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2017 - 1701(25) - 1702(24) - 1703(16) - 1704(9) - 1705(13) - 1706(13) - 1707(13) - 1708(14) - 1709(16) - 1710(23) - 1711(15) - 1712(23)

2018 - 1801(18) - 1802(11) - 1803(22) - 1804(12) - 1805(22) - 1806(12) - 1807(16) - 1808(4)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1381] **viXra:1808.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-14 08:40:38*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

We argue how {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued Gravity naturally can describe a grand unified field theory of Einstein's gravity
with an $ U(8)$ Yang-Mills theory. In particular, it allows for an extension of the Standard Model by including a $3$-family $SU(3)_F$ symmetry group and an extra $ U(1)$ symmetry. A unification of left-right $SU(3)_L \times SU(3)_R$, color $SU(3)_C$ and family $SU(3)_F$ symmetries in a
maximal rank-$8$ subgroup of $E_8$ has been proposed by \cite{Molina} as a landmark for future explorations beyond the
Standard Model. It is warranted to explore further if this latter model also admits a similar gravitational interpretation based on the above composition of normed division algebras. Furthermore, our construction leads also to a $bimetric$ theory of gravity which may have a role in dark energy. The crux of this approach is that we have $replaced$ the Kaluza-Klein prescription to generate gauge symmetries in lower dimensions from isometries of the internal manifold, by $U (8)$ isometry transformations of the {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued metric.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1380] **viXra:1808.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-11 05:43:21*

**Authors:** Wei Fan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In physics, the mysterious origin of the gravitational force, inertia and the source of the kinetic energy of stars have long been unsolved problems. In the recent research，I have tried to jump out of the constraint of Newton’s laws and classical mechanics and tried to figure out sources of those universal laws with Potential Theory, and eventually solved problems above.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1379] **viXra:1808.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-10 14:58:42*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

All masses measured in a laboratory using simple measurement methods must give outcomes as positive or zero masses. A method is given in principle to determine between negative and positive masses for matter and antimatter particle pairs.
Negative mass masquerades as positive mass and simple measurements would always show negative mass to have apparent positive mass. This means that antimatter particles could have negative masses despite measurements showing them to have positive masses. If antimatter has negative mass masquerading as positive mass then antimatter cannot form lumps in the same way that matter does. Antimatter would then be the main component of dark energy, which would answer the question of what happened to all the antimatter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1378] **viXra:1808.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-05 09:22:19*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 185 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Earth’s core is Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Moon’s core is Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Moon is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
“High density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe”
Adrian Ferent
“I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
Moon mass: 7.3 × 10^22 kg
Distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Moon is 384,400,000 m
Gravitational force between Moon and Earth: 1.9 × 10^20 N
The gravitational potential energy between Moon and Earth: 7.6 × 10^28 J
What is the energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon?
I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz
I consider the Moon made of electrons.
The Moon is made of 8 × 10^52 electrons
Each electron emits a Graviton.
The energy of each Graviton: 9.5 × 10^(-25) J
Graviton energy: a×f
This means the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon: 5.9 × 10^51 Hz
I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth, Moon must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz
This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right!
Now I have to calculate the gravitational potential energy between 2 electrons, one on Moon and one on Earth; this is the energy of one graviton:
Eg = 5.49 × 10^(-77) J
Because Eg << 9.5 × 10^(-25) J, matter does not have influence on the Gravitational force between Moon and Earth.
That is why:
“Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
Because only high density Dark Matter, emits Gravitons with the energy equal or higher to 9.5 × 10^(-25) J.
“Ferent matter is Dark matter with density higher than Planck density”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
“Earth’s core is Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Moon’s core is Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
Matter looks like foam or bubbles in contrast with Ferent matter that is why:
“The Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Moon is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter”
Adrian Ferent
The Earth’s Dark Matter density is much smaller than Black Holes’ Dark Matter density, because:
“The energy of the Gravitons inside a black hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons”
Adrian Ferent
“The Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Moon is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
“High density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe”
Adrian Ferent
90. I am the first who discovered that Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter
91. I am the first who discovered that Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter
92. I am the first who discovered that Earth’s core is Ferent Matter
93. I am the first who discovered that the Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter
94. I am the first who discovered that the Moon is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter
95. I am the first who discovered that the Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter
96. I am the first who discovered that high density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe
97. I am the first who discovered that Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1377] **viXra:1807.0519 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-31 18:49:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Lately we found that the proton is most associated with gravitation and the electron with charge. In this paper we find that gravitation is from a force in just one direction, associated with the mass of the proton and the electron, and charge is from a force in a combination of the x, y, and z perpendicular directions.
This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza).
The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1376] **viXra:1807.0518 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-30 12:19:09*

**Authors:** Sp Cottle

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this model the force of gravity is mediated by the electron, the W+ and the W- particle. The electron, from its bound state around a nucleus, tunnels into other atoms and exerts a force of attraction over the proton(s) in the nucleus of those atoms. This attractive force amounts to the exchange of a W+ boson to, or from, the nucleus. To make this consistent with quantum mechanics, the electron in its bound state must tunnel roughly once every Planck time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1375] **viXra:1807.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-27 03:34:49*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space, the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces has been developed. These forces act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or
forms of the electric field). The nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated
electron. So, Coulomb's Law for magnetism, the physical signicance of magnetic quantities and the so called strangeness of the fluctuation of nucleons magnetic dipole moment are interpreted. Additionally, due to in-phase motion of grouping units, a parallel common course of their electrons and a superposition picture of their motion waves are caused as in the double-slit experiment is displayed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1374] **viXra:1807.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-23 03:24:42*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 Pages. CITATION - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716.v1

ALBERT EINSTEIN’S DREAM OF UNITING ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION, PLUS EXISTENCE OF GRAVITON, CONFIRMED BY DISCOVERY OF HIGGS BOSON AND WOLFGANG PAULI’S APPROACH TO QUANTUM SPIN

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1373] **viXra:1807.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 16:06:06*

**Authors:** Steven M. Scully

**Comments:** Pages. 6

Electromagnetic fields are considered to be the result of the fundamental force of electromagnetism. Using classical mechanics, a description for how gravity could theoretically cause electromagnetic fields is presented. Due to the capability of particles to physically travel through systems which they orbit, the existence of gravitational orbital patterns in the shape of a Figure-8 is proposed. As a result, it is proposed that gravity produces electromagnetic fields by the flow of particles in a Figure-8 orbital. Thereby, according to the theory, gravity is demonstrably the cause of electromagnetism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1372] **viXra:1807.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 16:37:07*

**Authors:** Steven M. Scully

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy states that the universe consists only of infinitely divisible mass, infinite volume, and gravity. This is realized due to a model which explains the cosmic microwave background, the redshift in the light spectrum of all distant galaxies as well as supercluster observations using gravitational redshift and gravitational lensing alone. Evidence is shown that gravity is the only fundamental law of the universe, and that electromagnetism, weak interaction, and strong interaction are the results of gravity, and therefore the Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy can be realized.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1371] **viXra:1807.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 18:39:57*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Relativism and quantum mechanics are a basis of present-day physics. This hypothesis returns quantum mechanics to real physics from physics of a probability and I tried fusion of relativism and quantum mechanics. By quantum mechanics a fundamental particle is a particle and is a wave at the same time and probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics was born. This hypothesis denies the same time. That isn't simultaneous. A fundamental particle is repeating a change in a particle and a wave at superspeed. I am thinking this is the variable from which hid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1370] **viXra:1807.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-19 14:33:49*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Newton's theory of gravitation states that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe, but that is not correct. Newton's theory of gravitation also states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. That is mathematically seen correct, but gravity is not the reason why most celestial objects stay in their orbit.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1369] **viXra:1807.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-20 12:30:51*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

As a first step towards a theory of quantum gravity, a Niels Bohr pre-quantum mechanics theory of quantum gravity is proposed. It predicts the existence of gravitons with an energy of 3.47×〖10〗^11 GeV, close to the rarely observed particles coming from a region of the Ursa Major constellation, with the largest energy of 3.2×〖10〗^11 GeV, well above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit, suggesting that these particles are high-energy gravitons.
It was noted that the proposed provisionary theory can explain Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation as a result of a mathematical theorem by Bruns, where the nonlinearity of the equations of motion, such as Newton’s and Einstein’s equations, leads to divergent dense manifold for infinitely closed initial conditions as their solutions.
In addition, the theory can also explain the gravitational origin of the quantum potential in the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. It explains the ratio of dark energy to dark matter, approximately 3:1, as the Madelung constant of a gravitationally interacting fluid made up of positive and negative mass pole-dipole particles filling the vacuum of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1368] **viXra:1807.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-14 06:37:28*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Simulations using Visual Basic code are carried out on motions, along a one dimensional line, of a population of 100 positive and negative masses under their own gravitational forces. The negative masses were seen to repel one another along the line and uniformly occupy the line. The positive masses were initially located as two static clumps and they remained as two clumps without greatly expanding the sizes of the clumps. The clumps separated further apart, in time, accelerating away from each other. Some of the negative masses clustered near the two positive mass clumps, in a similar way to how dark matter clusters near galaxies. The negative masses act to constrain a positive mass clump by surrounding it and repelling the masses back towards the centre of the clump. So negative mass operates by repulsion to obtain a similar effect that dark matter is supposed to obtain by attraction. Replenishment of negative masses as they fill the space along the line is unnecessary as the results show continuous acceleration.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1367] **viXra:1807.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-11 21:33:34*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio basis for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is forwarded with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1366] **viXra:1807.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-08 10:50:52*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle is applied to Grandcosmology, for which the horizon radius of the visible Universe is invariant. The Fundamental Eddington Theory is rehabilitated, while Primordial Bang model and anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1365] **viXra:1807.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 01:24:51*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 33 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6678350.v2

This article had its beginning with Einstein's 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" Together with General Relativity's statement that gravity is not a pull but is a push caused by the curvature of space-time, a hypothesis for Earth's ocean tides was developed that does not solely depend on the Sun and Moon as Kepler and Newton believed. It also borrows from Galileo. The breakup of planets and asteroids by white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes is popularly ascribed by today's science to tidal forces (gravitation emanating from the stellar body and having a greater effect on the near side of a planet/asteroid than the farthest side). Remembering Einstein's 1919 paper, it was apparent that my revised idea of tidal forces improves on current accounts because it views matter and mass as unified with space-time whose curvature is gravitation. Unification is a necessity for modern science's developing view of one united and entangled universe – expressed in the Unified Field Theory, the Theory of Everything, String theory and Loop Quantum Gravity. The writing of this article was also assisted by visualizing the gravitational fields forming space-time being themselves formed by a multitude of weak and presently undetectable gravitational waves. The final part of this article concludes that the section BITS AND TOPOLOGY will lead to the conclusions in ETERNAL LIFE, WORLD PEACE AND PHYSICS' UNIFICATION. The final part also compares cosmology to biological enzymes and biology's substrate of reacting "chemicals" - using virtual particles, hidden variables, gravitation, electromagnetism, electronics’ binary digits, plus topology’s Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle. The product is mass - enzyme, substrate and product are all considered mathematical in nature. Also, gravitation and electromagnetism are united using logic and topology – showing there’s no need in this article for things like mathematical formalism, field equations or tensor calculus.
Keywords -
Gravitational Tidal Forces, Mass-from-Gravity, Breakup of Celestial Bodies, Earth's Ocean Tides, Universe's Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, Eternal Life, World Peace, Matter, Mass, Mathematical Reality, Gravitational-Electromagnetic Unification, Large-scale Extra Dimensions, Evolution, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Special Relativity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1364] **viXra:1807.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-01 14:28:12*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 88 Pages.

Abstract
This article consists of two parts.
In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints.
In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity.
In chapter B1-4 we present the equations and their solutions.
We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn (inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) .
For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon.
In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for Amn and Emn we get a gravitational wave equations , which yields appropriate solutions only for angular momentum lx>=2 (quadrupole wave) the tetrad is locally damped with exp(-4 sqrt(r/3)), only the wave tensor Amn carries the energy.
In chapter B5 and 6 numerical solutions for special cases of the time-independent and of time-dependent equations are discussed.
In chapter B7 the energy tensor of the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity is introduced.
In chapter B8 we present the quantum field version of the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity and demonstrate the calculation of cross-sections.
Finally, in chapter B9 we give as an outlook an overview of the QFT including the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity.
All derivations and calculations were carried out in Mathematica-programs, so the results can be considered with high probability as error-free, the programs are cited in the literature index.
In the chapters B1-4, which deal with the solutions, every subchapter consists of a flow-diagram, which gives the overview and a text part, which describes the corresponding program in detail and can be skipped at first reading.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1363] **viXra:1807.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-01 21:29:24*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The two-parameter quantum calculus used in the construction of Fibonacci oscillators is briefly reviewed before presenting the $ (p, q)$-deformed Lorentz transformations which leave invariant the Minkowski spacetime interval $ t^2 - x^2 - y^2 - z^2$. Such transformations require the introduction of three different types of exponential functions leading to the $(p, q)$-analogs of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions. The composition law of two successive Lorentz boosts (rotations) is $no$ longer additive $ \xi_3 \not= \xi_1 + \xi_2$ ( $ \theta_3 \not= \theta_1 + \theta_2$). We finalize with a discussion on quantum groups, noncommutative spacetimes, $\kappa$-deformed Poincare algebra and quasi-crystals.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1362] **viXra:1806.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-26 18:29:42*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Schwarzschild radius can be extracted easily from any gravitationally-linked phenomena without having knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant or the mass size of the gravitational object. Further, the Schwarzschild radius can be used to predict any gravity phenomena accurately, again without knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant and also without knowledge of the size of the mass, although this may seem surprising at first.
Hidden within the Schwarzschild radius are the Planck mass and the Planck length, which we will assert, that in addition to the speed of light, (the speed of gravity) contain the secret essence related to gravity. We do not claim to have all the answers, but this seems to indicate that gravity is quantized, even at a cosmological scale, and this quantization is directly linked to the Planck units. This also supports our view that the Newton gravitational constant is a universal composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3/hbar, rather than relying on the Planck units and a function of G. This does not mean that Newton's gravitational constant is not a universal constant, but that it is instead a composite universal constant that depends on the Planck length, the speed of light, and the Planck constant.
This is, to our knowledge, the first paper that shows how a long series of major gravity predictions and measurements can be completed without any knowledge of the mass of the object, or Newton's gravitational constant. As a minimum we think it provides an interesting new angle for evaluating existing gravity theories, and it may even give us a small hint on how to combine quantum gravity with Newton and Einstein gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1361] **viXra:1806.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-20 22:35:34*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 174 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism
“I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ”
Adrian Ferent
“The perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent wave equation of the graviton:
Ψ – the wave function of the graviton”
Adrian Ferent
“The Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity”
Adrian Ferent
“The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton”
Adrian Ferent
“The graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency”
Adrian Ferent
I replaced Planck equation E = h × f with the a new equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f
Theory of general relativity is the most successful theory of gravity.
Einstein’s idea is that gravity is not an ordinary force, but rather a property of space-time geometry.
In the last 100 years famous physicists including Einstein himself, have tried and failed to unify general relativity and quantum theory.
Einstein’s theory of general relativity is wrong because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong.
Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravity energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy.
When they tried to unify Einstein’s theory of general relativity, a wrong theory, with electromagnetism the scientists discovered wrong theories like String theory, LQG…
In Ferent gravitation theory gravity is reformulated using quantum theory, using gravitons.
“Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity”
Adrian Ferent
ToE is the Theory of Everything, the ultimate theory, the final theory links together all physical aspects of the universe and is the major unsolved problem in physics.
The four fundamental forces: the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force are the four fundamental forces.
In my gravity theory the gravitational force is mediated by a massless particle called graviton.
All quantum gravity theories like String theory, LQG… are wrong theories because are limited to speed of light.
“The perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton”
Adrian Ferent
How big is the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field?
It is the electromagnetic force divided by gravitational force, it is the photon energy divided by graviton energy.
I found the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall, with a length smaller than Planck length.
“The Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force”
Adrian Ferent
Planck discovered that physical action could not take on any indiscriminate value. Instead, the action must be some multiple of a very small quantity called Planck constant.
The energy E contained in a photon, which represents the smallest possible 'packet' of energy in an electromagnetic wave, is Planck’s constant times the photon frequency:
E = Planck’s constant × frequency.
E = h × f
Planck equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f is incorrect because does not contains the energy of the graviton, because light has gravitation!
My equation for the energy of a photon:
E = h × f + a × f
The oscillation of an electron emits, radiates to space a photon and a coupled graviton, with the same speed, the speed of light and the same frequency.
The magnetic force always acts at right angles to the motion of a charge, it can only turn the charge, it cannot do work on the charge.
The strength s, of the electromagnetic force relative to gravity force:
s = 4.166 × 1042
How big is the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field?
It is the graviton energy: a × f
We have s = h / a
“The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field is a graviton with the energy: a × f”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent wave equation of the graviton:
Ψ – the wave function of the graviton”
Adrian Ferent
The energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f
This new equation of the photon represents the unification of Electromagnetism and Gravity.
“Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ”
Adrian Ferent
“I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ”
Adrian Ferent
Graviton’s frequency emitted by a photon
What means the perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field?
In my quantum gravity theory this means that photons emit gravitons!
“The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton”
Adrian Ferent
Graviton’s energy emitted by a photon is a × f .
This means the graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency.
“The graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency”
Adrian Ferent
83. I am the first who unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f
84. I am the first who discovered that the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton
85. I am the first who explained that Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity
86. I am the first who discovered that the Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force
87. I am the first who discovered that the perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton
88. I am the first who discovered that the graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1360] **viXra:1806.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-17 02:48:26*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces will be developed, which act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). So, the nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated
electron. Additionally, it is proved the so called de Broglie's wave-particle is a motion
wave (wave-like form) as a result the dynamics of the extremely fine texture of the particle motion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1359] **viXra:1806.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-12 10:47:39*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The physical foundations of mathematics in the theory of emergent space-time-matter were considered. It is shown that mathematics, including logic, is a consequence of equation which describes the fundamental field. If the most fundamental level were described not by mathematics, but something else, then instead of mathematics there would be consequences of this something else.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1358] **viXra:1806.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-12 14:14:14*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Using simple box quantization, we demonstrate explicitly that space is equivalent to energy, and that compactification releases latent heat with an attendant change in volume and entropy. Increasing spatial dimension costs energy while decreasing dimensions releases energy, which can be quantified, using a generalized version of the Clausius-Clapyeron relation. We show this for a massive particle trapped in a box. Compactification from N-dimensional space to (N-1) spatial dimensions is also simply demonstrated and the correct limit to achieve a lower energy result is to take the limit where Lw 0, where Lw is the compactification length parameter. Higher dimensional space has more energy and more entropy, all other things being equal, for a given cutoff in energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1357] **viXra:1806.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-09 05:33:26*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 7 pages; German language; Deutsch: Theorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Eine anschauliche Zusammenfassung

The theory of 4-dimensional matter waves describes a physical model which explains the effects of relativity and quantum theory in a unified theory. It explains and quantifies the observations in an intuitive manner. Since in the scientifically and mathematically exact explanations of this theory you can easy lose the whole picture, this is an attempt of a comprehensible summary. The mathematically and logically exact derivations can be found in the listed literature. I hope to hereby support the overall view of the model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1356] **viXra:1806.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 06:15:22*

**Authors:** Stein Sivertsen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based upon my theory http://vixra.org/abs/1010.0035) I predict that gravitational waves will propagate at 299800,5 km/s through earth. This can be tested when two or more gravitational-wave detectors, located at different places on earth, observe the same gravitational wave and measure its speed when it propagate from detector A, through earth, to detector B. According to my theory, gravitational waves will still propagate with the speed 299792,458 km/s in vacuum outside earth. This is the same speed as we already have observed light and gravitational waves propagate with in vacuum outside earth. However, according to my theory, it will propagate with a slightly higher speed in the frame of reference inside earth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1355] **viXra:1806.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-05 08:31:06*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A fundamental conservation and symmetry is proposed, as a unification between General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Theory (QT). Unification is then demonstrated across multiple applications. First, as applied to cosmological
redshift z and energy density ρ. Then, a local system galaxy rotational curve is examined. Next, as applied to Quantum Mechanics’ ”time problem”: Absolute and relative notions of time are shown to be reconcilable, as well as renormalization values between scales. Finally, as applied to the Cosmological Constant: The discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in GR at critical density: ρcr = 3H^2/8πG = 1.88(H^2)x10−29g/cm^3,
and the much greater zero-point energy delta value as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT) with a Planck scale ultraviolet cutoff: ρhep = M4c^3/h^3 = 2.44x1091g/cm^3 is resolved to null orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1354] **viXra:1806.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-03 09:20:32*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The quantum diffusion motion of space atoms has a similarity to Brownian motion. The measure of mobility of a quantum of space is proportional to the time of reference.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1353] **viXra:1806.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-02 04:34:38*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Based on a plausible electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature, this paper proposes a relatively simple “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM) based on a quantized 3D space composed of space voxels with quantized energetic states. DVTM contains a relatively small set observations and statements (the assumptions of the model) that may generate a relatively large number of explanations (on the common origin of both gravitational and inertial masses and Einstein’s special/general relativity) and predictions “inside” and beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics: a model of movement, a Big Bounce universe and a unification pattern for all known fundamental fields. DVTM can be considered a kind of “patch” for some Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs) and for M-Theory (MT). Keywords: Electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature; “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM); quantized 3D space; space voxels with quantized energetic states; Standard Model (SM) of particle physics; model of movement; Big Bounce universe; unification pattern for all known fundamental fields; Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs); M-Theory (MT). OFFICIAL PUBLICATION SITE LINKS: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/24892 http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/24892 http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/PSIJ_33/2018/Jun/Dragoi1812018PSIJ41391.pdf http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/3559

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1352] **viXra:1806.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-02 04:39:20*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 logarithm). This paper brings to attention a plausible triple electro-gravito-informational significance of the fine structure constant, with its implications in a plausible four fields unification pattern at Planck scales: this triple significance is based on the existence of a unifying global scaling factor of nature which appears in a hypothetical fine tuning of all the non-zero rest masses of the all the elementary particles in the Standard Model. Furthermore, this paper also proposes the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH) stating that the 3D appearance of space (or the 4D nature of spacetime) may be actually explained by the relative magnitude of the photon (angular) quantum momentum (and the hypothetical graviton quantum momentum respectively) and this global scaling factor (GSF): DRH also includes a generalized electrograviton model (EGM) for any hypothetical graviton. This paper also proposes a set of strong (and very strong) gravity constants and a gravitational field varying with the energy (and length) scale, all with potential importance in the unification of the four fundamental fields. Each of these hypotheses is a potential update for the Standard Model of particle physics. Keywords: Fine structure constant with triple electro-gravito-informational significance; unifying global scaling factor of nature; four fields unification; the standard model of particle physics; dimensional relativity hypothesis; electrograviton model. Short Research Article Drăgoi; PSIJ, 15(3): 1-19, 2017; Article no.PSIJ.34613 2 Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 3 Short Research Article DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34613 OFFICIAL LINKS OF THIS PUBLISHED (OPEN) PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/metrics/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/post-comments/20204#disqus_thread http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/2829 Crossref.org meta-data: https://search.crossref.org/?q=10.9734%2FPSIJ%2F2017%2F34613

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1351] **viXra:1806.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-01 05:58:33*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. The solutions relevant to Black Holes
are those which require the introduction of non-trivial areal-radial functions that are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the firewall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. Next
we show how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can be obtained from solutions to Finsler gravity, and which in turn,
can also be modeled by metrics which are diffeomorphic but not isometric to the Schwarzschild metric. The key point now is that one will have to dispense with the asymptotic flatness condition, by choosing an areal radial function which is $finite$ at $ r = \infty$. Consequently, changing the boundary condition at $ r = \infty$ leads to MONDian dynamics. We conclude with some discussions on the role of scale invariance and Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory based on the existence of a
maximal proper force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1350] **viXra:1805.0531 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-30 19:26:39*

**Authors:** Malik Matwi

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

We study the dynamics of the gravity field according to the quantum fields theory on arbitrary spacetime $x^{\mu}$. Therefore, we suggest a canonical momentum $\pi _I$ as a momentum conjugate to the canonical gravity field $\tilde e^I = ee_{\mu}^I n^{\mu}$. We derive both the canonical gravity field and its conjugate momentum from the holonomy $ U\left( {\gamma ,A} \right)$ of the complex selfdual connection $ A_{a}^i$.
The canonical momentum $\pi _I$ is represented in the Lorentz group. We use it in deriving the path integral of the gravity field according to the quantum fields theory. Then, we discuss the situation of the free gravity field (like the electromagnetic field). We find that this situation takes place only in the background spacetime approximation, the situation of low matter density(weak gravity).
Then, we derive the Lagrange of the Plebanski two form complex field $\Sigma ^{i}$, which is represented in selfdual representation $\left| {\Sigma ^i } \right\rangle$. We try to combine the two fields(gravity and Plebanski) in one field: $K_{\mu}^i$.
Finally, we derive the static potential of exchanging gravitons in scalar and spinor fields, the Newtonian gravitational potential.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1349] **viXra:1805.0530 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-30 20:54:09*

**Authors:** BingZhuo Liu, DongZe Liu, XiangHua Liu, WeiDong

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Four basic forces; Dimensionless number; Neutrino; Dark matter; Cosmic quantization; Microwave background radiation

Through the study of the natural constants, mainly the fundamental physical constants. This paper found the mathematical relations between the universal gravitational constant, Fermi weak force constant and fine structure constant. The mathematical expressions of the mass of the dark matter and all elementary particles, such as neutron, proton, electron, neutrinos, quarks, W^±, Z^0 bosons and Higgs boson are also found. Besides that, we also noticed and applied a series of the cosmic quantization laws, worked out the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the two mass limits of the compact star, namely Chandrasekhar Limit and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit. Thus, a breakthrough has been made for the completion of the ultimate grand unification theory. And unintentionally, also in order to solve Hilbert's sixth problem made a breakthrough.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1348] **viXra:1805.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-21 15:40:17*

**Authors:** Thomas J. Buckholtz

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We address four physics opportunities. First, suggest new elementary particles and forces. Second, explain phenomena such as dark matter. Third, augment and unite physics theories and models. Fourth, point to opportunities for further research.

We use models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators.

First, we show solutions that match the known elementary particles. We propose that other solutions correlate with elementary particles that people have yet to detect and with dark energy forces leading to three known eras - early acceleration, subsequent deceleration, and current acceleration - pertaining to the rate of expansion of the universe.

Second, we extend solutions to encompass known conservation-law symmetries. Extended solutions correlate with known kinematics. We suggest that extended solutions describe dark matter, explain ratios of density of dark matter to density of ordinary matter, correlate with dark energy density, and explain other phenomena.

Third, we propose that our work unites, suggests details regarding, extends, suggests complements to, and suggests limits regarding aspects of traditional physics theory. Those aspects include classical physics, special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the elementary particle Standard Model, the cosmology timeline, and galaxy evolution scenarios. The work provides possible insight regarding foundation of physics topics.

Fourth, we suggest opportunities for people. We suggest opportunities for observational, experimental, and theoretical physics research. We suggest quantum field theory that features few interaction vertices, sums of few terms as alternatives to conditionally convergent sums of infinite numbers of terms, and no needs to deal with some infinities. We point to possible opportunities to further develop and apply modeling and math we use.

[1347] **viXra:1805.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-22 12:59:23*

**Authors:** Satwik Choudhury

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

It will be showed based on the ground of pure reasoning, that classical space-time as derived from Einstein’s Field Equation(s) is not in conformity with an exact relativistic theory of Gravitation (surprisingly!), contrary to usual belief. Also it signs for a distance-scale, for which the exact nature of space-time, and as found from Field-Equations must have a significant discrepancy between them. And most importantly, this will be showed WITHOUT using any ad-hoc basis assumption or hypothesis or untested theories. Only known and unambiguous laws of Physics will be used in a coherent and consistent manner to arrive at this conclusion. The author strongly believes in the fact that all deep and beautiful things in nature must be simple enough! Therefore simplicity has been tried at best to preserve everywhere. First this conjecture will be proved for Schwarzschild space-time, one of the simplest solutions of Einstein’s Field Equation(s). Later same will be shown for other known space-times, pointing to the fact that the trouble is not inherent in solution(s), but in the key-equation (EFE) itself. Finally experimental support towards this proposition will also be presented; it will be showed that, the key-ingredient (of a relativistic-theory of gravity) which is proposed to be missing in General Relativity, if we include its effect correctly to the solutions of the field-equations, it can properly describe some gravitational anomaly quantitatively (not describable by GR), long been superseded from Scientific Community.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1346] **viXra:1805.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-18 08:10:39*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 35 Pages. Cite: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6214049.v4

General Relativity says gravity is a push caused by space-time's curvature. Combining it with E=mc2 results in distances being totally deleted from space-time/gravity by future technology, and in expansion or contraction of the universe as a whole being eliminated. The road to these conclusions has branches shining light on supersymmetry and superconductivity.
Advanced waves are usually discarded by most scientists because they're thought to be detectable before even being emitted, and thus to violate causality. Richard Feynman found that adding the contributions of advanced and retarded waves creates a consistent quantum theory called Quantum Electrodynamics in which the terms that might violate causality cancel precisely. Here, causality's violation is viewed through Isaac Newton's idea of gravity and the modern idea of entanglement. Just as advanced waves are usually discarded, few physicists or mathematicians will venture to ascribe a physical meaning to Wick rotation and "imaginary" time. Here, that maths (when joined with Mobius-strip and Klein-bottle topology) unifies space and time into one space-time, and allows construction of what may be called "imaginary computers".
Starting with the previous version of this article (Matter, Antimatter, Dark Matter and Space-Time Travel in an Infinite and Eternal Universe with Extra Dimensions), this gained an Altmetric Score of 1: high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received as research output. From start to finish, this article consists of the best parts of my layman-style ORCID and paperback contributions over the last 12 years and includes a reference to those contributions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1345] **viXra:1805.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-19 00:02:59*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

a summary essay about a hybrid unification framework

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1344] **viXra:1805.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 09:02:16*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Contribution to the Third Zeldovich meeting, 23-27 April 2018, Minsk, Belarus

The model of low-energy quantum gravity leads to small additional
effects having essential cosmological consequences: redshifts of
remote objects and the additional dimming of them may be
interpreted without any expansion of the Universe and without dark
energy. The theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits the
observational Hubble diagrams with high confidence levels. In the
model, the ratio H(z)/(1+z) should be equal to the Hubble
constant. The constancy of this ratio is confirmed with high
probabilities by fitting the compilation of H(z) observations. A
deceleration of massive bodies due to forehead and backhead
collisions with gravitons is re-computed here.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1343] **viXra:1805.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 12:37:42*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs, Ball Lightning and even sandy ground pipes called fulgurites, as the result of x-ray lightning bolt linear heating and splitting or evaporation, often found in large numbers at sandy beaches. Fulgurites according to Quantum FFF Theory, are assumed to be the result of the splitting and evaporation of smallest form of “electric dark matter black hole” or rigid string based quantum knots. nuclei.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1342] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-14 14:57:54*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that the statistical physics treatment of an arbitrary space-time entropy exactly reproduces most of the classical physics missing from quantum field theory; inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time. The laws are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1341] **viXra:1805.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-14 02:46:24*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Maxwell's equations are obtained within the framework of the model of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1340] **viXra:1805.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 13:38:18*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Loop quantum gravity, topological particle and knots

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1339] **viXra:1805.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 16:04:13*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 150 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Starting from STR, it is not possible to find a Quantum Gravity theory”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein was on the wrong way: from STR to GTR”
Adrian Ferent
“Starting from STR, Einstein was not able to explain Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
“Starting from STR, Einstein was not able to explain Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy.”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong, Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong.”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong, LQG, String theory…are wrong theories”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field!”
Adrian Ferent
“I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is a discrete function”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
In STR and GTR there are continuous functions.
This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud.
The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything because Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist.
The same fraud was in 2013 with the Higgs Boson, the so-called “God particle”.
They obtained Higgs bosons as a pairs of photons with a combined energy of 750 gigaelectronvolts.
After they received the Nobel Prize there are not anymore gravitational waves in the universe.
“Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
As a consequence of Einstein wrong gravitation theory, the physicists explained how they can travel trough a black hole, trough a wormhole.
Alice and Bob thought experiments:
Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon.
Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon.
You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes!
“Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature”
Adrian Ferent
Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes.
That is why:
“The holographic principle is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon.
“Einstein started from Special Theory of Relativity to explain Gravitation and he discovered a wrong gravitation theory the General Theory of Relativity.”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1338] **viXra:1805.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 21:22:19*

**Authors:** Andrew Cox

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as one stand-alone spatial dimension.
In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart.
This deductive quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to: (1) define black holes as wormholes into the fourth spatial dimension; (2) explain dark matter as photons which traveled through black holes and into the fourth spatial dimension; (3) predict dark energy to be the warping of the fourth spatial dimension in the presence of dark matter photons; and (4) establish the big bang as the beginning of three flat spatial dimensions in a cyclic universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1337] **viXra:1805.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 12:43:33*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, Schrodinger equation is established for the non-spin Solar QM {N,n} structure model. Solving the Schrodinger equation gives the orbit energy En = -3.81E+11 *(m / n^2), where m is the orbital moving object's mass (in kg), and n is the total n of the orbit using Sun core {0,1} as r1. Combining r^2*|R(nl)|^2 to the deduced Sun's interior mass density formula D = 1.26E+23 / r^2.33, a plot of {N,n} QM calculated (that is close to the true) mass density vs. r (within Sun ball {0,2}) has been made.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1336] **viXra:1805.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-07 17:14:10*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A general form of Planck constant has been discovered as h(general) = h(m/m'), where m is the mass of object we are studying (like electron, Earth, etc.), and m' is part of the scaling factor that scales h up or down. Although it is suitable for both micro- and macro- world's QM, as well as the EM- and G-forced QM, h(general) is not constant at all. h(general) is a variable unit (named H-C unit), which make us able to use the same QM formula for hydrogen atom to calculate the orbit movement for all kinds of attractive central-force system. The orbital energy can be written as E(n-orbit) = -Hmf(n-orbit) , where H=h/m' is a quasi constant (for all objects on all different orbits with same r1, and for both G-force and EM-force simultaneously). A new concept of high-frequency multiplier quantum number n' has been proposed. A new concept of RF (rotation diffusion, or rotafusion) has been proposed. It is the complete randomization of unit vector L/|L| at n=1 ground state. A new concept of interior {N,n} QM analysis has been proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1335] **viXra:1805.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 00:02:56*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The Solar QM {N,n//6} model is so successful in describing the QM of Sun-planet system, that inevitably it has to be able to describe the QM of planet-moon system. In this paper, I used {N,n} QM model to analyze all eight planets. The result revealed that Jupiter has a p{N,n//5} QM structure, Earth has a p{N,n//2} QM structure. Neptune possibly has a p{N,n//2} or p{N,n//4} QM structure, Saturn possibly has a mixture of p{N,n//2} and p{N,n//3} QM structure. The rest planets have no clear p{N,n} QM structure. Through a global data analysis, I discovered that all eight planets were originally formed in p{N,n//2} QM structure, with an atmosphere at p{1,1//2}, a Earth-sized core at p{0,1//2}, and a inner core at p{-1,1//2}. Then after the (hydrogen fusion generated) ice-evap-line expanded and passed {1,6}, all {1,n=3..6}o orbit planets' p{1,1//2} atmosphere mass was stripped off (like the current Earth), and even part of Earth-sized core was stripped off (like the current Mars). Jupiter captured most part of the stripped off mass (which grew its mass from originally 10% to today's 100%) and transformed its p{N,n} from p{N,1//2} to today's p{N,n//5}. Saturn captured small part of the stripped off mass (which grew its mass from originally 20% to today's 100%) and transformed its p{N,n} from p{N,1//2} to today's mixture of p{N,1//2} and p{N,n//3}. Among eight planets, only Uranus and Neptune still keep the original p{N,1//2} QM structure with almost intact p{1,1//2} atmosphere, p{0,1//2} Earth-sized core, and p{-1,1//2} inner core. The limitation of p{N,n} QM analysis for meter-sized objects has been discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1334] **viXra:1805.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-04 13:34:08*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Solar QM {N,n//6} structure has been successful not only for modeling the Solar system from Sun core to Oort cloud, but also in matching the size of white dwarf, neutron star and even black hole. In this paper, I have used this model to further scan down (and up) in our world. It is interesting to find that on the small end, the r(s) of hydrogen atom, proton and quark match {-12,1}, {-15,1} and {-17,1} respectively. On the large end, our Milky way galaxy, the Virgo super cluster have their r(s) match {8,1}, and {10,1} respectively. In a second estimation, some elementary particles like electron, up quark, down quark, … may have their {N,n} QM structures match {-17,1}, {-17,2}, {-17,3} … respectively. In a third estimation, the r(s) of super-massive black hole of Andromeda galaxy and Milky way galaxy match {2,1} and {1,1} respectively. However, so far the Solar QM {N,n} structure has not been re-produced in other exoplanetary systems (like TRAPPIST-1, HD 10180, Kepler-90, Kelper-11, 55-Cacri). So I propose that our Sun was formed from a single large seed (with size of Jupiter or even a red dwarf) and so that it has the almost perfect {N,n} QM structure. Therefore it reflects the true G-force (and F4-degenerated-force) formed QM in our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1333] **viXra:1805.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-04 14:27:15*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper I study the evolution and dynamics of the Solar QM {N,n} structure. After discovered the Solar QM {N,n} structure, I immediately realized that the formation of our current Solar system was through a series of quantum collapse of pre-Sun ball's N super-shell from {6,1} to {0,1}. However, it took me quite a while to figure out what is the driving force for the quantized collapse: the collapse of {N,n=1..5}o super-shell increases the thermal pressure of {N-1,n=1..5}o super-shell and prevent it from immediate collapse. Then after some time the heat (and mass) losing in {N-1,n=1..5}o super-shell decreased its thermal pressure and trigged a new round of collapse. A switch from the cold-G r-track for N=4 and 3 super-shells to the hot-G r-track for N=1 and 0 super-shells caused a 26% of r length increase. This r-track change revealed that the Hydrogen fusion started right after {2,1}RF pre-Sun ball had formed. (The Hydrogen fusion's heat formed) ice-evap-line expended and passed Mars orbit {1,6}, and evaporated all ice mass within {1,6}RF ball and excited them to orbit {2,2}o and {2,3}o orbits. Therefore it formed the extraordinary large (ice) mass of Jupiter, and very large mass of Saturn. The original mass density as the function of r has been modeled out as D = 4.37E+28 / r^3.279 (kg/m^3). From it, I estimated that the original (ice) mass of Venus, Earth, Mars were 34x, 25x, 19x of the current Earth's mass. The original mass of Jupiter was only 10% of current one. So 90% of Jupiter's current (ice) mass was obtained from the original Venus, Earth, and Mars's orbit shells! The same model also predicted that the four undiscovered {3,n=2..5}o planets/belts will have mass around 12x, 7x, 5x, and 3x of Earth's mass. Asteroid belt is assigned to be at {1,8}o orbit. It is also interesting to see that the mass QM {N,n} structure collapse is accompanied by a heat QM {N,n} structure expansion in the Solar QM {N,n} structure dynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1332] **viXra:1805.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-03 17:55:50*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We all know that the QM is only for micro-world, not for macro-world. Not anymore! Finally, I find a way to extend Bohr's atom model (which was inspired by the Solar system structure) to our Solar system structure. In this paper, I present that how I decoded the quantum mechanics for our Solar system by introduce a {N,n//6} QM structure model. In the newly established Solar QM {N,n} structure, Sun core has a size of {0,1}, Sun surface has a size of {0,2}, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are at {1,n=3..6}o orbits. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper belt are at {2,n=2..6}o orbits. Oort cloud is at {4,n=1..5}o orbits. There are four undiscovered planets/belts at orbits of {3,n=2..5}o. More interestingly, white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole are assigned to {-1,1}, {-3,2} and {-3,1} in the same model. From these results, I constructed a Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic table (similar as the chemical element’s periodic table). A Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic plot is also presented here which shows some more detailed (and visualized) information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1331] **viXra:1805.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-02 17:53:23*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Schrodinger equation has been established and solved for the non-spin Solar QM {N,n} structure model in paper SunQM-3. In current paper, the 1st order spin-perturbation problem has been solved for the spinning Sun's {N,n} QM structure. The result shows that the spin-perturbation causes nLL orbit to have the lowest orbit energy (or highest probability density), and it is named as "nLL effect". This study suggests that the nLL effect is the driving force for the Sun's (and all other celestial bodies') flattening, disk-lyzation, ring formation. It is mass occupancy that determines whether the outer shell of a pre-Sun ball goes to flattening or disk-lyzation. The nL0 effect (which is the companion effect of nLL effect) is the driving force for the bipolar outflow and astronomic jet. Additionally, a central G-force caused spherical spin frame theory is established, and our Sun's reference-spin-frame model is expected to be ω(n-spin) = ω(1-spin) / n^x, with x≈3.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1330] **viXra:1805.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-03 01:28:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 85 Pages.

A brief tour of the developments of the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces ($C$-space) is presented. These include : (i) Novel physical consequences like generalized dispersion relations, energy-dependent speed of light propagation, extended Lorentz transformations,
relative locality, generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and uncertainty relations, tensionless branes, superluminality, generalized velocities. (ii) Generalized areal, volume, $\cdots$ metrics and gravitational field equations in $C$-space. (iii) A unified description of particles, strings and branes. (iv) Clifford gravity based cosmology and dark energy. (v) Moyal deformations of Clifford gauge theories of gravity. (vi) N-ary algebras. We conclude with a brief discussion on symplectic Clifford algebras and generalized geometries.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1329] **viXra:1805.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-01 17:20:29*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Using p{N,n} QM model with QM induced mass peaking/depleting effect, plus the spin frame of ω(n-spin) ≈ ω(1-spin) / n^3, plus the multiplier n', I successfully explained the origin of Jupiter surface cloud bands as the |544> zonal bands embedded in the background |400> belt bands. We can even calculate out how deep the convection starts below the atmosphere surface. The Earth's atmospheric circulation is also caused by the same QM peaking/depleting effect of |211> state on top (not embedded) of |100> state, which generates a major upwelling band at equator and two minor upwelling bands at ±60° latitude, and two down welling bands at ≈ ±35° latitude. The same QM theory is applicable to all other planets' atmosphere, even for the Sun's surface atmosphere.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1328] **viXra:1804.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-30 22:29:38*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, by using {N,n} QM structure model, combining with Schrodinger equation solution, and the first order spin-perturbation solution, and the multiplier n' theory, I calculated out the ring thickness vs. orbit-r curve for a gradually disk-lyzing pre-Sun ball. From it, I constructed a series of snapshot pictures of pre-Sun disks. I also developed a very useful new rule for {N,n} QM structure: all mass between r(n) and r(n+1) belong to orbit n.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1327] **viXra:1804.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-26 07:11:44*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

As claimed in quantum physics papers, objects in the lattice-vectors of Heyting algebra are not idempotent.
Consequently, Heyting logic is not bivalent, and hence refuted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1326] **viXra:1804.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-24 17:29:51*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The quantization of rest mass is governed by strictly discrete data, in principle coming from the combinatorics of a universal category of motives. We outline the essential ingredients from a categorical perspective, giving a context for the Koide mass operators.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1325] **viXra:1804.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-21 14:40:18*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The Clausius-Clapeyron equation as implemented is not confirmed as tautologous.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1324] **viXra:1804.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 16:28:14*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Using a space filled with radiation, we derive a generalization for the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to account for a phase transition, which involves a change in spatial dimension. We consider phase transitions from dimension of space, n, to dimension of space, (n-1), and vice versa, from (n-1) to n-dimensional space. For the former we can calculate a specific release of latent heat, a decrease in entropy and a change in volume; for the latter we derive an expression for the absorption of heat, the increase in entropy, and the difference in volume. Total energy is conserved in this transformation process. We apply this model to radiation in the early universe and find that for a transition from n = 4 to (n-1) = 3, there is an immense decrease in entropy accompanied by a tremendous change in volume, much like condensation. However, unlike condensation, this volume change is not three-dimensional. The volume changes from V4, a four-dimensional construct, to V3, a three-dimensional entity, which can be considered a subspace of V4. As a specific example of how the equation works, we assume a transition temperature of 3*1027 degrees Kelvin, and assume, furthermore, that the latent heat release in three-dimensional space is 1.8*1094 Joules. We find that for this transition, the energy densities, the entropy densities, and the volumes assume the following values (photons only). In four-dimensional space, we obtain u4 = 1.15*10125 J m-4, s4 = 4.81*1097 J m-4 K-1, and V4 = 2.14*10-31 m4. In three-dimensional space, we have u3 = 6.13*1094 J m-3, s3 = 2.72*1067 J m-3 K-1, and V3 = .267 m3. The subscripts 3 and 4 refer to three-dimensional and four-dimensional quantities, respectively. We speculate, based on the tremendous change in volume, the explosive release of latent heat, and the magnitudes of the other quantities calculated, that this type of transition might have a connection to inflation. With this work, we prove that space, in and of itself, has an energy content and vice versa, that energy is equivalent to space. This is so because giving up space releases latent heat, and buying space costs latent heat, which we can quantify. This is in addition to the energy contained within that space due to radiation. We can determine the specific amount of heat exchanged in transitioning between different spatial dimensions with our generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1323] **viXra:1804.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 03:01:38*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 133 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Black Holes are Dark Matter. Information is lost in Black Holes.
“Black Holes are Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Information is lost in black holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes”
Adrian Ferent
How Matter is change in Dark Matter by Gravitons:
Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction, photon absorption by a Black Hole:
E = h × f + a × f + a × ν
where a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton
ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton.
I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than:
E = 4.14559 × 105 GeV
After n interactions the energy of the photon is:
where f is the initial frequency of the photon.
Because graviton’s frequency νk > fk the energy E of the photon is higher after each photon-graviton interaction, this means photon’s frequency is much higher and this is the process how Matter is change in Dark Matter inside a Black Hole.
“Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
That is why:
“Information is lost in Black Holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Black holes are Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Black holes are Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right.
Wrong things what you learned about Black Holes, because Gravitons are not present in Einstein’s wrong Gravitation theory!
That is why in my view Gerard 't Hooft, Leonard Susskind, Stephen Hawking, Jacob Bekenstein… are wrong regarding Black Holes:
Bekenstein and Hawking conjectured that the black hole entropy is directly proportional to the area of the event horizon divided by the Planck area.
From the entropy it is possible to use the usual thermodynamic relations to calculate the temperature of black holes.
The entropy measures how many such squares, whose side is a Planck length, are there on the surface of a black hole.
From here Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind suggested that the information is in fact preserved and is stored on the boundary of a system.
After the “The Black Hole War” Gerard 't Hooft, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind agreed that the information is not lost inside a black hole; Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind discovered the holographic principle, the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon.
They considered a photon falling in a black hole, that will increase the black hole entropy and surface area; the black hole’s mass increases and the photon information is stored on the event horizon.
Alice and Bob thought experiments:
Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon.
Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes.
That is why:
“The holographic principle is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon.
What happens when we fall in a Black Hole?
“When we fall in a Black Hole, the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon”
Adrian Ferent
That is why:
Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon.
You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes!
“Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature”
Adrian Ferent
“Black holes are Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with the density greater than Planck density”
Adrian Ferent
I discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter, I discovered that the Information is lost in Black Holes, I discovered what is the Event Horizon, I explained that the holographic principle is wrong and I discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole.
51. I am the first who explained Gravitation
52. I am the first who discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole: the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon
53. I am the first who explained that the holographic principle is wrong
54. I am the first who discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter
55. I am the first who explained that Information is lost in black holes
56. I am the first who explained what is the event horizon: the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons
57. I am the first who explained that our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes
58. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole
59. I am the first who discovered that Black Holes do not have temperature, because Black Holes are Dark Matter

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1322] **viXra:1804.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-10 03:45:11*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Quantum mechanics can be applied to big masses also. This will solve many problems of modern physics like dark matter. This is the big problem of physics for so many years. This solves problem of dual nature of quantum like interference by single photon. This theory will start new relativity other than Einstein relativity which balances relativity of small particles & big masses by similar consideration. It is just found that some galaxies do not contain dark matter & some have abundant dark matter. Means, dark matter is real & different than known matter. This theory gives require explanation to this problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1321] **viXra:1804.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-10 05:10:04*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content.
Mmass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or Emergent Gravity.
More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field..
So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption.
Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..
The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close.
So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus.
At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1320] **viXra:1804.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-06 19:09:42*

**Authors:** Andrew Cox

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as (4-3=) one stand-alone spatial dimension .
In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart.
This quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to fully explain black hole mechanics, which solves dark matter, which predicts dark energy, which explains the big bang in a cyclic universe -- which completes the "theory of everything."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1319] **viXra:1804.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-06 21:37:22*

**Authors:** D.h

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

If string theory unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity, the applicable objects of string theory should include microscopic particles and the macrocosm. The greater time span of the universe phenomenon, the more probability that phenomenon contains geometrical symbol that can show the string structure.
By certain geometrical change rules of the space in nature philosophical theory, the article arise the solution to observe the string. In the article it build the structure mold in 2-D expression by projected high dimensions (three and above dimension). Compare the mold there is an obvious structure of B-mold polarization transfer and rotation in Cosmos Microwave Background radiation. It proofed the existence reality of the string in space geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1318] **viXra:1804.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-03 20:58:24*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42.
The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57014*10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.
We find that this Sphere Theory may be related to a Bremsstrahlung type of radiation and an Entangled Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1317] **viXra:1804.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-03 02:30:37*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

I Abstract
This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See images below for an example of a sphere made of spheres.
The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.
Charge appears to come from electron sized Charge.
Gravity appears to come from Proton sized mass

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1316] **viXra:1803.0743 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 10:12:39*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two more equations linking Temperature to Length and linking Charge to Mass and time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1315] **viXra:1803.0740 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 16:28:39*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newton gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and gets a gravitational constant of hc/m_p^2 . This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton’s gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed that his approach requires an assumption on the value of G, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton’s gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. Therefore, from this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass totally independent of Newton’s gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own, with no need for input from Newton. This also strongly points towards the idea that Newton’s gravitational constant should be seen as a composite constant. Based on this perspective, for the first time since it was theoretically introduced 119 years ago, the Planck units can be measured completely independent of any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1314] **viXra:1803.0713 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-30 05:17:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1313] **viXra:1803.0692 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-28 05:51:24*

**Authors:** Xin Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Quantum entanglement in 2 dimensional world

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1312] **viXra:1803.0674 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-26 09:03:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1311] **viXra:1803.0660 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-27 07:35:36*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short paper we look at the Hawking temperature from a Newtonian perspective as well as a General Relativity perspective. If we are considering the Hawking temperature, and simply replace the gravitational field input in his 1974 formula with that of Newton, we will get a Hawking temperature of half of that of the well-known Hawking temperature formula. This is very similar to the case where Newton’s theory predicts half the light bending that GR does. Based on recent theoretical research on Newton’s gravitational constant, we also rewrite the Hawking temperature to give a somewhat different perspective without changing the output of the formula, that makes some of the Hawking formulas more intuitive.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1310] **viXra:1803.0642 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 17:48:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Here we will present a probabilistic quantum gravity theory derived from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Surprisingly, this theory is fully deterministic when operating with masses that are exactly divisible by the Planck mass. For masses or mass parts less than one Planck mass, we find that probabilistic effects play an important role. Most macroscopic masses will have both a deterministic gravity part and a probabilistic gravity part.
In 2014, McCulloch derived Newtonian gravity from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. McCulloch himself pointed out that his theory only seems to hold as long as one operates with whole Planck masses. For those who have studied his interesting theory, there may seem to be a mystery around how a theory rooted in Heisenberg’s principle, which was developed to understand quantum uncertainty, can give rise to a Newtonian gravity theory that works at the cosmic scale (which is basically deterministic). However, the deeper investigation introduced here shows that the McCulloch method is very likely correct and can be extended to hold for masses that are not divisible by the Planck mass, a feature that we describe in more detail here.
Our extended quantum gravity theory also points out, in general directions, how we can approach the set up of experiments to measure the gravitational constant more accurately.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1309] **viXra:1803.0623 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 14:09:13*

**Authors:** Thomas Neil Neubert

**Comments:** Pages.

The equivalence principle has been hypothesized as strong, weak , symmetric and so forth. Clear understanding of the equivalence principle is necessary to develop quantum gravity theory. This brief paper sheds light upon the conundrum of the equivalence principle and offers a Symmetry Breaking Equivalence Principle interpretation of the CERN AEGIS antihydrogen gravitational experiments.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1308] **viXra:1803.0502 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-22 11:24:21*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1307] **viXra:1803.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-22 08:50:28*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP.

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained.
Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel
Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to a late-time exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a late-time de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1306] **viXra:1803.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 10:57:03*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** Pages.

It is hypothesised that the fundamental dimensions of Time, Length, Mass, Charge and Temperature are linked. To support this hypothesis, the Quantum Bang Equation is proposed. The equation is correct to 6 digits (which is the maximum given the relative uncertainty on the gravitational constant G)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1180] **viXra:1807.0370 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-03 22:34:28*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716.v4

Recently added: "Main two clarifications to my submission" -
There are two points which may need to be clarified -
First, in relation to E=0 (second last paragraph in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY)
Second, in relation to quantum spin/vector/tensor/scalar (last and third last paragraphs in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY
This article suggests existence of the graviton was actually confirmed by discovery of the supposedly unrelated Higgs boson on 4 July 2012. First suspected to exist in the 1960s, more studies are still needed to verify with higher precision that the discovered particle has all of the properties predicted. The need for further studies is in line with this article’s proposal that the Higgs boson and field are not what they’re assumed to be ie the Higgs field is believed to give mass to some particles (quarks and charged leptons plus the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons) while the Higgs boson is said to be the field’s quantum excitation. The proposal here is that photon-graviton interactions, and thus the electromagnetic-gravitational fields - more precisely, m = (D subscript 1+0), (S sub M, K sub 8), (n x 10 exponent 12.γ sub s/G sub s) - are responsible for ALL mass, and the Higgs boson (whether it exists in one or several forms) is a by-product of the advanced waves formed from photons and gravitons (see the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Being left-over from gravitational waves, the Higgs boson is obviously related to the graviton – and if this article is correct, discovery of the former particle makes existence of the latter absolutely essential (confirms its existence). As well: in my thoughts, Wolfgang Pauli’s 1924 approach to quantum spin - and Albert Einstein’s 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" - both played important parts in uniting quantum mechanics and gravity into the phenomenon of matter. On the way to this union, Einstein’s dream of uniting electromagnetism with gravitation seems to have supersymmetrically fallen into place.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1179] **viXra:1807.0370 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-27 01:43:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages. CITE: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716

This article suggests existence of the graviton was actually confirmed by discovery of the supposedly unrelated Higgs boson on 4 July 2012. First suspected to exist in the 1960s, more studies are still needed to verify with higher precision that the discovered particle has all of the properties predicted. The need for further studies is in line with this article’s proposal that the Higgs boson and field are not what they’re assumed to be ie the Higgs field is believed to give mass to some particles (quarks and charged leptons plus the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons) while the Higgs boson is said to be the field’s quantum excitation. The proposal here is that photon-graviton interactions, and thus the electromagnetic-gravitational fields - more precisely, m = (D subscript 1+0), (S sub M, K sub 8), (n x 10 exponent 12.γ sub s/G sub s) - are responsible for ALL mass, and the Higgs boson (whether it exists in one or several forms) is a “leftover” from the advanced waves formed from photons and gravitons (see the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Being left-over from gravitational waves, the Higgs boson is obviously related to the graviton – and if this article is correct, discovery of the former particle makes existence of the latter absolutely essential (confirms its existence). As well: in my thoughts, Wolfgang Pauli’s 1924 approach to quantum spin - and Albert Einstein’s 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" - both played important parts in uniting quantum mechanics and gravity into the phenomenon of matter. On the way to this union, Einstein’s dream of uniting electromagnetism with gravitation seems to have supersymmetrically fallen into place.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1178] **viXra:1807.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-25 06:28:08*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio basis for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is forwarded with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1177] **viXra:1807.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-26 22:20:47*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1176] **viXra:1807.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-25 23:41:38*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1175] **viXra:1807.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-11 23:15:58*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10^-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1174] **viXra:1807.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-09 20:30:59*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle is applied to Grandcosmology, for which the visible Universe horizon is invariant. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10^-4 precision double large number correlation: Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1173] **viXra:1807.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-24 21:31:38*

**Authors:** Jaekwang Lee

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every continuous symmetry of the action, there exists corresponding conserved quantity.
If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity.
By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. If we consider the charge as a conserved quantity, there is one more symmetry, and we can consider one more axis.
In this paper, we consider an extension to 5-dimensions by using results of ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged 5D metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge and angular momentum exactly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1172] **viXra:1807.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-06 11:36:52*

**Authors:** Jaekwang Lee

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every continuous symmetry of the action, there exists corresponding conserved quantity.
If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity.
By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. However, it fails to give the mass for the well-known charged 4D black hole such as Kerr-Newman black hole. In this paper, to solve this problem, we consider an extension to 5-dimensions by using results of ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged 5D metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge and angular momentum exactly

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1171] **viXra:1807.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-23 05:57:29*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 91 Pages.

This article consists of two parts.
In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints.
In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity.
We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn ( E-tensor, inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (A-tensor, gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) .
For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon.
At the horizon, the E-tensor couples to the A-tensor in the 24 Hamiltonian equations and the singularity is removed, there is instead a peak in the metric .
In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for the A-tensor and the E-tensor we get a gravitational wave equation, which yields appropriate solutions only for quadrupole waves: as required by GR, the tetrad is exponentially damped , only the A-tensor carries the energy.
The validity of the Einstein power formula for gravitational waves is shown for a binary black hole (binary gravitational rotator).
From the horizon condition we derive the limit scale (Schwarzschild radius) of the gravitational quantum region: rgr=30μm , which emerges as the limit scale in the objective wave collapse theory of Gherardi-Rimini-Weber.
We present the energy-momentum tensor, which is in agreement with the corresponding GR-expression for small wave amplitudes and is consistent with the Einstein power formula.
In the quantum region r<= rgr , the Ashtekar-Kodama gravitation the theory becomes a gauge theory with the extended SU(2) (four generators) as gauge group and a corresponding covariant derivative.
In the quantum region we derive the lagrangian, which is dimensionally renormalizable, the normalized one-graviton wave function, the graviton propagator, and demonstrate the calculation of cross-section from Feynman diagrams at the example of the graviton-electron scattering.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1170] **viXra:1806.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-03 01:19:08*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Schwarzschild radius can be extracted easily from any gravitationally-linked phenomena without having knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant or the mass size of the gravitational object. Further, the Schwarzschild radius can be used to predict any gravity phenomena accurately, again without knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant and also without knowledge of the size of the mass, although this may seem surprising at first. Hidden within the Schwarzschild radius are the mass of the gravitational object, the Planck mass (their relative mass), and the Planck length. We do not claim to have all the answers, but this seems to indicate that gravity is quantized, even at a cosmological scale, and this quantization is directly linked to the Planck units. This also supports our view that the Newton gravitational constant is a universal composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3\hbar, rather than relying on the Planck units as a function of G. This does not mean that Newton's gravitational constant is not a universal constant, but that it is instead a composite universal constant that depends on the Planck length, the speed of light, and the Planck constant. Further, G/c^2 can be seen as a Schwarzschild radius calibrated to one weight unit. So G is only needed when we want to use gravity to find the weight of an object, such as weighing the Earth. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper that shows how a long series of major gravity predictions and measurements can be completed without any knowledge of the mass size of the object, or Newton's gravitational constant. As a minimum we think it provides an interesting new angle for evaluating existing gravity theories, and it may even give us a small hint on how to combine quantum gravity with Newton and Einstein gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1169] **viXra:1806.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-29 06:12:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Schwarzschild radius can be extracted easily from any gravitationally-linked phenomena without having knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant or the mass size of the gravitational object. Further, the Schwarzschild radius can be used to predict any gravity phenomena accurately, again without knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant and also without knowledge of the size of the mass, although this may seem surprising at first.
Hidden within the Schwarzschild radius are the mass of the gravitational object, the Planck mass (their relative mass), and the Planck length. We do not claim to have all the answers, but this seems to indicate that gravity is quantized, even at a cosmological scale, and this quantization is directly linked to the Planck units. This also supports our view that the Newton gravitational constant is a universal composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3\hbar, rather than relying on the Planck units as a function of G. This does not mean that Newton's gravitational constant is not a universal constant, but that it is instead a composite universal constant that depends on the Planck length, the speed of light, and the Planck constant. Further, G/c^2 can be seen as a Schwarzschild radius calibrated to one weight unit. So G is only needed when we want to use gravity to find the weight of an object, such as weighing the Earth.
This is, to our knowledge, the first paper that shows how a long series of major gravity predictions and measurements can be completed without any knowledge of the mass size of the object, or Newton's gravitational constant. As a minimum we think it provides an interesting new angle for evaluating existing gravity theories, and it may even give us a small hint on how to combine quantum gravity with Newton and Einstein gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1168] **viXra:1806.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-07 15:31:04*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A fundamental conservation and symmetry is proposed, as a unification between General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Theory (QT). Unification is then demonstrated across multiple applications. First, as applied to cosmological
redshift z and energy density ρ. Then, a local system galaxy rotational curve is examined. Next, as applied to Quantum Mechanics’ ”time problem”: Absolute and relative notions of time are shown to be reconcilable, as well as renormalization values between scales. Finally, as applied to the Cosmological Constant: The discrepancy that
exists between the vacuum energy density in GR at critical density: ρcr = 3H^2/8πG=1.88(H^2)x10−29g/cm^3, and the much greater zero-point energy delta value as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT) with a Planck scale
ultraviolet cutoff: ρhep = M4c^3/h^3 =2.44x1091g/cm^3 is resolved to null orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1167] **viXra:1806.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-04 10:47:45*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The quantum diffusion motion of space atoms has a similarity to Brownian motion. The measure of mobility of a quantum of space is proportional to the time of reference.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1166] **viXra:1805.0378 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-04 15:46:27*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Update for the purpose of being a physics source document for 2 articles in Marcel Grossman 15, and 2 articles in DICE 2018, plus a description of gravity to be cherry picked and used in experimental gravity, Marcel Grossman 15

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization”. In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion. While showing its relevance to early universe production of black holes, and the volume of space producing 100 black holes of say 10^2 times Planck Mass. Initially in radii of 10^3 Planck length, of space-time for say entropy of about 1000 initially speaking.
Key words: Inflaton, action integral, Cosmological Constant, Penrose cyclic cosmology, black holes, massive gravitons, enhanced quantization

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1165] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-16 08:54:46*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We show that the classical laws of physics "missing" from quantum field theory (inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time) are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0) of quantum fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1164] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-15 07:49:19*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We show that the statistical physics treatment of an arbitrary space-time entropy exactly reproduces most of the classical physics missing from quantum field theory; inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time. We show that these laws are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0) of quantum fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1163] **viXra:1805.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-23 14:54:43*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Finally, I find a way to extend Bohr's atom model (which was inspired by the Solar system structure) to our Solar system structure. In this paper, I present that how I decoded the quantum mechanics for our Solar system by introduce a {N,n//6} QM structure model. In the newly established Solar QM {N,n} structure, Sun core has a size of {0,1}, Sun surface has a size of {0,2}, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are at {1,n=3..6}o orbits. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper belt are at {2,n=2..6}o orbits. Oort cloud is at {4,n=1..5}o orbits. There are four undiscovered planets/belts at orbits of {3,n=2..5}o. More interestingly, white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole are assigned to {-1,1}, {-3,2} and {-3,1} in the same model. From these results, I constructed a Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic table (similar as the chemical element’s periodic table). A Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic plot is also presented here which shows some more detailed (and visualized) information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1162] **viXra:1804.0491 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-08 13:14:41*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, by using {N,n} QM structure model, combining with Schrodinger equation solution, and the first order spin-perturbation solution, and the multiplier n' theory, I calculated out the ring thickness vs. orbit-r curve for a gradually disk-lyzing pre-Sun ball. From it, I constructed a series of snapshot pictures of pre-Sun disks. I also developed a very useful new rule for {N,n} QM structure: all mass between r(n) and r(n+1) belong to orbit n.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1161] **viXra:1804.0478 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-01 05:09:21*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Typo corrections. Journal ref. Nucl. Phys. B (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2018.04.021

The experimental fact that standard model superpartners have not been observed compels one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here consists of a photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field, and their superpartners. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, Higgs fields and gauge symmetries. Supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1160] **viXra:1804.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-13 05:33:42*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content.
Mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons as a collision product, between mass less ring shaped oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or dipole Emergent Gravity.
More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field..
So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption.
Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1159] **viXra:1803.0743 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-07 15:14:58*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two more equations linking Temperature to Length and linking Charge to Mass and time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1158] **viXra:1803.0740 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-25 12:37:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newtonian gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and obtains a gravitational constant of hbar*c/m_p^2. This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton's gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed out that his approach requires an assumption on the value of $G$, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton's gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. From this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass without Newton's gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own. And further we show that we can easily measure the Schwarzschild radius of a mass without knowing its mass, or Newton's gravitational constant, or the Planck constant. The very essence of gravity is linked to the Planck length and the speed of light, but here we will claim that we do not need to know the Planck length itself. Our conclusion is that Newton's gravitational constant is a universal constant, but it is a composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3/hbar where the Planck length and the speed of light are the keys to gravity. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1157] **viXra:1803.0740 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-24 17:45:31*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newtonian gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and obtains a gravitational constant of hbar*c/m_p^2. This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton's gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed out that his approach requires an assumption on the value of G, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton's gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. From this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass without Newton's gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own. Even more importantly, we show that we can easily measure the Schwarzschild radius of a mass without knowing its mass, or Newton's gravitational constant, or the Planck constant. The very essence of gravity is linked to the Planck length and the speed of light, but here we will claim that we do not need to know the Planck length itself. Our conclusion is that Newton's gravitational constant is a universal constant, but it is a composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3/hbar where the Planck length and the speed of light are the keys to gravity. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1156] **viXra:1803.0740 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-02 02:20:07*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

n 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newton gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and gets a gravitational constant of hc/m_p^2 . This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton’s gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed that his approach requires an assumption on the value of G, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton’s gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. Therefore, from this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass totally independent of Newton’s gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own, with no need for input from Newton. This also strongly points towards the idea that Newton’s gravitational constant should be seen as a composite constant. Based on this perspective, for the first time since it was theoretically introduced 119 years ago, the Planck units can be measured completely independent of any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1155] **viXra:1803.0655 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-15 15:25:45*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we suggest that through working with the Planck mass and its link to other particles in a simple way, it possible to “convert” the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into a very simple quantum probabilistic model. We further combine this with key elements from special relativity theory and get an interesting quantum relativistic probability theory. Some of the key points presented here could help to eliminate negative and above unity (pseudo) probabilities that often are used in standard quantum mechanics. These fake probabilities may be rooted in a failure to understand the Heisenberg principle fully in relation to the Planck mass. When properly understood, the Heisenberg principle seems to give a probabilistic range of quantum probabilities that is sound. There are no instantaneous probabilities and the maximum probability is always unity. In our formulation, the Planck mass particle is always related to a probability of one. Thus, we have certainty at the Planck scale for the Planck mass particle, or for particles accelerated to reach Planck energy.
We are also presenting a relativistic extension of the McCulloch Heisenberg-derived Newton equivalent gravity theory. Our relativistic version requires much less mass than the Newtonian theory to explain gravitational phenomena, and initial investigation indicates it is consistent with perihelion of Mercury.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1154] **viXra:1803.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-02 10:05:58*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1153] **viXra:1803.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-09 07:44:09*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1152] **viXra:1803.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-24 16:00:26*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1151] **viXra:1803.0487 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-28 00:15:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution
leads to an exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1150] **viXra:1803.0487 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-23 23:43:53*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained.
Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel
Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to an exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory