Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[604] viXra:1407.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-28 04:51:35

Unified Field Theory in a Nutshell (Ellicit Dreams of a Final Theory)

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 28 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal.

The present reading is part of our on-going attempt at the foremost endeavour of physics since man began to comprehend the heavens and the earth. We present a much more improved unified field theory of all the Forces of Nature i.e. the gravitational, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces. The proposed theory is a radical improvement of Professor Herman Weyl's supposed failed attempt at a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. As is the case with Professor Weyl's theory, unit vectors in the resulting/proposed theory vary from one point to the next, albeit, in a manner such that they are compelled to yield tensorial affinities. In a separate reading, the Dirac equation is shown to emerge as part of the description of the these variable unit vectors. The nuclear force fields -- i.e., electromagnetic, weak and the strong -- together with the gravitational force field are seen to be described by a four vector field, which forms part of the body of the variable unit vectors and hence the metric of spacetime. The resulting theory very strongly appears to be a logically consistent and coherent unification of classical and quantum physics and at the same time a grand unity of all the forces of Nature. Unlike most unification theories, the present proposal is unique in that it achieves unification on a four dimensional continuum of spacetime without the need for extra-dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[603] viXra:1407.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 06:51:12

How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[602] viXra:1407.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 18:47:09

Modified Unruh Temperature, Entropy and Entropic Force on Schwarzschild Black Hole

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Unruh temperature, entropy and entropic force on the Schwarzschild black hole (S BH) can be modified. The general modified equipartition law of energy (ELOE) is proposed by unification, the modified Unruh temperature on event horizon and it quantization are obtained by quantization method. And the modified entropy and entropic force are derived. These are significant to solve the black hole modified question.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[601] viXra:1407.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 09:17:20

Calculation of the Planck Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[600] viXra:1407.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-15 17:24:28

Electro-Gravitational Technology Via Chronon Field

Authors: Eytan H. Suchard
Comments: 34 Pages. Electro-gravity won't be measurable by Pico-Farad or less with 50Kv, asymmetrical capacitors. These will only cause ions wind in air. The real effect requires large charge separation which results in a Sciama Inertial Induction machine

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by nongeodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energymomentum- tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[599] viXra:1407.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-15 14:46:43

Lambda-VDM Model: a Testable Modification of Lambda-CDM

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[598] viXra:1407.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 07:31:47

Black Holes Astronomy Versus Cosmos

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 7 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) - We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[597] viXra:1407.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 08:01:16

The Origin and Nature of Extreme-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[596] viXra:1407.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-12 12:08:55

MOND and the Photon Underproduction Crisis

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.

A recent study entitled “The Photon Underproduction Crisis” claims that there are two surprising possibilities: the first possibility is that galaxies and quasars contribute far more photons than astronomers now believe; the second possibility is that the ΛCDM model of the low-redshift universe is significantly wrong. Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) implies that the ΛCDM model is significantly wrong. This brief communications makes a Photon Underproduction Profile Prediction based upon a speculative MOND-based theory of string theory with the Finite Nature Hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[595] viXra:1407.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-12 06:37:18

Evolution of the Milky Way and Similar Massive Galaxies

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, evolution of the Milky Way, and similar massive galaxies, has to be explained descriptively and partially quantitatively. There is described production of the protoarms of the massive spiral galaxies, production of the Fermi Bubbles and dwarf galaxies. Due to the two succeeding transformations of groups of the binary systems of electron-positron pairs via the electromagnetic-type weak condensates inside bare electrons, there are emitted the gamma-rays with central values of energy in approximation equal to: 1.3 GeV, 2.6 GeV, 5.3 GeV, 10.6 GeV, 21 GeV, 42 GeV and 85 GeV. For muon-antimuon pair we obtain about 137 GeV, whereas for kaon-antikaon pair is 639 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[594] viXra:1407.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-12 04:53:19

Invariance of Spooky Action at a Distance in Quantum Entanglement under Lorentz Transformation

Authors: Mohammad Sharifi
Comments: 17 Pages.

We study the mechanism by which the particle-antiparticle entangled state collapses instantaneously at a distance. By making two key assumptions, we are able to show not only that instantaneous collapse of a wave function at a distance is possible but also that it is an invariant quantity under Lorentz transformation and compatible with relativity. In addition, we will be able to detect in which situation a many-body entangled system exhibits the maximum collapse speed among its entangled particles. Finally we suggest that every force in nature acts via entanglement.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[593] viXra:1407.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-11 09:18:56

The Dark Side of the Higgs Field and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[592] viXra:1407.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-10 13:44:08

Estimating the Hubble Constant on a Base of Observed Values of the Hubble Parameter $H(z)$ in a Model Without Expansion

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author, the ratio ${H(z) / (1+z)}$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. Here, the weighted average value of the Hubble constant has been found using 29 observed values of the Hubble parameter $H(z)$: $\pm \sigma_{0}=(64.40 \pm 5.95) \ km \ s^{-1} \ Mpc^{-1}. $
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[591] viXra:1407.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-07 13:41:55

Quantum Physics and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 5 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[590] viXra:1407.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-06 10:37:21

The Origin of the Unidentified Emission Line Characteristic for the Dark Matter

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I proved that the unidentified emission line approximately 3.56 keV follows from the weak and electromagnetic interactions in plasma composed of fully ionized atoms of iron (the atomic nuclei of iron) and of free electrons. Temperature of the plasma is adequate for the captures of the free electrons by the ions in their n = 1 state, where n is the principal quantum number. Next, there are the transitions of the emitted X-rays/photons into electromagnetic-type or weak-type weak condensates inside protons. The energy of the weak condensates leaks from protons and again transforms into electromagnetic energy. Such two succeeding transitions via the electromagnetic-type weak condensate decrease the initial energy to 3.5566 keV - it is some analogy to the phenomenon dominating in a LASER, i.e. the wave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The obtained theoretical result (3.5566 keV) is consistent with the MOS and PN (they are the two different CCD detectors on XMM-Newton) observations. Probability of creation of the weak-type weak condensates is very low – their production decreases the initial energy to 3.5157 keV. In the Everlasting Theory, the dark matter consists of the iron-nickel lumps and its present-day temperature, generally, is the same as the CMB so it is very difficult to detect it. But there were and still are the very hot regions filled with the plasma so the line 3.56 keV is the indirect evidence that the theory of the dark matter described within the Everlasting Theory is correct.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[589] viXra:1407.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-04 22:25:34

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[588] viXra:1406.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-26 18:35:55

The Schwarzschild Radius and the Scale Principle

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This article shows that the formula for the Schwarzschild radius (black hole radius) is a special case of the abovementioned formulation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[587] viXra:1406.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-19 06:34:24

Quantum Gravity and Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[586] viXra:1406.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-19 07:06:35

Information in a Discrete Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly P.
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article analyzes the properties of information in discrete structure of space-time. In this model, each cell structure has its 1 bit of information that is stored, regardless of the state of the whole system. However, in addition to its own 1 bit each cell is stored foreign information about other cells. This way you can ensure data transmission throughout the discrete structure of space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[585] viXra:1406.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-19 04:00:18

The Gravitation As An Electric Effect

Authors: H.-J. Hochecker
Comments: 25 Pages.

The electric forces are immensely great in comparison with the gravitational forces. There have already been many attempts to explain the gravitation by the immense electric forces. Thanks to the quantization of the electrical energy I have succeeded in it here now. And this in conformity with general relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[584] viXra:1406.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-18 10:57:07

Question of Planckian "Action" in Gravitational Wave Detection Experiments

Authors: Joseph F. Messina
Comments: 6 Pages

The validity of Planck's constant in gravitational wave detection experiments is brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. It is shown that in the absence of a purely gravitational measurement of Planck's constant one cannot at present rule out the possibility that gravitational quanta may not be scaled by Planck's constant. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[583] viXra:1406.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-17 18:40:14

There is an Aether

Authors: George Rhude
Comments: 2 Pages.

Why the Michelson-Morley experiment was a bust.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[582] viXra:1406.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-11 17:18:43

Metastable Vacuum and Introduction

Authors: Thierry PERIAT
Comments: 9 Pages.

The so-called theory of the (E) question introduces extended Lie brackets in physics. This allows a renewed vision concerning the cosmic strings and quasi-empty cosmological volumes (vacuum). That new document is an attempt connecting diverse concepts: vacuum, strings, supra-conduction and the "birth" of Newtonian field. Although just an introduction, it probably sketches a totally original path in physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[581] viXra:1406.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-09 18:54:41

The Quantization of General Relativity: Photon Mediates Gravitation

Authors: Azzam Almosallami
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper I propose a quantization of General relativity of Einstein which leads to photon mediates gravitation. My quantization of GR depends on the modified special relativity MSRT which introduces a new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations depending on quantum theory (Copenhagen school) [25-27]. My new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation leads to the Lorentz transformation is vacuum energy dependent instead of the relative velocity in Einstein’s interpretation to the Lorentz transformation in the SRT. Furthermore my new interpretation leads to the wave-particle duality as in quantum theory, and thus agrees with Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In my proposed quantized force, the force is given as a function of frequency [1]. Where, in this paper I defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the relativistic kinetic energy held by a body and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently I introduce in section (2) Newton’s second law as it is relativistic quantized force, and in section (3) I introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[580] viXra:1406.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-09 04:51:44

On Ricci Flow, Hyperbolic Geometric Flow, and the Unified Field Approach in Solving the Unification Problem

Authors: Jeffrey Alloy Q. Abanto
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this study, we will show that the heroic pursuit for the fabled Unified Field Theory can still be continued and justified with the advent of recent Topological Revolution that recently swept the mathematical world by storm at the turn of the 21st century. It is argued here that the Unified Field Appraoch (UFA) did not flourish in its infancy at the first half of the 20th century, not only because the pioneer physicists who advocated it did not yet have the quantum insight on the nature of spacetime at microscopic level but most importantly, the right mathematics is not yet readily available to them during their time. Einstein, Weyl, Eddington and Schrodinger are ahead of their time when they envisioned that all forces and particles are "geometric" at its fundamental level. It is shown here that the famous Ricci Flow and the recently discovered Hyperbolic Geometric Flow can be used for the formulation of a new Unified Field Theory that is essentially a revision of Weyl's 1918 unification theory. The theory to be developed here is a theory of topological geometrodynamics that describes not only the metrical fluctuation of spacetime at large scale but also at Quantum level down to the Planck scale.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[579] viXra:1406.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-07 08:17:28

Comments on Controversy Manual, 2014

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 14 Pages.

Professor Brian Martin, a physicist and now professor of social sciences at Wollongong University, Australia, has published a Controversy Manual (Irene Publishing, 2014). It’s blurb states: “If you care about an issue, how can you be more effective in arguing for your viewpoint and campaigning in support of it? ... The Controversy Manual provides information for understanding controversies, arguing against opponents, getting your message out, and defending against attack. ... the emphasis is on fostering fair and open debate and opposing those who use power and manipulation to get their way.” On page 112, Martin explains how controversies are resolved: “a controversy is closed. What this means is that there is little or no debate. It doesn’t necessarily mean that everyone agrees, just that the weaker side is hardly trying any more, or perhaps is totally excluded from public arenas.”
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[578] viXra:1406.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-06 17:56:18

The Quantum Theory of Black Holes

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 14 Pages.

The present investigation is concerned with the problem of finding a quantum description applicable to all phenomena including black holes. Thus, this paper introduces the universal uncertainty principle which is an extension of Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This extension includes the quantum nature of space-time due to the Planck length while the effects of the zero point momentum/zero point energy are omitted. This formulation predicts the thermodynamics properties -temperature and the entropy- of black holes. The main prediction emerging from this theory is a general equation for the temperature of the black hole. This equation shows a surprising result - the temperature of the black hole depends not only on the mass of the black hole but also on its radius. This theory is applicable to black holes of all sizes; however, the impact of the radius is significant for microscopic black holes only. Finally, this theory predicts that the Berkenstain-Hawking temperature formula is a special case of the more general formulation presented here.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[577] viXra:1406.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-06 14:07:33

An Introduction to Theory of Everything

Authors: Sebastian Aloys
Comments: 14 Pages. This theory will be able to create the theory of everything

In this paper I am trying to say that, the laws of universe are same in everywhere and every action. We can explain everything in the same mode. According to me there is no any specialty in black body radiation or photoelectric effect. We can explain them naturally like every action occurring in our surroundings. Nature is giving us the answers if we observe it clearly. We can observe everything as simple even big bang, inflation or any action happening in our surroundings as the same. Everything in the nature is working under the same laws. I am trying to say we can observe inflation in every action where a force is applying. Here I am trying to understand about the force and energy. If we can understand very well, what is happening, when a force is applying to an object? It will give us the answer for everything. For me kinetic energy or potential energy of the object will not change the equilibrium of the system, so it is not mingling with the stored energy in it. I am not adding any new ideas here; I am just explaining what we know. A single photon doesn't have a rest mass but it can show gravity and it can add a mass to a system. I am trying to state that, gravity is closely related to the frequency of a particle than its mass. For me to explain the quantum gravity we have to bring the planks relation into macroscopic level. If bring it into the macroscopic level we can find the relationship between mass and frequency in macroscopic level.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[576] viXra:1406.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-03 09:54:02

Information, Entropy, and the Geometry of Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly P.
Comments: 6 Pages.

In General Relativity Einstein summarized the law of gravitation of Newton for a large mass and velocity, and this theory is currently the main. However, on a small scale, you must associate gravity and quantum mechanics. Alternative theories of quantum gravity there is a great many, but none of them has not won the right to replace the General theory of relativity.However, in the last time there was a way out of this situation. It is called the holographic principle. Therefore, in this work will be discussed the connection between gravity and the holographic principle. Such synthesis gives a chance to understanding quantum gravity theory, which is based on the concepts of information, entropy, and the geometry of space-time. In this work these concepts are combined into a single law.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[575] viXra:1405.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-30 06:58:49

Holographic Principle and the Principle Of Relativity

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly P.
Comments: 14 Pages.

This article discusses the relationship between the principle of relativity and the holographic principle. Such synthesis gives a chance to understanding quantum gravity theory, which is based on the concepts of information, entropy, and the geometry of space-time. In this work these concepts are combined into a single law.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[574] viXra:1405.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-28 06:59:23

Table of the Unified Field Theory: 4x4 General Systems Format

Authors: John A. Gowan, A. T. Jaccaci
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ours is an electromagnetic universe of free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy (matter and light - as we learn from annihilation reactions), and hence to the "Great Asymmetry" of stand-alone matter we may add the "Great Gauge" of the invariant electromagnetic constant "c", and the "Great Charge" of the invariant electric charge. In this regard, it should be noted that light itself (in the form of virtual photons) is the field vector or force carrier of electric charge. We therefore see light protecting its own symmetric energy state through electric charge and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions - especially including annihilations between virtual particle-antiparticle pairs.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[573] viXra:1405.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-28 06:25:51

A Clifford-Gravity Based Cosmology, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 17 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

A Clifford-Gravity based model is exploited to build a generalized action (beyond the current ones used in the literature) and arrive at relevant numerical results which are consistent with the presently-observed de Sitter accelerating expansion of the universe driven by a very small vacuum energy density $ \rho_{obs} \sim 10^{ -120} (M_P)^4 $ ($ M_P $ is the Planck mass) and provide promising dark energy/matter candidates in terms of the $16$ scalars corresponding to the degrees of freedom associated with a $ Cl(3,1)$-algebra valued scalar field $ {\bf \Phi} $ in four dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[572] viXra:1405.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-27 18:52:58

Knot Physics: Neutrino Helicity

Authors: Cliff Ellgen
Comments: 9 Pages.

We use the assumptions of knot physics to prove that a collection of interacting neutrinos and antineutrinos maximize their quantum probability when all neutrinos are of the same helicity and all antineutrinos are of the opposite helicity. Knot physics demonstrates that the geometry of gravity spontaneously breaks symmetry. We show here that the geometry of gravity couples the neutrino linear momentum to its quantum phase. Likewise, the quantum phase of an interacting neutrino couples to its spin angular momentum. Therefore, the symmetry breaking of gravity couples the linear momentum of an interacting neutrino to its spin angular momentum, producing consistent helicity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[571] viXra:1405.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-26 15:36:43

The Duality of Relativity

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Due to the interaction of the Higgs field with the Einstein-spacetime components and neutrinos all matter consists of, in the Higgs field are produced the gradients/gravitational-fields. The Higgs field consists of the non-gravitational tachyons which speed is about 89 powers of ten higher than the speed of light in “vacuum” so the gravitational lines of forces look as spokes stiffly welded on to masses. When a mass rotates then the lines rotate as well. The speed of light is the speed in relation to a frame of reference which is in the rest in relation to rotating (or not) system of the divergent lines of gravitational forces. It means that the Michelson-Morley experiment is not the evidence against the aether theory so number of phenomena which can be described within the special relativity correctly is smaller than it is assumed, especially it concerns cosmology. The lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, shows as well that not all masses are relativistic: the masses of neutrinos, the masses of Einstein-spacetime components and of galaxies in the rest in relation to the local expanding dark energy are invariant. And finally, due to the conservation of the ground states of the Higgs field and Einstein spacetime, sometimes, contrary to the special relativity, the speed of light can be not invariant. It all leads to the duality of relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[570] viXra:1405.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-24 13:13:39

Virtual Crossword of Grand Unification

Authors: Dmitriy Skripachov
Comments: 9 Pages.

Grand unification can be considered as a virtual crossword ideas, hypotheses and theories. Compose and solve this crossword, we develop new ideas and hypotheses, which intersect with each other. The idea of space consisting of unit cells allows us to relate gravitation to the ability of unit cells to change volume, and electromagnetism to the ability of unit cells to internal movement. The ability of unit cells to form short-range order suggests that photons, leptons, mesons and baryons have structure of regular and semiregular polyhedra. Applied to dark matter, new model of elementary particles leads to the conclusion that elements of DM are non-relativistic nuclei consisting of neutrinos or antineutrinos. It is alleged that neutrinos are capable to form short-lived Cooper pairs most of which immediately decay appearing oscillation, and other fuse into nuclei of deutrinium, the lightest element of DM.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[569] viXra:1405.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-23 12:52:16

Initiating the Effective Unification of Black Hole Horizon Area and Entropy Quantization with Quasi-Normal Modes

Authors: Christian Corda, Seyed Hossein Hendi, Reza Katebi, Nathan O. Schmidt
Comments: 20 Pages.

Black hole (BH) quantization may be the key to unlocking a unifying theory of quantum gravity (QG). Surmounting evidence in the field of BH research continues to support a horizon (surface) area with a discrete and uniformly spaced spectrum, but there is still no general agreement on the level spacing. In this specialized and important BH case study, our objective is to report and examine the pertinent groundbreaking work of the strictly thermal and non-strictly thermal spectrum level spacing of the BH horizon area quantization with included entropy calculations, which aims to tackle this gigantic problem. In particular, this work exemplifies a series of imperative corrections that eventually permits a BH's horizon area spectrum to be generalized from strictly thermal to non-strictly thermal with entropy results, thereby capturing multiple preceding developments by launching an effective unification between them. Moreover, the identified results are significant because quasi-normal modes (QNM) and "effective states" characterize the transitions between the established levels of the non-strictly thermal spectrum.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[568] viXra:1405.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-20 13:34:46

The Foundations of Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

On the base of the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I answered the fundamental questions in cosmology. It is some recapitulation of my previous papers. I answered following questions. What is the origin of the Multiverse? Where do the laws of physics come from? Were the quantum fluctuations possible during the inflation and what is the dark energy? Why physical constants are constant? What is the correct interpretation of the Einstein formula E = mcc and why the Multiverse/Cosmos is flat? What is origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry? Will the Multiverse be dead? What is origin of time in the General Relativity?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[567] viXra:1405.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-18 07:57:32

From Stable Boundary of Multiverse to Inertia

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

During the inflation the classical Higgs field partially transformed into the Einstein spacetime which is the scene for the quantum fluctuations. The quantum fluctuations were impossible until inflation ended. The succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field (it consists of the classical, non-relativistic tachyons) and strictly determined radius of our-Cosmos/Multiverse (it is the finite multiverse composed of the expanding universes with the same laws of physics and physical constants) lead to the origin of inertia.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[566] viXra:1405.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-13 15:26:26

Knot Physics: Deriving the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Cliff Ellgen
Comments: 20 Pages.

Knot physics describes the geometry of particles and fields. From the geometry of an electron we can construct a mathematical model relating its charge to its spin angular momentum. From experimental data, the spin angular momentum is ħ/2. Therefore the mathematical model provides a comparison of electron charge to Planck’s constant, which gives the fine structure constant. We find that using only electromagnetic momentum to derive the fine structure constant predicts a value for the inverse fine structure constant that is about two orders of magnitude too small. However, the equations of knot physics imply that the electromagnetic field cusp must be compensated by a geometric field cusp. The geometric cusp is the source of a geometric field. The geometric field has momentum that is significantly larger than the momentum from the electromagnetic field. The angular momentum of the two fields together predicts a fine structure constant of 1/136.85. Compared to the actual value of 1/137.04, the error is 0.13%. Including the effects of virtual particles may reduce the error further.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[565] viXra:1405.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-12 16:07:05

Knot Physics: Spacetime in co-Dimension 2

Authors: Cliff Ellgen
Comments: 31 Pages.

Spacetime is assumed to be a branched 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. The branches allow quantum interference, each individual branch is a history in the sum-over-histories. A n-manifold embedded in a n+2-space can be knotted. The metric on the spacetime manifold is inherited from the Minkowski space and only allows a particular variety of knots. We show how those knots correspond to the observed particles with corresponding properties. We derive a Lagrangian. The Lagrangian combined with the geometry of the manifold produces gravity, electromagnetism, weak force, and strong force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[564] viXra:1405.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-12 02:40:33

Compiled Theory of Spatial Relativity

Authors: Elliott Prather
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is a compilation of three different publications relating to the theory of spatial relativity created to better present the overall concept to the community.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[563] viXra:1405.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-09 00:15:50

Wave Metric Theory as a Unified Field Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Alloy Q. Abanto
Comments: 15 Pages.

We review the Wave Metric Theory (WMT), a unification theory put forward in [1,2,3,4,5] by deriving its Unified Field Equation (UFE) in its most general form. We have shown that Weyl's field equation in his 1918 Unification Theory can be one of the exact forms of the UFE.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[562] viXra:1405.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-04 13:19:21

Quantum Theory over a Galois Field as an Approach for Solving Fundamental Problems of Quantum Theory

Authors: Felix M. Lev
Comments: 27 Pages. The approach and results of vixra: 1402.0110 are described on “pedestrian level” such that the paper should be understandable by a wide audience of physicists and philosophers.

We argue that the main reason of crisis in quantum physics is that nature, which is fundamentally discrete, is described by continuous mathematics. Moreover, no ultimate physical theory can be based on continuous mathematics because, as follows from G\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems, that mathematics is not self-consistent. In the first part of the paper we discuss inconsistencies in standard approach to quantum theory and reformulate the theory such that it can be naturally generalized to a formulation based on discrete mathematics. Then the cosmological acceleration and gravity can be treated simply as {\it kinematical} manifestations of de Sitter symmetry on quantum level ({\it i.e. for describing those phenomena the notions of dark energy, space-time background and gravitational interaction are not needed}). In the second part of the paper we describe motivation, ideas and main results of a quantum theory over a Galois field (GFQT). In contrast to standard quantum theory, GFQT is based on a solid mathematics and therefore can be treated as a candidate for ultimate quantum theory. The presentation is descriptional and should be understandable by a wide audience of physicists and philosophers.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[561] viXra:1405.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-01 12:52:24

Cosmic Gravity

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 16 pages, 3 figures

English(traduction): Here mention that gravity is not a variety of Riemann space is following patterns Similar to the special theory of relativity as to time warp refers . We show that the Euclidean continuum is a mathematical entelequia, and therefore has a curved surface and a single point of a plane tangent to said surface . The infinitesimal character disappears to make way for spacetime quanta, which depend on the distance to the center of the attractor mass and the magnitude of it. Regarding the gemini speed. Perceive the distorted astronomical periods. Explaining and severity depends on the set of all the stars that populate the universe. It is argued that solar radiation is due to the expansion of the universe, also mentioning the peculiarities the Sun. It explains that both local gravity, as the trajectory of a photon are few and obey forminvariantes space and time, based on all stars. It is stated that the time dilation factor in the TRE is a consequence of the sets of star, both with inertia as electric potential. And finally , the possibility of an even ours but added compound Universe antimatter. Being the last over time because of the flux density of electric field. The details of an experiment made ??with a time dilation charged sphere can be found in Appendix C. Spanish (original): Aquí se hace mención a que la gravedad no es una variedad del espacio de Riemann, siguiendo unos patrones similares a los de la teoría de la relatividad especial en cuanto a deformación del tiempo se refiere. Se demuestra que el continuo euclidiano es una entelequia matemática, y, por tanto, una superficie curva tiene un y un solo punto de un cierto plano, tangente a dicha superficie. El carácter infinitesimal desaparece para dejar paso a cuantos de espaciotiempo, que dependen de la distancia al centro de la masa atractora y de la magnitud de ésta. En cuanto a la velocidad géminis. Percibimos los períodos astronómicos distorsionados. Explicando como la gravedad depende del conjunto de todas las estrellas que pueblan el Universo. Se argumenta que la radiación solar es debida a la expansión del Universo, mencionando además las peculiaridades del Sol. Se explica que tanto la gravedad local, como la trayectoria de un fotón son forminvariantes y obedecen a cuantos de espacio y de tiempo, en función de todas las estrellas. Se expone que el factor de dilatación temporal de la TRE es consecuencia de los conjuntos de estrellas, tanto con inercia como con potencial eléctrico. Y, por último, se añade la posibilidad de que exista un Universo parejo al nuestro pero compuesto de antimateria. Siendo la causa última del transcurso del tiempo la densidad de flujo de Campo eléctrico. En el Apéndice C se recogen los detalles de un experimento de dilatación temporal hecho con una esfera cargada.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[560] viXra:1404.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-30 09:32:28

Does the Leech Lattice Constrain String Vibrations?

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 6 Pages.

Is Milgrom the Kepler of contemporary cosmology? If X is to string theory as Kepler’s laws are to Newtonian theory then what is X? What questions should string theorists ask? Are string vibrations confined to 3 copies of the Leech lattice? If string vibrations are confined to 3 copies of the Leech lattice, then what might be the implications for Einstein’s field equations? Does inertial resistance to gravitational acceleration become infinite as energy density approaches some natural upper limit? Is nature infinite if and only if the equivalence principle is 100% empirically valid? Consider Fredkin’s finite nature hypothesis: In any mathematical model related to physics, a complete infinity is either a mathematical convenience or a physical mistake. What might be the implications of the Fredkin hypothesis for gravitational theory? Does Wolfram’s automaton create approximate symmetries that falsely appear as completely valid symmetries above the Planck scale? Do string vibrations cause an unexpected inertial resistance to gravitational acceleration? This brief communication discusses the idea: (Inert mass) * Acceleration = (Intensity of the gravitational field) * (Gravitation mass) * (Scale factor related to the Leech lattice).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[495] viXra:1407.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-27 17:21:36

How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[494] viXra:1407.0148 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-21 08:53:03

Calculation of the Planck Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[493] viXra:1407.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-24 07:06:29

Electro-Gravitational Technology Via Chronon Field

Authors: Eytan Suchard
Comments: 34 Pages. (14) was updated for accuracy and a link was added in the abstract

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122 to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[492] viXra:1407.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-15 19:15:27

Lambda-VDM Model: a Testable Modification of Lambda-CDM

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 4 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[491] viXra:1407.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-22 00:42:31

Black Holes (Astronomy Versus Cosmos)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 9 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) - We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics. Reason for replacement of previous version – to add a subsection proposing 1) that time travel can account for ordinary atomic matter being the basis of ALL dark matter, 2) that the Sun is centuries younger then we think, 3) that the anthropic principle restricts the amount of time travel.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[490] viXra:1407.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-16 04:56:21

The Origin and Nature of Extreme-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. There are produced the binary systems of discs composed of the W or Z bosons. They decay to two tagged photons moving in opposite directions. Since there as well are possible the other channels of decay so the decays to two tagged photons are very rare. The discs have strictly determined mass so the photons have strictly determined energy as well. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. The smallest mass/energy of disc/photon should be detected in CERN. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[489] viXra:1407.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-09 09:31:34

Quantum Physics and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[488] viXra:1407.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-25 05:00:32

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages. This version summarizes the steps for the calculation of the Gravitational Constant in Equation 1.1

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[487] viXra:1407.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-24 13:01:21

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages. This version includes a relationship between gravity and charge forces.

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[486] viXra:1406.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-16 16:14:47

Metastable Vacuum an Introduction

Authors: Thierry PERIAT
Comments: 22 Pages.

The so-called theory of the (E) question introduces extended Lie brackets in physics. This allows a renewed vision concerning the cosmic strings and quasi-empty cosmological volumes (vacuum). That new document is an attempt connecting diverse concepts: vacuum, strings, supra-conduction and the "birth" of Newtonian field. Although just an introduction, it probably sketches a totally original path in physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[485] viXra:1406.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-21 08:13:48

The Evolution of Massive Galaxies

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the evolution of massive galaxies. Within the new cosmology, applying very simple mathematics, we can answer following questions. Why many of the oldest most massive galaxies reside in clusters? Is the gravitational redshift important for the E/S0 galaxies? What is contribution of the kinematical Doppler effect of Special Relativity to the total cosmological redshift? Is the acceleration of expansion of the Universe an illusion? Why the massive red evolved galaxies are already in place at high redshift? Why the red-sequence has a boundary at z = 0.44? When and how were produced the first-generation stars the E/S0 galaxies consist of? What was the origin of a rapid build-up of the red sequence and why it is quiescent i.e. why there do not appear numerous new stars i.e. what are the phenomena responsible for the powerful shut-down mechanism of new-star formation i.e. why E/S0 galaxies evolve in a purely passive way? Why evolution of the most massive E/S0 galaxies was quicker for lower redshift i.e. why number of massive red galaxies is greater for redshift smaller than 0.7? Why there is a significant population of massive blue galaxies at high redshift?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[484] viXra:1406.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-19 03:14:16

The Evolution of Massive Galaxies

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the evolution of massive galaxies. Within the new cosmology, applying very simple mathematics, we can answer following questions. Why many of the oldest most massive galaxies reside in clusters? Is the gravitational redshift important for the E/S0 galaxies? What is contribution of the kinematical Doppler effect of Special Relativity to the total cosmological redshift? Is the acceleration of expansion of the Universe an illusion? Why the massive red evolved galaxies are already in place at high redshift? Why the red-sequence has a boundary at z = 0.44? When and how were produced the first-generation stars the E/S0 galaxies consist of? What was the origin of a rapid build-up of the red sequence and why it is quiescent i.e. why there do not appear numerous new stars i.e. what are the phenomena responsible for the powerful shut-down mechanism of new-star formation i.e. why E/S0 galaxies evolve in a purely passive way? Why evolution of the most massive E/S0 galaxies was quicker for lower redshift i.e. why number of massive red galaxies is greater for redshift smaller than 0.7? Why there is a significant population of massive blue galaxies at high redshift?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory