theory might replace supersymmetry by Wolframian quasi-supersymmetry, which unifies bosons and fermions within Wolfram’s mobile automaton. The point is that Wolframian string theory is testable. According to “The Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 91, a unit measuring rod undergoes a gravitational contraction given by (1 – (κ/(8π)) * (∫ (σ/r) dV)), where κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect implies that the gravitational contraction is (1 – ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * (κ/(8π)) * (∫ (σ/r) dV)), where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant (D-M-C-C) to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[643] viXra:1411.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-09 01:18:30

On Some Novel Consequences of Clifford Space Relativity Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages. Based on a plenary talk at the 10-th International Clifford Algebra Conference in Tartu, Estonia, August 2014

Some of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) are presented. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations which allow for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, while breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. We analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. We finalize with a discussion of the modified dispersion relations, rainbow metrics and generalized uncertainty relations in $C$-spaces which are extensions of the stringy uncertainty relations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[642] viXra:1411.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-08 02:15:32

Gravity Quantum Entanglement Between Matter and Space-Time.

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get the core provisions of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is an entirely new interpretation of gravity through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[641] viXra:1411.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-05 18:07:19

An Holographic Confirmation of Eddington's Proton/tau Symmetry

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is shown that the ratio of two c-free formulas for the Hubble radius exhibits overwhelming mathematical properties implying an holographic formula between the muon and tau masses, induced by an Eddington's symmetry argument.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[640] viXra:1411.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-05 04:06:34

Precise Model of Hawking Radiation from the Tunnelling Mechanism

Authors: Christian Corda
Comments: 11 Pages.

We recently improved the famous result of Parikh and Wilczek, who found a probability of emission of Hawking radiation which is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum, showing that such a probability of emission is really associated to two non-strictly thermal distributions for boson and fermions. Here we finalize the model by finding the correct value of the pre-factor of the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission. In fact, that expression has the ∼ sign instead of the equality. In general, in this kind of leading order tunnelling calculations, the exponent arises indeed from the classical action and the pre-factor is an order Planck constant correction. But in the case of emissions of Hawking quanta, the variation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is order 1 for an emitted particle having energy of order the Hawking temperature. As a consequence, the exponent in the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission is order unity and one asks what is the real significance of that scaling if the pre-factor is unknown. Here we solve the problem assuming the unitarity of the black hole (BH) quantum evaporation and considering the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and quasi-normal modes (QNMs) of excited BHs , in a “Bohr-like model” that we recently discussed in a series of papers. In that papers, QNMs are interpreted as natural BH quantum levels (the “electron states” in the “Bohr-like model”). Here we find the intriguing result that, although in general it is well approximated by 1, the pre-factor of the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission depends on the BH quantum level n. We also write down an elegant expression of the probability of emission in terms of the BH quantum levels.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[639] viXra:1411.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-04 06:09:12

Why Are There 3 Generations of Fermions?

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 5 Pages.

I conjecture that string theorists are guaranteed to fail unless they recognize the importance of the work of Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski. Milgrom’s acceleration law is true or appears to be true for some unknown reason. What does Milgrom’s acceleration law have to do with the 3 generations of fermions? I speculate that Milgrom’s acceleration law implies that the law of conservation of gravitational energy is false and that the infinite nature hypothesis is false. Assume that nature is finite and digital. Conjecture (1). The 26-dimensional model of bosonic string theory, together with Lestone’s heuristic string theory, implies that supersymmetry is an approximate symmetry within Wolfram’s automaton. Conjecture (2). There are 3 generations of fermions because Wolfram’s automaton provides a way for 3 copies of 26-dimensional bosonic string theory to map into 64 dimensions of fundamental particles, 2 dimensions of quantum spin, 3 dimensions of linear momentum, 3 dimensions of angular momentum, and 6 dimensions of quantum uncertainty. Wolfram’s automaton provides approximations to quantum field theory and general relativity theory by means of ‘t Hooft’s superdeterminism. Are conjectures (1) and (2) false? Perhaps, but the conjectures are testable. The main predictions are the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, the Space Roar Profile Prediction, and the hypothesis that gravitons, inflatons, and axions are the only fundamental particles that remain to be discovered. According to the “Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 93, a ray of light passing near a large mass M is deflected by an amount α = (κ/(2π)) * (M/Δ), where Δ is the ray’s minimal (hypothetically undeflected in the flat coordinates) distance from the center of mass M, and κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect implies that ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * (κ/(2π)) * (M/Δ), where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant (D-M-C-C) to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[638] viXra:1411.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-03 10:33:19

The Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays and New Cosmological Problems

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I calculated the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays as a function of energy and described positron flux. Obtained results are consistent with the data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station (ISS). These data lead to the internal structure of the core of baryons and to phenomena characteristic for regions in the Universe filled with baryonic plasma described within S-SET. Here, as well within S-SET, I described the origin of new cosmological problems which lead to new cosmology. They are as follows. There are not in existence the B-modes associated with gravitational waves - it leads to conclusion that there was a separation in time of the inflation and the big bang of the Universe. In the very distant Universe there is too small number of dwarf galaxies. In the very distant Universe there are the massive galaxies which do not significantly evolve so a time for their formation was too short. In the very distant Universe there are too many barred galaxies - it is inconsistent with simulations grounded on the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). There is a substantial asymmetry in the CMB signal observed in the two opposite hemispheres of the sky. These new problems suggest that CSM starts from wrong initial conditions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[637] viXra:1410.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-30 13:17:08

Bohr-Like Model for Black Holes

Authors: Christian Corda
Comments: 17 Pages.

It is an intuitive but general conviction that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity. Here we show that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture, discussing a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. Our model has important implications on the BH information puzzle and on the non-strictly random character of Hawking radiation. It is also in perfect agreement with existing results in the literature, starting from the famous result of Bekenstein on the area quantization. This paper improves, clarifies and finalizes some recent results that, also together with collaborators, we published in various peer reviewed journals. Preliminary results on the model in this paper have been recently discussed in an Invited Lecture at the 12th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[636] viXra:1410.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-29 00:24:19

Where Are the Dark Matter Particles?

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.

Consider the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is it possible that Milgrom’s acceleration law is wrong? No, because Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski have elaborated too much empirical evidence in its favor. There are only 2 possibilities: (1) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is 100% correct but appears to be significantly wrong for some unknown reason. (2) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory really is slightly wrong. Where did Newton go wrong? Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. To every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction: in other words, the actions of two bodies in relation to each other are always equal and directed in contrary parts. Within the universe to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction. Newton’s Third Law should perhaps be: Within the multiverse to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction provided that the action and the reaction are both confined to one particular universe. In other words, I suggest that Newton and Einstein made the mistake of assuming that gravitational energy is conserved. Start with Kepler’s laws and follow Newton’s reasoning with the removal of the assumption that gravitational energy is conserved. The result is not F = G * m1 * m2 / r^2 but instead F = ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * G * m1 * m2 / r^2 , where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 if gravitational energy is conserved, > 0 if gravitational energy is unexpectedly large, and < 0 if gravitational energy in unexpectedly small. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximated sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[635] viXra:1410.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-28 06:17:46

The Participator Model

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this article, the formal definition for the participator model is given. This solves the participator requirement for the General Grand Unification Problem. This is the participator aspect for the generation of universes via the GGU-model cosmogony schemes. It is shown to be representable as a finite meet semi-lattice with lower unit.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[634] viXra:1410.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-25 21:50:00

Non Linear Electrodynamics and the Question of Minimum Time Length/modification of Initial Secularities in Early Universe Cosmology and Dm/de

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 Pages. Will be presented in South Africa, in Capetown in Dark Side of the Universe. This is an accepted talk

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step , then generate DM via axions. Through Ngs quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[633] viXra:1410.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-24 11:45:36

Testing Milgromian String Theory

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.

What are the tests of string theory? What is Milgromian string theory, and how might Milgromian string theory be tested? If the string theorists are correct about string theory and if Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically valid when gravitational accelerations are low, then what might be the meaning of “Milgromian string theory”? What might be the physical basis of MOND? Consider 3 ideas: (1) Fernández-Rañada and Tiemblo-Ramos suggested that atomic time might be different from astronomical time. (2) Dark matter has zero inertial mass-energy and positive gravitational mass-energy. (3) Dark energy has zero inertial mass-energy and negative gravitational mass-energy. My guess is that the preceding ideas combined with Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) plausibly imply the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect. Replace the –1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s gravitational field equations by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^-5 . Designate this constant by D-M-C-C. In the “Meaning of Relativity” 5th edition page 87, the formula (101) should have – κ/(2π) replaced by (–κ/(4π)) * (1/2 – D-M-C-C)^-1 on the hypothesis of the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[632] viXra:1410.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-23 06:29:06

The Cosmological Constant from the Extended Theory of Gravitation in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to a Special issue of Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[631] viXra:1410.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-23 01:11:42

Newtonian Quantum Gravity - Newton Laws from a Revolutionary Perspective

Authors: Meir Amiram
Comments: 11 Pages.

Newton's inverse square law of gravity is very accurate in predicting the mutual gravitational responses of bodies within galaxies. Its predictions fail however in the outskirts of many galaxies and in cosmological scale analyses of the universe. Dark entities can be hypothesized for maintaining the law intact, yet the possibility that something is faulty not with our qualifications to sense dark constituents of the universe but with the law itself, cannot be ruled out. Through algebraic discussion I show that Newton equations can be interpreted in a new way at least as legitimate as their conventional way of interpretation. According to this new interpretation of Newton equations it comes out that the laws of gravity alter when the ratio between the mass of a gravitational source and the distance from it is smaller from a predetermined value. I indicate that gravitational fields may have a cutoff border at some mass dependent distance, i.e. possibly the influence of gravity is restricted in range and galaxies receding from one another according to Hubble law are gravitationally disconnected. My conclusion is that the common use of GR for cosmological scale analysis of the universe is very speculative and lacks any observational support.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[630] viXra:1410.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-20 07:29:16

Knot Formation in an Entropic 2+1 Dimensional Space

Authors: Piyush Mohan Singhal
Comments: 13 Pages. A peer review is requested.

The formation of a trefoil knot in a measurement space with entropy is described. It is shown that for a given prime knot, invariants with the characteristics of Laurent polynomials can be developed in 2+1 dimensional measurement space. These polynomials distinguish chiral property and uniquely address charge, parity and time symmetries.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[629] viXra:1410.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-18 21:44:39

Understanding the Basics of Final Unification with Avogadro Number

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 11 Pages.

Physicists have long suggested that the four observed fundamental forces of nature are separate manifestations of what was once a single force at times close to the Big Bang. If so, magnitude of the unified force can be assumed to be equal to . Strength of any interaction can be defined as the ratio of the operating force magnitude and the magnitude of . Let the gravitational interaction at black holes be called as ‘Schwarzschild interaction’. If strength of Schwarzschild interaction is unity, then weak interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction and strong interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction. Based on these concepts and considering the Avogadro number as an absolute and discrete number, basics of final unification can be understood.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[628] viXra:1410.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-14 04:47:25

Electron-to-Muon Abundance Ratio at High Energy Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The scale-symmetric physics (S-SET) leads to the atom-like structure of baryons containing the core, composed of entangled or/and confined Einstein-spacetime components, which is the black hole in respect of strong interactions. The structure of the core leads to conclusion that at high energy proton-proton collisions we should detect 25% more electrons than muons. On the other hand, at the LHC Physics conference in New York City (June 2014) the LHCb collaboration announced that probably there appear 25% more electrons than muons. In the Standard Model the electrons and muons (in the S-SET as well) are the particles of the same type so number of electrons and muons should be the same. This 25 percent excess of electrons follows from the internal structure of the core of baryons described within S-SET whereas within the Standard Model such excess is incomprehensible i.e. suggests existence of new physics. Just S-SET is the lacking part of ultimate theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[627] viXra:1410.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-14 02:35:59

Quantum Gravity Personalized

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in sections entitled “Speculations Concerning Future Humanity” and “Quantum Gravity Personalized”.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[626] viXra:1410.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-13 09:47:33

An Analog to the Steinhauer Black Hole with Two Horizons in the Scale-Symmetric Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Steinhauer black hole is an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate containing an analogue black-hole horizon and an inner horizon as in a charged black hole (online it was published on 12 October 2014). Jeff Steinhauer observed the exponential growth of a standing wave between the horizons. On the other hand, the scale-symmetric physics (S-SET) leads to the charged core of baryons which is the charged black hole in respect of strong interactions producing two horizons, i.e., the luminal-spin-speed horizon in distance A = 0.69744 fm and the luminal-radial-speed horizon in distance 2A. On both horizons are produced the virtual bosons with an energy of 282.9 MeV for which the characteristic length is equal to A. Such virtual bosons appear in the liquid-like-plasma theory, in the cosmic-neutrino-background theory and in the theory of the spin-1 and spin-3 charmed, strange D resonances with a mass of 2860 MeV. The Steinhauer black hole with two horizons is an analog to the charged core of baryons and an analog to the neutron black holes. The structures of the charged core of baryons and of the neutron black holes, producing two horizons, were described already in 1997 (online it was published on 6 March 2012). This leads to conclusion that the Steinhauer discovery is the indirect evidence for existence of the charged core of baryons described within S-SET.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[554] viXra:1412.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-05 12:05:55

Time Travel as a Consequence of Paranormal Abilities and Long-Time Experimental Research

Authors: Akhmat Gemuev
Comments: 2 Pages.

My research includes study of time as a physical phenomenon, management of time and possibility of physical impact on living and nonliving objects remotely and through the time. Also, my research provides understanding of general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical senses, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[553] viXra:1412.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-05 07:48:04

Time Travel as a Consequence of Paranormal Abilities and Long-Time Experimental Research

Authors: Akhmat Gemuev
Comments: 2 Pages.

My research includes study of time as a physical phenomenon, management of time and possibility of physical impact on living and nonliving objects remotely and through the time. Also, my research provides understanding of general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical sense, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[552] viXra:1412.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-04 13:37:14

Time Travel as a Consequence of Paranormal Abilities and Long-Time Experimental Research

Authors: Akhmat Gemuev
Comments: 2 Pages.

My research includes study of time as a physical phenomenon, management of time and possibility of physical impact on living and nonliving objects remotely and through the time. Also, my research provides understanding of general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical sense, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[551] viXra:1412.0008 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-03 06:41:04

The Correct Interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the correct interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein theory (KK theory) is presented. In S-SET, the charges are the spinning tori whereas in KK theory they are the masses moving along circle-like fifth dimension. The most incredible fact is that when we abandon the international system of units then the product of the mass of the torus/charge of proton in S-SET and speed of light (i.e. the fifth momentum) is very close to the value of the electric charge of proton or electron i.e. there is possible the interpretation that electric charge is the motion of mass in the fifth dimension. Moreover, the fifth momentums for the quantum entanglement and electric charge of proton have the same values but physical meanings and densities of adequate radion fields are different. Spinning torus collapses to spinning circle. In reality, the fifth dimension is the additional degree of freedom which follows from the real structure of charges. The fifth-dimension simplification causes that we lose information about internal structure of charges i.e. the KK theory is an effective theory of the S-SET. Radions are the components of the fifth dimensions. The S-SET shows that gravitational radions are superluminal whereas electromagnetic radions are luminal i.e. we cannot unify the two different radion fields within the same methods and it concerns the generalizations of the KK theory also (for example, the Yang-Mills theories). The S-SET shows that the cylinder condition in the KK theory follows from the fact that there are the spinning tori/charges and spinning loops. The luminal electromagnetic radion field leads to photons but the superluminal gravitational radion field does not lead to gravitons and gravitational waves. Emission of gravitational energy, i.e. a decrease in inertial-mass density of the modified Higgs field, is due to increase in gravitational-mass density of a system or due to emission of gravitational mass which carries non-gravitating gravitational field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[550] viXra:1412.0008 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-02 01:26:07

The Correct Interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the correct interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein theory (KK theory) is presented. In S-SET, the charges are the spinning tori whereas in KK theory they are the masses moving along circle-like fifth dimension. The most incredible fact is that when we abandon the international system of units then the product of the mass of the torus/charge of proton in S-SET and speed of light (i.e. the fifth momentum) is very close to the value of the electric charge of proton or electron i.e. there is possible the interpretation that electric charge is the motion of mass in the fifth dimension. Spinning torus collapses to spinning circle. In reality, the fifth dimension is the additional degree of freedom which follows from the real structure of charges. The fifth-dimension simplification causes that we lose information about internal structure of charges i.e. the KK theory is an effective theory of the S-SET. Radions are the components of the fifth dimensions. The S-SET shows that gravitational radions are superluminal whereas electromagnetic radions are luminal i.e. we cannot unify the two different radion fields within the same methods and it concerns the generalizations of the KK theory also (for example, the Yang-Mills theories). The S-SET shows that the cylinder condition in the KK theory follows from the fact that there are the spinning tori/charges and spinning loops. The luminal electromagnetic radion field leads to photons but the superluminal gravitational radion field does not lead to gravitons and gravitational waves. Emission of gravitational energy, i.e. a decrease in inertial-mass density of the modified Higgs field, is due to increase in gravitational-mass density of a system or due to emission of gravitational mass which carries non-gravitating gravitational field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[549] viXra:1411.0551 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-03 14:09:03

How to Eliminate the Messy Mathematical Methods from Physics and Cosmology?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The gauge invariance of equations follows from constancy of charges. There appear arbitrary functions so to obtain quantized values we must apply approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The second messy mathematical method applied in physics follows from the wrong assumption that the bare particles are sizeless and that there are in existence interactions with infinite range (it follows from the massless carriers of interactions). In such method, to obtain theoretical results consistent with experimental data, there must appear the mathematical indeterminate forms so they are incoherent as well. Such messy method cannot be eliminate via vibrating flexible strings, as it is in the M/string theory, because such assumption cannot lead to constancy of physical constants. What we should do to eliminate the arbitrary functions, sizeless bare particles, infinite ranges of forces and flexible strings? And some extension to the General Relativity is the answer.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[548] viXra:1411.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-20 06:42:13

The Origin of the Two New Baryon Resonances with a Mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV Observed in LHCb Experiment

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory, the origin of the two new baryon resonances with a mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV observed in LHCb experiment is presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[547] viXra:1410.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-30 06:33:14

Some Call The Consequences Of Quantum Gravity Supernatural But It’s Merely Nature We Have Not Discovered Yet

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 42 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities). This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity, General Relativity and E=mc^2 confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[546] viXra:1410.0159 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-26 10:17:15

Non Linear Electrodynamics and the Question of Minimum Time Length/modification of Initial Singularities in Early Universe Cosmology and Dm/de

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 18 Pages. Added more to the conclusion. Fixed error in title, plus typos and added a formula and additional comments / formula to the conclusion

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[545] viXra:1410.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-31 21:06:30

The Cosmological Constant from the Extended Theory of Gravitation in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 17 Pages. submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[544] viXra:1410.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-23 22:26:21

The Cosmological Constant from the Extended Theory of Gravitation in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[543] viXra:1410.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-22 00:00:01

Quantum Gravity Personalized

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 40 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities). This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about E=mc^2, Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding the Unified Field, speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[542] viXra:1410.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-06 21:22:03

Quantum Gravity Personalized

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 42 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities). This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[541] viXra:1410.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-26 03:05:35

Quantum Gravity Personalized

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 39 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities). This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[540] viXra:1410.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-21 04:52:00

Quantum Gravity Personalized

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 30 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The final words in a TV program about it (“Virtual Universe” on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s “Catalyst” – Oct. 16, 2014) are "On the left is the real Hubble image. On the right is the one from the mock Hubble. The two were extraordinarily similar. Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved." The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities). This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in sections entitled “Speculations Concerning Future Humanity” and “Quantum Gravity Personalized”.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory