**Previous months:**

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2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(14) - 1503(15) - 1504(10) - 1505(16) - 1506(15) - 1507(19) - 1508(17) - 1509(20) - 1510(31) - 1511(22) - 1512(19)

2016 - 1601(16) - 1602(9)

Any replacements are listed further down

[882] **viXra:1602.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 12:01:59*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Catalogue。
Introduction。
Theoretical physics, Chapter 1: current conditionsand issues
[1] modern physics in the challenge
[2] elementary pulsation principle and dark energy pulsating principle
[3] Einstein kept looking for 4-dimensional space
[4]The geometry of the universe
[5] all equations, quantum gravity theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[881] **viXra:1602.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 12:31:12*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

[1] modern physics goals, Super grand unified theory hypothesis
[2] in 1980, elementary pulsation principle announced in Japan physical society
an announcement in the Japan physical society in 1980 [3] cinii National Institute of Infomatics to be stored.
[4] on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles
An illustrated guide [5] nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force
[6] elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force of unity
[7] pulsation principle model for finite nuclei structure.
Front and back of the same photon's [8] photons and quantum gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[880] **viXra:1602.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 13:11:35*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Hypothesis.
Pulsating waves of dark energy "Super cord" is.
1) line on energy waveform pulsation principle hypothesis in Super string of geometric models and hypotheses.
2) ultra thong has a large intermittent intermittent point, corresponding to quantum field theory.
3), reducing the size of the extra dimensions in micro space, not a fine time.
4) pimp 振eru traditional, almost no correspondence with various physics concepts in the low temperature.
5) pulsations in the four-dimensional space of string is any observation in the present world of low temperature and experimental facts
Be explained naturally. And unity of all the forces of the natural world, to unite in one place of all.
6) of new geometric model of superstring theory, dark energy, dark matter, nuclear forces, gravity and
To illustrate the mechanism of electromagnetic force, as a function of the same photon to illustrated the gravity and electromagnetic forces.
7) third primary revolution by Schwartz et al, the second revolution by Witten. No. 3: leather shown here
Life by elementary pulsation principle extra dimensions in ultra fine time compact will be.
8) particle processes the waves stroke the film universe in which we live during a time of waves of negative particles
Are trapped. Three types of 3-dimensional space (9 d) and time 1 d in total ten-dimensional.
9) electromagnetic force acts in the film universe, gravity acts in the negative particle processes to function intermittently.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[879] **viXra:1602.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 01:48:13*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this work, Newton's law of gravity is derived from the concepts of information theory and Bremermann theorems for calculating limits . We introduce the assumption that the physical space is the information density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[878] **viXra:1602.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 03:03:22*

**Authors:** L.saidani

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is a new theory based on an algorithmic approach. Its only element is called nokton. These rules are precise. The infinities are completely absent whatever the system studied. It is a theory with discrete space and time. The theory is only at these beginnings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[877] **viXra:1602.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 08:21:30*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Completely re done document. May be accepted by JHEPGC, which has Christian Corda as head editor

Could a causal discontinuity lead to an explanation of fluctuations in the CMBR radiation spectrum? Is this argument valid if there is some third choice of set structure (for instance do self referential sets fall into one category or another?). The answer to this question may lie in (entangled?)
vortex structure of space time, along the lines of structure similar to that generate in the laboratory by Ruutu. Self-referential sets may be part of the generated vortex structure, and we will endeavor to find if this can be experimentally investigated. If the causal set argument and its violation via this procedure holds, we have the view that what we see a space time ‘drum’ effect with the causal discontinuity forming the head of a ‘drum’ for a region of about 10 10 bits of ‘information’ before our present universe up to the instant of the big bang itself for a time region less than ~ 10 to the minus 44 seconds in duration, with a region of increasing bits of ‘information’ going up to 120 10 due to vortex filament condensed matter style forming
through a symmetry breaking phase transition. We address the issue of what this has to do with Bicep 2, the question of scalar-tensor gravity versus general relativity, how to avoid the detection of dust generated Gravity wave signals as what ruined the Bicep 2 experiment and some issues information flow and causal
structure has for our CMBR data as seen in an overall summary of these issues in Appendix X, of this document. Appendix XI mentions how to differentiate between scalar-Tensor gravity, and General relativity whereas Appendix XII, discusses how to avoid the Bicep 2 mistake again. While Appendix VIII gives us a simple data for a graviton power burst which we found instructive. We stress again, the importance of obtaining clean data sets so as to help us in the eventual detection of gravitational waves
which we regard as decisively important and which we think by 2025 or so which will be an
important test to discriminate in a full experimental sense the choice of general relativity and other gravity theories, for the evolution of cosmology. Which is one of the foundational issue we hope to answer. Finally, Appendix VII brings up a model for production for gravitons, which is extremely simple.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[876] **viXra:1602.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 06:40:36*

**Authors:** Abdullah Shehada

**Comments:** 6 Pages

In this paper a new effect have been taken into account which has ever been used before
in physics, this effect related to two different fields, Quantum physics and General Relativity.
This effect takes name: Time Dilatation as an Effect of Approaching Planck Length, this effect is completely different from the gravitational time dilatation in general relativity and time dilatation due to closing to the speed of light in special relativity. The new effect becomes obvious and strong for the particles that have high energies and very small diameters. Experiments in particle physics and astrophysics had got conclusion that the particles may travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum, such as MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy field. And that seems violating the theory of relativity, but this theory can explain all these unusual observations easily and doesn't violating the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[875] **viXra:1602.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 22:17:43*

**Authors:** J. P. Lestone

**Comments:** 4 pages, 2 figures

We consider the possibility that electromagnetism is caused by the exchange of unphysical L=0 photons between fundamental particles with properties that resemble quantum black holes. This force is infinite if the known far-field cross section is assumed. However, the divergence is generated at low energy where the photon wavelengths are large and the far-field limit fails. An estimate of the near-field correction removes the infinity and leads to an estimate of the inverse fine structure constant of alpha^-1~139. A speculative scaling of a term controlling the near-field correction by 1/(1+alpha) gives the result alpha^-1=137.038. A suggested speculative link to the higher-order QED corrections to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron gives alpha^-1=137.036 and a calculated elementary charge q=1.602177x10^-19 C. These calculations suggest elementary particles are quantum black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[874] **viXra:1602.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 07:42:12*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I propose a model for quantum black holes and gravity based on a harmonic oscillator representing the black hole horizon covered by Planck length sized squares carrying soft hair. An analogical entropy function is constructed to the null surfaces of spacetime. Extremizing this entropy leads to the equation for the background metric of the spacetime with the cosmological constant as an integration constant. Secondly, I redefine the partition function sum over horizon squares by a sum over black hole stretched horizon constituents, which are black holes themselves. Based on this partition function Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law, Hawking radiation and Unruh effects are predicted

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[873] **viXra:1601.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 04:57:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The observed and theoretical results for the perihelion precession of planets are very close except for the planet Venus - observed value is about 204 arc seconds per century whereas theoretical value is more than 5 times higher. It is assumed that the main reason for this is that Venus has an unusually low eccentricity (e = 0.0068) so its perihelion point is very sensitive to small perturbations. But such an explanation is not convincing because eccentricities of Neptune (e = 0.0086) and Earth (e = 0.0167) are very low as well whereas theoretical results are much better. Within the mainstream theories, we cannot show the origin of the precession rate for Venus. The Scale-Symmetric Theory provides a different explanation for the discrepancy for Venus and leads to the value about 204.5 arc seconds per century. The correct solution follows from the origin of the Titius-Bode law for the modified black holes and solar system. We showed also that there is a resonance between the two values obtained by applying the two very different methods in calculating the precession rate of Mercury i.e. the Newtonian Mechanics plus the General-Relativity (GR) correction and the Scale-Symmetric Theory plus the GR perihelion shift. In both methods, the central value is 574.6 arc seconds per century and is consistent with observational data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[872] **viXra:1601.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 19:46:57*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper shows that the information has a material basis , it has its own energy density . There is an equivalence between the two concepts of the gravitational field and the flow of information .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[871] **viXra:1601.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:38:53*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 16 Pages. to be published in the proceedings of the 2015 Barcelona conference on applications of geometric Clifford algebra.

The background independence shared by the geometric interpretation of Clifford algebra and the impedance approach to quantization, coupled with the natural gauge invariance of phase shifts introduced by quantum impedances, opens the possibility that identifying the geometric objects of the impedance model with those of Geometric Algebra will permit a more intuitive understanding of the equivalence of gauge theory gravity in flat space with general relativity in curved space, and permit introduction of the associated gauge group.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[870] **viXra:1601.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-29 20:20:32*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Originally, the content of this article was more limited, and it was entitled "Relativity means Evolution must adapt". Its abstract was -
When contemplating the theory of evolution, many people assume evolution belongs exclusively to the biological sciences. I maintain complete comprehension also requires physics. Without a conviction that time travel to the past is possible, I’d have to totally agree with the evolutionary concepts Charles Darwin proposed. But I have no doubt that time doesn’t exclusively operate in a straight line.
I found that one thing needed more explanation, then another thing needed explaining, then another thing ... This would have turned into a book if I went into every detail at great length. It ended up as an overview that combines Einstein's two Relativity theories and Unified Field Theory with quantum physics and tomorrow's quantum computers. It also uses the concepts of "real", imaginary and complex time to bring cosmology's Big Bang theory, the Steady State's infinity and eternity, and the Inflationary theory into the 21st century.
I would have preferred to write an article with no additional paragraphs that begin with *, ^, #, etc. It might be easier to read. If I figure out how to write such an article, there'll be an updated version. In the meantime, I hope this first version will be satisfactory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[869] **viXra:1601.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-28 09:20:23*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Poster presentation, PMS_003, Andhra Pradesh Academi of Sciences, 1st Science Congress, Tirupati, AP, India. (27/29-Jan-2016)

Till today, there is no single model available that fully incorporates the standard model of nuclear physics, quantum mechanics and general relativity. In this context, by considering the strength of Schwarzschild interaction as ‘unity’, it is possible to show that, 1) There exists an elementary charge connected with strong interaction, (es); 2) Strong coupling constant is equal to the squared ratio of electromagnetic elementary charge and strong interaction elementary charge. 3) Electromagnetic interaction and the strong interaction both associated with two different gravitational constants (Ge,Gs,). 4) Quantum mechanical constants are secondary physical constants. 5) Currently believed average binding per nucleon is equal to the gravitational self energy of proton. 6) Proton’s magnetic moment is equal to {(es.hbar)/(2mp)} and neutron’s magnetic moment is equal to {(es.hbar)/(2mp)}-{ (ee.hbar)/(2mn)}. 7) Nuclear charge radius is equal to (2Gsmp/c2). 8) Root mean square radius of proton is equal to (√2.Gsmp/c2). Proceeding further, nuclear stability, nuclear binding energy and magic numbers can be understood in a very simplified manner.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[868] **viXra:1601.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-26 13:51:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, all bodies in a vacuum regardless of their properties are accelerated by the Earth's gravity at the same rate. This principle of equivalence applies to stones, feathers and atoms alike. Under the conditions of microgravity very long and precise measurements can be carried out to determine whether different atoms of different mass actually "fall equally fast". [5]
We can show that the Equivalence Principle is based on the Electromagnetic Force. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[867] **viXra:1601.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-22 07:42:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[866] **viXra:1601.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-20 22:35:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated space. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza).
The calculations, herein, imply space to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Space that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[865] **viXra:1601.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-17 05:55:57*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The empirical successes of Milgrom’s Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) suggest that there is a serious problem with Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory. Could dark matter have positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy? Einstein wrote (“The Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 57) that “A little reflection will show that the law of the equality of the inert and the gravitational mass is equivalent to the assertion that the acceleration imparted to a body by a gravitational field is independent of the nature of the body. For Newton's equation of motion in a gravitational field, written out in full, is (Inert mass) * (Acceleration) = (Intensity of the gravitational field) * (Gravitational mass). It is only when there is numerical equality between the inert and gravitational mass that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body.” Is it necessarily true that IT IS ONLY WHEN THERE IS NUMERICAL EQUALITY between inertial mass-energy and gravitational mass-energy that THE ACCELERATION IS INDEPENDENT OF THE NATURE OF THE BODY? There is a possibility that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body but THERE IS A SYSTEMATIC DEVIATION between the inertial mass-energy and gravitational mass-energy. Consider Einstein’s field equations: R(mu,nu) + (-1/2) * R = - κ * T(mu,nu) - Λ * g(mu,nu) — what might be wrong? Consider the possible correction R(mu,nu) + (-1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant) * R = - κ * (T(mu,nu) / equivalence-principle-failure-factor) - Λ * g(mu,nu), where equivalence-principle-failure-factor = T(mu,nu) / (1 - (T(mu,nu)/T(max))^2)^(1/2) — if dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 and T(max) = +∞ then Einstein’s field equations are recovered. Empirical evidence shows that black holes exist. The event horizons of black holes might be figments of the imagination caused by believing in Einstein’s equivalence principle. John P. Lestone’s ideas might suggest that something is wrong with Einstein’s field equations. This brief communication argues that relativistic MOND is the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[864] **viXra:1601.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-13 09:50:33*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Using the principles of CQI and E8 charge space-qubit entanglement mentioned above, it is possible to represent various particle creations and particle-particle interactions using creation, rotation and other qubit operators. Discussed here are formulations, procedures and examples of the same.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[863] **viXra:1601.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-10 11:56:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Sabine Hossenfelder states, “The Holographic Principle requires that the number of different states inside a volume is bounded by the surface of the volume. That sounds like a rather innocuous and academic constraint, but once you start thinking about it it’s totally mindboggling.”(2)This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. It gives a mechanism of why the Holographic Principle is true.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[862] **viXra:1601.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 13:57:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The curved space-time around current loops and solenoids carrying arbitrarily large steady electric currents is obtained from the numerical resolution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations in cylindrical symmetry. The artificial gravitational field associated to the generation of a magnetic field produces gravitational redshift of photons and deviation of light. Null geodesics in the curved space-time of current loops and solenoids are also presented. We finally propose an experimental setup, achievable with current technology of superconducting coils, that produces a phase shift of light of the same order of magnitude than astrophysical signals in ground-based gravitational wave observatories. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[861] **viXra:1601.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-07 11:35:21*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Some 2D and 3D black hole exterior solutions for Quantum Graphity are briefly presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[860] **viXra:1601.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-04 07:49:22*

**Authors:** Sudhanva Joshi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

For many centuries now, scientists have been trying to find the origin of time.Perhaps,on more deeper thoughts what is TIME itself? Some think it as some sort of cymatic matter,some think that it is the result of uniform flow of space-time continuum while others think it as quantitative term for ‘existence’. But nobody knows till now what exactly is time?what does it stand for?will it ever end? Etc.In this paper,I have simply tried some tricks with einsteins field equations to get an exact low energy solution for possible physical properties of TIME.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[859] **viXra:1601.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-01 14:16:42*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Matter cannot be fat, round, bulging, bulbous or anything other than stringlike.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[858] **viXra:1601.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-01 11:37:59*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article, I assume the hypothesis that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a property of the structure of space on the scale of quantum gravity . According to loop theory of gravity space is a global web consisting of fibers having a specific topology in the form of a filamentary mesh .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[857] **viXra:1512.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 08:25:34*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Wishing a cheerful and flourishing new year 2016

In the early publications, with reference to final unification, the authors suggested that, 1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.72058686E-19 C. 2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’. 3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329560807E28 m3/kg/sec2. 4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335472E37 m3/kg/sec2. Based on these concepts, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of ‘discrete’ angular momentum of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, estimated value of Newtonian gravitational constant is GN~6.67985603E-11 m3/kg/sec2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[856] **viXra:1512.0474 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 16:00:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the GASER (Gamma Amplifier by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is characteristic for stars with a mass close to one solar mass. SST shows that in reality the observed neutrino “oscillations” follow from the exchanges of the free neutrinos (they interact gravitationally only) for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of, and follow from the decays of the unstable tau-neutrinos. Just due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the neutrino-antineutrino pairs cannot annihilate and neutrinos cannot change their species. Notice as well that there is no reliable experimental data showing that at such a short distance as between the Sun and Earth, two-thirds of electron-neutrinos could change their species. SST shows that there are the exchanges and decays of the neutrinos but their abundance should be much lower than it is assumed in the mainstream cosmology. We must find a different mechanism explaining why we see only about one-third of the electron-neutrinos. Here we show that the solar neutrino problem can be solved via the stellar GASER which is characteristic for stars with a mass close to one solar mass. GASER causes that we observe only about 35.7% electron-neutrinos in comparison with abundance calculated within the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The GASER solves as well the lithium problem. The lithium problem should be characteristic for old stars with mass below 0.94 solar mass. The various nuclear transformations in such stars cause that the production of lighter nuclei is not such effective as it is assumed in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[855] **viXra:1512.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 07:06:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine-structure constant constant. This constant is found to depend only on pi and the dimensionless relations of the rest masses of the electron, neutron, and proton. The following paper shows a predicted fine-structure constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969. The fine-structure constant found is accurate to the measured fine-structure constant within less than one sigma. As the data for the fundamental physical constants has become more accurate, the prediction for the fine-structure constant has been trending for a precise number difference.
Some, like John D. Barrow, Richard Feynman, and Sir Arthur Eddington knew that the fine-structures existence is embarrassingly elusive to grasp. Is its value to be found in string theory or quantum foam? Is pi a value incorporated in the fine-structure constant?
John D. Barrow wrote;“If the deep logic of what determines the value of the fine-structure constant also played a significant role in our understanding of all the physical processes in which the fine-structure constant enters, then we would be stymied. Fortunately, we do not need to know everything before we can know something.”
― John D. Barrow, New Theories of Everything(4)
Why does, this Equation 4, below predict a value for the fine-structure constant within the limits of the Quantum Hall method of measuring the fine-structure constant? We do not know, but we also touch a forever that we do not yet understand, yet are allowed to exist in the “ moment an instant lasted forever and be destined for the leading edge of Eternity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[854] **viXra:1512.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 00:51:02*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant consistently nearly equal to the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over all eight publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 700 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, Equation 2, below, predicted a more accurate Planck constant, than the Codata value of the respective Codata publication. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, may be mirroring the calculations, and may be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[853] **viXra:1512.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 08:50:53*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the framework of the Joos-Weinberg 2(2S+1)- theory for massless particles, the dynamical invariants have been derived from the Lagrangian density which is considered to be a 4-vector. A la Majorana interpretation of the 6-component ``spinors`", the field operators of
S=1 particles, as the left- and right-circularly polarized radiation,
leads us to the conserved quantities which are analogous to those obtained by Lipkin and Sudbery. The scalar Lagrangian of the Joos-Weinberg theory is shown to be equivalent
to the Lagrangian of a free massless field, introduced by Hayashi. As a consequence of a new ``gauge" invariance this skew-symmetric field describes physical particles with the longitudinal components only.
The interaction of the spinor field with the Weinberg's 2(2S+1)-component massless field is considered. New interpretation of the Weinberg field function is proposed.
KEYWORDS: quantum electrodynamics, Lorentz group representation,
high-spin particles, bivector, electromagnetic field
potential.
PACS: 03.50.De, 11.10.Ef, 11.10.Qr, 11.17+y, 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[852] **viXra:1512.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 20:52:34*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 100 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, over the last six Codata publications, the equations below have been closer to the next Codata publication for the Planck constant. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, must be mirroring the calculations, and must be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[851] **viXra:1512.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 23:18:45*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A coming back to the steady-state cosmology permits, from the horizon radius temporal invariance, to apply the Holographic principle to Cosmology. This one invariant parameter cosmology resolves not only many problems of the standard cosmology, with its six temporally variable free parameters, but also theoretical physics problems, such as parity violation and a rehabilitation of the tachyo-bosonic string theory. In particular, this justifies the critical condition and the Universe vastness, introducing a space-time quantization, smaller than the Planck units by a factor 4.0 × 10^60, and a 'Grandcosmos' larger than the Universe in the same ratio. This Grandcosmos appears as a lacking element in the steady-state cosmology, and introduces a super-speed exceeding c in the same ratio, resolving the vacuum energy dilemma. A special form of the Eddington's horizon formula leads to a Universe mass in a specific rational ratio with the reduced electron mass, showing that the Cosmos is calculating p. Dramatic relations between cosmic and biologic canonic quantities suggests an inversion of the anthropic principle and rejection of Darwin evolution, suggesting universality of intelligent life.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[850] **viXra:1512.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 10:24:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On Tuesday, 15 December 2015, physicists from CERN published the results from Run 2. There is an excess of pairs of photons for total energy about 750 GeV. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present the origin of new LHC scalar resonance with a mass of 742 GeV. This mass follows from structure of baryonic plasma and Einstein spacetime and from the four-fermion symmetry (the quadrupole symmetry). The main mechanism is the same as for production of the composite Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[849] **viXra:1512.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 03:12:07*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

On a previous paper (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040) it is described the first Nature force (the Universal antigravity), because of which the galaxies follow an accelerated centrifugal motion. Therefore, what the great astronomer Edwin Hubble observed is not due to the Universe «expansion» as a result of the «Big Bang», but it is the relative motion of galaxies.
The Cosmic journey of the matter (the galaxies) takes place at the constant timeless speed (see http://viXra.org/abs/1507.0079) towards the Universe periphery, while the numbers 3, 4 and 5 express the Pythagorean harmony of matter and centrifugal antigravity motion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[848] **viXra:1512.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 14:06:12*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 24 references, no figures

A modified Fermi coupling of the weak interactions is proposed and in analogy with the Planck units, a Fermi scale is defined. We define a second Fermi length, a Fermi mass (related to the threshold energy for unitarity), and a Fermi time. The holographic principle (HP) is then applied to some two-dimensional objects, where the unit cell size is given by the second Fermi length. With the aid of non-linear Dirac equation, a formula is obtained relating the Fermi, the nucleon, and the electron masses. Another relationship is found, linking the second Fermi length to cosmological constant and Planck scales. Finally HP in 2-d is employed in a stationary condition for the free energy, as a means to evaluate the neutral pion decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[847] **viXra:1512.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 05:00:50*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted to Phys. Letts B

After a cursory introduction of the basic ideas behind Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain $nonholonomic$ modifications of Riemann--Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry. A novel gauge theory of gravity in the $8D$ cotangent bundle $ T^*M$ of spacetime is explicitly constructed and based on the gauge group $ SO (6, 2) \times_s R^8$ which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle $ T_{ ( {\bf x}, {\bf p}) } T^*M $ at each point $ ({\bf x}, {\bf p})$. Several gravitational actions involving curvature and torsion tensors and associated with the geometry of curved phase spaces are presented. A brief discussion of the vacuum field equations is provided in the conclusion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[846] **viXra:1512.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-10 10:10:16*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Gravity is not the weak force you might think it is. You are only realizing a small part of the picture.

There is an overall tension field in space that is responsible for gravity. Any masses introduced into the field create an higher tension -- that's what is thought of as gravity -- but there is more to it.

The Earth is of course pulling you down but space itself is also pulling you.

The Earth has a stronger pull (more connections) so it wins the tug-of-war.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[845] **viXra:1512.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-10 10:28:24*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we can find only certain summary of the mass-gap problem that is already solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). We cannot solve the Yang-Mills mass-gap problem within the quantum Yang-Mills theory because it is incomplete i.e. this theory does not lead to the internal structure of bare baryons (of the core of baryons) that is responsible for production of the massive carriers of the nuclear weak and strong interactions. To solve the mass-gap problem we must describe following three mechanisms: the real Higgs mechanism i.e. we must show how the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) acquire their gravitational mass because of their interactions with the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field - it follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field described within SST, the mechanism of production of the condensates composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are responsible for the nuclear weak interactions, and the mechanism of production of the pions that are responsible for the nuclear strong interactions of baryons. Such mechanisms are described within SST which is the mathematically coherent theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[844] **viXra:1512.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 05:34:41*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We cannot travel in a hyperspace because it is not a spacetime containing higher spatial dimensions. Hyperspace “acts” in the 4-dimensional spacetime and defines the degrees of freedom of different size scales obtained because of the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field - it is described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Hyperspace described within SST leads to the origin of the base of the natural logarithm in physics, to masses of the three heaviest quarks and to the sums of squared charges of baryon components and energy thresholds that are consistent with experimental data. Emphasize that structures described within the SST hyperspace lead to the Chaos Theory also.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[843] **viXra:1512.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 14:25:43*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller nested Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure.
We saw in
In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe.
We saw in The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres, that both gravity and charge, indicate a spherical spinning shape for the pixelated components to the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[842] **viXra:1512.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:12:30*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Theories that describe the same phenomena but contain more parameters are the worse theories. Mathematical constants applied in physics if they have not a physical meaning are the parameters as well. It leads to conclusion that to reduce number of parameters we must show how mathematical constants applied in physics arise from physical initial conditions. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory, number of all parameters is reduced to 7. Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the origin of mathematical constants in physics. We showed that the state of spacetime and the structure of baryons that due to the dark-matter structures leaks out, leads to a number that is close to the base of the natural logarithm, whereas the entanglons responsible for the quantum entanglement lead to number Pi and to the imaginary unit i = sqrt(-1).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[841] **viXra:1512.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 01:00:24*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, we motivate that the superluminal neutrinos can be produced only due to the weak interactions in the central condensates of baryons and only when the quantum entanglement between produced neutrinos in the beta decays and the neutrons/protons is destroyed. We assume that in the earlier experiments, the superluminal neutrinos were not eliminated whereas in the later ones such neutrinos were eliminated because of the additional elements of apparatus between the place of collision and the detector. It is the reason that we cite the earlier scientific works. The observed neutrino speed in the earlier MINOS experiment, in the earlier OPERA experiment, and the observed time-distance between the fronts of the neutrino and photon beams, observed on the Earth, for the supernova SN 1987A are consistent with the theoretical results obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Theory. All results are obtained within the same coherent model. How we can verify presented model? We should measure time distances between photon and neutrino fronts for supernovae - they should be directly proportional to distances between supernovae and Earth. We as well should repeat the MINOS experiment at lower energies applying proper apparatus - there should be observed the upper limit for the speed of neutrinos 1.000050(21)c.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[797] **viXra:1601.0357 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-02 11:50:24*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The observed and theoretical results for the perihelion precession of planets are very close except for the planet Venus - observed value is about 204 arc seconds per century whereas theoretical value is more than 5 times higher. It is assumed that the main reason for this is that Venus has an unusually low eccentricity (e = 0.0068) so its perihelion point is very sensitive to small perturbations. But such an explanation is not convincing because eccentricities of Neptune (e = 0.0086) and Earth (e = 0.0167) are very low as well whereas theoretical results are much better. Within the mainstream theories, we cannot show the origin of the precession rate for Venus. The Scale-Symmetric Theory provides a different explanation for the discrepancy for Venus and leads to the value about 204.5 arc seconds per century. The correct solution follows from the origin of the Titius-Bode law for the modified black holes and solar system. We showed also that there is a resonance between the two values obtained by applying the two very different methods in calculating the precession rate of Mercury i.e. the Newtonian Mechanics plus the General-Relativity (GR) correction and the Scale-Symmetric Theory plus the PPN-formalism perihelion shift. In both methods, the central value is 574.6 arc seconds per century and is consistent with observational data. But we can calculate the total precession rates for Mercury and Venus within the Scale-Symmetric Theory without the participation of the PPN formalism or other theories. Then we obtain 574.36 arcsec/century for Mercury (this result is closer to the observational-data central value 574.10 +- 0.65 arcsec/century) and 204.44 arcsec/century for Venus.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[796] **viXra:1601.0357 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-01 15:18:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The observed and theoretical results for the perihelion precession of planets are very close except for the planet Venus - observed value is about 204 arc seconds per century whereas theoretical value is more than 5 times higher. It is assumed that the main reason for this is that Venus has an unusually low eccentricity (e = 0.0068) so its perihelion point is very sensitive to small perturbations. But such an explanation is not convincing because eccentricities of Neptune (e = 0.0086) and Earth (e = 0.0167) are very low as well whereas theoretical results are much better. Within the mainstream theories, we cannot show the origin of the precession rate for Venus. The Scale-Symmetric Theory provides a different explanation for the discrepancy for Venus and leads to the value about 204.5 arc seconds per century. The correct solution follows from the origin of the Titius-Bode law for the modified black holes and solar system. We showed also that there is a resonance between the two values obtained by applying the two very different methods in calculating the precession rate of Mercury i.e. the Newtonian Mechanics plus the General-Relativity (GR) correction and the Scale-Symmetric Theory plus the PPN-formalism perihelion shift. In both methods, the central value is 574.6 arc seconds per century and is consistent with observational data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[795] **viXra:1601.0318 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-03 23:03:22*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

When contemplating the theory of evolution, many people assume evolution belongs exclusively to the biological sciences. It's maintained here that complete comprehension also requires physics. Without a conviction that time doesn’t exclusively operate in a straight line and that time travel to the past is possible, science would have to totally agree with the evolutionary concepts Charles Darwin proposed.
This article also attempts to combine Einstein's two Relativity theories and Unified Field Theory with quantum physics and tomorrow's hyper-computers. It also uses the concepts of "real", imaginary and complex time to try to bring cosmology's Big Bang theory, the Steady State's infinity and eternity, and the Inflationary theory into the 21st century.
To read an explanation in plain English of subuniverses using topology (rubber-sheet geometry), go to "Topological monoverse" at the end of this article. This says there is no multiverse (universes existing alongside ours). But remember, it regards the 13.8 billion year old structure we live in as merely a subuniverse within an infinite universe. It's saying there are no other universes beyond our infinite universe. Each subuniverse or observable universe could be viewed as the entire universe, in which case the multiverse does exist.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[794] **viXra:1601.0318 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-31 22:38:28*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Since writing the first version of this article, several more parts have been found which require further explanation. These new parts have taken days to conceive and type, and have caused much concern and sleeplessness. It's all been worthwhile though, for they make the article MUCH clearer!
Originally, the content of this article was more limited, and it was entitled "Relativity means Evolution must adapt". Its abstract was -
When contemplating the theory of evolution, many people assume evolution belongs exclusively to the biological sciences. I maintain complete comprehension also requires physics. Without a conviction that time travel to the past is possible, I’d have to totally agree with the evolutionary concepts Charles Darwin proposed. But I have no doubt that time doesn’t exclusively operate in a straight line.
I found that one thing needed more explanation, then another thing needed explaining, then another thing ... This would have turned into a book if I went into every detail at great length. It ended up as an overview that combines Einstein's two Relativity theories and Unified Field Theory with quantum physics and tomorrow's quantum computers. It also uses the concepts of "real", imaginary and complex time to bring cosmology's Big Bang theory, the Steady State's infinity and eternity, and the Inflationary theory into the 21st century.
I would have preferred to write an article with no additional paragraphs that begin with *, ^, #, etc. It might be easier to read. If I figure out how to write such an article, there'll be an updated version. In the meantime, I hope this first version will be satisfactory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[793] **viXra:1601.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 11:34:46*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The empirical successes of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) suggest that there is a serious problem with Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory. Could dark matter have positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy? Einstein wrote (“The Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 57) that “A little reflection will show that the law of the equality of the inert and the gravitational mass is equivalent to the assertion that the acceleration imparted to a body by a gravitational field is independent of the nature of the body. For Newton's equation of motion in a gravitational field, written out in full, is (Inert mass) * (Acceleration) = (Intensity of the gravitational field) * (Gravitational mass). It is only when there is numerical equality between the inert and gravitational mass that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body.” Is it necessarily true that IT IS ONLY WHEN THERE IS NUMERICAL EQUALITY between inertial mass-energy and gravitational mass-energy that THE ACCELERATION IS INDEPENDENT OF THE NATURE OF THE BODY? There is a possibility that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body but THERE IS A SYSTEMATIC DEVIATION between the inertial mass-energy and gravitational mass-energy. Consider Einstein’s field equations: R(mu,nu) + (-1/2) * g(mu,nu) * R = - κ * T(mu,nu) - Λ * g(mu,nu) — what might be wrong? Consider the possible correction R(mu,nu) + (-1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant) * g(mu,nu) * R = - κ * (T(mu,nu) / equivalence-principle-failure-factor) - Λ * g(mu,nu), where equivalence-principle-failure-factor = (1 - (T(mu,nu)/T(max))^2)^(1/2) — if dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 and T(max) = +∞ then Einstein’s field equations are recovered. Empirical evidence shows that black holes exist. The event horizons of black holes might be figments of the imagination caused by believing in Einstein’s equivalence principle. John P. Lestone’s ideas might suggest that something is wrong with Einstein’s field equations. This brief communication argues that relativistic MOND is the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[792] **viXra:1512.0491 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-02 20:22:50*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version-2

In the early publications, with reference to final unification, the authors suggested that, 1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.72058686E-19 C. 2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’. 3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329560807E28 m3/kg/sec2. 4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335472E37 m3/kg/sec2. Based on these concepts, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of ‘discrete’ angular momentum of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, estimated value of Newtonian gravitational constant is GN~6.67985603E-11 m3/kg/sec2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[791] **viXra:1512.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 08:40:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. removed parts of section 5

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant consistently nearly equal to the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over all eight publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 700 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, Equation 2, below, predicted a more accurate Planck constant, than the Codata value of the respective Codata publication. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, may be mirroring the calculations, and may be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[790] **viXra:1512.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-29 04:53:22*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected values in tables

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant consistently nearly equal to the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over all eight publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 700 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, Equation 2, below, predicted a more accurate Planck constant, than the Codata value of the respective Codata publication. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, may be mirroring the calculations, and may be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[789] **viXra:1512.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 16:17:12*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Corrected Equation 2

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[788] **viXra:1512.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-26 18:26:52*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Corrected Equation 6 and typo on 1973 codata planck constant.

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.25 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over seven publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 100 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, over the last six Codata publications, the equations below have been closer to the next Codata publication for the Planck constant. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, must be mirroring the calculations, and must be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[787] **viXra:1512.0317 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 00:33:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys

After a cursory introduction of the basic ideas behind Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain $nonholonomic$ modifications of Riemann--Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry.
A novel gauge theory of gravity in the $8D$ cotangent bundle $ T^*M$ of spacetime is explicitly constructed and based on the gauge group $ SO (6, 2) \times_s R^8$ which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle $ T_{ ( {\bf x}, {\bf p}) } T^*M $ at each point $ ({\bf x}, {\bf p})$. Several gravitational actions involving curvature and torsion tensors and associated with the geometry of curved phase spaces are presented. We conclude with a brief discussion of the field equations, the geometrization of matter, QFT in accelerated frames, {\bf T}-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[786] **viXra:1512.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-12 06:18:10*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Gravity is not the weak force you might think it is. You are only realizing a small part of the picture.

There is an overall tension field in space that is responsible for gravity. Any masses introduced into the field create an higher tension -- that's what is thought of as gravity -- but there is more to it.

The Earth is of course pulling you down but space itself is also pulling you.

The Earth has a stronger pull (more connections) so it wins the tug-of-war.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[785] **viXra:1512.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 01:53:04*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller nested Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure.
We saw in
In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe.
We saw in The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres, that both gravity and charge, indicate a spherical spinning shape for the pixelated components to the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[784] **viXra:1512.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-06 05:08:46*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Theories that describe the same phenomena but contain more parameters are the worse theories. Mathematical constants applied in physics if they have not a physical meaning are the parameters as well. It leads to conclusion that to reduce number of parameters we must show how mathematical constants applied in physics arise from physical initial conditions. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory, number of all parameters is reduced to 7. Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the origin of mathematical constants in physics. We showed that the state of spacetime and the structure of baryons that due to the dark-matter structures leaks out, leads to a number that is close to the base of the natural logarithm, whereas the entanglons responsible for the quantum entanglement lead to number Pi and to the imaginary unit i = sqrt(-1).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory