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Any replacements are listed further down

[956] **viXra:1605.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 18:41:02*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

What happens deeper than quantum mechanics? Perhaps deeper quantum mechanics with the same laws. The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances with processes that are like the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom could give the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation.
An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung, Cherenkov type radiation, and an orbital type model at a deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a rough idea for the electron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[955] **viXra:1605.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 03:24:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The measured prompt spectra in the RENO experiment show an excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. This observation suggests that we should modify the current reactor neutrino model. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV. We also explain why in the average nuclear fission there is released about 4.5% of energy as the radiation of neutrinos. The calculated within SST excess of the ~ 5 MeV events should constitute about 2.6% of the total observed reactor neutrinos. This result is close to the RENO result ~ 3%.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[954] **viXra:1605.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 17:43:45*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A string theory of the elementary particle size. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[953] **viXra:1605.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 02:10:46*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time and a linkage between quantum bits of information along the lines of what was done by Yan – Gang Miao, Ying- Jie Zhao , and compare it with quantum computing and cosmology which was brought up by Ganbini, Porto and Pullin. Namely the purported number of quantum computing operations. If the two are equivalent, there is an implied relationship to determine an optimal radial distance. Afterwards, we use that in conjunction with a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to come up with some fundamental cosmological phenomenology. In particular a first ever guess as to the value of an initial inflaton.
Key words, Quantum Computing , Cosmological constant, Modified HUP, inflaton

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[952] **viXra:1605.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 03:13:30*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I correct a contribution in front, "a figure of gravity and the electromagnetic force".
This is a right figure.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[951] **viXra:1605.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 13:39:47*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The author announced the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis in the Physical Society of Japan of 1980.
To date, I study an elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
This page is the gravity in the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis and an article about the electromagnetic force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[950] **viXra:1605.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 06:17:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Starting off with the Usual Energy Density for Electro-Magnetic fields, we adopt Padmanbhan’s Gravo – Electric and Gravo Magnetic field formulation to come up with an initial frequency, at the start of the universe, and then using work done by the author, take the inverse of this frequency as a way to initiate a practical time step, which will then be related to earlier work the Author did. The miminum time step iteratively relates to a “cosmological constant” initial value, and a range of initial GW frequencies which for a scale factor which would correspond to GW of about 10^36 Hertz, red shifted to 10^4 Hertz in the modern era. If the scale factor were of the order of 10^-55, the GW waves initially would be as high as 10^42 Hertz which would be red shifted to 10^10 Hertz, for relic GW. All this assumes that the graviton rest mass remains invariant about 10^-62 grams in the aftermath of the creation of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[949] **viXra:1605.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 12:59:01*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new type of device for controlling gravity is here proposed. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy at subatomic length scale (10-20m). From the technical point of view this device is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for controlling gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[948] **viXra:1605.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 15:14:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Anderson et al. have found that experimental values for gravitational constant, G, are oscillatory with a period of P = 5.899 +- 0.062 yr and an amplitude of A = (0.001619 +- 0.000103) F, where F is a factor that is the inverse of the 11 powers of ten expressed in SI Base Units. The period P correlates with the 5.9 year periodic signal in length of day (LOD). Previously it was assumed that changes in LOD follow from fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. But the origin of the G/LOD correlation is still not explained. Next, Schlamminger et al. have found that corrections to the G data reported by Anderson et al. significantly weaken the G/LOD correlation. But in Table III there appears the fit sinusoidal function for G with period fixed at 5.93 year. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the periodic changes in LOD and the illusory changes in G and the origin of the experimental amplitude of G that is illusory as well. The calculated period of LOD and illusory period of G are both 5.941 yr whereas illusory amplitude of G is 0.00183 F. Here, the 5.941 year periodic signal in LOD we interpret as due to advection of the virtual cloud, composed of the virtual electron-positron pairs produced by Earth, caused by its interactions with the dark-matter (DM) structures that overlap with the Earth orbit. Such advection follows from the confinement and entanglement of virtual electrons and positrons and DM structures. The advection causes periodic increase in mass of Earth and measuring apparatus. The amplitude of the changes in mass of Earth follows directly from masses of nucleons (we must take into account the nuclear binding energy) and electrons. The changes in mass lead to the illusion of periodic changes in G. The SST results are consistent with experimental data. Moreover, SST shows that the real changes in G can be infinitesimal only.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[947] **viXra:1605.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-19 23:41:15*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modified uncertainty principle Heisenberg defines a minimum scale of the space length.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[946] **viXra:1605.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 10:48:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. quantum gravity, classical gravity and HUP together.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. The strain value of h~10^-25 to 10^-27 are obtained. . Such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology. We conclude with statements as to comparing our basic results with those of Yan-Gang Miao, Ying-Jie Zhao as to their generalized HUP which gives support to the suppositions given in our comparison of the character of gravitons which are initially at the start of inflation versus those of our present era, as measured by the Tokamak

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[945] **viXra:1605.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 12:28:28*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ESTM-theory and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ESTM-theory. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ESTM-theory and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ESTM-theory. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[944] **viXra:1605.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 09:45:05*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This holographic wave function gives a simple interpretation of the space-time geometry of Minkowski on the basis of the rotation group in the complex plane.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[943] **viXra:1605.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 19:50:22*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Every elementary particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts particle or wave to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects.
In this paper, we show that X-particles of dark energy can create the wave appearance of a quantum-scale particle, and argue that the particle is indeed a particle. Our theory is deterministic and local, and is based on classical mechanics. Double-slit experiment and quantum entanglement are explained by the X-particle interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[942] **viXra:1605.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-12 20:59:21*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As an origin of dark energy, an X-particle with repulsive force proportional to energy
density has been proposed [1]. In this paper, we will develop the X-particle theory
further, and postulate how dark energy could form a ubiquitous gravitational field and
inertial reference of frames, and why they might be the reason for the uncertainty
principle. Like photon, an X-particle has only relativistic mass, and acts like a particle
that has a definite position and momentum. It creates spaces between them by forces of
gravitational attraction and repulsion. However, unlike photon that travels in space, an
X-particle only needs to pass signals to its neighboring particles to form the ubiquitous
gravitational field. This model could explain how gravitational signals propagate at
the speed of light, how their values are stored in X-particles, and why the uncertainty
principle could arise from this.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[941] **viXra:1605.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 14:30:22*

**Authors:** J. P. Lestone

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 2 figures, presented at the APS April Meeting Salt Lake City 2016

Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for several QED processes including electrostatics, Compton scattering, and the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. By invoking a far-field L=0 photon-particle interaction cross section of piƛ2, with the inclusion of near-field effects, the model calculated elementary charge is q=1.602177x10^-19 C with a corresponding calculated inverse fine structure constant of alpha^-1=137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[940] **viXra:1605.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 22:52:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In a 2013 paper, Freeman Dyson presented thought experiments challenging the detectability of gravitons via LIGO interferometry and via the Gertsheshtein effect. Dyson assumed a distance of several light years would be required for detection of the interaction between gravitational waves (GWs) and tenuous B fields and photons, making gravitons experimentally undectable. In this paper, we present contrary theoretical evidence for detectability of near-field interaction of gravitons, photons, and a magnetic field. Our first example of 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working is due to a GW generated by a tokamak with a interaction of GW, B field, and photons, in a volume on the order of a few cubic meters. The 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working leads to gravitons interacting with a strong uniform magnetic field, resulting in photons which are detected by appropriate instrumentation. In addition, we will also comment upon another issue, that of relic GW, as may be generated by a new uncertainty principle as elucidated by the author. And how that effects relic considerations as to inflaton physics. I.e. the frequency range of the early universe GW (gravitons?) and those of gravitons (GW) produced by the Tokamak may be one and the same i.e. very pronounced overlap. And we explain why. Key words: Gertenshtein effect, LIGO, Octonionic, Pre Octonionic, Modified HUP( Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[939] **viXra:1605.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 04:06:15*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we study the nature of space - time based on the geometry of the holographic surface .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[938] **viXra:1605.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 05:01:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[937] **viXra:1605.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-06 20:10:49*

**Authors:** Adel Sadeq

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The simulation programs links are in color at the end of each section.

In This essay I shall derive the laws of nature from a simple mathematical system from a postulate that reality is indeed a mathematical structure. The system can be simulated by a computer program to generate many results that agree with Quantum mechanics. Also I will show that the system can be put in regular more familiar mathematical formalism. The postulate lead to assume particles are made of random lines were one end originates in a small region representing the particle and it extends to all other points in space and some ending on other particles. The points are really nothing but random numbers, hence reality is nothing but some relation between random numbers. Moreover, the lines are responsible for the interaction by a process of crossing or not crossing or meeting.The start point and the end point of these lines define space and the length of the line is interpreted as energy, time is just a change of state. The system unifies space, time, matter, energy and interaction, all in one coherent picture, so particles and the laws of nature governing them appear naturally. The simulations generate some basic Quantum Mechanics results and the 1/r law as in quantum field Theory. There are many other results such as the hydrogen 1s level where the universal constants like c, h, e and their relation that lead to Fine Structure constant automatically fall out of the simulation. Two such simulations are carried out; one is Bohr like model and the other Schrodinger like equations solution and show the equivalency. Also, the mass of the electron appear naturally using a simulation which is an extension of the Bohr model which in turn leads to the predicting the size of the proton. The system automatically displays the non-local behavior and explains the EPR in simple terms and shows the origin of spin. Some interesting formulas connecting proton to electron mass ratio, FSC and electron g-factor are produced. While it is shown that coulomb potential is produced by line crossing, Gravity appears when lines meet at a region of Planck's length(gravity needs more investigation).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[936] **viXra:1605.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 02:36:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation due to the time of recombination. The temperature variations on very large angular scales observed by WMAP and Planck are both larger than expected (there appears the CMB axis of evil) and, contrary to smaller-scale fluctuations, aligned with each other. The initial inflation in the big-bang model suggests that both deviations cannot be realized by Nature. The CMB axis of evil, if it exists, leads to the distinguished frame of reference in the Universe and is a sign of new cosmological phenomena. There are many ideas to explain the deviations in CMB. If we neglect the trivial explanation that the applied statistics is incomplete then there are two important ideas: that CMB is a local variation of an infinite universe or some characteristic features of finite/”small” universe. It was shown in 2003 (A. de Oliveira-Costa, M. Tegmark, M. Zaldarriaga, A. Hamilton) that “the simplest small universe model where the universe has toroidal topology with one small dimension of order half the horizon scale, in the direction towards Virgo, could explain three independent anomalies involving the quadrupole and octopole but the applied S-statistic and the circle test on the WMAP data show that we should rule out this model”. Here we present a solution that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Due to the phase transitions of inflation field (i.e. of the Higgs field), the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) was separated in time from the inflation (the big bang). The dark matter had initially toroidal topology with internal helicity and inside such 3-dimensional torus with central condensate there were two very thin (in cosmic scale) baryonic loops (the loops had left-handed internal helicity and antiparallel unitary spins). It leads to the CMB axis of evil. We solved a few other cosmological problems as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[935] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 20:26:21*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[934] **viXra:1604.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 18:56:09*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This is a long summary of the full BIDUM version 1.1

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[933] **viXra:1604.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 23:04:24*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I propose a statistical mechanical model for black holes with the partition function sum taken over punctures of a spin network on a two-surface as given by Loop Quantum Gravity. Searching a unified quantum structure for spacetime and matter, I apply this scenario to matter particles using a composite model for quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[932] **viXra:1604.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 08:55:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Now , consider the relationship between the space-time geometry and its statistical description.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[931] **viXra:1604.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 16:19:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. It will be given a home in the next 2 weeks, ie, a journal

We use the work of de Vega, Sanchez, and Comes (1997), to approximate the ‘particle density’ of a ‘graviton gas’ This ‘particle density’ derivation is compared with Dolgov’s (1997) expression of the Vacuum energy in terms of a phase transition. The idea is to have a quartic potential , and then to utilize the Bogomol’nyi inequality to refine what the phase transition states. We utilize Ng, Infinite quantum information procedures to link our work with initial entropy and other issues and close with a variation in the HUP: in the start of the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[930] **viXra:1604.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 02:56:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to Physical Review D

Modifications of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra $ [ { \bf x}^i, {\bf p}^j ] = i \hbar g^{ij} ( {\bf p } ) $ are proposed where the classical limit $g_{ij} ( p ) $ corresponds to a metric in (curved) momentum spaces. In the simplest scenario, the $ 2D$ de Sitter metric of constant curvature in momentum space furnishes
a hierarchy of modified uncertainty relations leading to a minimum value for the position uncertainty $ \Delta x $. The first uncertainty relation of this hierarchy has the same functional form as the $stringy$ modified uncertainty relation with a Planck scale minimum value for $ \Delta x = L_P $ at $ \Delta p = p_{Planck} $.
We proceed with a discussion of the most general curved phase space scenario (cotangent bundle of spacetime) and provide the noncommuting phase space coordinates algebra in terms of the symmetric $ g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } $ and nonsymmetric $ g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $ metric components of a Hermitian complex metric
$ g_{ \mu \nu} = g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } + i g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $, such $ g_{ \mu \nu} = (g_{ \nu \mu})^*$. Yang's noncommuting phase-space coordinates algebra, combined with the Schrodinger-Robertson inequalities involving angular momentum eigenstates, reveals how a quantized area operator in units of $ L_P^2$ emerges like it occurs in Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). Some final comments are made about Fedosov deformation quantization, Noncommutative and Nonassociative gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[929] **viXra:1604.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-16 02:11:15*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[928] **viXra:1604.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 10:48:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons and structure of bare electrons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.841 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[927] **viXra:1604.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 07:08:08*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article presents a methodology to express the Physical Reality of our cosmos, its content and its evolution, as the outcome of a deductive axiomatic process starting from nihil and taking into consideration a limited set of presuppositions, a single creation event and 6 simple base laws.
The recurrent application of these laws on the subsequent states of the cosmos must lead to a version with a content and a behavior which is, at least at detailed level and in qualitative terms, reconcilable with any observation or confirmed law of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[926] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 16:55:20*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I will show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is exactly the same mathematically as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole, that is to say at the Planck scale. There are, therefore, good reasons to expect that they are ultimately the same force. Still, the gravitational force and the electrostatic force clearly look different when we move away from the density of a Planck mass. To claim that static electricity is not ruled by the same fundamental force as gravity could be similar to claiming that kinetic energy not is related to pure energy simply because a moving mass appears to be so different from moving photons (even mathematically).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[925] **viXra:1604.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 08:52:31*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we are rewriting the gravitational coupling constant in a slightly different form than has been shown before (without changing its value). This makes it simpler to understand what is meant and what is not meant by a “dimensionless gravitational coupling constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[924] **viXra:1604.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 16:03:51*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 10 references

Non-linear Klein-Gordon-Yukawa equations, jointly with time-energy uncertainty relations, are used as a means to estimate the extinction time of a black hole. In a first step we produce the expression originally obtained by Hawking. In a second step we found a massive boson mediating the black hole decay. This boson can also be associated to the size of a vanishingly interacting string. Finally a modification is done in the treatment performed in the first step, going in the direction of Page’s results for the black hole decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[923] **viXra:1604.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 07:29:51*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

As is well known, the standard Kolmogorov deﬁnition of probability may not be adequate for describing the physical world. In this work, we weaken the Kolmogorovian axioms and depart slightly from its measure theoretical context enabling one to describe systems with an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. The resulting framework is more broad and physical than Kolmogorov’s and constitutes the basis for the understanding of Quantum Theory as envisioned by this author.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[922] **viXra:1604.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 16:17:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We use a quantum tunnelling equation as given by V. Balck in the proceedings “Relativity and Gravitation, 100 years after Einstein in Prague” to delineate a relationship between spatial dimensions, and energy. Afterwards, we then scale the energy as related to formation of primordial black holes, in the onset of the big bang, and how they decay, to evaluate graviton production, and by extension graviton ‘particle’ induced entropy. The first section affirms that in principle we may have far fewer dimensions than was deemed necessary in string theory. In doing so, we compare the results with earlier work done where we used an argument by Haggard and Rovelli as far as the introduction of quantum effects, in the early universe. Note that Haggard and Rovelli delineated an outer radius as to the range of quantum effects, which extends past the Schwartzshield radius This is defined as 7/3 times the mass of the initial cosmological system. We also have a range of perturbative effects as delineated by Turok’s article which gives a range of values

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[921] **viXra:1604.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 15:57:25*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 52 Pages. More on BIDUM 1.1 here: https://univermed-cdgm.academia.edu/AndreiLucianDragoi

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system [3,4]; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [5]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [6,7]. In this BIDUM version 1.1[5,6,7][8]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE
(Theory of Everything), together with the concept of biological information (BI) in a unified concept of biophysical information (BPI) [9].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[920] **viXra:1604.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 18:35:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[919] **viXra:1604.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:12:45*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 55 equations, 6 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with gravity-like, non-polynomial interactions characterized by a dimensional coupling constant. This treatment would give a clear perspective regarding the viability of applying the divergence-free approach to quantum gravity. Issues regarding the masslessness of the effective graviton, while the virtual counterpart is massive, as well as, regarding the invariance of the basic Lagrangian, are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[918] **viXra:1604.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 12:14:19*

**Authors:** Jonathan Crabb

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We propose a new theory of subatomic particles that replaces the existing theory of "quarks" and "string theory". Instead, we consider a new approach: what if the atoms were actually made of light?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[917] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 17:26:10*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new concept of the vacuum describes the operation of the EM drive, the first warp drive that has been demonstrated by NASA and other researchers to produce thrust based on microwaves resonating in a tapered cavity. A new design for improving thrust in the cavity using stimulated emission of microwaves, such as in a MASER, is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[916] **viXra:1603.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 08:32:53*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Out of interest, I took up the book of Rovelli and Vidotto to see how far covariant Loop Quantum gravity had evolved over the years and how its foundations are framed. I hoped that the authors had ﬁlled in the necessary technical details which was somehow the promise of the book, that it was an easy accesible, thorough introduction to the subject. This report is my impression of the ﬁrst 180 out of 250 pages, by then I encountered several diﬃculties and issues with the theory which require further explanation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[857] **viXra:1605.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-22 08:03:50*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Changed Title

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[856] **viXra:1605.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:10:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: an important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [3]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [4,5]. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s Bio-IDUM (BIDUM) version 1.1 [6]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[855] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 12:35:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Updated Paper

The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances could give the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[854] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-12 22:23:29*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added Bremsstrahlung Lorentz factor electron adjustment

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[853] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 10:58:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Corrected typos, and missing information, corrected some format

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[852] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-05 15:56:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. corrected typos in abstract

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[851] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-04 20:43:07*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Added sections

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[850] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-28 17:49:16*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added equations 5.3 and 5.4

When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[849] **viXra:1604.0323 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:13:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[848] **viXra:1604.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-18 01:29:58*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French.

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[847] **viXra:1604.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 09:44:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons, structure of bare electrons and electroweak theory described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.843 +- 0.002 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[846] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 05:49:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a joint probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now on there is GravityElectroMagnetism!

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[845] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-25 13:21:35*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a joint probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now on there is GravityElectroMagnetism!

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[844] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-20 18:21:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb’s electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now there is GravityElectroMagnetism, at least for the three enlightened ones still walking this earth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[843] **viXra:1604.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-21 04:45:28*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we are rewriting the gravitational coupling constant in a slightly different form than has been shown before (without changing its value). This makes it simpler to understand what is meant and what is not meant by a “dimensionless gravitational coupling constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[842] **viXra:1604.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:18:16*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system [3,4]; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [5]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [6,7]. In this BIDUM version 1.1[5,6,7][8]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE (Theory of Everything), together with the concept of biological information (BI) in a unified concept of biophysical information (BPI) [9].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[841] **viXra:1604.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-15 15:41:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected Typos

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from –pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[840] **viXra:1604.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-10 17:20:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[839] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-29 16:29:48*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Wave Structure of Matter is used to describe the operation of the EM drive, with the thrust differential shown to be related to the square of the group velocity in the cavity, which is in turn found to be proportional to the inverse of the cosine of the taper angle of the cone-shaped cavity. Improvements in thrust are found by adding a gain medium to the cavity that will increase the number of photons through stimulated emissions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[838] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-24 18:46:46*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new concept of the vacuum describes the operation of the EM drive, the first warp drive that has been demonstrated by NASA and other researchers to produce thrust based on microwaves resonating in a tapered cavity. A new design for improving thrust in the cavity using stimulated emission of microwaves, such as in a MASER, is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory