**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(6) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(7) - 1111(10) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(9) - 1202(11) - 1203(12) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(10) - 1211(8) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(14) - 1305(12) - 1306(8) - 1307(10) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(6) - 1311(16) - 1312(18)

2014 - 1401(16) - 1402(15) - 1403(15) - 1404(9) - 1405(15) - 1406(13) - 1407(18) - 1408(13) - 1409(18)

Any replacements are listed further down

[634] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-28 10:40:01*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[633] **viXra:1409.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-27 09:13:21*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitali

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
holographic quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of the principle of
the Heisenberg uncertainty over the measurement information about the state of the quantum object.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[632] **viXra:1409.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:28:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The hierarchy of phases with effective value of Planck constant coming as an integer multiple of the ordinary Planck constant and interpreted as dark matter is crucial in the TGD inspired model of living matter. The challenge is to identify physical mechanisms forcing the increase of effective Planck constant h_{eff} (whether to call it effective or not is to some extent matter of taste). The work with certain potential applications of TGD led to a discovery of a new mechanism possibly achieving this. The method would be simple: apply constant torque to a rotating system. I will leave it for the reader to rediscover how this can be achieved. The importance of the result is that it provides strong mathematical motivations for zero energy ontology (ZEO), causal diamonds (CDs), and hierarchy of (effective) Planck constants . Quite generally, the results apply to systems with external energy feed inducing generalized force acting in some compact degrees of freedom. Living matter represents basic example of this kind of system. Amazingly, ATP synthase enzyme contains generator with a rotating shaft: a possible TGD based interpretation is that the associated torque forces the generation of large h_{eff} phases.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[631] **viXra:1409.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:31:01*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A generalization of twistor Grassmannian approach defines a very promising vision about the construction of generalized Feynman diagrams. Since particles are replaced with 3-D surfaces and since string like objects emerge naturally in TGD framework, one expects that scattering amplitudes define a generalization of twistor Grassmannian amplitudes with a generalized Yangian symmetry. The realization of this approach has been however plagued by long-standing problems. SUSY in some form seems to be strongly supported by theoretical elegance and TGD indeed suggests a good candidate for a broken SUSY realized in terms of covariantly constant right-handed neutrino and not requiring Majorana spinors. Separate conservation of baryon and lepton number imply that super-generators carry quark or lepton number. This has been the main obstacle in attempts to construct stringly amplitudes. In this article it is found that this obstacles can be overcome and that stringy approach is forced both by the TGD view about physical particles and by the cancellation of UV and IR divergences. Also the planarity restriction emerges automatically in stringy approach. Absolutely essential ingredient is that fundamental fermions can be regarded as massless on-shell fermions having non-physical helicity with propagator replaced with its inverse: this representation follows by perfoming the integration over the virtual four-momentum squared using residue calculus.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[630] **viXra:1409.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:33:26*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists M. Tajmar and C. J. Matos and their collaborators working in ESA (European Satellite Agency) have made an amazing claim of having detected strong gravimagnetism with gravimagnetic field having a magnitude which is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by General Relativity.

Tajmar et al have proposed the gravimagnetic effect as an explanation of an anomaly related to the superconductors. The measured value of the mass of the Cooper pair is slightly larger than the sum of masses whereas theory predicts that it should be smaller. The explanation would be that actual Thomson field is larger than it should be because of gravimagnetic contribution to quantization rule used to deduce the value of Thomson field. The required value of gravimagnetic Thomson field is however 28 orders of magnitude larger than General Relativity suggests. TGD inspired proposal is based on the notion of gravitational Planck constant assignable to the flux tubes connecting to massive objects. It turns out that the TGD estimate for the Thomson field has correct order of magnitude. The identification h_{eff} = h_{gr} at particle physics and atomic length scales emerges naturally.

A vision about the fundamental role of quantum gravitation in living matter emerges. The earlier hypothesis that dark EEG photons decay to biophotons with energies in visible and ultraviolet range receives strong quantitative support. Also a mechanism for how magnetic bodies couple bio-chemistry emerges. The vision conforms with Penrose's intuitions about the role of quantum gravity in biology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[629] **viXra:1409.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:35:12*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The earlier attempts to understand the relationship between TGD and GRT have been in terms of solutions of Einstein's equations imbeddable to M^{4} ×CP_{2} instead of introducing GRT space-time as a fictive notion naturally emerging from TGD as asimplified concept replacing many-sheeted space-time. This resolves also the worries related to Equivalence Principle. TGD can be seen as a "microscopic" theory behind TGD and the understanding of the microscopic
elements becomes the main focus of theoretical and hopefully also experimental work some day.

The understanding of Kähler Dirac action has been second long term project. How can one guarantee that em charge is well-defined for the spinor modes when classical W fields are present? How to avoid large parity breaking effects due to classical Z^{0} fields? How to avoid the problems due to the fact that color rotations induce vielbein rotation of weak fields? The common answer to these questions is restriction of the modes of induced spinor field to 2-D string world sheets (and possibly also partonic 2-surfaces) such that the induced weak fields vanish. This makes string picture a part of TGD.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[628] **viXra:1409.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:37:00*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The construction of Kähler geometry of WCW ("world of classical worlds") is fundamental to TGD program. I ended up with the idea about physics as WCW geometry around 1985 and made a breakthrough around 1990, when I realized that Kähler function for WCW could correspond to Kähler action for its preferred extremals defining the analogs of Bohr orbits so that classical theory with Bohr rules would become an exact part of quantum theory and path integral would be replaced with genuine integral over WCW. The motivating construction was that for loop spaces leading to a unique Kähler geometry. The geometry for the space of 3-D objects is even more complex than that for loops and the vision still is that the geometry of WCW is unique from the mere existence of Riemann connection.

This article represents the updated version of the construction providing a solution to the problems of the previous construction. The basic formulas remain as such but the expressions for WCW super-Hamiltonians defining WCW Hamiltonians (and matrix elements of WCW metric) as their anticommutator are replaced with those following from the dynamics of the modified Dirac action.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[627] **viXra:1409.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:58:39*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

An updated view about M^{8}-H duality is discussed. M^{8}-H duality allows to deduce M^{4}× CP_{2} via number theoretical compactification. One important correction is that octonionic spinor structure makes sense only for M^{8} whereas for M^{4}× CP_{2} complefixied quaternions characterized the spinor structure.

Octonions, quaternions, quaternionic space-time surfaces, octonionic spinors and twistors and twistor spaces are highly relevant for quantum TGD. In the following some general observations distilled during years are summarized.

There is a beautiful pattern present suggesting that H=M^{4}× CP_{2} is completely unique on number theoretical grounds. Consider only the following facts. M^{4} and CP_{2} are the unique 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure. Octonionic projective space OP_{2} appears as octonionic twistor space (there are no higher-dimensional octonionic projective spaces). Octotwistors generalise the twistorial construction from M^{4}; to M^{8} and octonionic gamma matrices make sense also for H with quaternionicity condition reducing OP_{2} to to 12-D G_{2}/U(1)× U(1) having same
dimension as the the twistor space CP_{3}× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) of H assignable to complexified quaternionic representation of gamma matrices.

A further fascinating structure related to octo-twistors is the non-associated analog of Lie group defined by automorphisms by octonionic imaginary units: this group is topologically six-sphere. Also the analogy of quaternionicity of preferred extremals in TGD with the Majorana condition central in super string models is very thought provoking. All this suggests that associativity indeed could define basic dynamical principle of TGD.

Number theoretical vision about quantum TGD involves both p-adic number fields and classical number fields and the challenge is to unify these approaches. The challenge is non-trivial since the p-adic variants of quaternions and octonions are not number fields without additional conditions. The key idea is that TGD reduces to the representations of Galois group of algebraic numbers realized in the spaces of octonionic and quaternionic adeles generalizing the ordinary adeles as Cartesian
products of all number fields: this picture relates closely to Langlands program. Associativity would force sub-algebras of the octonionic adeles defining 4-D surfaces in the space of octonionic adeles so that 4-D space-time would emerge naturally. M^{8}-H correspondence in turn would map the space-time surface in M^{8} to M^{4}× CP_{2}.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[626] **viXra:1409.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:00:12*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

This piece of text was written as an attempt to provide a popular summary about TGD. This is of course mission impossible since TGD is something at the top of centuries of evolution which has led from Newton to standard model. This means that there is a background of highly refined conceptual thinking about Universe so that even the best computer graphics and animations fail to help. One can still try to create some inspiring impressions at least. This chapter approaches the challenge by answering the most frequently asked questions. Why TGD? How TGD could help to solve the problems of recent day theoretical physics? What are the basic princples of TGD? What are the basic guidelines in the construction of TGD?

These are examples of this kind of questions which I try to answer in using the only language that I can talk. This language is a dialect of the language used by elementary particle physicists, quantum field theorists, and other people applying modern physics. At the level of practice involves technically heavy mathematics but since it relies on very beautiful and simple basic concepts, one can do with a minimum of formulas, and reader can always to to Wikipedia if it seems that more
details are needed. I hope that reader could catch the basic principles and concepts: technical details are not important. And I almost forgot: problems! TGD itself and almost every new idea in the development of TGD has been inspired by a problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[625] **viXra:1409.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:01:53*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

One manner to see TGD is as a solution of the energy problem of General Relativity in terms of sub-manifold gravity. The translations act now as translations of 8-D imbedding space M^{4}×CP_{2} rather than in space-time itself and four-momentum can be identified as Noether charge. The detailed realization of this vision however involves several conceptual delicacies. What does Equivalence Principle mean in this framework: equivalence of gravitational and inertial momenta or just Einstein's equations or their generalization? What is the precise definition of inertial and gravitational four-momenta? What does quantum classical correspondence mean and could Equivalence Principle reduce to it? p-Adic mass calculations and the notion of generalised conformal invariance provide strong constraints on the attempts to answer these questions. This article provides the most recent view about the most plausible looking answer to these questions. Twistor Grassmann approach relies on the Yangian variant of 4-D conformal symmetry generalizing in TGD framework to Yangian variants of huge conformal symmetry algebras due to the effective 2-dimensionality of light-like 3-surfaces. This suggest also a generalization of four-momentum bringing in multilocal contributions analogous to interaction energy and also this is discussed in some detail.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[624] **viXra:1409.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:20:39*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 592 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.

- p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2
^{k}, k integer, in particular prime, define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. - A much deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2
^{k}- and 2-fractality. - Certain anomalous empirical findings inspire in TGD framework the hypothesis about the existence of entire hierarchy of phases of matter identifiable as dark matter. The levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.

- The first part of the book is devoted to the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics.
- In second part is devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.

[623] **viXra:1409.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:23:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 729 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants.

- Configuration space spinors indeed define a canonical example about hyper-finite factor of type II
_{1}. The work with TGD inspired model for quantum computation led to the realization that von Neumann algebras, in particular hyper-finite factors of type II_{1}could provide the mathematics needed to develop a more explicit view about the construction of M-matrix. This has turned out to be the case to the extent that a general master formula for M-matrix with interactions described as a deformation of ordinary tensor product to Connes tensor products emerges. - The idea about hierarchy of Planck constants emerged from anomalies of biology and the strange finding that planetary orbits could be regarded as Bohr orbits but with a gigantic value of Planck constant. This lead to the vision that dark matter corresponds to ordinary particles but with non-standard value of Planck constant and to a generalization of the 8-D imbedding space to a book like structure with pages partially characterized by the value of Planck constant. Using the intuition provided by the inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II
_{1}one ends up to a prediction for the spectrum of Planck constants associated with> M^{4}; and CP_{2}degrees of freedom. This inspires the proposal that dark matter could be in quantum Hall like phase localized at light-like 3-surfaces with macroscopic size and behaving in many respects like black hole horizons.

**Comments:** 729 pages

[622] **viXra:1409.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 02:06:29*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Not reviewed in: Classical and Quantum Gravity, Foundations of Physics, Annalen der Physik

I take a very exciting and revival excurse on a hypothesis that has risen in the midst of General Relativity and Quantum field description (in the form of the electromagnetic wave). I do not present new hypotheses but recall known facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[621] **viXra:1409.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 08:02:48*

**Authors:** Moses Turkle Bility

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The main purpose of this article is to elucidate a mechanical interpretation of the gravitation phenomenon. Additionally, this article unifies Newtonian and general relativity theoretical frameworks using the wave equation, which is the mathematical framework of quantum physics. Here I propose a novel theory, “Equilibrium theory” which asserts that the universe is an infinitesimally large and continuous differential energy density structure - a compressible fluid, as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame. Equilibrium theory asserts that the universe is always at equilibrium and is composed of demarcated “compressed fluid” (i.e. matter – planets, objects) and demarcated “stretched fluid” (i.e. photon) of approximately uniform energy density along with demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density (i.e. space); thus it is accurately represented using the wave equation, which describes the nature and dynamics of non-discrete and continuous structures.
Dynamics in weak and strong gravitational field results from the energy exchange within the “compressible fluid”, resulting in the reconfiguration of the differential energy density within the “compressible fluid”, and thus termed motion. Furthermore, dynamics in strong gravitational field (gravitational dynamics) is due to the existence of demarcated surrounding space of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; this differential energy density is induced by the existence of a relatively high energy density structure (i.e matter – planet). Dynamics in weak gravitational field (dynamics in inertial reference frame) is also due to the existence of demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; thus it is equivalent to the gravitation phenomenon, albeit transient due to rapid dissipation during perturbations. Equilibrium theory provides a novel framework for elucidating the nature and dynamics of the universe using a fluid mechanical model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[620] **viXra:1409.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-23 03:25:37*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We consider the relations of the energy density and its entropic density with the temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and holographic dark energy (HDE). On the basis of literature [4], we obtain the energy density of the scalar field being proportional to the square of the Hawking-Unruh temperature near the event horizon, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Hawking-Unruh one. Basing on [6], we find the equation of gravitational energy density inside SBH; derive that the gravitational energy density is proportional to the square of the effective temperature far from the event horizon in SBH interior, whether the gravitational fields of SBH are Coulomb-like or wave-like; and their entropic density is directly proportional to the effective temperature. Basing on [7, 8, 9], we gain the HDE density being proportional to square of the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Gibbons-Hawking one. These equations are similar and have relations with each other. We suggest that these relations are interesting and significant for SBH and HDE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[619] **viXra:1409.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 02:55:23*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Some novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) were explored recently. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations allowed for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, but breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. In this work we analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. A generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra, involving polyvector-valued coordinates and momenta operators, furnishes a realization of an extended Poincare algebra in $C$-spaces. In addition to the Planck constant $\hbar$, one finds that the commutator of the Clifford scalar components of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra requires the introduction of a $dimensionless$ parameter which is expressed in terms of the ratio of two length scales : the Planck and Hubble scales. We finalize by discussing the concept of ``photons", null intervals, effective temporal variables and the addition/subtraction laws of generalized velocities in $C$-space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[618] **viXra:1409.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 07:20:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, we unify the weak and strong interactions inside protons with the strong gravitational interactions in active galactic nuclei i.e. we unify particle physics with cosmology. Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I showed that outside the strong fields the gluons behave as photons. Due to the leaking internal structure of protons and the changing distances between the entangled Einstein-spacetime components, there appear the virtual structures with different sizes which mimic the internal structure of protons and the characteristic motions of the entangled part of the Einstein spacetime inside it. The characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime cause that there appear characteristic distribution and advection of the mass inside the nuclei of active galaxies. The core of proton consists of the condensate composed of the confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is the black hole with respect of the weak interactions) surrounded by the torus composed of the carriers of gluons. There as well appear loops composed of entangled Einstein-spacetime components. On the other hand, a nucleus of active galaxy consists of gravitational black hole surrounded by accretion disc and much bigger opaque torus of neutral gas and dust. Here, due to the characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime, the advection is the transport mechanism of the mass of a nucleus of active galaxy by the moving entangled part of the Einstein spacetime. There as well appear the two relativistic jets which direction overlaps with the axis of the opaque torus. For their creation are responsible the two baryonic-plasma loops with parallel spins and opposite internal helicities. They appear on the Schwarzschild surface of the gravitational black hole. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[617] **viXra:1409.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 01:39:39*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The Italian scientist Galileo described his experiments mathematically some 400 years ago. Ever since, scientists all over the world seem to distrust articles that don't include mathematics, comparing them to mistakes made by the members of the ancient Greek philosophers who didn't use maths (unless, of course, those articles are the result of Einstein's "thought experiments"). Many famous scientists have said that if you really understand something, you can explain it in plain English or to a young person with no maths training. So, as I normally do, I'll shy away from equations and scientific language (the great Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein used both things, so I think I must use them to some degree if I want to understand the universe) and try to rely on pure logic. Another great scientist of 100 years ago, Niels Bohr, was said to be able to do his work without relying on maths, so perhaps equations are over-rated and are actually the servants of intuitive insights. The early-20th-century's Jules Henri Poincare was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times, but also one of the greatest believers in intuition.
This article feels more like doing a 40-year-long jigsaw puzzle than something that required me to be an author. Sure, it took a long time and required a lot of thinking. There were times when the going felt frustrating, or tiring, or like smooth sailing. But I always had the feeling, similar to that of Paul McCartney when he wrote the song “Yesterday” for the Beatles or of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writing his classical music in the 18th century, that all the pieces of the puzzle already exist and I just had to put them together. Sometimes, I even felt as though pieces were being handed to me in the right order … at the right time. The article was written after reading “How the Universe Will End” by Francis Reddy (a senior science writer at NASA) in Astronomy magazine – Sep. 2014, and my article is restricted to the 6 topics which came to mind while reading it. The 6 steps are 1) Space Cannot Expand Faster Than Light, 2) Cosmic Inflation Replaced, 3) Dark Energy and the Big Rip, 4) What Is the Relation Between Gravitation and Black Holes?, 5) What Is Dark Matter?, and 6) The Universe Will Not End.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[616] **viXra:1408.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 08:10:02*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
holographic models of quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of wave
functions via the Feynman integral for the transmission of information about the quantum object.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[615] **viXra:1408.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 20:44:02*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Email: newphysics@safe-mail.net

This is a conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of Spacetime, Strings and Branes. Taking this conception through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology. A form of inflation and positive cosmological constant naturally flows from this model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[614] **viXra:1408.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 17:22:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The hierarchy problem follows from the very big energetic gap between the Planck scale and the masses of the most massive known particles. This problem is solved within the scale-symmetric Everlasting Theory. This theory is based on the four succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs field composed of the superluminal pieces of space (due to the size of our Cosmos, the next phase transitions are impossible). There appear the four very different scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the electron and muon neutrinos are the stable particles. The observed oscillations follow from the decays or creations of the unstable tau “neutrinos” and from the exchanges of the free neutrinos for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[613] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 11:31:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine
structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large
Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent
numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very
close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary
particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent
and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of
Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used
to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the
Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the
Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and
Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the
number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is
proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called
Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck
Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron
structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine
structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[612] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 14:11:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We are able to place gravity and the conversion of space to time (as on planet Earth) and vice versa (as on our Sun) within the context of a much wider theory which unifies all four forces of physics beneath the symmetry-conserving mantle of Noether's Theorem: "The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[611] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 07:12:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free E-spacetime components so superluminal entanglons escaping from our Universe could solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[610] **viXra:1408.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 11:20:05*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Planck CMB data lead to conclusion that there should be about two times more galaxy clusters than we observe. Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I show that the discrepancy follows from the collisions/mergers of protogalaxy clusters at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. The time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.4 gigayears but they are 7.5 gigayears old so we cannot see the collisions of protogalaxy clusters. It is a wrong assumption that creation of galaxies can last a few hundred years only. For 4 times more spiral galaxies than elliptical galaxies, we obtain that there should be observed 2.4 times less galaxy clusters than it follows from the Planck CMB data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[609] **viXra:1408.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:36:12*

**Authors:** Robert E S Watson

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Kaluza’s 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach
is presented that includes torsion, unifying gravity and electromagnetism
in a Kaluza-Cartan theory. Emphasis is placed on admitting important
electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza’s original theory, and on a
Lorentz force law. This is investigated via a non-Maxwellian kinetic def-
inition of charge related to Maxwellian charge and 5D momentum. Two
connections are used. General covariance and global properties are inves-
tigated via a reduced non-maximal atlas. Conserved super-energy is used
in place of the energy conditions for 5D causality. Explanatory relation-
ships between matter, charge and spin are present.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[608] **viXra:1408.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 03:44:27*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Formulae for the electron's charge, electron's mass, fine structure constant, proton's radius, proton's mass, gravitational coupling constant and proton-to-electron mass ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[607] **viXra:1408.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 10:17:37*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A possible basic perspective common to four fundamental forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, and plus dark energy was found. That is different from gauge theory. This text shows that a theory for everything is realized by new perspective named energy body. The concept of energy body theory is that the whole universe including fundamental particles is made of the only one raw material. In other words, space and elementary particles are both energy body. And then energy body vibrates by the medium of energy cell bodies. And all forces work with the difference of energy level between energy body systems. Energy body is divided into two systems that are static energy body of space and kinetic energy bodies of elementary particles. As a result, the insight showed that gravity and dark energy are simultaneously generated by static energy body's (space) collapse and change into fundamental particles, in the process of fundamental particles' concentration. At the time, the two kinds of different energy level are caused in the space. One is in the direction of a star's center. That is gravity which is generated by compression of energy body (space). The other is in the direction of the verge of the universe. That is dark energy which is generated by the diffusion of energy body (space). Also, it was found out that there is a large scale of convection of space and fundamental particles. Therefore the universe inflation is not caused by big ban.
The other three forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction are explained by the shape of kinetic energy bodies (fundamental particles). Kinetic energy bodies have a character of waves that rotates on their own axes and a spherical shape in the central part. The closer the wave is to the axis, the higher the energy state, the shorter the wavelength, conversely, the father it moves away, the energy level decreases. Because of that, individual kinetic energy body behaves independently each other. Also, the shape beautifully explains interference fringes of electron, electron transition, and occurrence of magnetic field. Interaction of kinetic energy bodies is decided by the direction of the reciprocal waves. When they are the same at the place where two systems meet, it works as attractive force, when they are the opposite, repulsive force. Because, there is a rise of energy level or a fall. Outside of an atomic nucleus, weak wave of kinetic energy body works as electromagnetic force. When fundamental particles move, the tilt of it plays important roles. Inside of an atomic nucleus, strong wave of kinetic energy body works as nucleus force,
At the time, small kinetic energy bodies mediate.
More, there are some cases of synthesis or separation of kinetic energy bodies, because they are the waves of same material. Energy is the vibration of energy body. By this concept, the simplest principle is gotten that all forces work by the energy level difference of each energy body system at the place where each system meets.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[606] **viXra:1408.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 23:07:50*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, and is an entirely new interpretation of the wave function, which is fully equivalent probabilistic formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[605] **viXra:1408.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 04:59:49*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Simple formulae showing how the electron's mass is linked to the Golden ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[604] **viXra:1407.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 04:39:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the UV-photon underproduction crisis. The observational facts lead to conclusion that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate for the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest should be larger than the predicted value. The Everlasting Theory shows that it is directly associated with evolution of the dark matter at the beginning of expansion of the Universe and with the ratio of the present-day radius of the Universe and its initial radius.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[603] **viXra:1407.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-29 15:46:10*

**Authors:** Harry Theunissen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Given a simple set of assumptions, this paper gives an elegant explanation how ElectroMagnetism, the Stong nuclear force, the Weak nuclear force, Gravity, Inertia, matter and Time all could “emerge” from a single “fundamental” force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[602] **viXra:1407.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-28 04:51:35*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal.

The present reading is part of our on-going attempt at the foremost endeavour of physics since man began to comprehend the heavens and the earth. We present a much more improved unified field theory of all the Forces of Nature i.e. the gravitational, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces. The proposed theory is a radical improvement of Professor Herman Weyl's supposed failed attempt at a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. As is the case with Professor Weyl's theory, unit vectors in the resulting/proposed theory vary from one point to the next, albeit, in a manner such that they are compelled to yield tensorial affinities. In a separate reading, the Dirac equation is shown to emerge as part of the description of the these variable unit vectors. The nuclear force fields -- i.e., electromagnetic, weak and the strong -- together with the gravitational force field are seen to be described by a four vector field, which forms part of the body of the variable unit vectors and hence the metric of spacetime. The resulting theory very strongly appears to be a logically consistent and coherent unification of classical and quantum physics and at the same time a grand unity of all the forces of Nature. Unlike most unification theories, the present proposal is unique in that it achieves unification on a four dimensional continuum of spacetime without the need for extra-dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[601] **viXra:1407.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 06:51:12*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[600] **viXra:1407.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 18:47:09*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Unruh temperature, entropy and entropic force on the Schwarzschild black hole (S BH) can be modified. The
general modified equipartition law of energy (ELOE) is proposed by unification, the modified Unruh temperature
on event horizon and it quantization are obtained by quantization method. And the modified entropy and entropic
force are derived. These are significant to solve the black hole modified question.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[599] **viXra:1407.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 09:17:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[598] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 17:24:28*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Electro-gravity won't be measurable by Pico-Farad or less with 50Kv, asymmetrical capacitors. These will only cause ions wind in air. The real effect requires large charge separation which results in a Sciama Inertial Induction machine

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity.
Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in
http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” to whom the author
owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional
peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction
of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2.
Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant
improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are
the same.
Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result
of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by nongeodesic
acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In
order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a
formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by
an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every
event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big
bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began.
Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it
may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If
more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a
vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient
as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field.
This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energymomentum-
tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum
physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[597] **viXra:1407.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 14:46:43*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[596] **viXra:1407.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 07:31:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) -
We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[595] **viXra:1407.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 08:01:16*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[594] **viXra:1407.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 12:08:55*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A recent study entitled “The Photon Underproduction Crisis” claims that there are two surprising possibilities: the first possibility is that galaxies and quasars contribute far more photons than astronomers now believe; the second possibility is that the ΛCDM model of the low-redshift universe is significantly wrong. Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) implies that the ΛCDM model is significantly wrong. This brief communications makes a Photon Underproduction Profile Prediction based upon a speculative MOND-based theory of string theory with the Finite Nature Hypothesis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[593] **viXra:1407.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 06:37:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, evolution of the Milky Way, and similar massive galaxies, has to be explained descriptively and partially quantitatively. There is described production of the protoarms of the massive spiral galaxies, production of the Fermi Bubbles and dwarf galaxies. Due to the two succeeding transformations of groups of the binary systems of electron-positron pairs via the electromagnetic-type weak condensates inside bare electrons, there are emitted the gamma-rays with central values of energy in approximation equal to: 1.3 GeV, 2.6 GeV, 5.3 GeV, 10.6 GeV, 21 GeV, 42 GeV and 85 GeV. For muon-antimuon pair we obtain about 137 GeV, whereas for kaon-antikaon pair is 639 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[592] **viXra:1407.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 04:53:19*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We study the mechanism by which the particle-antiparticle entangled state collapses instantaneously at a distance. By making two key assumptions, we are able to show not only that instantaneous collapse of a wave function at a distance is possible but also that it is an invariant quantity under Lorentz transformation and compatible with relativity. In addition, we will be able to detect in which situation a many-body entangled system exhibits the maximum collapse speed among its entangled particles. Finally we suggest that every force in nature acts via entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[591] **viXra:1407.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 09:18:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[590] **viXra:1407.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-10 13:44:08*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author, the ratio ${H(z) / (1+z)}$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. Here, the weighted average value of the Hubble constant has been
found using 29 observed values of the Hubble parameter $H(z)$:
$

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[589] **viXra:1407.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-07 13:41:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[588] **viXra:1407.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-06 10:37:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I proved that the unidentified emission line approximately 3.56 keV follows from the weak and electromagnetic interactions in plasma composed of fully ionized atoms of iron (the atomic nuclei of iron) and of free electrons. Temperature of the plasma is adequate for the captures of the free electrons by the ions in their n = 1 state, where n is the principal quantum number. Next, there are the transitions of the emitted X-rays/photons into electromagnetic-type or weak-type weak condensates inside protons. The energy of the weak condensates leaks from protons and again transforms into electromagnetic energy. Such two succeeding transitions via the electromagnetic-type weak condensate decrease the initial energy to 3.5566 keV - it is some analogy to the phenomenon dominating in a LASER, i.e. the wave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The obtained theoretical result (3.5566 keV) is consistent with the MOS and PN (they are the two different CCD detectors on XMM-Newton) observations. Probability of creation of the weak-type weak condensates is very low – their production decreases the initial energy to 3.5157 keV. In the Everlasting Theory, the dark matter consists of the iron-nickel lumps and its present-day temperature, generally, is the same as the CMB so it is very difficult to detect it. But there were and still are the very hot regions filled with the plasma so the line 3.56 keV is the indirect evidence that the theory of the dark matter described within the Everlasting Theory is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[587] **viXra:1407.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 22:25:34*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1)
No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[520] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-30 15:42:27*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[519] **viXra:1409.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-28 02:02:41*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 592 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.

- p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2
^{k}, k integer, in particular prime, define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. - A much deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2
^{k}- and 2-fractality. - Certain anomalous empirical findings inspire in TGD framework the hypothesis about the existence of entire hierarchy of phases of matter identifiable as dark matter. The levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.

- The first part of the book is devoted to the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics.
- In second part is devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.

[518] **viXra:1409.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-27 02:37:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

I made a few minor additions to this article while preparing it for submission to "Annalen der Physik" (they rejected it a mere 3 hours after I sent it). I also received an email from AAAS's "Science" a week or so ago stating they would not even consider the paper. I've been receiving comparable claims for several years from the Royal Society, Nature etc in response to different papers. The most hurtful things were having my work called "nonsense" when I sent comments to England; and getting no acknowledgement from FQXi, the Foundational Questions Institute (at least my writings are still on their website). I guess it's time to realize that I have nothing to contribute to early 21st century science, and to retire. If I have any more ideas, I think it's wise to keep them to myself until the 22nd century or later. I extend my deepest thanks to vixra.org for allowing me self-expression.
The Italian scientist Galileo described his experiments mathematically some 400 years ago. Ever since, scientists all over the world seem to distrust articles that don't include mathematics, comparing them to mistakes made by the members of the ancient Greek philosophers who didn't use maths (unless, of course, those articles are the result of Einstein's "thought experiments"). Many famous scientists have said that if you really understand something, you can explain it in plain English or to a young person with no maths training. So, as I normally do, I'll shy away from equations and scientific language (the great Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein used both things, so I think I must use them to some degree if I want to understand the universe) and try to rely on pure logic. Another great scientist of 100 years ago, Niels Bohr, was said to be able to do his work without relying on maths, so perhaps equations are over-rated and are actually the servants of intuitive insights. The early-20th-century's Jules Henri Poincare was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times, but also one of the greatest believers in intuition.
This article feels more like doing a 40-year-long jigsaw puzzle than something that required me to be an author. Sure, it took a long time and required a lot of thinking. There were times when the going felt frustrating, or tiring, or like smooth sailing. But I always had the feeling, similar to that of Paul McCartney when he wrote the song “Yesterday” for the Beatles or of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writing his classical music in the 18th century, that all the pieces of the puzzle already exist and I just had to put them together. Sometimes, I even felt as though pieces were being handed to me in the right order … at the right time. The article was written after reading “How the Universe Will End” by Francis Reddy (a senior science writer at NASA) in Astronomy magazine – Sep. 2014, and my article is restricted to the 6 topics which came to mind while reading it. The 6 steps are 1) Space Cannot Expand Faster Than Light, 2) Cosmic Inflation Replaced, 3) Dark Energy and the Big Rip, 4) What Is the Relation Between Gravitation and Black Holes?, 5) What Is Dark Matter?, and 6) The Universe Will Not End.
An important point to remember –
Einstein’s General Relativity gives a geometrical description of space-time and gravitation. The “Digital String Theory” section, speaking of the Mobius loop etc, doesn’t contradict that description but complements it since the Mobius and Klein bottle belong to a branch of geometry called topology or “rubber-sheet geometry”. String theory has been called “a little piece of the 21st century that dropped into the 20th century” (it’s the 21st century now, so it’s time for string theory to become more than a self-consistent theory and to blossom into the wondrous thing it was destined to be). Combining it with electronics and the above topology into “Digital String Theory” might possibly present an accuracy to description of space-time which simply wasn’t available when Albert Einstein lived (although the beginnings of topology belong with mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler's 1736 paper on the Seven Bridges of Königsberg, the digital age was only approx. a decade old when Einstein died).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[517] **viXra:1408.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-04 14:50:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Due to the mergers of the binary systems of protogalaxies, there were created the elliptical protogalaxies whereas evolution of the not merging binary systems of protogalaxies leads to the spiral protogalaxies. Due to evolution of the disc-sphere structures described within the Everlasting Theory, some elliptical protogalaxies transformed into lenticular galaxies whereas some spiral protogalaxies into peculiar galaxies. Some of the peculiar galaxies a second time transformed into spiral galaxies. For distant massive galaxies we obtain following abundances: for elliptical is 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 30.4% and for peculiar 50.7%. On the other hand, for the local massive galaxies we obtain: for elliptical 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 71.0% and for peculiar 10.1%. The theoretical results obtained within the Everlasting Theory are consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[516] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 08:03:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[515] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-27 09:32:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Fixed fine structure constant notation.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[514] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 16:26:56*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 Pages. adding postscript

Ultimately, we are able to place gravity and the conversion of space to time (as on planet earth) and vice versa (as on the sun) within the context of a much wider theory which unifies all four forces of physics beneath the symmetry-conserving mantle of Noether's theorem: "The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[513] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-24 07:22:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free Einstein-spacetime components so the superluminal entanglons frozen or escaping from our Universe can solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerated. The duality of relativity described within the Everlasting Theory leads to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe for redshift about 0.40 (i.e. about 5.2 gigayears ago). The sum of the gravitational and kinematical redshift leads to an illusion of deceleration of expansion for redshift greater than about 0.60. Due to the frozen entanglons, there was very rapid acceleration of expansion of the Universe at the beginning of the soft big bang (the Universe exited from its black-hole state) but we cannot see it because the most distant galaxies, in reality, are already 7.5 gigayears old.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[512] **viXra:1407.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-27 17:21:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be
modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a
sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size.
It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a
charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this
theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the
levels of the Universe and its properties.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[511] **viXra:1407.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 08:53:03*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[510] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 16:02:51*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 36 Pages. The paper with a full experiment description is considered for publication

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity.
Note: Please note that this paper is based on a previous paper DOI : 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9676 however, the presented theory has been improved in its constants analysis. The author owes a quality improvement due to the professional and strict peer review of www.sciencedomain.com . The next paper will include an experiment and is meant to be published in a scientific journal.
Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non-geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy-momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[509] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-21 17:35:00*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 36 Pages. DOI : 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9676 is sufficient to mention as the open source "Properly Cited" policy of the peer reviewed journal

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity.
Note: Please note that this paper is based on a previous paper DOI : 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9676
however, the presented theory has been improved and more importantly an experiment is offered.
Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result
of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by nongeodesic
acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In
order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a
formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by
an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every
event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big
bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began.
Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it
may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If
more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a
vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient
as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field.
This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energymomentum-
tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum
physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[508] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 08:42:54*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Electro-gravity from a field that is the reason for the electric field. Leads to Sciama Inertial Induction machine and explains Dark Matter

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122 to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[507] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 19:13:54*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 34 Pages. The theory solves the Dark Matter problem and is a basis for creating Dennis Sciama Inertial Induction machines

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122 to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[506] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 07:06:29*

**Authors:** Eytan Suchard

**Comments:** 34 Pages. (14) was updated for accuracy and a link was added in the abstract

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal”
http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122
to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[505] **viXra:1407.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-15 19:15:27*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[504] **viXra:1407.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-22 00:42:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) -
We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics.
Reason for replacement of previous version – to add a subsection proposing 1) that time travel can account for ordinary atomic matter being the basis of ALL dark matter, 2) that the Sun is centuries younger then we think, 3) that the anthropic principle restricts the amount of time travel.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[503] **viXra:1407.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-16 04:56:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. There are produced the binary systems of discs composed of the W or Z bosons. They decay to two tagged photons moving in opposite directions. Since there as well are possible the other channels of decay so the decays to two tagged photons are very rare. The discs have strictly determined mass so the photons have strictly determined energy as well. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. The smallest mass/energy of disc/photon should be detected in CERN. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[502] **viXra:1407.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-09 09:31:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[501] **viXra:1407.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-29 08:08:15*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This update explains the reasoning why the calculation of the gravitational constant is also a calculation of the Planck Constant

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[500] **viXra:1407.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-25 05:00:32*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This version summarizes the steps for the calculation of the Gravitational Constant in Equation 1.1

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1)
No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[499] **viXra:1407.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 13:01:21*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This version includes a relationship between gravity and charge forces.

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory