**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(5) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(6) - 1111(9) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(8) - 1202(10) - 1203(11) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(8) - 1212(2)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(15) - 1305(12) - 1306(6) - 1307(11) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(5) - 1311(14) - 1312(11)

2014 - 1401(15) - 1402(12) - 1403(13) - 1404(6) - 1405(13) - 1406(10) - 1407(16) - 1408(12) - 1409(18) - 1410(16) - 1411(19) - 1412(14)

2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(14) - 1503(15) - 1504(9) - 1505(13) - 1506(15) - 1507(19) - 1508(15) - 1509(21) - 1510(28) - 1511(22) - 1512(19)

2016 - 1601(12) - 1602(31) - 1603(21) - 1604(19) - 1605(23) - 1606(19) - 1607(23) - 1608(25) - 1609(16) - 1610(17) - 1611(26) - 1612(18)

2017 - 1701(15)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1100] **viXra:1701.0566 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-22 00:43:19*

**Authors:** Tufail Abbas

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Keywords: Space, Time, Energy, Charge, Perception of Vision, Dimensions, Rest Velocity, Cubic Lattice.

This paper proposes an introductory conceptual framework for developing explanation about the Universe based upon stationery cubic lattice structure arranged as infinite matrix of infinitesimal cubes. The space and time moves through this lattice resulting into all mass, charge and energy that we see. It is envisioned that through developing of this model based upon base lattice structure it would be possible to express all physical properties (i.e. space, time, energy, charge, momentum, temperature, velocity, force etc.) , in terms of the geometric parameters (i.e. length, surface area, volume, angle, orientation, cycles) of the base structure. Physical reality being a function of perception, the paper discusses our general understanding of perception (of vision in particular), to make interpretations regarding the nature of observable reality and understanding about dimensions, based upon reasoning. Based upon these interpretation, concept of “velocity at rest”is introduced, which is envisioned to provide an explanation about rest mass and gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1099] **viXra:1701.0560 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 14:57:21*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Colin James III

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The possible presence of further dimensions hidden in our three-dimensional-plus time world might help to elucidate countless physical and biological systems’ behaviors, from quantum entanglement to brain function. Nevertheless, suggestions concerning multidimensional arrangement of physical and biological systems do not deserve the role of scientific claims, unless the suggested additional dimensions can be verified via empirically testable hypotheses and through experimental apparatus. Here we suggest that the widespread nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of physical and biological collective systems might mirror further dimensions hidden in our world. Indeed, bringing together disparate knowledge from seemingly unrelated fields (brane cosmology, fluid dynamics, algebraic topology, computational topology, dynamic systems theory, logic and statistical mechanics), we show how, in logistic maps derived from nonlinear dynamical equations, the typical bifurcation diagrams might arise from linear flow paths, that intersect large-sized hidden dimensions at the canonical phase parameter’s values between three and four. Therefore, chaotic dynamics suggests the existence of a further hidden dimension in our Universe. We also provide a thermodynamic framework which suggests that the cosmic entropy is encompassed in a multidimensional manifold.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1098] **viXra:1701.0545 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-19 12:19:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages. submitted to JHEPGC for review

We examine the role of particle nucleation in the initial universe, and argue that there is a small effect due to particle nucleation in terms of lowering initial temperature, in tandem with energy density and scale factor contributions. If such scaling exists as a major order effect, then quenching of temperature proportional to a vacuum nucleation at or before the electro weak era is heavily influenced by a number, n, which is either a quantum number (quantum cosmology) or a ‘particle count before the electro weak era. If the supposition is for a particle count, say of gravitons from a prior universe to today's universe, initially, we can compare via a thermodynamic argument compared as to a modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to what this says about particle count information, we have a richer cosmological picture to contend with. We close with a speculation as to how a quantum teleportation picture for Pre- Planckian space-time physics may influence our physics discussion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1097] **viXra:1701.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 04:12:19*

**Authors:** Terrence J. McMahon

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Unification of the physical constants is announced, where gravity, quantum theory, and general relativity are linked via new physics. Unification involves a new, combined ‘gravito-electromagnetic’ constant, linked via Pi and Phi (the golden mean). All constants, most of which are found to run at high energies, are related via this expression. Energy, mass, and the gravitational constant are explained in those terms. The photon constant runs inversely to the gravitational constant, while both are united via a running fine-structure constant. Mass is not conserved, running with energy. Energy however is conserved. Space is a superconductor, where photons have mass. The Hubble constant is redefined, providing an alternative cause for red-shifting of photon wavelengths. A brief discussion of these findings offers an explanation via a new cosmological model that does not require inflation, singularities, dark energy, exotic dark matter, or supersymmetry. Anomalies in the Standard Model are explained. Suitable candidates are described for the cosmological constant, and mass density parameter. The Universe is found to be closed. Planck units run, and the Planck constant is calculated from theory, differing by 0.2%, as is the von Klitzing constant. Magnetic permeability, electric permittivity, and wave impedance are calculated from theory here, differing from accepted values (defined by convention) by just 0.2%. The fine structure, gravitational, and Hubble constants are defined, with accuracy for the latter two improved to 10 significant figures. These data described are all in excellent agreement with the Planck survey (2015) results. New, related constants are discussed. A novel explanation is introduced to explain the mass ratio between an electron and a proton. Predictions are made for future values of the principal running constants. These discoveries have substantial consequences for the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1096] **viXra:1701.0513 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-16 06:25:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to the IJGMMP.

Starting with the study of the geometry on the cotangent bundle (phase space), it is shown that the maximal proper force condition, in the case of a uniformly accelerated observer of mass $m$ along the $x$ axis, leads to a minimum value of $x$ lying $inside$ the Rindler wedge and given by the black hole horizon radius $ 2Gm$. Whereas in the uniform circular motion case, we find that the maximal proper force condition implies that the radius of the circle cannot exceed the value of the horizon radius $2Gm$. A correspondence is found between the black hole horizon radius and a singularity in the curvature of momentum space. The fact that the geometry (metric) in phase spaces is observer dependent (on the momentum of the massive particle/observer) indicates further that the matter stress energy tensor and vacuum energy in the underlying spacetime may admit an interpretation in terms of the curvature in momentum spaces. Consequently, phase space geometry seems to be the proper arena for a space-time-matter unification.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1095] **viXra:1701.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-15 09:24:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the quantum entanglement fixes the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to its source or a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). It causes that the spatial distances to galaxies differ from the time distances (the light travel time) - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity leads to the running Hubble constant. According to SST, for the nearest Universe, the time Hubble constant is 70.52. SST gives for mean time Hubble constant 64.01 - it should be the mean observed Hubble constant when we apply the General Relativity (GR) to the whole observed Universe. If we neglect some part of distant Universe then the GR/observed time Hubble constant should be defined by following interval <64.01, 70.52>. But emphasize that the real mean spatial Hubble constant calculated within SST is 45.24. It leads to the age of Universe 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but time distance to most distant observed Universe cannot be longer than 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. SST shows that evolution of galaxies accelerated about 13.1 Gyr ago - it leads to an illusion that cosmic objects are not older than 13.1 Gyr.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1094] **viXra:1701.0494 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-15 00:36:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith, Stepan Moshkaliuk

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Last version of a paper cleared by referees in the Ukranian Journal of Physics. Subsequently accepted for Publication, after 1 year of vetting

We examine conditions for which energy flows in the early universe are modeled as a quantum Hamilton-Jacobi set of equations. Subsequently, we manage to use the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle for metric tensors based upon are Geometrodynamics treatment of our problem

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1093] **viXra:1701.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-13 09:35:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Magnetic field for relic graviton production linked to strength, initially, of inflaton

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1092] **viXra:1701.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-11 12:53:58*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we answered following question: What is the origin of the cosmic reionization? Presented here scenario differs radically from that described within the mainstream cosmology. Most important are masses of massive galaxies/quasars and the decays of large cosmic structures. Highest rate of reionization of hydrogen should be for redshift z(H,max) = 11.18 whereas complete reionization should occur at z(H,end) = 7.10. For reionization of helium we obtain respectively z(He,max) = 3.63 and z(He,end) = 2.70. Theoretical results are consistent with observational data. We showed that number and energy of created photons were sufficient to ionize the intergalactic medium. We answered as well the second very important question: Why there appeared the supermassive black holes so quickly?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1091] **viXra:1701.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 16:44:39*

**Authors:** Jérémy Kerneis

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We use three postulates P1, P2a/b and P3 :
Combining P1 and P2a with "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" correspond to the original quan-
tum theory of Hydrogen, which produces the correct relativistic energy levels for atoms (Sommerfeld's and Dirac's theories of matter produces the same energy levels, and Schrodinger's theory produces the approximation of those energy levels). P3 can be found in Schrodinger's famous paper introducing his equation, P3 being his first assumption (a second assumption, suppressed here, is required to deduce his equation). P3 implies that the wavefunction solution of both Schrodinger's and Klein-Gordon's equations in the non interacting case while, in the interacting case, it immediatly implies "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" : P1, P2a,
and P3 then produce the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms, and we check that the required degeneracy is justied by pure deduction, without any other assumption (Schrodinger's theory only justies one half of the degeneracy).
We observe that the introduction of an interaction in P1 is equivalent to a
modication of the metric inside the wavefunction in P3, such that the equation of motion of a system can be
deduced with two dierent methods, with or without the metric. Replacing the electromagnetic potential P2a by the suggested gravitationnal potential P2b, the equation of motion (deduced in two ways) is equivalent to the equation of motion of General Relativity in the low field approximation (with accuracy 10-6 at the surface of the Sun). We have no coordinate singularity inside the metric. Other motions can be obtained by modifying P2b, the theory is adaptable.
First of all, we discuss classical Kepler problems (Newtonian motion of the Earth around the Sun), explain the link between Kelpler law of periods (1619) and Plank's law (1900) and observe the links between all historical models of atoms (Bohr, Sommerfeld, Pauli, Schrodinger, Dirac, Fock). This being done, we introduce P1, P2a/b, and P3 to then describe electromagnetism
and gravitation in the same formalism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1090] **viXra:1701.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 22:27:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We are looking at what if the initial cosmological constant is due to if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. This assumes as an initial inflaton value, as well as employing NonLinear Electrodynamics to the scale factor in ,the upshot is an expression for as an initial inflaton value / squared which supports Corda’s assumptions in the ‘Gravity’s breath Electronic Journal of theoretical physics article. We close with an idea to be worked in further detail as to density matrices and how it may relate to gravitons traversing from a Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time regime. An idea we will write up in far greater detail in a future publication

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1089] **viXra:1701.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-07 10:21:42*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 51 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“Dark Energy is Gravitational Waves”
Adrian Ferent
“The momentum of the graviton is negative p = - m × v ”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the momentum is negative, the relativistic mass -m of the graviton is negative!”
Adrian Ferent
The causes of Planck universe to expand faster:
-The Ferent universe with supermassive black holes is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe.
-The negative pressure created by gravitons inside the Planck universe, is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe.
-Not the Dark energy is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe, because Dark energy does not exist.
“Dark Energy is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
The title is ‘Dark Energy is Gravitational Waves, Dark Energy is Gravitons’ because my Gravitation theory is completely different than Einstein’s Gravitation theory where
Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves with the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1088] **viXra:1701.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 10:03:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1087] **viXra:1701.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 11:55:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that there were the 133.27 e-folds of the smooth SST inflation. On the other hand, SST leads to conclusion that the inflation of the Cosmos, which is about 4 orders of magnitude bigger than the present-day Universe, was separated in time from the expansion of the Universe. The CMB was produced when there dominated the electromagnetic and weak interactions - it leads to the SST CMB spectral index of 0.96666 which is consistent with the index that results from the Planck-satellite 2015 data (0.968 +- 0.006). But the SST CMB spectral index is 3 orders of magnitude more accurate so future more accurate observational data should show whether the SST cosmology is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1086] **viXra:1701.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 06:26:26*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 117 Pages.

1) Using the partition function for a system in thermodynamic equilibrium; and replacing the energy-Beta factor (Beta = 1/[Boltzmann constant x temperature]) by the imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros Riemann's zeta function; It is obtained, a function that equals the value of elementary electric charge and the square root of the product of the Planck mass, the electron mass, and the constant of universal gravitation.
2) Using this same partition function (thermodynamic equilibrium) the Planck constant (Planck mass squared, multiplied by the constant of universal gravitation) is calculated with complete accuracy; As a direct function of the square of the quantized constant elementary electric charge.
These two fundamental equations imply the existence of a repulsive acceleration of the quantum vacuum. As a direct consequence of this repulsive acceleration of the quantum vacuum; The repulsive energy of the quantum vacuum is directly derived from the general relativity equation for critical density.
As a consequence of this repulsive acceleration, we establish provisional equations that allow us to calculate with enough approximation the speed of rotation within the galaxies; As well as the diameter of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
To obtain this results, completely accurate; several initial hypotheses are established. These hypotheses could say, that become physical-mathematical theorems, when they are demonstrated by empirical data. Among others, it is calculated accurately baryon density as well as the mass density.
Hypothesis-axioms are demonstrated by their practical application for the empirical calculation of baryon density, antimatter-matter asymmetry factor, Higgs vacuum value, Higgs boson mass (mh1), and mass prediction of Quark stop, about 745-750 GeV. This boson would not have been discovered because its decay would be hidden by the almost equal masses of the particles involved in the decay. We think that this type of hidden decay is a general feature of supersymmetry.
The physico-mathematical concept of quantum entropy (entropy of information) acquires a fundamental relevance in the axiomatization of the theories of unification.
Another fundamental consequence is that time would be an emergent dimension in the part of the universe called real (finite limit velocities). In the part of the virtual universe and not observable; The time would be canceled, would acquire the value t = 0.This property would explain the instantaneity of the change of correlated observables of interlaced particles; And the instantaneous collapse of the wave function, once it is disturbed (measured, observed with energy transmission to the observed or measured system).
To get a zero time, special relativity must be extended to hyperbolic geometries (virtual quantum wormholes). This natural generalization implies the existence of infinite speeds, on the strict condition of zero energy and zero time (canceled). This has a direct relationship with soft photons and soft gravitons with zero energy, from the radiation of a black hole; And that they would solve the problem of the loss of information of the black holes.
The main equation of unification of electromagnetism and gravitation; It seems necessarily imply the existence of wormholes, as geometrical manifestation of hyperboloid of one sheet, and two sheets. In the concluding chapter we discuss this point; and others highly relevants.
The relativistic invariance of elementary quantized electric charge is automatically derived.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1085] **viXra:1612.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 13:16:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that due to the needed very high resolution of a computer simulating the initial big bang and next the evolution of our Cosmos, we and our Cosmos cannot be a computer simulation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1084] **viXra:1612.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 10:09:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the big bang (the superluminal inflation) was separated in time from the “soft” big bang of the Universe. During the inflation (it lasted about 67 powers of ten times shorter than a second) there was no time for the three Standard-Model interactions i.e. electromagnetism, weak interactions, and the nuclear strong interactions - such interactions need much longer time. During the inflation baryons were not created. There were created only the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are the components of the Einstein spacetime (ES). It was because the interactions of the entanglons the neutrinos consist of were due to the inflation field i.e. due to the non-gravitating tachyons moving with speed about 97 powers of ten m/s. It means that the time of interactions of the ES components in distance equal to the Planck length is about 132 powers of ten times shorter than a second. SST shows that first baryons were created at the end of the inflation because of the collapse of the external layer of the ES - there was created more baryons than antibaryons because initially the inflation field had the left-handed helicity. Due to the return shock wave, there were created additional baryons in the centre of the Cosmos.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1083] **viXra:1612.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 21:28:31*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

I consider the standard model, together with a preon version of it, to search for unifying principles between quantum particles and general relativity. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions alone. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Conformal symmetry is seen to improve quantization in loop quantum gravity. The Einstein-Cartan theory with torsion is analyzed suggesting structure in spacetime below the Cartan scale. A toy model for black hole constituents is proposed. Higgs metastability hints at cyclic conformal cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1082] **viXra:1612.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 01:37:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), visible mass (or baryonic mass) of most massive disc galaxies is about 0.85 multiplied by both 12 powers of ten and the solar mass. Calculated within SST the mean baryonic mass of discs of dwarf galaxies produced by such massive galaxies is 5.2 multiplied by both 7 powers of ten and the solar mass. The calculated within SST mean orbital speed of stars in such dwarf galaxies, which results from the interactions of stars with the dark-matter (DM) structures, is about 37 km/s. SST shows that the total number of dwarf galaxies in the early Universe should be about 2.2 multiplied by 12 powers of ten and should decrease with time because of their mergers and due to their absorption by the nearby massive galaxies (massive galaxies have mass higher than about 11 powers of ten multiplied by the solar mass and there should be a massive black hole in their centre). In the early Universe there should be about 1000 times more the dwarf galaxies than the massive galaxies. Contrary to the mainstream cosmology, SST shows that number of massive galaxies in the observed Universe should not depend on time i.e. it is an invariant. SST shows that we should not observe a smooth field of first stars or smooth field of first dwarf galaxies free from the massive galaxies. Moreover, reionization is an illusory phenomenon which follows from the “transition” of galaxies from the unseen period of evolution to the observed period - it took place in the time distance about 13.8 Gyr. All theoretical results obtained in this paper are consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1081] **viXra:1612.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-27 17:44:54*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

There is a high tension finest-filament-thread particle field in space .

Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing).

A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual thread lengths are approximately one Ångström).

Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web. If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a finest filament thread particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field threads have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is. If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1080] **viXra:1612.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-26 21:38:18*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the von Klitzing constant. The von Klitzing constant is simply the Planck constant divided by the elementary charge squared. This value, according to CODATA to a very high accuracy. This value in CODATA is 25812.8074555(59) . This paper uses the equations developed in “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime”(1), “Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure”(2), “Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron”(3), and ” An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron”(4) to predict a value for the von Klitzing constant. The value predicted in this paper is 25812.8074479 ohms, which is within 1.3 sigma of the CODATA value listed above. It is predicted, that as these measurements become more precise that the CODATA value will converge around 24812.8074479 ohms.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1079] **viXra:1612.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 15:02:25*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We look at two action integrals for the early universe. One action integral as specified by Ambjorn, et.al, 2010 is part of a quantum gravity as a sum over space-time results and another is by Padmanabhan, in 2005 gives an action integral in terms of the Cosmological Constant prominently in, as a way to obtain the Einstein Equations in general relativity. The procedure in our derivation is to say that both first integrals in the Pre-Planckian space-time are giving the same ‘information’ and from there to utilize an equivalence between these two first integrals as to interpret what the Lagrangian multiplier in the Abjorn et.al. first integral is saying. In addition we interpret the Ricci scalar, in the Padmabhan first integral in terms of a treatment given by Majumbdar, 2015, which has the value of being rendered in terms of scalar factors a(t). In doing so, we utilize the physical interpretation of a Lagrangian multiplier, as given by Karrabulet which is in terms of minimum conditions needed for affecting the physics (of cosmological expansion of the universe) from first principles
Key words, Ricci tensor, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1078] **viXra:1612.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 19:46:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron. The value predicted is calculated from calculations for the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron(1) and the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron(2). The predicted value for the mass ratio of the proton to the electron is 1836.15267393 compared to the Codata value of 1836.15267389(17)
These values predicted are a continuation of Michael John Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory of Everything.
He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the electron and proposes a value that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1077] **viXra:1612.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 14:04:46*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

With the help of general relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The formula includes the speed of light. The gravitational field of two bodies changes the metric, it describes the general relativity. According to Einstein, the speed of light in a small local area in a gravitational field - there is a function of distance. Therefore, according to the formula interaction force on the repulsion of the particles (like charge) is less than the force approached exactly the same particles (charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and therefore always attract. From this is derived the inertia of a body.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1076] **viXra:1612.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-21 22:06:41*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 50 Pages. Feedback is most welcome for both papers as they overlap and follow one another

We continue the theme from the first paper of building all the fundamental Standard Model particles from infinite superpositions. The borrowed energy for cosmic wavelength gravitons requires the universe to expand and spacetime to warp around mass concentrations. We used a simplified approach initially which agreed with an infinitesimally modified General Relativity. In this paper we address those simplifications and find a mass/radius squared term (in Planck units) in the metric, which appears to clash with General Relativity but only near black holes. This may relate with the possibility of echoes in the Gravitational Waves at merger recently speculated. We also address the Kerr metric (which is also slightly modified) and briefly look at Gravitational Waves in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1075] **viXra:1612.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-20 03:53:10*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When charged particles travel faster than light, they emit Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the nucleons. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1074] **viXra:1612.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 17:00:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that physical vibrations/rotations/translations cannot be separated from a physical volume i.e. from at least an inertial mass or from the Principle-of-Equivalence (PoE) matter. It should concern the photons and gluons as well. On the other hand, it is argued that a mass of photon causes that its speed is lower than the speed of light in “vacuum” c and depends on its frequency, causes that the Coulomb law is modified, that gauge invariance and charge conservation are not valid, and so on. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the listed above arguments against a massive photon are unfounded. The PoE mass of the present-day photons calculated within SST is about 27 orders of magnitude lower than the rest mass of electron and is invariant (the c is the natural speed of the massive photons in spacetime and is invariant as well) so this result is below the upper limit for photon mass that results from experimental data. We show also that relativistic mass is a real physical quantity, not an artefact/unreal-thing. SST shows that the inner momentum associated with spin and the spin itself, not the rest mass, are the invariants for all frames of reference assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime (SST shows that contrary to the gravitational fields associated with the non-gravitating Higgs field, the Einstein spacetime associated with the PoE matter is indeed flat and dominates over the Higgs field). It leads to conclusion that the energy-momentum relation is still valid but it fails when we consider the structural changes in the bare fermions dependent on their speed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1073] **viXra:1612.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 02:14:53*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

What determines the mass of particles like the muon and tauon? No, reasonable, mainstream model, has been predictive the mass of particles. Michael John Sarnowski’s empirical equations for the proton and electron use an equation that shows that a resonant frequency created by a resonance between bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov like radiation and the ratio of orbital energy ratios.(1) In those two papers the masses of the electron and proton are due one of the solutions the resonances. In addition a small fraction of the proton mass is due to relativistic effects of most of the electron, a small fraction of the electron is due to relativistic effects of the second solution to the mass equation of the proton. In “Evidence for Granular Granulated Spacetime it is shown that charge is directly dependent on the mass ratio of the electron to neutron and the proton to the neutron(2). These empirical equations are accurate to the CODATA values for the mass ratios of the electron to the neutron and the proton to the neutron. Also this equations are also predictive for the value for elementary charge. The following paper shows that the mass ratios of the muon to the neutron and the tauon to the neutron can be calculated from both solutions to resonant equation of a Cherenkov like radiation and Bremsstrahlung type radiation. These mass ratios are also accurate to the CODATA values for these two particles and are likely predictive of more accurate measurements of these particles in the future.
What is unique for the muon-neutron and tauon-neutron is that the mass ratios of the use the same resonance and use one of the solutions for the resonance of the proton to the neutron mass ratio. The consistent use of resonances, consistent use of mass ratios to the neutron, and consistent interdependence of the mass ratios of particles indicates that the developing model is consistent and hints at underlying structure to space-time.
When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of both the muon and tauon to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(4), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1072] **viXra:1612.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 17:31:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1071] **viXra:1612.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 08:49:11*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The well-proven principles of general relativity are permitting the derivation of the answer to the eighty-year-old question how general relativity may harmonize with quantum mechanics.
The key to the solution is a retrieval of the twofold nature of time, that is an absolute time concept on the one hand which is underlying the relative, observer-dependent concept of spacetime on the other hand.
The attempts to quantize spacetime revealed to imply big difficulties. We will show that the reason for these problems is the structure of space and time, and that quantum gravity must happen on particle level.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1070] **viXra:1612.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-02 09:56:16*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** Pages.

The non-relativistic regime of quantum gravity, as shown in this paper, can be found in the assumption of the existence of Fundamental length L. See Page 14 IN THIS PAPER.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1069] **viXra:1612.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 06:48:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I assume that the readers of this article have read the Wikipedia article entitled “Aether theories”: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aether¬_theories. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the speed of light in “vacuum” c and speed of quantum entanglement from the beginning (ab initio). The derivation shows that the mainstream interpretation of the invariant c is incomplete and that the Michelson-Morley experiment cannot be considered to be the first strong evidence against the aether theory. We still cannot calculate the half-integral spin of proton within the 3-valence-quarks model - it is the “proton spin crisis”. Experiments suggest that the total proton spin carried by quarks can be consistent with almost zero. Is the quark model of proton partially incorrect? Here we show the origin of the spin asymmetry in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering that leads to the proton spin crisis. SST shows that inside baryons there are produced the quark-antiquark pairs but there are not single valence quarks because contrary to the electric charges of proton and electron, the electric charges of quarks are highly unstable. SST shows that spin of proton is carried by orbital angular momentums of the carriers of gluons. The third main absurd idea is that pure/massless energy (for example vibrations) can propagate without some aether composed of physical/non-zero-volume particles. In reality, elementary energies are carried by the components of the Planck scale and by the components of the two scales below it.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1068] **viXra:1612.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 03:46:44*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1067] **viXra:1611.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-30 12:57:34*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 48 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“To oscillate photons need energy, that is why they emit Gravitons with negative energy and negative impulse.” Adrian Ferent
From Newton, Maxwell, Einstein…you learned that light, photons are perpetual motion machines, are in perpetual motion.
“My Nobel Prize - Discovery: the Photon – Graviton pair (coupled) has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy, is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν “ Adrian Ferent
The most important properties in my view of the Gravitons:
1.Gravitons help photons (and all the particles) to oscillate.
2.Gravitons collapse matter, bring everything together.
3.Gravitons transfer energy, transfer mass. The Higgs boson is not involved.
Because of these properties the Graviton is the most important particle, is the God particle; not the Higgs boson.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1066] **viXra:1611.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-30 07:04:27*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The curious relationship between the Planck Length and the Bohr Radius enables one to write down the mass of the electron in terms of the Planck Mass, the fine structure constant and pi. Building on the relationship between the GUT scale and the mass of the electron, the fine structure constant is shown to be related to both pi and e, as Richard Feynman surmised.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1065] **viXra:1611.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-27 20:36:11*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 46 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift” Adrian Ferent
I discovered the equation for photon – graviton interaction:
E = h × f + a × f - a × ν
All physicists were not capable to explain Gravitational time dilation, gravitational redshift.
Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy.
“Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent
Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1064] **viXra:1611.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-27 22:59:01*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on massless constituents having spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the three preon states. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1063] **viXra:1611.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 22:32:55*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context of an alternative to the Big Bang theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1062] **viXra:1611.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 06:39:15*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Using the early universe Heisenberg Uncertainty principle derived by the author, the HUP and also dE/dt = ( function of force, acceleration) are utilized , where E is the energy, F is a force equation, and m is mass and a acceleration. From here, we will be utilizing all of the above to derive a minimum time step . Which is pertinent to the Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time regime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1061] **viXra:1611.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 09:52:54*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ESTM-theory and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ESTM-theory. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ESTM-theory and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ESTM-theory. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1060] **viXra:1611.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-18 11:26:44*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper presents a quantum Fourier's law of heat for Unruh vacuum

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1059] **viXra:1611.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-17 08:31:26*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Contrary to the mainstream theories, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the dimensionless physical-constants/numbers are calculated. Here we show that two large physical-constants/numbers are very important. First of the two large numbers relates ratio of the fine-structure constant and the coupling constant of gravitational interaction of the components of the electron-positron pairs to ratio of densities of the gravitating Einstein spacetime and the non-gravitating Higgs field (HF) which has inertial mass only - it is some 42 powers of ten. The second one relates the mass/size cosmological scales and proton scales - it is some 40 powers of ten. SST shows that since the end of the inflation the gravitational constant is invariant. Gravity and quantum entanglement emerged during the inflation as a result of phase transitions of large part of the Higgs field. Due to the properties of the quantum entanglement, controlling or removing quantum decoherence is impossible. SST shows that we cannot explain correctly both gravity and quantum entanglement neglecting the two size scales below the Planck scale i.e. the HF scale and the quantum-entanglement scale.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1058] **viXra:1611.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-15 09:56:40*

**Authors:** Dimitar Valev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Hubble constant has been added in addition to the three fundamental constants (speed of light, gravitational constant and Planck constant) used by Max Planck, for derivation of the Planck mass by dimensional analysis. As a result, a general solution is found for the mass dimension expression m = γ^p•mP, where mP is the Planck mass, γ ≈ 1.23×10^(-61) is a small dimensionless quantity and p is an arbitrary parameter in the interval [–1, 1]. The Planck mass m1 ≡ mP = 2.17×10^(-8) kg, mass of the Hubble sphere m2 ~ 10^53 kg, minimum quantum of mass/energy m3 = 2.68×10^(-69) kg, Weinberg mass m5 = 1.08×10^(-28) kg, Eddington mass limit of stars M3 = 6.6×10^32 kg, mass of hypothetical quantum gravity atom M2 = 3.8×10^12 kg and some more masses potentially important for the physics and astrophysics represent particular solutions for values of p, expressed as fractions with small numerators and nominators.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1057] **viXra:1611.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-15 00:53:18*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 36 Pages. I discovered a new gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale.

Dark energy does not exist!
I discovered Big Bang and Big Crunch oscillation from Ferent wall.
The majority of Dark matter is the core of supermassive black holes.
Our Milky Way galaxy will be absorbed by a supermassive black hole from Ferent universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1056] **viXra:1611.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-14 13:39:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A new theoretical paper from scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland suggests that intentionally creating just such a traffic jam out of a ring of several thousand ultracold atoms could enable precise measurements of motion. If implemented with the right experimental setup, the atoms could provide a measurement of gravity, possibly even at distances as short as 10 micrometers-about a tenth of a human hair's width. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1055] **viXra:1611.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-12 09:30:49*

**Authors:** Jakob Fleischpeitsch, Ralf Immerhart

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As it has been conjectured for a long time, dual orthogonal group-systems (DOGs) exhibit
a non-static behaviour in the low temperature-limit. This article aims to explore the unitary
transformations corresponding to the time-evolution of such systems in the limit of $\beta\rightarrow \infty$.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1054] **viXra:1611.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 13:39:12*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is assumed that mind copying is the process of scanning mental state of a brain substrate and copying it to a computational device i.e. it is assumed that mind is a state of some brain components. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that mind is an independent structure that can act with brain via leptons because of advection. SST shows that there are two different states of groups of the entangled non-rotating-spin-1 Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the very stable neutrino-antineutrino pairs): the spins can be perpendicular to a surface defined by the ES components (such configuration is characteristic for tori that we can find in fermions) or the spins can be aligned in circles (such configuration is characteristic for the dark-matter (DM) circles). The DM solitons are the sets of the entangled DM circles. According to SST, minds are collections of the interacting DM solitons produced due to the brain activity. New DM solitons can be produced only due to the brain-mind interactions. Here we consider the conditions that have to be met to allow copying of the minds composed of the dark-matter structures.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1053] **viXra:1611.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 05:38:42*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The masses of the electron and the up-type quarks may be written elegantly in terms of the Planck Mass, the natural scale of quantum gravity. Since the quarks of each generation are evidently arranged symmetrically about mass levels that descend in geometric sequence from the Planck Mass, the masses of the down-type quarks may also be written in terms of the Planck Mass. The new (2016) central values of Particle Data Group quark mass evaluation lie very close to the values, divulged in 2013, of the Planck Model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1052] **viXra:1611.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 15:56:38*

**Authors:** Matthias Kemeny

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

Much Time has passed since the Aether has been rejected as a possibility. Now I believe we have to go back to this way of thinking. This theory proposes an Aether that behaves like a liquid and is made of femtometer-sized units. The goal is to find similarities between an Aether and the behaviour of liquids so those principles can be combined. The description will include the most basic observations in Quantum Physics and try to integrate them into a model of a liquid aether. It can therefore be called a „Theory of Everything“. All the experimenta cruces will be considered. It will also combine the fundamental interactions into one origin. This model can be tested, and simulated.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1051] **viXra:1611.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-06 03:48:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), there is the two-component spacetime composed of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the very stable non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs (NAPs) moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c. NAPs in ES do not rotate. The main feature of the bright matter (BM) is that it contains parts with mean distances between the NAPs smaller than the mean distance between the ES components because of the short-distance quantum entanglement or confinement - BM is not a part of ES. The main feature of the dark matter (DM) is that mean distances between the NAPs are equal or greater than the mean distance between the ES components because of the long-distance entanglement - DM is not a part of ES and NAPs do not rotate. Virtual energy (VE) appears due to creation of the virtual pairs (it has positive mass) from the local ES components so there appears as well a local virtual hole in ES (it has negative mass). Mean mass of such virtual structure is equal to zero. But due to the annihilations of the virtual pairs to real photons (they are the rotational energies of the ES components) that escape from surrounding of a real particle (BM), virtual processes decrease density of the ES. Virtual pairs, virtual holes and real photons (real photons carry real energy (E)), are not parts of ES. Interactions of virtual particles create BM that is the anomalous mass of a real bare particle. A decay of real object (BM) to DM (it happened about 100 million years before the beginning of the expansion of the Universe) causes that virtual processes disappear. Since mass density of the ES around the object was negative so there is an inflow of ES into the region with lowered density of ES. The inflowing ES is the dark energy (DE). DE is needed to accelerate expansion of the Universe at the beginning and next to maintain a constant expansion rate. DE is a part of ES.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1050] **viXra:1611.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 06:00:29*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with invariant mass about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles. Lower limit for their radius is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc. Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size). Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1049] **viXra:1611.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 14:30:57*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we study Newton's principle of inertia within semiclassical quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1048] **viXra:1611.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 07:58:56*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper we look at the escape velocity for subatomic particles. We suggest a new and simple interpretation of what exactly the escape velocity represents at the quantum level. At the quantum level, the escape velocity leads to an escape probability that is likely to be more useful at the subatomic scale than the escape velocity itself. The escape velocity seems to make simple logical sense when studied in light of atomism. Haug [1] has already shown that atomism gives us the same mathematical end results as Einstein's special relativity. Viewed in terms of general relativity and Newtonian mechanics, the escape velocity seems to be simple to understand. It also seems to explain phenomena at the quantum scale if one maintains an atomist's point of view. This strengthens our hypothesis that everything consists of indivisible particles and void (empty space).
From an atomistic interpretation, our main conclusion is that the standard escape velocity formula likely is the most accurate formula we can generate and it appears to hold all the way down to the Planck scale. An escape velocity of $v_e>c$ simply indicates that an indivisible particle cannot escape from a fundamental particle (for example an electron) without colliding with the indivisible particles making up the fundamental particle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1047] **viXra:1611.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-03 10:00:38*

**Authors:** Yin Kamoto, Uri Adams

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We used to believe the geocentric model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1046] **viXra:1611.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-03 05:37:15*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Pierre Auger Observatory has detected more muons from cosmic-ray showers (about 30% to 60% for centre-of-mass energies 110 TeV to 170 TeV) than predicted within the LHC models for the centre-of-mass energies about 10 times lower (i.e. below 13 TeV). It suggests that at the energies beyond LHC, there can dominate a phenomenon that is neglected at the LHC energies. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the observed excess of muons concerns energies above the threshold energy about 18 TeV for the nucleons. At such energies, in proton-proton collisions, production of the spin-1 proton-antiproton pairs or narrow resonances dominates. This leads to the 50% positive excess of muons in comparison with the LHC-models prediction that should be observed in the cosmic-ray showers. It is consistent with the Auger data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1045] **viXra:1611.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-03 05:42:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) are the theories dependent on the observer/detector so they are not the theories of the independent from observer Nature. In GR it follows from the fact that each act of observation (the photon-detector interaction via exchanges of the invisible superluminal particles responsible for quantum entanglement i.e. there are exchanged the spin-1 entanglons) sets the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to the detector (the speed c is in relation to the emitter or a last-interaction object - sometimes it is a detector). In QM it results from the fact that we cannot observe the entanglons directly and because time of observation lasts much longer than the time of exchanges of the invisible superluminal entanglons so there appear wavefunctions, superposition of states, and probabilities to find a particle in different states. Simultaneity of different states of the same particle is an illusion that appears only in the theories dependent on the observer. There must be in existence a more fundamental theory, which should be a theory of Nature independent on the observer - it is the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST leads to the initial conditions applied in GR and QM and shows that these theories are dependent on the observer. Moreover, SST shows that we cannot unify GR and QM within the same methods. SST shows that Nature behaves classically in a deterministic way but it does not mean that the free will is not in existence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1044] **viXra:1611.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 21:24:33*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Ref: ijmph.kaznu.kz/index.php/kaznu/article/.../pdf_10

Assuming that Planck scale plays a crucial role in Strong and Electroweak interactions, we made an attempt to inter-relate the Newtonian gravitational constant, Fermi’s weak coupling constant and Strong coupling constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1043] **viXra:1610.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-30 18:39:10*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. highly speculative paper. I have no idea of what people will make of it.

We initiate working with Peskin and Schroder’s quantum field theory (1995) write up of the Higgs boson, which has a scalar field write up for Phi , with’lower part’ of the spinor having h(x) as a real field, with

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1042] **viXra:1610.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-30 16:02:55*

**Authors:** Dragan Turanyanin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Gravity-Space phenomenon is observed as unique, wavy, nonlinear and even a-temporal by its nature. A wave function describing the state of space encircling a gravitodynamic vortex is suggested. Linear vector gravity would be a realistic linear approximation. In the “strong field” limits, a quantization of orbits should be quite natural and fully observable. That phenomenon is named gravitonium. Quantum gravitomagnetic resonance with de Broglie’s wave arises most naturally from this. It could possible be the mechanism of mass creation, but of gravitation as well. Questions of Lorentz symmetry, gravyphoton mass and “relativity limits” are considered in detail. The whole concept leads to change from 20th century field-geometry paradigm towards real wave-dynamic description of Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1041] **viXra:1610.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-30 16:27:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described a method that leads to the groups containing a quantum, vector boson, and two high-mass narrow composite resonances with low standard deviation both with J = 0 and J = 2 (the Type QVRs groups). Previously we described four such groups whereas in this paper we present two more such groups. Among the SST 12 resonances, there are three resonances with masses close to the mass of resonance with a higher width that appears in the LHC data (its mass is about 2.250 TeV). Their masses are 1.951 TeV, 2.242 TeV, and 2.566 TeV - the arithmetic mean of expected values is 2.253 TeV but signal should be broadened more than for the other narrow resonances. Moreover, 4 other resonances appear in the combined LHC data. We predict existence of 5 other resonances - masses of 3 of them are higher than the present-day range of the LHC experiments whereas 2 of them overlap with the bump around about 190 - 300 GeV. But the most important task is to search for the predicted vector bosons - two of the 6 vector bosons that appear in the six SST QVRs groups are the W and Z bosons whereas the predicted 4 vector bosons should have following masses 25.4 GeV, 30.5 GeV (it is the Heister vector boson), 40.1 GeV, and 280.2 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1040] **viXra:1610.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-28 03:43:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), especially within the atom-like structure of baryons, we described a method that leads to groups of particles each composed of 4 particles. Such groups consist of the following particles: a quantum of the electromagnetic field, a vector boson, and two high-mass narrow composite resonances with low standard deviation both with J = 0 and J = 2. Here we show that the Heister vector boson with a mass of 30.4 +- 1.78 GeV is the constituent of such a group. Here as well we reasoned out why the Higgs-boson signal is relatively strong in comparison with other high-mass scalar bosons - just there are two, not one, independent phenomena that lead to the mass of Higgs boson equal to 125.0 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1039] **viXra:1610.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-27 11:47:24*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In a recent paper, Haug [1] has rewritten many of Newton's and Einstein's gravitational results, without changing their output, into a quantized Planck form. However, his results only hold down to the scale of Planck mass size objects. Here we derive similar results for any mass less than or equal to a Planck mass. All of the new formulas presented in this paper give the same numerical output as the traditional formulas. However, they have been rewritten in a way that gives a new perspective on the formulas when working with gravity at the level of the subatomic world. To rewrite the well-known formulas in this way could make it easier to understand strength and weakness in Newton and Einstein gravitation formulas at the subatomic scale, potentially opening them up for new interpretations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1038] **viXra:1610.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-27 04:32:29*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Topology is the branch of mathematics that attempts to describe the properties changing stepwise as, for example, number of holes in objects or conductivity of thin layers. Topological phase transitions play an important role in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They describe the successive phase transitions of the Higgs field - there appear the spin-1 binary systems of closed strings responsible for the quantum entanglement and loops and tori composed of the spin-1 bosons built of fermions. The single loops or tori are the objects with one global hole whereas their components are the bi-holes. Surfaces of the tori are built of smaller binary systems of tori i.e. one-global-hole objects are built of bi-holes. But in SST, the topological phase transitions concern as well the transition from electromagnetic interactions (there is one Type of photons) to nuclear interactions (there are 8 Types of gluons). Such transition causes that there can appear composite resonances built of 8 or 8x8=64 vector bosons with total angular momentum equal to 0 or 2. The strictly defined numbers of the high-standard-deviation vector bosons (8 or 64) in the composite resonances cause that they must be the high-mass narrow resonances with low standard deviation! It leads to conclusion that we must change the statistical methods applied to the topological composite resonances. Here we described 3 groups of such resonances – the groups are associated with the mass distances between neutral and charged lightest baryons (i.e. nucleons), lightest strange mesons (i.e. kaons) and lightest mesons (i.e. pions). Obtained results are consistent with the LHC data. We predict existence of two low-standard-deviation neutral resonances (5.01 +- 0.13 TeV and 5.78 +- 0.15 TeV). There can be in existence a high-standard-deviation vector boson with a mass of 25.4 +- 0.7 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1037] **viXra:1610.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-24 12:20:06*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An eccentric mystery in the modern cosmology.
There is big energy to bring the acceleration expansion of the space in the vacuum space.
It has a smaller 120 columns than a calculated energy level.
I cannot explain the fact.
An idea unlike the existing fruit which can explain existence of the dark energy is demanded eagerly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1036] **viXra:1610.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-22 13:31:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The modern conception of time is based on the General Theory of Relativity (GR). The GR gravitational time is associated with the escape velocity i.e. concerns the radial motions of masses/energies in gravitational fields. The two-component grainy spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), i.e. the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field (HF) concerning the gravitational fields and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs moving with the speed of light in “vacuum” (which leads to the Standard Model interactions), causes that the SST time for the ES components in ground state (the gravitational interactions only) and for baryonic plasma`(BP) near black holes is neither Einsteinian nor Newtonian. Here we described the SST time in the absence and in the presence of BP. The SST time does not concern the GR time associated with not granular spacetime. But it does not mean that the GR time, which concerns objects that can change their speed, is incorrect. Just GR is the incomplete theory (the speed of the ES components is invariant) so it incorrectly describes dynamics of black holes (BHs). The SST time is characteristic for flows of the ES forced by gravitational fields and for flows of BP forced by flows of the dark-matter (DM) structures, especially near and inside the SST BHs. Here we derived the formulae for the ES and BP gravitational time dilation, we explained what is imaginary time, we described the difference between the HF and ES thermodynamic time, and we present how have changed the thermodynamic units of time during the evolution of the Cosmos. Contrary to the GR BHs, due to the DM structures produced by BP on surfaces of the SST BHs and the invariance of speed of the ES components, particles can escape from the SST BHs via the jets.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1035] **viXra:1610.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-22 04:12:10*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 power law In this article, I propose a toy model of the universe (TMU) that can offer a couple of potential valid updates for the Standard model (SM) of particle physics: the main binary logarithm Teller hypothesis (mbl-TH) on the large numbers in physics, which is an alternative interpretation of the Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (DLNH); the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH); the electrograviton model (EGM) of the hypothetical graviton based on mbl-TH and DRH; a multiple (quantum) G hypothesis (mGH) based on a quantum G series (Gs_q); a unified scalar function (F_N) for all the (running) coupling constants of the four fundamental fields/forces based on a unifying strong-electroweak-gravitational scaling factor (N_a); a cyclic closed universe hypothesis (CCUH); life as a fundamental (biophysical) field hypothesis (LFFH) based on a new generalized concept of fundamental biophysical field/force (FBF). This TMU was motivated and created from the author's strong conviction that SM cannot evolve and become a " mature " TOE without fully explaining the existence of life forms (LFs).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1034] **viXra:1610.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-21 12:26:43*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we study the connection between the wave function of a quantum particle and thermodynamic vacuum state. There is an analogy of the black hole thermodynamics in quantum world.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1033] **viXra:1610.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-16 18:44:10*

**Authors:** Dimitris Mastoridis

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The current paper presents a new idea that it might lead us to the Grand Unified Theory. A concrete mathematical framework has been provided that could be appro- priate for one to work with. Possible answers were given concerning the problems of dark matter and dark energy as well as the “penetration” to vacuum dominant epoch, combining Quantum Physics with Cosmology through the existence of Higg’s boson. A value for Higg’s mass around 125.179345 Gev/c2 and a value for vacuum density around 4.41348x10−5Gev/cm3 were derived . Via Cartan’s theorem a proof regarding the number of bosons existing in nature (28) has been presented. Additionally, the full Lagrangian of our Cosmos (including Quantum Gravity) was accomplished.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1032] **viXra:1610.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-15 17:42:58*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We use the ideas of a million black holes, at the boundary of delta g(t,t) contribution to the shift from Pre Planckian to Planckian physics, as a summed up contribution from one million primoridial black holes. I.e. this is assuming a quantum bounce This is an extension of work done by the author as to explain the nature of a transition from delta g(t,t) being tiny to when delta g(t,t) becomes 1 in value.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1031] **viXra:1610.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-15 03:13:03*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 217 Pages.

A book on a background independent quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1030] **viXra:1610.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-12 08:21:04*

**Authors:** S Hussainsha

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The principal objective of this paper is to describe the force of gravity according to the rules of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored. The result of this concept modifies Pauli Exclusion Principle so that it is possible to explain Quantum Entanglement in terms of relativity. The result shows Dark Matter is due to Entanglement, and Expansion of Universe is due to generalized Pauli Exclusion Principle (GPEP).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1029] **viXra:1610.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-09 09:58:10*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

If Observed Flux Values from KIC 8462852 are calculated like a Cicada Puzzle or the WOW Signal, the signals are distances from a planet or star to the sun.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1028] **viXra:1610.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-02 20:37:10*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the center of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and Big Bang being in the minimum entropy equaling to the Boltzmann constant. Then we prove the uncertainty relation (UR) of SBH and Big Bang UR which suggest no singularity in SBH and Big Bang.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1027] **viXra:1610.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-01 09:27:55*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 5 pages; poster contribution to the Xth International Conference on the Interconnection between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC 2016), 11-15 July 2016, São Paulo, Brazil

The model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author is based on
the conjecture on an existence of the graviton background with the
average graviton energy of the order of $10^{-3}$ eV. An
interaction of photons and moving bodies with this background
leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological
consequences. Here, redshifts of remote objects and the additional
dimming of them may be interpreted without any expansion of the
Universe. The theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits
the observational Hubble diagrams with high confidence levels
(100\% for the SCP Union 2.1, 43\% for JLA compilations, 99.81\%
for long GRBs, and 13.73\% for quasars). In the model, the ratio
$H(z)/(1+z)$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. This
conclusion is confirmed with 99.9999\% C.L. by fitting the
compilation of 40 $H(z)$ observations from the paper by Zhang and
Xia [arXiv:1606.04398].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1026] **viXra:1609.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 07:27:38*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Using Hall and Reginatto’s condition for a Wheeler De Witt Equation for a Friedman – Walker metric coupled to a (Inflaton) scalar field, we delineate the outer boundary of the value of a scale factor a(t) for quantum effects, in an expanding universe. The inflaton field is from Padamanabhan’s reference, “ An Invitation to Astrophysics” which yields a nonstandard Potential U(a,phi) which will lead to an algebraic expression for a(t) for the value of the outer boundary of quantum effects in the universe. Afterwards, using the expression a(t)= a(initial) times [t(time)] ^ alpha, with alpha given different values, we give an estimation as to a time, t(time) which is roughly the boundary of the range of quantum effects. How this is unusual? We use the Wheeler De Witt Equation, as a coupling to a given inflaton field, phi, and from there find a different way as to delineate a time regime for the range of quantum effects in an expanding universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1025] **viXra:1609.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 22:35:28*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1024] **viXra:1609.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 11:21:34*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In review process for possible acceptance by JHEPGC

Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China
rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu
Abstract.
We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1023] **viXra:1609.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 13:34:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1022] **viXra:1609.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 02:39:10*

**Authors:** Sarangam Majumdar, Sukla Pal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Scientist predicted the existence of quantum Hawking radiation and now he measures the
entanglement of the Hawking pairs in an analogue black hole --- A theory which was almost
impossible to verify in actual black hole has recently got its experimental confirmation in analog
system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1021] **viXra:1609.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 13:27:42*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G:
G=(παq²/me²ε0)⁎exp(-(1/√2)⁎((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408⁎10-11 m3kg-1s-2
As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper.
To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1020] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 02:11:49*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Six months ago, I sent a comment to LIGO (Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory). Today, I received an email from Nathan Johnson-McDaniel who wrote, "Thanks for your comment. Unfortunately, we discovered that a number of queries to LIGO had gotten overlooked, so this is why we are only now replying to you. I am a postdoctoral researcher at the International Centre for Theoretical Sciences in Bangalore, India and one of the members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration who helps answer these questions." The article below – which I feel as though I've been working on forever – seems to answer the points in his email (and a ton of others).
A paradigm shift in science is a fundamental change in its concepts and practices. “We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur. This article strives towards that revolution by addressing many topics – including dark energy, dark matter, black holes, radioactive dating, gravity, mathematics, the shape of space-time, and imaginary time. Historically, mathematics often finds practical application in physics. The idea of the quantum was originally developed by Max Planck purely as a mathematical convenience^, but it's been part of our reality for over a century. So imaginary time and the Complex Number Plane might find applications undreamt of today.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1019] **viXra:1609.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 06:24:46*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 50 Pages. the logical universe is the bridge between the mind and physical reality

Here I posit the existence of a logical universe, within and behind the physical universe, the existence of fields that can calculate problems and how these relate to strings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1018] **viXra:1609.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 14:05:34*

**Authors:** Thomas Neil Neubert

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

From LEAR in 1980s to AEGIS today, CERN experiments that measure the gravitation interaction between antimatter and matter have all given null results. The CERN AEGIS null experimental results showing that antimatter is neither attracted nor repelled by matter have been ignored in the way that the null Michelson-Morley experimental results were ignored. It is urgent to interpret this precise results while awaiting decades more of ever more precise experiments. In this short paper, I will build a Simple Toy Universe that explains the apparent result that
Fgravity = G mmatter mantimatter / (rmatter/antimatter)2 = 0

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1017] **viXra:1609.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 23:43:25*

**Authors:** Pierre A. Mandrin

**Comments:** 7 pages.

We examine how a thermodynamic model of the boundary of 4d-manifolds can be used for an approach to quantum gravity, to keep the number of assumptions low and the quantum degrees of freedom manageable. We start with a boundary action leading to Einstein's Equations under a restriction due to additional information from the bulk. Optionally, a modified form with torsion can be obtained. From the thermodynamic perspective, the number of possible microscopic states is evaluated for every macroscopic configuration, and this allows to compute the transition probability between quantum states. The formalism does not depend on specific microscopic properties. The smoothness and the topological space condition of the manifold structure are viewed as a preferred representation of a macroscopic space on mathematical grounds. By construction, gravity may be interpreted as thermodynamic model which is forced to be out of equilibrium depending on the restrictions imposed by matter. Instead of an ill-behaved path integral description of gravity, we obtain a non-divergent concept of sums over microstates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1016] **viXra:1609.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:58:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a review article. There are tens unsolved basic problems in cosmology and particle physics. It suggests that the two main theories, i.e. General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM), are the incomplete theories. To solve the hierarchy problem, we need a theory of size scales, not the postulated supersymmetric particles. There are the three self-similar scales i.e. the Planck scale, nuclear scale and a cosmological scale. A few additional symmetries that follow from properties of the inflation field (i.e. of the initial state of the superluminal Higgs field) lead to the self-similar fractal-like size scales that look as the analogs of quasars i.e. there is torus with central condensate (bigger tori are built of smaller tori). Such structures of basic bare fermions in the three self-similar scales (they are not the mathematical points) eliminate from theories all infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks as the mathematical indeterminate forms, free parameters, and reduce number of initial parameters to 7 only. The local/global duality of time, the non-linearity--linearity duality of phenomena and the non-local phenomena in GR and QP/SM lead to the two-component spacetime with radically different properties of the components - it causes that unification of GR and QP/SM within the same methods is impossible. Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we partially unified GR and QP/SM via the size scales - besides the three gravitating self-similar scales, there appear two non-gravitating superluminal scales that are associated one with gravitational fields and the second with quantum entanglement. The carriers of quantum entanglement, due to their internal helicities, produce only single jet composed of antiparallel half-jets. We need very big number of such carriers to create the volumetric gravitational field - it is realized via neutrinos. How long theoretical cosmology and particle physics will move in a blind alley? Two decades is not enough (the theory of size scales was formulated in 1997)? Who is responsible for this i.e. for the present mess in the two major areas of knowledge? No one can see that Nature cannot be such complicated as the present-day theories suggest (the tens of parameters, many wrong basic results as the spin of proton, infinities, singularities, approximations, tricks)? Is it arrogance?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1015] **viXra:1609.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 18:01:20*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

First, we calculate the minimum length for the creation of a 10^45 Hz relic Gravitational wave. Next, we look Padamababhan’s inflaton physics, and work done by the author for a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle for constraints on a minimum time step. Sciama’s work in “Black hole explosions” (1982) gives us a linkage between a decay rate for black holes, in terms of a life time, and the mass, M of the black hole, which when combined with a simple exposition from Susskind and Hrabovsky (2013) for the most basic evolution the time change in energy E(t), which is how we form a first order treatment of the square of a minimum time step Delta t. We then reference what was done by Ng (2008) as far as infinite quantum statistics, for entropy as a particle count, and from first principle get constraints upon entropy production, as a function of boundaries on minimum time step. We assume massive Gravity, and obtain a peak 10^36 Giga Hertz frequency range (10^45 Hertz) for relic Gravitational waves, and Gravitons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1014] **viXra:1609.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 05:06:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The internal helicity distinguish particles from antiparticles. Fermions, due to the internal helicity, produce weak jets (they are produced in both the Higgs field composed of non-gravitating tachyons and the luminal Einstein spacetime) that are responsible for the CP (so T as well) violation. Generally, according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the weak interactions are along the jets whereas the nuclear strong interactions are in plane perpendicular to the jets. It causes that the nuclear strong interactions are CP (so T as well) invariant - it solves the strong CP problem. Both interactions, due to the thermal motions, can be volumetric. According to SST, there is the two-component spacetime i.e. the Higgs field associated with gravitational fields and the Einstein spacetime associated with the Standard-Model (SM) interactions. To cancel turbulences, there must be produced virtual or/and real particle-antiparticle pairs. But in the gravitational fields, due to their very low density, pairs cannot be produced - it causes that gravity is non-linear and non-linear are phenomena with dominating gravity i.e. phenomena that follow from dynamic viscosity of the non-gravitating tachyons all objects consist of such as friction or motions of the atmosphere of Earth. On the other hand, the quantum mechanics is linear, i.e. superposition and quantum entanglement are linear because in the luminal Einstein spacetime can be produced fermion-antifermion pairs, especially electron-positron pairs. Range of electrons to move in a superconductive manner is equal to the radius of the Bohr orbit in the hydrogen atom - it leads to the threshold for density of bound and free electrons for superconducting materials (about 1.5 kg per cubic meter).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1013] **viXra:1609.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 12:14:39*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Monster group, the biggest of the sporadic groups, is equipped with the highest known number of dimensions and symmetries. Taking into account variants of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and a novel topological approach cast in a physical fashion that has the potential to be operationalized, the Universe can be conceived as a lower-dimensional manifold encompassed in the Monster group. Our Universe might arise from spontaneous dimension decrease and symmetry breaking that occur inside the very structure of the Monster Module. We elucidate how the energetic loss caused by projection from higher to lower dimensions and by the Monster group’s non-abelian features is correlated with the present-day asymmetry in thermodynamic arrow. By linking the Monster Module to theoretical physical counterparts, we are allowed to calculate its enthalpy and Lie group trajectories. Our approach also reveals how a symmetry break might lead to a Universe based on multi-dimensional string theories and CFT/AdS correspondence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1012] **viXra:1609.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 04:28:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of entropy and information and their evolution in time in the Cosmos as a whole (the Cosmos has radius about 30 powers of ten of meters i.e. is much greater than the present-day radius of the expanding Universe). On the lowest level of Nature, the global information depends on distribution of rotational and kinetic energies of all free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all objects in the Cosmos consist of. The field composed of the free tachyons is the Higgs field - this field causes that neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. During the inflation, almost whole Higgs field transformed into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime that ground state consists of the non-rotating-spin neutrino-antineutrino pairs interacting gravitationally only. Orientation of spin is not important in gravitational field so all such pairs are in the same energetic state i.e. entropy of the ground state is equal to zero and this state dominates in the Cosmos. Moreover, the tachyonic energy frozen inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (it is the missing energy that results from quantum physics) is about 119 powers of ten times higher than their gravitational energy. The SST and the Kasner solution (which concerns the non-gravitating objects) show that there is a left-handedness of the residual Higgs field. The collapse of the outer shell of the Einstein spacetime at the end of the inflation created the returning shock wave. The shock wave plus the left-handedness of the residual Higgs field produced more matter than antimatter - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The returning energy-matter wave created the Universe in the centre of the Cosmos. Due to the boundary of the Cosmos, the Universe behaves cyclically. We start from the era before the inflation and via the inflation and via the neutron-black-holes state of the early Universe and via the present-day, we finish the description in the distant future. The tachyons cause that information cannot be destroyed by the SST black holes - the same concerns the energies of photons in gravitational fields. Entropy of the initial state of the inflation field and of the SST black holes is equal to zero. We can define time as the succeeding changes in the global information. In an approximation, Information behaves cyclically. In the Cosmos as a whole, entropy per particle is infinitesimal whereas total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1011] **viXra:1609.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 04:33:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The alignment of the angular-momentums/spins of quasars and the perpendicularity of the planes of the main disc of massive spiral galaxies and the disc of a vast polar structure (VPOS) which contains the satellite galaxies, some globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams, suggest that the Universe as a whole and the massive galaxies have a history that cannot be easily explained within the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared in the binary systems of protogalaxies two perpendicular discs each composed of the dark-matter (DM) loops. Dynamics of the binary systems of protogalaxies and the early Universe leads to perpendicularity of the main disc and VPOS. During the highest radial acceleration of the protogalaxies just at the beginning of expansion of the Universe (initially it was cosmic double loop with left-handed internal helicity of each loop), to stabilize the main disc and conserve its angular momentum, the binary systems of protogalaxies made a rotation (i.e. a rotation of their rotation and magnetic axes) of 90 degrees in such a way that initially the angular-momentums/spins (and magnetic axes) were mostly antiparallel to their radial velocities, i.e. initially the expanding Universe looked as a magnetic monopole. But the succeeding inflows of dark energy (locally they could be turbulent and they lasted a few Gyr) that initially caused the explosions of the binary systems of protogalaxies (in such a way appeared the VPOSs), partially destroyed the monopole-like structure of the early Universe. But a statistical analyse should show that described here correlation is preferred. The initial radial polarization of the spins of quasars explains their alignment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1010] **viXra:1608.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-29 08:47:17*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our Universe could either lie on a spatial three-dimensional brane embedded in a higher dimensional bulk, or could be flanked by one or more multi-dimensional branes of different possible sizes and shapes. Here we demonstrate, based on novel topological findings, that disconnected strings with matching descriptions moving on a 4-brane (or more) project to a single string on a 3-brane. This means that strings travelling on the bulk or on higher dimensional branes necessarily display a counterpart in our 3D world, and vice versa. Furthermore, based on the concept of homotopy equivalence, we show how it is possible for branes to stitch together to become condensed branes. Our framework allows a topological duality among different brane theories, because it holds for all the types of branes, independent of their hypothetical shape, curvature, size and boundaries. Furthermore, a topological approach allow branes assessment in the general terms of particle trajectories taking place on donut-like manifolds. Indeed, every high-dimensional brane, independent on the subtending cosmological model, can be described in terms of multi-dimensional toruses mapping to branes with lower spatial dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1009] **viXra:1608.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 13:02:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin and the spectra of the gamma-ray bursts (the exploding objects/progenitors we will call the GRBs). The GRBs explode due to the inflows of the dark energy into the associations of neutron black holes that are the constituents of the black holes in centres of galaxies. The GRBs should be placed near the Schwarzschild surface in the plane of the accretion discs. The bursts should be correlated with an increase in activity of the central-black-hole jet and accretion disc because it causes more dense flows of the dark energy. Such flows cause that the neutron black holes swell so their associations can transform into iron object. The increase in gravitational energy of the iron object is compensated by the decrease of the gravitational energy of the black holes as a whole, i.e. the central black holes become the more compact objects. A half of radiation energy is absorbed by the central black hole so the escaping energy looks as an analog to the Hawking radiation. The bursts are volumetric, not directional. Calculated here the typical emitted energy is equivalent to 1.9 solar masses. Most important are the fusions of nucleons mostly into iron-56 via helium-4, the beta decays of neutrons, and emission of photons with energy about 188 MeV that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. According to SST, the radius of the observed Universe increased 46.55 times so the spectra of most distant GRBs (SST shows that galaxies with redshift higher than 0.6 all are in time distance about 13 – 13.8 Gyr) should peak near 17 keV, 150 keV, 190 keV, and 4 MeV. The spectra of GBRs placed, for example, in distance 1.2 Gyr should peak near 190 keV, 1.7 MeV, 2.2 MeV, and 46 MeV. But there can be other lower peaks as well. Most important are two results i.e. the released typical energy 1.9 solar masses and the peak for 150 keV or 190 keV for very distant GRBs because number density of photons emitted during the iron production from nucleons via helium-4 should be highest and because abundance of the gamma-ray bursts should be highest for the distant Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1008] **viXra:1608.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 15:05:17*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the disappearance of high mass photon pairs that are the two-stage resonances. Their creation follows from the quantum entanglement. We suggest that the observed decrease in standard deviations results from increase in integral luminosity. Due to the four-object symmetry, instead production of, for example, the Higgs-like bosons with a mass of 750 GeV, due to the increase in the integral luminosity from 3.3 [1/fb] in 2015 to 12.9 [1/fb] in 2016, there are produced the Higgs-like bosons with a mass eight times higher. But such mass (about 6 TeV) lies outside the range of the CMS experiment. Moreover, probability of creation of the two-stage resonances is very, very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1007] **viXra:1608.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 01:06:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We look at Viutilli (1999) write up of a generalized schrodinger equation with its Ricci scalar inclusion, in curved space-time. This has a simplified version in Pre Planckian regime, which leads to comparing a resultant admissible wave function with Bohmian reformulations of quantum physics. As was done earlier, we compare this result with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use inflaton physics . The resuting inflaton is then compared to the wavefunctional in the first part of this document.
Key words, Ricci tensor, Schrodinger equation, Modified Poisson Equation , massive gravity, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1006] **viXra:1608.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-25 00:10:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. In addition we also obtain GW of amplitude as low as five meters above the Tokamak center such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1005] **viXra:1608.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-25 00:13:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We are reviewing Freeman Dyson’s paper which alleged that detection of gravitons via LIGO, or by outer space experiments (due to probabilistic calculations which we review in the document), an impossibility. The disagreement we have with Dr. Dyson is that his probability calculations are taking place in almost infinite spatial domains, which renders the detection protocols, using his probability scheme, impossible. After we summarize the Dyson outer space arguments, and how Dyson got them, we will refer the reader to the very strain calculation done in the referenced PRD article, so cited, as to how a nuclear weapon could generate GW, and then afterwards, refer the reader to a 2nd paper, of how Tokamaks could detect GW/ Gravitons, as detectable by the 3DSR effect. Nowhere are we suggesting DETONITION of a nuclear device to generate GW! The reader is referred to another Li et.al. PRD article, 2008, as to 3DSR, as to how detection of GW/Gravitons could occur due to something other than the Gertenshehtein effect, in this paper, i.e. they can look it up, and then in a 2nd follow up paper learn how a Tokamak could be utilized to have a finite sized geometry, for using the 3DSR effect for GW generation. The first paper highlights how if one assumes that only by use of infinite spatial geometry, and by using only the Gertenshehtein effect, that indeed one can convince oneself as to not bothering with the very real prospects of earthbound generation of Gravitons and GW, and that in doing so, GW research will be strictly limited, even with the outstanding results of LIGO, which in no way should be criticized. The entire analysis makes the case that foundational research as to the nature of GRAVITY means moving beyond the mental limitations place on GW/ Graviton research by Dyson’s 2009 paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1004] **viXra:1608.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-22 09:49:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Listening to Brian Cox and Dr. Karl talking on triple j (http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/media/s4513719.htm), the thing that most interested me was the subject "the opposite of gravity". By viewing reality as entanglement with the topological extension of a computer-simulated universe, comments can be made about: 1) the nature of gravity, and so-called antigravity being a result of the Complex Number Plane; 2) how this explanation of antigravity could explain dark energy and dark matter; 3) universal expansion being replaced by the closely related, though more precise, extension into space-time of binary digits and Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles; 4) a non-supernatural, humanistic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1003] **viXra:1608.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-22 04:15:59*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on constituents defined by mass, spin and charge. The preons form a finite combinatorial system for the standard model fermions. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the preon bound states. A unified picture for matter and spacetime is proposed by applying the area eigenvalues of loop quantum gravity to black hole preons producing a preon mass spectrum starting from zero. Gravitational baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained. Argument is given for unified field theory be based only on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions of preons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1002] **viXra:1608.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-21 15:02:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1001] **viXra:1608.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-21 06:34:30*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We nalize the project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10] by studying
graviton theory in our setting. Given the results in [1, 3, 9, 10], there is not
so much left to accomplish and we start by deepening our understanding
of some points left open in [1, 10]. Perturbative niteness of the theory
follows ad-verbatim from the analysis in [3, 9] and we do not bother here
about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a
couple of new physical and mathematical insights regarding the genesis
of the structure of the quantal graviton theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1000] **viXra:1608.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 07:19:51*

**Authors:** Alexey N. Bulyuk

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new approach to the theory of gravity is proposed. A second-rank tensor field is chosen to be the potential of the gravitational field. The gravitational field is related to the metric tensor of space--time, and all phenomena occur in curved space--time. A variational principle is established, and the gravitational field equations are derived. The energy--momentum density tensor of the gravitational field and its conservation law are obtained. The source of the gravitational field is the energy--momentum density of all kinds of matter, including the gravitational field itself. A Lagrangian of the gravitational field is proposed that correctly describes local observable gravitational phenomena in the second-order approximation. The energy density of the gravitational field is positive.
Estimates are obtained for the gravitational energy defect, the difference between the inertial and gravitational masses of a body, and the effect of the external gravitational field on the mass of a body.
The new approach to the description of the gravitational field and its energy provides additional incentives search possibilities of experimental verification of the phenomena of gravitation in strong fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[999] **viXra:1608.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 05:03:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here is a brief summary of the issues relating to the formulation of Theory of Everything (ToE). To formulate ToE, we must answer following questions and calculate following quantities from some more fundamental initial conditions applying much less parameters than the tens parameters that appear in the two fundamental theories i.e. in the General Theory of Relativity (GR) and the Standard Model (SM). Are the GR and SM the complete and mathematically coherent theories? Can we unify GR and SM within the same methods? If not, then what is the cause and why gravitational constant is about 42 powers of ten times lower than electromagnetic constant for electron-positron pair (it is not the fine-structure constant)? We must calculate masses of all fundamental fermions (i.e. neutrinos, electron, muon, tauon, quarks, proton and neutron) and mixing angles that appear in the PMNS neutrino-mixing matrix and in the CKM quark-mixing matrix. We must calculate fundamental physical constants and coupling constants. We must define the dark-matter (DM) particle and the dark-energy (DE) particle. There as well should appear a formula that ties masses/energies responsible for all interactions. We must solve many other fundamental problems in particle physics and cosmology unsolved within GR and SM. For example, why hyperons are created due to the nuclear strong interactions whereas they decay due to the electroweak interactions (the answer that it is due to the properties of the strange quark does not solve the problem)? All listed problems are solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), therefore, we believe that SST is missing part of the ToE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[998] **viXra:1608.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-17 21:43:43*

**Authors:** John Faust

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Abstract:
Mass and the amp meter are equivalent. As a result of this I will demonstrate that gravity is a result of magnetism due to the magnetic fields of the particles associated with matter(protons, neutrons, and electrons). Their magnetic fields, particularly the one of the electron since it is much larger than the other two gives a value when plugged into the proper magnetic field equation that matches the acceleration of gravity at Earth's surface. Objections that magnetism is responsible for gravity are expected. Therefore, I will deal with the two main objections raised that seem to imply that magnetism couldn't be responsible for gravity immediately after the calculated result. The first objection deals with the inverse square law and the second deals with the monopole nature of gravity. After answering the objections, I will demonstrate the meaning of the gravitational constant as it relates to magnetic units and further support that mass and the amp meter are equivalent.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[997] **viXra:1608.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-18 01:38:41*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamics model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamics model. We then discuss on the (1+3) forces, the gravity force and an additional three pseudo-forces that are described by force carrier particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[996] **viXra:1608.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-17 12:31:50*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a type of motor which converts Gravitational Energy directly into Rotational Kinetic Energy. Its fuel is therefore the Gravitational Energy (no needs gasoline, oil, etc). An example of Gravitational Motor is the turbines of the hydroelectric plants. However, they are not mobile i.e., they cannot be transported from one place to another as the combustion motors or the electric motors. Mobiles Gravitational Motor can be developed starting from the devices of gravity control, such as the Quantum Controller of Gravity (QCG) [1]. The form of the QCG originally proposed is spherical. Here, it is described a Gravitational Motor which uses a QCG with spherical cylindrical form. This Gravitational Motor can have very-high power, and it can be used in order to generate electrical energy at large scale or traction to move cars, ships, tankers, aircraft carrier, trains, etc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[995] **viXra:1608.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-17 06:40:59*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We further investigate the new project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9]
by generalizing non-abelian gauge theory to our setting. Given the results
in [3, 9], there is not much left to do and we shall deepen our understanding of some points left open in [1] regarding the nature and presence of
ghosts. Perturbative niteness of the theory follows ad-verbatim from the
analysis in [3, 9] and we shall not bother here about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a couple of new physical and
mathematical insights regarding the genesis of the structure of quantal
non-abelian gauge theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[994] **viXra:1608.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-16 09:29:12*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This is what you get when you Google "imaginary time" and stumble across a Christian website by a postdoctoral researcher studying quantum gravity and black hole thermodynamics. The site is called UNDIVIDED LOOKING – COMMENTS ON PHYSICS AND THEOLOGY, and the page I first found is at http://www.wall.org/~aron/blog/did-the-universe-begin-viii-the-no-boundary-proposal/. The website owner's comment policy advises readers "Do not simply copy and paste a large amount of text …" which almost made me decide not to comment. But I finally did. Even though I have copied and pasted parts inbetween parts written today, I think the choosing of the widely separated lines of pasted text makes this what he calls "an individualized response". Anyway, my comment seems to have been eaten by a black hole. Instead of letting half a day of work go to waste, I'll post my thoughts here.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[993] **viXra:1608.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-15 14:41:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[992] **viXra:1608.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-12 07:30:24*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We continue our investigation of the new project launched in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8] by generalizing Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of elec- trons and photons, to our setting. At ﬁrst, we deal with the respective two point functions, deﬁne the correct interaction theory as a series of connected Feynman diagrams and ﬁnally, we show that for a certain class of spacetime metrics, each diagram is ﬁnite and a modiﬁed perturbation series is analytic.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[991] **viXra:1608.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-06 11:05:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We do not reject the mainstream theory of the creation of the Solar System saying that its formation was due to the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud about 4.6 Gyr ago. Indeed, the Sun and the outer shells of planets appeared due to such processes. But applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that initially there was a modified black hole composed of neutron black holes that due to the inflows of the dark energy, via a supernova (there appeared other stars as well), transformed into the large molecular cloud and next into the Sun and outer shells of planets and dwarf planets. Moreover, we showed that the initial modified black hole created the planetary rings defined by the Titius-Bode Law (TBL) for the gravitational interactions - they transformed into the seeds of planets – this happened in the a few Gyr old Universe. The TBL for the gravitational interactions cannot be discredited due to the fact that it does not predict the Neptune orbit. The complete TBL for the nuclear strong interactions described within SST (SST shows that the core of baryons is a modified black hole in respect of the strong interactions), which is an analog to the TBL for the gravitational interactions, leads to an orbit that corresponds to the orbit of the planet Neptune. Both TBLs follow from the virtual processes near modified black holes of the same strength - it is because involved masses in gravitational TBL are about 61 powers of ten times higher than in nuclear-strong TBL. Deviations from predicted semi-major axes are from -5.6% for Mercury up to +5.3% for Neptune. According to gravitational TBL derived within SST, there are following planets or (dwarf planets): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, (Ceres), Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and (Pluto) (theory of prime numbers leads to 10 planets/dwarf-planets defined by TBL). Because of high probability of destruction of the Titius-Bode orbits during the evolution of the modified black holes, the Solar System is unique in the Universe. Here we calculated the semi-major axes of listed planets/dwarf-planets from the initial conditions (for Earth we obtain 0.971 AU).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[990] **viXra:1608.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-06 03:15:46*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the light of a recent novel deﬁnition of a relativistic quantum theory [1, 3, 4], we ask ourselves the question what it would mean to make the gravitational ﬁeld itself dynamical. This could lead to a couple of diﬀerent viewpoints upon quantum gravity which we shall explain carefully; this paper expands upon some ideas in [2] and again conﬁrms ones thought that we are still far removed from a (type one) theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[989] **viXra:1608.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 01:36:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This document reviews the Landau – Liftshifts reformulation of General relativity with a representation of the available mass of a graviton. From looking at a conservation law, using the Landau-Liftshifs formulation, we obtain conditions for initial mass, in the Pre Planckian regime of space-time. In doing so, we also indicate a metric tensor and metric pseudo tensor delineation of causal discontinuity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[988] **viXra:1608.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 01:48:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the two-stage explosions of the hydrogen-poor Type I superluminal supernovae (SLSNe-I). We calculated their quantized masses: 3.14, 6.28, 12.55 and 25.10 solar masses, maximum absolute magnitudes for the initial and main explosions and we solved the ejecta-velocity problem. The derived light curves are consistent with observational data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[987] **viXra:1608.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-03 07:08:07*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further deﬁne the interacting theory and study the behavior of modiﬁed particle propagators, leading to a ﬁnite theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[986] **viXra:1607.0559 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-31 04:56:55*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 27 Pages. (Variant: 31.07.2016)

„Edward Teller appears to have been the first who speculate that there may exist a logarithmic relation between the fine structure constant (α) and the parameter G∙mN^2/(h∙c)~10^(-39) of the form α~ln[G∙mN^2/(h∙c)] [equation 4.23] (in fact α^(-1)=ln(3.17 x 10^60) and the formula is too insensitive to be of very much use in predicting exact relations)“[Barrow&Tipler, 1986 ]. (mN stands for the neutron/nucleon rest mass).
In this BIDUM, I will try to demonstrate that Barrow and Tipler overlooked the possibility that Teller’s “speculation” may be much more inspired than the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (DLNH) and may the basis of a new class of informational (bio-info-digital [BIDUM]) toy-models of the universe (info-universe), a class that can offer important physical explanations and predictions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[985] **viXra:1607.0558 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-31 05:55:05*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** (BIDUM 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 pages) A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (BIDUM version 1.1) – a short summary of the essential equations (each briefly explained)

(BIDUM 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 pages) A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (BIDUM version 1.1) – a short summary of the essential equations (each briefly explained)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[947] **viXra:1701.0498 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-19 10:50:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the quantum entanglement fixes the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to its source or a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). It causes that the spatial distances to galaxies differ from the time distances (the light travel time) - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity leads to the running time Hubble constant that creates an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe. According to SST, for the nearest Universe, the time Hubble constant is 70.52. SST gives for mean time Hubble constant 64.01 - it should be the mean observed Hubble constant when we apply the General Relativity (GR) to the whole observed Universe. If we neglect some part of distant Universe then the GR/observed time Hubble constant should be defined by following interval <64.01, 70.52>. But emphasize that the real mean spatial Hubble constant calculated within SST is 45.24. It leads to the age of Universe 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but time distance to most distant observed Universe cannot be longer than 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. SST shows that evolution of galaxies accelerated about 13.1 Gyr ago - it leads to an illusion that cosmic objects are not older than 13.1 Gyr.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[946] **viXra:1701.0498 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-18 05:30:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the quantum entanglement fixes the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to its source or a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). It causes that the spatial distances to galaxies differ from the time distances (the light travel time) - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity leads to the running time Hubble constant that creates an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe. According to SST, for the nearest Universe, the time Hubble constant is 70.52. SST gives for mean time Hubble constant 64.01 - it should be the mean observed Hubble constant when we apply the General Relativity (GR) to the whole observed Universe. If we neglect some part of distant Universe then the GR/observed time Hubble constant should be defined by following interval <64.01, 70.52>. But emphasize that the real mean spatial Hubble constant calculated within SST is 45.24. It leads to the age of Universe 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but time distance to most distant observed Universe cannot be longer than 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. SST shows that evolution of galaxies accelerated about 13.1 Gyr ago - it leads to an illusion that cosmic objects are not older than 13.1 Gyr.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[945] **viXra:1701.0465 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 01:44:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we answered following question: What is the origin of the cosmic reionization? Presented here scenario differs radically from that described within the mainstream cosmology. Most important are masses of massive galaxies/quasars and the decays of large cosmic structures due to the stepwise decays of the earliest photons (such decays of photons mimic an acceleration of expansion of the Universe). Highest rate of reionization of hydrogen should be for redshift z(H,start) = 11.18 whereas complete reionization should occur at z(H,end) = 7.10. For reionization of helium we obtain respectively z(He,start) = 3.63 and z(He,end) = 2.70. Theoretical results are consistent with observational data. It leads to conclusion that the General Theory of Relativity (GR) correctly describes the regions of reionization. We showed that number and energy of created photons were sufficient to ionize the intergalactic medium. We answered as well the second very important question: Why there appeared the supermassive black holes so quickly? We showed here also that there was an acceleration of evolution of clusters of galaxies (not an acceleration of expansion of spacetime!) about 13.8 down to 13 Gyr and 6.5 down to 5 Gyr ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[944] **viXra:1701.0465 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-13 04:32:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we answered following question: What is the origin of the cosmic reionization? Presented here scenario differs radically from that described within the mainstream cosmology. Most important are masses of massive galaxies/quasars and the decays of large cosmic structures due to the stepwise decays of the earliest photons (such decays of photons mimic an acceleration of expansion of the Universe). Highest rate of reionization of hydrogen should be for redshift z(H,max) = 11.18 whereas complete reionization should occur at z(H,end) = 7.10. For reionization of helium we obtain respectively z(He,max) = 3.63 and z(He,end) = 2.70. Theoretical results are consistent with observational data. It leads to conclusion that the General Theory of Relativity (GR) correctly describes the regions of reionization. We showed that number and energy of created photons were sufficient to ionize the intergalactic medium. We answered as well the second very important question: Why there appeared the supermassive black holes so quickly? We showed here also that there was an acceleration of evolution of clusters of galaxies (not an acceleration of expansion of spacetime!) about 13.8 down to 13 Gyr and 6.5 down to 5 Gyr ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[943] **viXra:1612.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-20 08:30:42*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Published version: OALibJ, 4: e3342. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103342

I consider the standard model, together with a preon version of it, to search for unifying principles between quantum particles and general relativity. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions alone. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Conformal symmetry is seen to improve quantization in loop quantum gravity. The Einstein-Cartan theory with torsion is analyzed suggesting structure in spacetime below the Cartan scale. A toy model for black hole constituents is proposed. Higgs metastability hints at cyclic conformal cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[942] **viXra:1612.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-09 11:23:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the von Klitzing constant. The von Klitzing constant is simply the Planck constant divided by the elementary charge squared. This value, according to CODATA to a very high accuracy. This value in CODATA is 25812.8074555(59) . This paper uses the equations developed in “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime”(1), “Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure”(2), “Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron”(3), and ” An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron”(4) to predict a value for the von Klitzing constant. The value predicted in this paper is 25812.8074479 ohms, which is within 1.3 sigma of the CODATA value listed above. It is predicted, that as these measurements become more precise that the CODATA value will converge around 25812.8074479 ohms.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[941] **viXra:1612.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-27 21:47:55*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the von Klitzing constant. The von Klitzing constant is simply the Planck constant divided by the elementary charge squared. This value, according to CODATA to a very high accuracy. This value in CODATA is 25812.8074555(59) . This paper uses the equations developed in “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime”(1), “Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure”(2), “Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron”(3), and ” An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron”(4) to predict a value for the von Klitzing constant. The value predicted in this paper is 25812.8074479 ohms, which is within 1.3 sigma of the CODATA value listed above. It is predicted, that as these measurements become more precise that the CODATA value will converge around 25812.8074479 ohms.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[940] **viXra:1612.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 18:47:07*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When charged particles travel faster than light, they emit Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the nucleons. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[939] **viXra:1612.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 09:13:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that physical vibrations/rotations/translations cannot be separated from a physical volume i.e. from at least an inertial mass or from the Principle-of-Equivalence (PoE) matter. It should concern the photons and gluons as well. On the other hand, it is argued that a mass of photon causes that its speed is lower than the speed of light in “vacuum” c and depends on its frequency, causes that the Coulomb law is modified, that gauge invariance and charge conservation are not valid, and so on. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the listed above arguments against a massive photon are unfounded. The PoE mass of the present-day photons calculated within SST is about 27 orders of magnitude lower than the rest mass of electron and is invariant (the c is the natural speed of the massive photons in spacetime and is invariant as well) so this result is below the upper limit for photon mass that results from experimental data. We show also that relativistic mass is a real physical quantity, not an artefact/unreal-thing. SST shows that the inner momentum associated with spin and the spin itself, not the rest mass, are the invariants for all frames of reference assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime (SST shows that contrary to the gravitational fields associated with the non-gravitating Higgs field, the Einstein spacetime associated with the PoE matter is indeed flat and dominates over the Higgs field). It leads to conclusion that the energy-momentum relation is still valid but it fails when we consider the structural changes in the bare fermions dependent on their speed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[938] **viXra:1612.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 17:41:10*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[937] **viXra:1612.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-03 01:36:05*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[936] **viXra:1611.0379 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-28 06:18:51*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** Published in: Open Access Library Journal, 3: e3262. Link on front page.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on massless constituents having
spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can
be deduced from the three preon states. Argument is given for unified field theory
being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. Conformal symmetry
is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is
geometrized to conform with gravity. Baryon number non-conservation mechanism is
obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[935] **viXra:1611.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-09 09:03:55*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant, of 137.035999098, and the mass ratios of the Electron and Proton to the Neutron. In the following papers by Michael John Sarnowski , “Serendipitous Hints at Shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1508.0027v4.pdf and “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1601.0234v2.pdf and “An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Proton to Neutron” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0302v1.pdf .
He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the neutron and proposes a value for the fine structure constant that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[934] **viXra:1611.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-07 15:33:13*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Added word dimensionless

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant, of 137.035999098, and the mass ratios of the Electron and Proton to the Neutron. In the following papers by Michael John Sarnowski , “Serendipitous Hints at Shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1508.0027v4.pdf and “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1601.0234v2.pdf and “An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Proton to Neutron” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0302v1.pdf .
He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the neutron and proposes a value for the fine structure constant that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[933] **viXra:1611.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 16:36:54*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant, of 137.035999098, and the mass ratios of the Electron and Proton to the Neutron. In the following papers by Michael John Sarnowski , “Serendipitous Hints at Shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1508.0027v4.pdf and “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1601.0234v2.pdf and “An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Proton to Neutron” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0302v1.pdf .
He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the neutron and proposes a value for the fine structure constant that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[932] **viXra:1611.0288 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-08 12:30:04*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. Schrödinger equation was derived in the theory. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics and cosmology. Quantum mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Equivalence principle was derived from model of ESTM theory. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[931] **viXra:1611.0229 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-08 13:59:47*

**Authors:** Dimitar Valev

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Hubble constant has been added in addition to the three fundamental constants (speed of light, gravitational constant and Planck constant) used by Max Planck, for derivation of the Planck mass by dimensional analysis. As a result, a general solution is found for the mass dimension expression m = γ^p•mP, where mP is the Planck mass, γ ≈ 1.23×10^(-61) is a small dimensionless quantity and p is an arbitrary parameter in the interval [–1, 1]. The Planck mass m1 ≡ mP = 2.17×10^(-8) kg, mass of the Hubble sphere m2 ~ 10^53 kg, minimum quantum of mass/energy m3 = 2.68×10^(-69) kg, Weinberg mass m5 = 1.08×10^(-28) kg, Eddington mass limit of stars M3 = 6.6×10^32 kg, mass of hypothetical quantum gravity atom M2 = 3.8×10^12 kg and some more masses potentially important for the physics and astrophysics represent particular solutions for values of p, expressed as fractions with small numerators and nominators.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[930] **viXra:1611.0205 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 21:25:42*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This is definitely not a work of science fiction. It's a serious 9,000 words detailing what today's philosophy and science (in areas like physics, computer science, cosmology, biology and mathematics) are likely to evolve into. I've always been totally fascinated by the future – the more distant, the better! So the adventures of the Star Trek movies and TV shows, based in the 23rd and 24th centuries, are a good starting point. They're not documentaries by any stretch but are a tremendous boost to the sense of wonder about the universe. Superman and Doctor Who are also great at making a person wonder about new possibilities in other centuries and other parts of the cosmos. Putting together the marvels of science fiction and the marvels of science results in the following picture of what lies in store for humanity and the cosmos. In the end, this new science and philosophy is my opinion and only time can determine its accuracy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[929] **viXra:1611.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-07 08:50:57*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with the invariant 7 quantized masses with the upper limit about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles. Lower limit for radius of DM circle with highest mass is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc. Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size). Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[928] **viXra:1611.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-07 06:03:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with the invariant 7 quantized masses with the upper limit about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles. Lower limit for radius of DM circle with highest mass is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc. Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size). Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[927] **viXra:1610.0328 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-30 15:16:11*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In a recent paper, Haug [1] has rewritten many of Newton's and Einstein's gravitational results, without changing their output, into a quantized Planck form. However, his results only hold down to the scale of Planck mass size objects. Here we derive similar results for any mass less than or equal to a Planck mass. All of the new formulas presented in this paper give the same numerical output as the traditional formulas. However, they have been rewritten in a way that gives a new perspective on the formulas when working with gravity at the level of the subatomic world. To rewrite the well-known formulas in this way could make it easier to understand strength and weakness in Newton and Einstein gravitation formulas at the subatomic scale, potentially opening them up for new interpretations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[926] **viXra:1610.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-10 07:10:22*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 217 Pages. typo's corrected

A book on a background independent quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[925] **viXra:1610.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-30 23:48:48*

**Authors:** Jody Anthony Geiger

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the idea of fundamental units and counts of those units, a unifying description is resolved. This description is presented as a set of postulates under which conversion between quantum and classical expressions can be made. Derivations of well-known expressions from different areas of physics (quantum mechanics, quantum physics, gravitation, cosmology, special and general relativity) exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The model offers insight into quantum measurement, quantization and black holes. Solutions are offered that provide insight to dimensionality, dark matter and dark energy. Quantized formulations of cosmological constants are presented. And finally physical predictions are made, both confirmed and to be measured.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[924] **viXra:1610.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-16 18:27:31*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we propose that the center of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and the Big Bang are in the minimum entropy equal to the Boltzmann constant. Then we prove the uncertainty relation (UR) of SBH and Big Bang UR which suggest no singularity in SBH and Big Bang.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[923] **viXra:1610.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-14 19:18:57*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the center of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and Big Bang being in the minimum entropy equaling to the Boltzmann constant. Then we prove the uncertainty relation (UR) of SBH and Big Bang UR which suggest no singularity in SBH and Big Bang.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[922] **viXra:1609.0313 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 14:38:18*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Change to the title with Has changed to Have

Andrew Walcott Beckwith
Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China
rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu
Abstract.
We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion.
Key words: Infinite quantum statistics, Quantum gas, semi classical approximation, nonsingular cosmology

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[921] **viXra:1609.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 04:52:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[920] **viXra:1609.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-19 16:05:54*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[919] **viXra:1609.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-15 10:20:46*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G:
G=(παq²/me²ε0)*exp(-(1/√2)*((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408E-11 m³/(kg s²)
Being α the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, me the mass of the electron, ε0 the permittivity of the free space and π the relation between a circumference and its diameter.
As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper.
To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[918] **viXra:1609.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-14 23:19:12*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G:
G=(παq²/me²ε0)⁎exp(-(1/√2)⁎((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408E-11 m³/(kg s²)
Being α the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, me the mass of the electron, ε0 the permittivity of the free space and π the relation between a circumference and its diameter.
As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper.
To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[917] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 00:18:46*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Mechanism for Possible Electronic Creation of the Universe and its Infinity of Time. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3837858.v4 Retrieved: 05 03, Sep 21, 2016 (GMT)

True to the nonlinear nature of time (it's arranged in Einstein's warps and curves), it's also correct that gravity is a product of electromagnetism – in the form of electronic pulses of energy from computers connected to sources of electrical power, and manifesting the pulses as virtual gravitons (the quanta of gravity). This provides a possible, electronic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels. Please read the following, remembering that in a TV program it was reported that "the physicist and writer Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics" (as well as, this author thinks, the electronic energy pulses known as virtual particles) "that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing." [Phillips G (August 29 2013) "Custom Universe – Finetuned For Us?" in Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s "Catalyst" program]
A computer simulation of the universe that's made of 1's and 0's might generate infinity because some of the numbers in the simulation could be infinitely long numbers like pi and e. Pi, plus things like the Mobius and Klein, would be built-in to the cosmos (including electrons and quantum phenomena), like it says about pi in "Contact" by Carl Sagan (1986) - Century Publishing, p.430. Admittedly, Dr. Sagan's book is a work of fiction, but its reference to pi could still be included in a simulation. The simulated universe would then incorporate spatial and temporal infinity - and could include immortality if the programmer(s) wanted it to. Comprehending the idea of infinity really is a very hard concept to wrap your head around. If we achieved this, we'd understand the simulation we built (and would, because of the quantum-mechanical rules present in our cosmos and also programmed into this simulated universe, be entangled with it ... and part of it). What would it be like to stand outside this infinite, simulated universe which I called mini-infinity: and outside its extra dimensions, too. Part of my brain is saying this just isn't possible. But another part is fascinated by the idea of stepping outside the infinite.
Buddha, founder and leader of the Buddhist religion, believed each person must find peace and freedom from suffering by following what is called the Noble Eightfold Path. Presented here is an Eightfold Path to using a certain type of computer simulation of the Universe to completely understand the real Universe. A line or two about each Universal path is in this subsection. It's up to the reader to decide how noble they are.
Admittedly, this Universal Eightfold Path may sound too speculative for some. But there's a place for speculation in cosmology. The universe is too big to put in a lab so experiments can be performed on it. The best we can do is build a simulation of it in that lab which is the result of imagination, intuition and speculation grounded in the laws of science. Hopefully, the programmed model will agree with what is known and offer plausible explanations of the unknown.
The above is a fascinating idea! But without backup from science, it can't be considered seriously. That's why the below sections - about physics, cosmology and mathematics – are essential in an article devoted to computer science. Unfortunately, we live in a world that's in love with putting everything in strict categories. That would quickly put an end to this article, if it were not for interdisciplinary science. The emerging understanding that the different branches of science are interconnected and rely on each other is what this article is all about. However, there are signs that science has not yet put into practice what it preaches. These ideas have been universally rejected by science journals for years - either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll submit my ideas to the "International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications", and trust that computer science is more enlightened than other branches.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[916] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-19 05:49:54*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** Pages.

True to the nonlinear nature of time (it's arranged in Einstein's warps and curves), it's also correct that gravity is a product of electromagnetism – in the form of electronic pulses of energy from computers connected to sources of electrical power, and manifesting the pulses as virtual gravitons (the quanta of gravity). This provides a possible, electronic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels. Please read the following, remembering that in a TV program it was reported that "the physicist and writer Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics" (as well as, this author thinks, the electronic energy pulses known as virtual particles) "that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing." [Phillips G (August 29 2013) "Custom Universe – Finetuned For Us?" in Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s "Catalyst" program]
A computer simulation of the universe that's made of 1's and 0's might generate infinity because some of the numbers in the simulation could be infinitely long numbers like pi and e. Pi, plus things like the Mobius and Klein, would be built-in to the cosmos (including electrons and quantum phenomena), like it says about pi in "Contact" by Carl Sagan (1986) - Century Publishing, p.430. Admittedly, Dr. Sagan's book is a work of fiction, but its reference to pi could still be included in a simulation. The simulated universe would then incorporate spatial and temporal infinity - and could include immortality if the programmer(s) wanted it to. Comprehending the idea of infinity really is a very hard concept to wrap your head around. If we achieved this, we'd understand the simulation we built (and would, because of the quantum-mechanical rules present in our cosmos and also programmed into this simulated universe, be entangled with it ... and part of it). What would it be like to stand outside this infinite, simulated universe which I called mini-infinity: and outside its extra dimensions, too. Part of my brain is saying this just isn't possible. But another part is fascinated by the idea of stepping outside the infinite.
Buddha, founder and leader of the Buddhist religion, believed each person must find peace and freedom from suffering by following what is called the Noble Eightfold Path. Presented here is an Eightfold Path to using a certain type of computer simulation of the Universe to completely understand the real Universe. A line or two about each Universal path is in this subsection. It's up to the reader to decide how noble they are.
Admittedly, this Universal Eightfold Path may sound too speculative for some. But there's a place for speculation in cosmology. The universe is too big to put in a lab so experiments can be performed on it. The best we can do is build a simulation of it in that lab which is the result of imagination, intuition and speculation grounded in the laws of science. Hopefully, the programmed model will agree with what is known and offer plausible explanations of the unknown.
The above is a fascinating idea! But without backup from science, it can't be considered seriously. That's why the below sections - about physics, cosmology and mathematics – are essential in an article devoted to computer science. Unfortunately, we live in a world that's in love with putting everything in strict categories. That would quickly put an end to this article, if it were not for interdisciplinary science. The emerging understanding that the different branches of science are interconnected and rely on each other is what this article is all about. However, there are signs that science has not yet put into practice what it preaches. These ideas have been universally rejected by science journals for years - either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll submit my ideas to the "International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications", and trust that computer science is more enlightened than other branches.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[915] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-17 00:30:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Paradigm Shift to Cosmic Unification, and Human Creation of Universe.docx. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3837858.v1 Retrieved: 05 26, Sep 17, 2016 (GMT)

These ideas are universally rejected by science journals either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll post my ideas here.
A paradigm shift in science is a fundamental change in its concepts and practices. “We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur. This article strives towards that revolution by addressing many topics – including dark energy, dark matter, black holes, radioactive dating, gravity, mathematics, the shape of space-time, and imaginary time. Historically, mathematics often finds practical application in physics. The idea of the quantum was originally developed by Max Planck purely as a mathematical convenience^, but it's been part of our reality for over a century. So imaginary time and the Complex Number Plane might find applications undreamt of today.
^ The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, is a failure of classical physics to predict observed phenomena: it can be shown that a blackbody - a hypothetical perfect absorber and radiator of energy - would release an infinite amount of energy, contradicting the principles of conservation of energy and indicating that a new model for the behaviour of blackbodies was needed. At the start of the 20th century, physicist Max Planck derived the correct solution by making some strange (for the time) assumptions. In particular, Planck assumed that electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete packets, called quanta. Albert Einstein postulated that Planck's quanta were real physical particles (what we now call photons), not just a mathematical fiction. From there, Einstein developed his photoelectric effect (when quanta or photons of light shine on certain metals, electrons are released and can form an electric current).
My ideas initially suggested gravitation (G) is the universe's only fundamental force and that electromagnetism (EM), as well as the strong and weak nuclear forces, are products of G. While the latter part has been retained, the fundamental force is now seen as a gravitational-electromagnetic (G-EM) union. This union of the different waveforms could be made possible by rearrangement of gravitons' binary digits (bits) into the bits of the particles constituting the other 3 forces (surrounding space-time's virtual particles and their produced digits are included in this rearrangement, to vary particle mass) [details in TOPOLOGY]. Rearrangement could be achieved by a quantum-scale version of gravitational lensing, which can split the image of an astronomical object into several images. The G-EM union/field is counterintuitive – even ridiculous, absurd, impossible to some people – since gravitation is so weak (EM is 10^36 times as powerful, and the Strong Nuclear Force is a hundred times stronger again ie 10^38 times as powerful). The solution is infinity. Even the weakest force, when infinitely multiplied, has literally no limit to its power. It can produce another universal force that is measured, at distances tiny compared to infinity ie any distance, to be approximately 10^36 times stronger^. Such strangeness may be necessary to fulfil Albert Einstein's dream of uniting G and EM, then unifying all space-time into a single Unified Field. Obeying the Pauli Exclusion Principle that says there is no limit to the number of photons and presently hypothetical gravitons that can be exchanged (those particles are limitless in number), the Unified Field would be the G-EM field.
^ "For instance, at the distance of 3 × 10-18 meters, the electromagnetic α is closer to 1/128 than its long-distance value of about 1/137." [“The Strengths of the Known Forces” by theoretical physicist Matt Strassler [May 31, 2013] - http://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physicsbasics/the-known-forces-of-nature/the-strength-of-the-known-forces/]. The Internet's free encyclopedia, Wikipedia, defines α (the fine-structure constant) this way: In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted α (the Greek letter alpha), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[914] **viXra:1609.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-04 02:05:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of entropy and information and their evolution in time in the Cosmos as a whole (the Cosmos has radius about 30 powers of ten of meters i.e. is much greater than the present-day radius of the expanding Universe). On the lowest level of Nature, the global information depends on distribution of rotational and kinetic energies and orientation of the infinitesimal spins of all free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all objects in the Cosmos consist of. The field composed of the free tachyons is the Higgs field - this field causes that neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. During the inflation, almost whole Higgs field transformed into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime that ground state consists of the non-rotating-spin neutrino-antineutrino pairs interacting gravitationally only. Orientation of spin is not important in gravitational field so all such pairs are in the same energetic state i.e. entropy of the ground state is equal to zero and this state dominates in the Cosmos. Moreover, the tachyonic energy frozen inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (it is the missing energy that results from quantum physics) is about 119 powers of ten times higher than their gravitational energy. The SST and the Kasner solution (which concerns the non-gravitating objects) show that there is a left-handedness of the residual Higgs field. The collapse of the outer shell of the Einstein spacetime at the end of the inflation created the returning shock wave. The shock wave plus the left-handedness of the residual Higgs field produced more matter than antimatter - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The returning energy-matter wave created the Universe in the centre of the Cosmos. Due to the boundary of the Cosmos, the Universe behaves cyclically. We start from the era before the inflation and via the inflation and via the neutron-black-holes state of the early Universe and via the present-day, we finish the description in the distant future. The tachyons cause that information cannot be destroyed by the SST black holes - the same concerns the energies of photons in gravitational fields. Entropy of the initial state of the inflation field and of the SST black holes is equal to zero. We can define time as the succeeding changes in the global information. In an approximation, Information behaves cyclically. In the Cosmos as a whole, entropy per particle is infinitesimal whereas total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[913] **viXra:1609.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-04 01:30:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The alignment of the angular-momentums/spins of quasars and the perpendicularity of the planes of the main disc of massive spiral galaxies and the disc of a vast polar structure (VPOS) which contains the satellite galaxies, some globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams, suggest that the Universe as a whole and the massive galaxies have a history that cannot be easily explained within the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared in the binary systems of protogalaxies two perpendicular discs each composed of the dark-matter (DM) loops. Dynamics of the binary systems of protogalaxies and the early Universe leads to perpendicularity of the main disc and VPOS. During the highest radial acceleration of the protogalaxies just at the beginning of expansion of the Universe (initially it was cosmic double loop with left-handed internal helicity of each loop), to stabilize the main disc and conserve its angular momentum, the binary systems of protogalaxies made a rotation (i.e. a rotation of their rotation and magnetic axes) of 90 degrees in such a way that initially the angular-momentums/spins (and magnetic axes) were mostly antiparallel to their radial velocities, i.e. initially the expanding Universe looked as a magnetic monopole. But the succeeding inflows of dark energy (locally they could be turbulent and they lasted a few Gyr) that initially caused the explosions of the binary systems of protogalaxies (in such a way appeared the VPOSs), partially destroyed the monopole-like structure of the early Universe. But a statistical analyse should show that described here correlation is preferred i.e. in the distant Universe, there should be a little more massive spiral galaxies with counter-clockwise rotation i.e. left-handed. The initial radial polarization of the spins of quasars explains their alignment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[912] **viXra:1608.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 04:07:25*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 20 Pages. CITE: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Tomorrow's Computer Science Makes Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe.docx. figshare. - https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3544994.v2 - Retrieved: 08 36, Aug 23, 2016 (GMT)

uter Science Builds Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe
Author – Rodney Bartlett
Abstract -
Listening to Brian Cox and Dr. Karl talking on triple j (http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/media/s4513719.htm), the thing that most interested me was the subject "the opposite of gravity". By viewing reality as entanglement with the topological extension of a computer-simulated universe, comments can be made about: 1) the nature of gravity, and so-called antigravity being a result of the Complex Number Plane; 2) how this explanation of antigravity could explain dark energy and dark matter; 3) universal expansion being replaced by the closely related, though more precise, extension into space-time of binary digits and Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles; 4) a non-supernatural, humanistic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[911] **viXra:1608.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-12 11:24:12*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Minor changes. Published in Open Access Library Journal, 3:e3032.- http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103032

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on constituents defined by mass, spin and charge. The preons form a finite combinatorial system for the standard model fermions. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the preon bound states. By applying the area eigenvalues of loop quantum gravity to black hole preons one gets a preon mass spectrum starting from zero. Gravitational baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained. Argument is given for unified field theory be based only on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions of preons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[910] **viXra:1608.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 11:04:55*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[909] **viXra:1608.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 09:09:20*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[908] **viXra:1608.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-07 01:44:01*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamics model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamics model. We then discuss on the (1+3) forces, the gravity force and an additional three pseudo-forces that are described by force carrier particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[907] **viXra:1608.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-18 14:28:24*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a type of motor which converts Gravitational Energy directly into Rotational Kinetic Energy. Its fuel is therefore the Gravitational Energy (no needs gasoline, oil, etc). An example of Gravitational Motor is the turbines of the hydroelectric plants. However, they are not mobile i.e., they cannot be transported from one place to another as the combustion motors or the electric motors. Mobiles Gravitational Motor can be developed starting from the devices of gravity control, such as the Quantum Controller of Gravity (QCG) [1]. The form of the QCG originally proposed is spherical. Here, it is described a Gravitational Motor which uses a QCG with spherical cylindrical form. This Gravitational Motor can have very-high power, and it can be used in order to generate electrical energy at large scale or traction to move cars, ships, tankers, aircraft carrier, trains, etc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[906] **viXra:1608.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-17 10:07:27*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong-weak interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Here we show that the SST interactions of the source of the nuclear strong interactions determine the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[905] **viXra:1608.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-16 11:40:40*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong-weak interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Here we show that the SST interactions of the source of the nuclear strong interactions determine the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[904] **viXra:1608.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 09:07:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. The ratios of the mixing angles are as 1 : 4 : 5 and they represent respectively one stable flavour (i.e. electron- or muon-neutrino), two entangled flavours (i.e. electron- or muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. four entangled stable neutrinos), and three entangled flavours (i.e. electron- plus muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. five entangled stable neutrinos). We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[903] **viXra:1608.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-27 01:55:01*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. The ratios of the mixing angles are as 1 : 4 : 5 and they represent respectively one stable flavour (i.e. electron- or muon-neutrino), two entangled flavours (i.e. electron- or muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. four entangled stable neutrinos), and three entangled flavours (i.e. electron- plus muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. five entangled stable neutrinos). We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[902] **viXra:1608.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-26 13:48:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[901] **viXra:1608.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 09:55:02*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We continue our investigation of the new project launched in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8] by generalizing Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of elec- trons and photons, to our setting. At ﬁrst, we deal with the respective two point functions, deﬁne the correct interaction theory as a series of connected Feynman diagrams and ﬁnally, we show that for a certain class of spacetime metrics, each diagram is ﬁnite and a modiﬁed perturbation series is analytic.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[900] **viXra:1608.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-04 12:20:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the two-stage explosions of the hydrogen-poor Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). We calculated their quantized masses: 3.14, 6.28, 12.55 and 25.10 solar masses, maximum absolute magnitudes for the initial and main explosions and we solved the ejecta-velocity problem. The derived light curves are consistent with observational data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[899] **viXra:1608.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 09:53:44*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further deﬁne the interacting theory and study the behavior of modiﬁed particle propagators, leading to a ﬁnite theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[898] **viXra:1608.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-12 07:27:42*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 33 Pages. minor corrections made

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further deﬁne the interacting theory and study the behavior of modiﬁed particle propagators, leading to a ﬁnite theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[897] **viXra:1607.0561 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-03 10:32:16*

**Authors:** D.Mastoridis, K.Kalogirou

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The current paper presents an attempt to express the mass problem in a more con-
crete mathematical scheme where all the Physical quantities could come naturally. The
Standard Model and its extensions where investigated where SU(4) has appeared as a
conclusion of this attempt.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory