Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[619] viXra:1409.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-12 02:55:23

Extended Lorentz Transformations in Clifford Space Relativity Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 14 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Some novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) were explored recently. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations allowed for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, but breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. In this work we analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. A generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra, involving polyvector-valued coordinates and momenta operators, furnishes a realization of an extended Poincare algebra in $C$-spaces. In addition to the Planck constant $\hbar$, one finds that the commutator of the Clifford scalar components of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra requires the introduction of a $dimensionless$ parameter which is expressed in terms of the ratio of two length scales : the Planck and Hubble scales. We finalize by discussing the concept of ``photons", null intervals, effective temporal variables and the addition/subtraction laws of generalized velocities in $C$-space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[618] viXra:1409.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-10 07:20:48

Unification of the Structures of Proton and Nucleus of Active Galaxy

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, we unify the weak and strong interactions inside protons with the strong gravitational interactions in active galactic nuclei i.e. we unify particle physics with cosmology. Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I showed that outside the strong fields the gluons behave as photons. Due to the leaking internal structure of protons and the changing distances between the entangled Einstein-spacetime components, there appear the virtual structures with different sizes which mimic the internal structure of protons and the characteristic motions of the entangled part of the Einstein spacetime inside it. The characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime cause that there appear characteristic distribution and advection of the mass inside the nuclei of active galaxies. The core of proton consists of the condensate composed of the confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is the black hole with respect of the weak interactions) surrounded by the torus composed of the carriers of gluons. There as well appear loops composed of entangled Einstein-spacetime components. On the other hand, a nucleus of active galaxy consists of gravitational black hole surrounded by accretion disc and much bigger opaque torus of neutral gas and dust. Here, due to the characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime, the advection is the transport mechanism of the mass of a nucleus of active galaxy by the moving entangled part of the Einstein spacetime. There as well appear the two relativistic jets which direction overlaps with the axis of the opaque torus. For their creation are responsible the two baryonic-plasma loops with parallel spins and opposite internal helicities. They appear on the Schwarzschild surface of the gravitational black hole. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[617] viXra:1409.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-10 01:39:39

Understanding the Universe in 6 Easy, But Controversial, Steps

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 17 Pages.

The Italian scientist Galileo described his experiments mathematically some 400 years ago. Ever since, scientists all over the world seem to distrust articles that don't include mathematics, comparing them to mistakes made by the members of the ancient Greek philosophers who didn't use maths (unless, of course, those articles are the result of Einstein's "thought experiments"). Many famous scientists have said that if you really understand something, you can explain it in plain English or to a young person with no maths training. So, as I normally do, I'll shy away from equations and scientific language (the great Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein used both things, so I think I must use them to some degree if I want to understand the universe) and try to rely on pure logic. Another great scientist of 100 years ago, Niels Bohr, was said to be able to do his work without relying on maths, so perhaps equations are over-rated and are actually the servants of intuitive insights. The early-20th-century's Jules Henri Poincare was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times, but also one of the greatest believers in intuition. This article feels more like doing a 40-year-long jigsaw puzzle than something that required me to be an author. Sure, it took a long time and required a lot of thinking. There were times when the going felt frustrating, or tiring, or like smooth sailing. But I always had the feeling, similar to that of Paul McCartney when he wrote the song “Yesterday” for the Beatles or of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writing his classical music in the 18th century, that all the pieces of the puzzle already exist and I just had to put them together. Sometimes, I even felt as though pieces were being handed to me in the right order … at the right time. The article was written after reading “How the Universe Will End” by Francis Reddy (a senior science writer at NASA) in Astronomy magazine – Sep. 2014, and my article is restricted to the 6 topics which came to mind while reading it. The 6 steps are 1) Space Cannot Expand Faster Than Light, 2) Cosmic Inflation Replaced, 3) Dark Energy and the Big Rip, 4) What Is the Relation Between Gravitation and Black Holes?, 5) What Is Dark Matter?, and 6) The Universe Will Not End.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[616] viXra:1408.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-29 08:10:02

The Holographic Model and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions holographic models of quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of wave functions via the Feynman integral for the transmission of information about the quantum object.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[615] viXra:1408.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-27 20:44:02

The Fundamental Universe: Prespace, Line Space, Strings And Branes Properties

Authors: Michael Emerson
Comments: 5 Pages. Email: newphysics@safe-mail.net

This is a conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of Spacetime, Strings and Branes. Taking this conception through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology. A form of inflation and positive cosmological constant naturally flows from this model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[614] viXra:1408.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-26 17:22:48

The Hierarchy Problem and Oscillations of Neutrinos in the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The hierarchy problem follows from the very big energetic gap between the Planck scale and the masses of the most massive known particles. This problem is solved within the scale-symmetric Everlasting Theory. This theory is based on the four succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs field composed of the superluminal pieces of space (due to the size of our Cosmos, the next phase transitions are impossible). There appear the four very different scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the electron and muon neutrinos are the stable particles. The observed oscillations follow from the decays or creations of the unstable tau “neutrinos” and from the exchanges of the free neutrinos for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[613] viXra:1408.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-26 11:31:57

New Evidence for the Eddington Number and the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128. In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant. In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[612] viXra:1408.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-23 14:11:47

Letter to a Skeptic

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 3 Pages.

We are able to place gravity and the conversion of space to time (as on planet Earth) and vice versa (as on our Sun) within the context of a much wider theory which unifies all four forces of physics beneath the symmetry-conserving mantle of Noether's Theorem: "The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[611] viXra:1408.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-18 07:12:19

The Origin of the Quantum Entanglement and Acceleration of Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free E-spacetime components so superluminal entanglons escaping from our Universe could solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerates.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[610] viXra:1408.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-16 11:20:05

The Origin of the Missing Galaxy Clusters

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Planck CMB data lead to conclusion that there should be about two times more galaxy clusters than we observe. Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I show that the discrepancy follows from the collisions/mergers of protogalaxy clusters at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. The time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.4 gigayears but they are 7.5 gigayears old so we cannot see the collisions of protogalaxy clusters. It is a wrong assumption that creation of galaxies can last a few hundred years only. For 4 times more spiral galaxies than elliptical galaxies, we obtain that there should be observed 2.4 times less galaxy clusters than it follows from the Planck CMB data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[609] viXra:1408.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-14 11:36:12

Kaluza-Cartan Theory With Completely Antisymmetric Torsion

Authors: Robert E S Watson
Comments: 22 Pages.

Kaluza’s 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach is presented that includes torsion, unifying gravity and electromagnetism in a Kaluza-Cartan theory. Emphasis is placed on admitting important electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza’s original theory, and on a Lorentz force law. This is investigated via a non-Maxwellian kinetic def- inition of charge related to Maxwellian charge and 5D momentum. Two connections are used. General covariance and global properties are inves- tigated via a reduced non-maximal atlas. Conserved super-energy is used in place of the energy conditions for 5D causality. Explanatory relation- ships between matter, charge and spin are present.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[608] viXra:1408.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-11 03:44:27

Revised Formulae from the 3D Universe Theory

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 3 Pages.

Formulae for the electron's charge, electron's mass, fine structure constant, proton's radius, proton's mass, gravitational coupling constant and proton-to-electron mass ratio
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[607] viXra:1408.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-10 10:17:37

Found Fine Perspective for Theory of Everything

Authors: Ichiro Nakayama
Comments: 20 Pages.

A possible basic perspective common to four fundamental forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, and plus dark energy was found. That is different from gauge theory. This text shows that a theory for everything is realized by new perspective named energy body. The concept of energy body theory is that the whole universe including fundamental particles is made of the only one raw material. In other words, space and elementary particles are both energy body. And then energy body vibrates by the medium of energy cell bodies. And all forces work with the difference of energy level between energy body systems. Energy body is divided into two systems that are static energy body of space and kinetic energy bodies of elementary particles. As a result, the insight showed that gravity and dark energy are simultaneously generated by static energy body's (space) collapse and change into fundamental particles, in the process of fundamental particles' concentration. At the time, the two kinds of different energy level are caused in the space. One is in the direction of a star's center. That is gravity which is generated by compression of energy body (space). The other is in the direction of the verge of the universe. That is dark energy which is generated by the diffusion of energy body (space). Also, it was found out that there is a large scale of convection of space and fundamental particles. Therefore the universe inflation is not caused by big ban. The other three forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction are explained by the shape of kinetic energy bodies (fundamental particles). Kinetic energy bodies have a character of waves that rotates on their own axes and a spherical shape in the central part. The closer the wave is to the axis, the higher the energy state, the shorter the wavelength, conversely, the father it moves away, the energy level decreases. Because of that, individual kinetic energy body behaves independently each other. Also, the shape beautifully explains interference fringes of electron, electron transition, and occurrence of magnetic field. Interaction of kinetic energy bodies is decided by the direction of the reciprocal waves. When they are the same at the place where two systems meet, it works as attractive force, when they are the opposite, repulsive force. Because, there is a rise of energy level or a fall. Outside of an atomic nucleus, weak wave of kinetic energy body works as electromagnetic force. When fundamental particles move, the tilt of it plays important roles. Inside of an atomic nucleus, strong wave of kinetic energy body works as nucleus force, At the time, small kinetic energy bodies mediate. More, there are some cases of synthesis or separation of kinetic energy bodies, because they are the waves of same material. Energy is the vibration of energy body. By this concept, the simplest principle is gotten that all forces work by the energy level difference of each energy body system at the place where each system meets.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[606] viXra:1408.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-06 23:07:50

Holographic Principle and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly P.
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, and is an entirely new interpretation of the wave function, which is fully equivalent probabilistic formulation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[605] viXra:1408.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-06 04:59:49

Electron's Mass and Golden Ratio

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 1 Page.

Simple formulae showing how the electron's mass is linked to the Golden ratio
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[604] viXra:1407.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-30 04:39:11

The Origin of the UV-Photon Underproduction Crisis

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the UV-photon underproduction crisis. The observational facts lead to conclusion that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate for the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest should be larger than the predicted value. The Everlasting Theory shows that it is directly associated with evolution of the dark matter at the beginning of expansion of the Universe and with the ratio of the present-day radius of the Universe and its initial radius.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[603] viXra:1407.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-29 15:46:10

A Most Elegant Philosophy About the Theory of Everything

Authors: Harry Theunissen
Comments: 7 Pages.

Given a simple set of assumptions, this paper gives an elegant explanation how ElectroMagnetism, the Stong nuclear force, the Weak nuclear force, Gravity, Inertia, matter and Time all could “emerge” from a single “fundamental” force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[602] viXra:1407.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-28 04:51:35

Unified Field Theory in a Nutshell (Ellicit Dreams of a Final Theory)

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 28 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal.

The present reading is part of our on-going attempt at the foremost endeavour of physics since man began to comprehend the heavens and the earth. We present a much more improved unified field theory of all the Forces of Nature i.e. the gravitational, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces. The proposed theory is a radical improvement of Professor Herman Weyl's supposed failed attempt at a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. As is the case with Professor Weyl's theory, unit vectors in the resulting/proposed theory vary from one point to the next, albeit, in a manner such that they are compelled to yield tensorial affinities. In a separate reading, the Dirac equation is shown to emerge as part of the description of the these variable unit vectors. The nuclear force fields -- i.e., electromagnetic, weak and the strong -- together with the gravitational force field are seen to be described by a four vector field, which forms part of the body of the variable unit vectors and hence the metric of spacetime. The resulting theory very strongly appears to be a logically consistent and coherent unification of classical and quantum physics and at the same time a grand unity of all the forces of Nature. Unlike most unification theories, the present proposal is unique in that it achieves unification on a four dimensional continuum of spacetime without the need for extra-dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[601] viXra:1407.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 06:51:12

How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[600] viXra:1407.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 18:47:09

Modified Unruh Temperature, Entropy and Entropic Force on Schwarzschild Black Hole

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Unruh temperature, entropy and entropic force on the Schwarzschild black hole (S BH) can be modified. The general modified equipartition law of energy (ELOE) is proposed by unification, the modified Unruh temperature on event horizon and it quantization are obtained by quantization method. And the modified entropy and entropic force are derived. These are significant to solve the black hole modified question.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[599] viXra:1407.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 09:17:20

Calculation of the Planck Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[598] viXra:1407.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-15 17:24:28

Electro-Gravitational Technology Via Chronon Field

Authors: Eytan H. Suchard
Comments: 34 Pages. Electro-gravity won't be measurable by Pico-Farad or less with 50Kv, asymmetrical capacitors. These will only cause ions wind in air. The real effect requires large charge separation which results in a Sciama Inertial Induction machine

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by nongeodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energymomentum- tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[597] viXra:1407.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-15 14:46:43

Lambda-VDM Model: a Testable Modification of Lambda-CDM

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[596] viXra:1407.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 07:31:47

Black Holes Astronomy Versus Cosmos

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 7 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) - We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[595] viXra:1407.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 08:01:16

The Origin and Nature of Extreme-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[594] viXra:1407.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-12 12:08:55

MOND and the Photon Underproduction Crisis

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.

A recent study entitled “The Photon Underproduction Crisis” claims that there are two surprising possibilities: the first possibility is that galaxies and quasars contribute far more photons than astronomers now believe; the second possibility is that the ΛCDM model of the low-redshift universe is significantly wrong. Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) implies that the ΛCDM model is significantly wrong. This brief communications makes a Photon Underproduction Profile Prediction based upon a speculative MOND-based theory of string theory with the Finite Nature Hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[593] viXra:1407.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-12 06:37:18

Evolution of the Milky Way and Similar Massive Galaxies

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, evolution of the Milky Way, and similar massive galaxies, has to be explained descriptively and partially quantitatively. There is described production of the protoarms of the massive spiral galaxies, production of the Fermi Bubbles and dwarf galaxies. Due to the two succeeding transformations of groups of the binary systems of electron-positron pairs via the electromagnetic-type weak condensates inside bare electrons, there are emitted the gamma-rays with central values of energy in approximation equal to: 1.3 GeV, 2.6 GeV, 5.3 GeV, 10.6 GeV, 21 GeV, 42 GeV and 85 GeV. For muon-antimuon pair we obtain about 137 GeV, whereas for kaon-antikaon pair is 639 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[592] viXra:1407.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-12 04:53:19

Invariance of Spooky Action at a Distance in Quantum Entanglement under Lorentz Transformation

Authors: Mohammad Sharifi
Comments: 17 Pages.

We study the mechanism by which the particle-antiparticle entangled state collapses instantaneously at a distance. By making two key assumptions, we are able to show not only that instantaneous collapse of a wave function at a distance is possible but also that it is an invariant quantity under Lorentz transformation and compatible with relativity. In addition, we will be able to detect in which situation a many-body entangled system exhibits the maximum collapse speed among its entangled particles. Finally we suggest that every force in nature acts via entanglement.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[591] viXra:1407.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-11 09:18:56

The Dark Side of the Higgs Field and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[590] viXra:1407.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-10 13:44:08

Estimating the Hubble Constant on a Base of Observed Values of the Hubble Parameter $H(z)$ in a Model Without Expansion

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author, the ratio ${H(z) / (1+z)}$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. Here, the weighted average value of the Hubble constant has been found using 29 observed values of the Hubble parameter $H(z)$: $\pm \sigma_{0}=(64.40 \pm 5.95) \ km \ s^{-1} \ Mpc^{-1}. $
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[589] viXra:1407.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-07 13:41:55

Quantum Physics and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 5 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[588] viXra:1407.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-06 10:37:21

The Origin of the Unidentified Emission Line Characteristic for the Dark Matter

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I proved that the unidentified emission line approximately 3.56 keV follows from the weak and electromagnetic interactions in plasma composed of fully ionized atoms of iron (the atomic nuclei of iron) and of free electrons. Temperature of the plasma is adequate for the captures of the free electrons by the ions in their n = 1 state, where n is the principal quantum number. Next, there are the transitions of the emitted X-rays/photons into electromagnetic-type or weak-type weak condensates inside protons. The energy of the weak condensates leaks from protons and again transforms into electromagnetic energy. Such two succeeding transitions via the electromagnetic-type weak condensate decrease the initial energy to 3.5566 keV - it is some analogy to the phenomenon dominating in a LASER, i.e. the wave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The obtained theoretical result (3.5566 keV) is consistent with the MOS and PN (they are the two different CCD detectors on XMM-Newton) observations. Probability of creation of the weak-type weak condensates is very low – their production decreases the initial energy to 3.5157 keV. In the Everlasting Theory, the dark matter consists of the iron-nickel lumps and its present-day temperature, generally, is the same as the CMB so it is very difficult to detect it. But there were and still are the very hot regions filled with the plasma so the line 3.56 keV is the indirect evidence that the theory of the dark matter described within the Everlasting Theory is correct.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[587] viXra:1407.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-04 22:25:34

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[586] viXra:1406.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-26 18:35:55

The Schwarzschild Radius and the Scale Principle

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This article shows that the formula for the Schwarzschild radius (black hole radius) is a special case of the abovementioned formulation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[585] viXra:1406.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-19 06:34:24

Quantum Gravity and Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[584] viXra:1406.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-19 07:06:35

Information in a Discrete Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly P.
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article analyzes the properties of information in discrete structure of space-time. In this model, each cell structure has its 1 bit of information that is stored, regardless of the state of the whole system. However, in addition to its own 1 bit each cell is stored foreign information about other cells. This way you can ensure data transmission throughout the discrete structure of space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[583] viXra:1406.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-19 04:00:18

The Gravitation As An Electric Effect

Authors: H.-J. Hochecker
Comments: 25 Pages.

The electric forces are immensely great in comparison with the gravitational forces. There have already been many attempts to explain the gravitation by the immense electric forces. Thanks to the quantization of the electrical energy I have succeeded in it here now. And this in conformity with general relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[582] viXra:1406.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-18 10:57:07

Question of Planckian "Action" in Gravitational Wave Detection Experiments

Authors: Joseph F. Messina
Comments: 6 Pages

The validity of Planck's constant in gravitational wave detection experiments is brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. It is shown that in the absence of a purely gravitational measurement of Planck's constant one cannot at present rule out the possibility that gravitational quanta may not be scaled by Planck's constant. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[581] viXra:1406.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-17 18:40:14

There is an Aether

Authors: George Rhude
Comments: 2 Pages.

Why the Michelson-Morley experiment was a bust.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[511] viXra:1408.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-04 14:50:32

The Origin of the Hubble Sequence for Distant and Local Massive Galaxies

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Due to the mergers of the binary systems of protogalaxies, there were created the elliptical protogalaxies whereas evolution of the not merging binary systems of protogalaxies leads to the spiral protogalaxies. Due to evolution of the disc-sphere structures described within the Everlasting Theory, some elliptical protogalaxies transformed into lenticular galaxies whereas some spiral protogalaxies into peculiar galaxies. Some of the peculiar galaxies a second time transformed into spiral galaxies. For distant massive galaxies we obtain following abundances: for elliptical is 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 30.4% and for peculiar 50.7%. On the other hand, for the local massive galaxies we obtain: for elliptical 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 71.0% and for peculiar 10.1%. The theoretical results obtained within the Everlasting Theory are consistent with observational facts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[510] viXra:1408.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-02 08:03:17

New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128. In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant. In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[509] viXra:1408.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-27 09:32:45

New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages. Fixed fine structure constant notation.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128. In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant. In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[508] viXra:1408.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-28 16:26:56

Letter to a Skeptic

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 3 Pages. adding postscript

Ultimately, we are able to place gravity and the conversion of space to time (as on planet earth) and vice versa (as on the sun) within the context of a much wider theory which unifies all four forces of physics beneath the symmetry-conserving mantle of Noether's theorem: "The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[507] viXra:1408.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-24 07:22:44

The Origin of the Quantum Entanglement and Acceleration of Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free Einstein-spacetime components so the superluminal entanglons frozen or escaping from our Universe can solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerated. The duality of relativity described within the Everlasting Theory leads to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe for redshift about 0.40 (i.e. about 5.2 gigayears ago). The sum of the gravitational and kinematical redshift leads to an illusion of deceleration of expansion for redshift greater than about 0.60. Due to the frozen entanglons, there was very rapid acceleration of expansion of the Universe at the beginning of the soft big bang (the Universe exited from its black-hole state) but we cannot see it because the most distant galaxies, in reality, are already 7.5 gigayears old.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[506] viXra:1407.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-27 17:21:36

How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[505] viXra:1407.0148 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-21 08:53:03

Calculation of the Planck Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[504] viXra:1407.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-02 16:02:51

Electro-Gravity Via Chronon Field

Authors: Eytan H. Suchard
Comments: 36 Pages. The paper with a full experiment description is considered for publication

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on a previous paper DOI : 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9676 however, the presented theory has been improved in its constants analysis. The author owes a quality improvement due to the professional and strict peer review of www.sciencedomain.com . The next paper will include an experiment and is meant to be published in a scientific journal. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non-geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy-momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[503] viXra:1407.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-21 17:35:00

Electro-Gravitational Technology Via

Authors: Eytan H. Suchard
Comments: 36 Pages. DOI : 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9676 is sufficient to mention as the open source "Properly Cited" policy of the peer reviewed journal

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on a previous paper DOI : 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9676 however, the presented theory has been improved and more importantly an experiment is offered. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by nongeodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energymomentum- tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[502] viXra:1407.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-19 08:42:54

Electro-gravitational Technology Via Chronon Field

Authors: Eytan H. Suchard
Comments: 34 Pages. Electro-gravity from a field that is the reason for the electric field. Leads to Sciama Inertial Induction machine and explains Dark Matter

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122 to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[501] viXra:1407.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-18 19:13:54

Electro-Gravitational Technology Via Chronon Field

Authors: Eytan H. Suchard
Comments: 34 Pages. The theory solves the Dark Matter problem and is a basis for creating Dennis Sciama Inertial Induction machines

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122 to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[500] viXra:1407.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-24 07:06:29

Electro-Gravitational Technology Via Chronon Field

Authors: Eytan Suchard
Comments: 34 Pages. (14) was updated for accuracy and a link was added in the abstract

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122 to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[499] viXra:1407.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-15 19:15:27

Lambda-VDM Model: a Testable Modification of Lambda-CDM

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 4 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[498] viXra:1407.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-22 00:42:31

Black Holes (Astronomy Versus Cosmos)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 9 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) - We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics. Reason for replacement of previous version – to add a subsection proposing 1) that time travel can account for ordinary atomic matter being the basis of ALL dark matter, 2) that the Sun is centuries younger then we think, 3) that the anthropic principle restricts the amount of time travel.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[497] viXra:1407.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-16 04:56:21

The Origin and Nature of Extreme-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. There are produced the binary systems of discs composed of the W or Z bosons. They decay to two tagged photons moving in opposite directions. Since there as well are possible the other channels of decay so the decays to two tagged photons are very rare. The discs have strictly determined mass so the photons have strictly determined energy as well. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. The smallest mass/energy of disc/photon should be detected in CERN. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[496] viXra:1407.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-09 09:31:34

Quantum Physics and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[495] viXra:1407.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-29 08:08:15

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages. This update explains the reasoning why the calculation of the gravitational constant is also a calculation of the Planck Constant

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[494] viXra:1407.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-25 05:00:32

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages. This version summarizes the steps for the calculation of the Gravitational Constant in Equation 1.1

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[493] viXra:1407.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-24 13:01:21

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages. This version includes a relationship between gravity and charge forces.

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory