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Any replacements are listed further down

[973] **viXra:1606.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-23 18:15:29*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the parallel nature of the universe based on the holographic principle

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[972] **viXra:1606.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-20 05:02:29*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 25 Pages. May be an important basic idea.

The basic building blocks of the universe/multi - verses has been a matter of debate for millennia. It seems progress has been made recently in string theory. This paper is certainly not meant to challenge string theory, but rather, provide a mechanism as to how strings are formed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[971] **viXra:1606.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 13:03:11*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Hadron superstring theory.(5)
The wave pattern is a string of the super string theory.
The mass is zero.
It vibrates at velocity of light.
It is a resident of the four-dimensional space.
It has supersymmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[970] **viXra:1606.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 12:03:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[969] **viXra:1606.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-18 10:55:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[968] **viXra:1606.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-17 09:50:54*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, the wave function $\Psi$ with spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$ can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors. Using the Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy vanish in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. The mixed frequency solutions of the QE are not affected by the modified Einstein equation. GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to the energy momentum tensor as the force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter or dark photons, if they exist.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[967] **viXra:1606.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-16 23:47:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so, we look at, using Crowell’s book, a Berry phase, which in our case is proportional to the area integration of 1 over the square of variation of change in energy. Our variation of the change in energy in this case is due to the Pre Planckian space-time HUP (Heisenberg uncertainty principle). The change in the energy, times change in time, is in this case, is in minimization of the HUP, equal to Planck’s constant divided by the square of the minimum scale factor, times 1 over the initial inflaton value. Our result as derived, gives substance to the supposition that a change in pre Planckian space-time is, indeed a phase transition, in line with work the author has done earlier. And does it in line with the inflaton, as given by Padmanabhan.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[966] **viXra:1606.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-15 22:11:14*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse and perhaps larger spheres. This however does mean that everything is made of one sphere. Rather it is more likely that it is a hidden force combination that holds certain combinations of spheres together. One of these shapes maybe be a toroid. Perhaps similar to proposed radiationless structure as shown by Dr Miroshnichenko in “New theory to lead to radiationless revolution” First we review the Hubble Constant values. Dr. Miroshnichenko shows that there may be radiationless structures that are made of radiating materials, that are toroid shape. We will review the values of the Hubble constant from WMAP, Planck Mission, Hubble Telescope, other measurements and compares it to Sphere Theory Hubble Constant. This paper shows that our universe may be a combination of spheres in a toroid shape. Each sphere would be the size of the Hubble Sphere, as calculated by Sphere Theory. The toroid shape as acknowledged by other Physcists. The Toroid is a simple calculation that shows that a toroid may explain the size of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[965] **viXra:1606.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 21:25:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Using work by Fishbach and Talmadge, we use 5th force arguments and the common Virial theorem, plus a modified Wheeler De Witt wave function to set up an energy fluctuation equation. From there, we also use a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to isolate the role of an inflaton in Pre Planckian space – rime. Its consequences are remarked upon with the range of a purported 5th force and scaled as between 10^-1 to 10^-3.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[964] **viXra:1606.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 14:12:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of the two intervals of the rotation braking and two plateaus in the curve describing rotation velocity of the main-sequence normal stars as a function of the spectral classes. We did it involving the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with the electron and proton vortices in stars. Calculated here the advection velocity of the proton vortex is about 414 km/s, of the electron vortex is about 10 km/s whereas the mean value is about 212 km/s. The threshold rotational velocities follow from the fact that in hottest stars, near equator, there dominate the light ions, next in colder stars there dominate the neutral light atoms, and next in coldest stars there are created heavier neutral atoms so gravity transfers the angular momentum to the cores of stars. We showed as well that the DM structures are perfectly elastic so it is very difficult to detect them. We answered following question: How should we plan an experiment to detect dark matter?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[963] **viXra:1606.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-12 03:11:42*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 35 pages

Three of the four known forces in physics are unified into one equation with a clear explanation for the different properties of each force. The strong, electromagnetic and gravitational forces are governed by the same force equation, yet they have different characteristics of wave amplitude that modify a particle’s wave and motion. Although it is intentionally not unified into the general equation for force, an explanation is provided for the weak force. All calculations with the newly proposed Force Equation match experimental results and can derive Newton’s laws for gravity and Coulomb’s law for electromagnetism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[962] **viXra:1606.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-11 03:11:52*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We examine through the lens of dynamical systems a ‘one dimensional’ time mapping of emergent VEV from Pre Planckian space time conditions. We use Licata’s and Fiscaletti’s Bolmian Quanuum mechanics to obtain an energy E as minus the time derivative of a phase transition, as given by Bohmian Q.M. for curved space time, in the Pre Planckian state, where we then use a modified version of the HUP , to then isolate the inflaton. The emergence of the inflaton scalar field, in time evolution is tied into physics of the first order phase transition to QM, and the regular HUP, used by Heisenberg. I.e. a first order generation of initial entropy via Bohmian QM applied in Pre Planckian space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[961] **viXra:1606.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-10 12:42:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), which describes the phase transitions of the inflation/Higgs field, we show that a light, neutral boson with a mass of 18.4 MeV that consists of four entangled parts (theory of neutrinos described within SST shows that there is valid the four-object symmetry), is the binder/precursor of the second Higgs boson with a mass of 742 GeV or/and 750 GeV. The ATOMKI group has adequate equipment to detect the light, neutral boson with a mass of about 18.4 MeV whereas the LHC experiments can show which one of the two possible mass states of the second composite Higgs boson dominates. The four-object symmetry and the atom-like structure of baryons lead to the resonant tetraneutron state and to the internal structure of the neutron stars/black-holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[960] **viXra:1606.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 16:13:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The ATOMKI group discovered the X-vector-boson with a mass of 16.70(85) MeV in the decays of highly excited nuclei. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of such light, neutral boson. We show that the sum of the nuclear weak mass of a pair of Einstein-spacetime condensates produced by nucleons and the mass of electron-positron pair is 16.904 MeV (these two pairs can interact due to the confinement or quantum entanglement described within SST) - this value is consistent with ATOMKI data. We should modify the Standard Model by incorporating the SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[959] **viXra:1606.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 13:21:34*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The charges and forces of matter are characterized as "memories" of a former primordial state of energetic symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[958] **viXra:1606.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 19:54:10*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis leads a standard model including the gravity.
(unified field theory)
(A string theory of the elementary particle size.)
The standard model (unified field theory) of the elementary particle is considered to be the best terminus ad quem of the theoretical physics now.
However, it is not an ultimate theory.
(1) Gravitational action is not included in this model.
Gravity have a deep connection with structure of time, the space. Gravity must be included in an ultimate theory.
(2) I cannot extrapolate a theory to a micro-limit as far as I use the prescription of filing.
When I am going to raise the resolution of a monitor projecting a physical phenomenon endlessly, a theory fails somewhere.
(3) A supposition without some grounds is included in a standard model.
It is said that an electron and the electric charge of the quark make the close integer ratio. It is totally unknown why it becomes the integer ratio.
(4) The superstring theory hides the possibility that I can solve all these three problems. However, the conclusive evidence that a theory is fair is not yet obtained, and the inspection by the experiment is considered to be impossibility.
The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
The pulsation principle includes all of concepts of the standard theory.
I cancel all of above problems.
(1) I discovered four-dimensional space.
I discovered dark energy and dark matter of mystery in the 4-dimensional space.
(2)I express mean density of the dark energy as the horizon of energy zero and describe the horizon as unification ground to include all places.
The standard model describes quark ground, lepton ground, Higgs place, a gauge field separately.
I express it at one place.
(3)The dark energy is thin energy to meet vacuum space of the space.
The energy triggers repulsion each other and lets you maintain energy density uniformly.
It is equivalent with the concept of the standard model saying that it is the aggregate of a minute spring endlessly.
(4)I catch a wave of the dark energy as a material wave described by Schrodinger equation and describe nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism as action of the material wave. I explain the gravity that a standard model was not able to include naturally and include it.
I describe differences between gravity and vast po4)
(5)The Cal czar Kleine theory standardized gravity and electromagnetic willpower mathematically.
Four dimensions of unified field theory of Einstein needs space.
However, it was not found.
The pulsation principle discovers the four-dimensional space and aims at the unified field theory of Einstein.
(6)"The prescription of filing" is unnecessary on the pulsation principle.
When "the infinity" calculates an equation of the standard theory, it appears by all means.
"The prescription of filing" replaces infinite numerical value with the mass of the particle to handle infinity.
It is said that it is a result to treat an elementary particle as a point without the size.
(7)"The microdomain theory of Dr. Yukawa" is one case.
Means to keep size in an elementary particle, and to evade infinity.
It is a longtime problem.
(8)The elementary particle pulsation principle solves the problem.
(9)The pulsating elementary particle has size intermittently.
The elementary particle has mass in "a particle trip and a minus number particle trip".
All of mass of the elementary particle converts it into energy (light). "A wave trip."
The elementary particle becomes the point that does not have size in the three-dimensional space.
It evades infinite contradiction.
(10)The pulsating elementary particle continues emitting a material wave as a pulsatile ripple in the neighborhood.
The standard theory calculates "modulus" squared of the material wave.
It is the existence probability of the particle.
It calculates only equilateral energy.
The numerical value becomes infinite.
The elementary particle pulsation principle,
In pulsation of 1 cycle, the total of the energy of the positive and negative becomes zero.
The energy grand total includes a symmetry to become zero.
Therefore infinity does not occur and does not need prescription of filing.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[957] **viXra:1606.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 13:45:33*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A spin and elementary particle pulsation principle.
* The particle process is equal with a half-integer spin.
The minus number particle process is equal with a half-integer spin.
The wave process is equal with an integer spin.
* An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
Pulsatile particle trip and a half-integer spin 1/2 are equal to the fermion such as an electron, a proton, a neutron, a positron, the quark.
The mass is m>0.
* Wave trip and spin 2/2 are the same as BOSE particle.
The mass is m=0.
The speed is light C.
* Difference in pulsatile trip is a difference of the spins (an integer and half-integer).
Both are differences of the timings.
The action is a large difference.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[956] **viXra:1606.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-03 22:14:13*

**Authors:** Joseph Forrington

**Comments:** 90 pages

Generally speaking, Einstein’s gravity is a distortion of space/time geometry, expressed in the spatial aspect. Distortions in time, which are apparent different rates of time in different reference frames, manifest apparent curvature of motion in space. In Relativity, gravity disappears in a free fall in open space except for “residual” tidal forces as objects converge on a common gravitational center, i.e., the center of a mass, or an unbalanced force is applied to the mass, accelerating it. This theory postulates that Einstein stopped short and that Relativity describes the geometric effects of gravity, and not gravity itself, which is an actual force in time.
According to this theory, the tidal force convergence is caused by a focusing of the update in time into a time dilation vortex, and the shift of the update in time through the time dilation gradient creates the drag of gravity.
When Advanced LIGO1 detected gravity waves on Sept. 14, 2015, it did so detecting distortions in the time aspect, fluctuations in the rate of time, which this theory is built upon. This theory explains how that distortion is responsible for the gravitational force in time.
LIGO’s detection, if verified, proves effects in time generate force on space. Otherwise they could not distort space to produce the detected signal. The effects in time force space to change, distorting it. In the case of LIGO, this was a change in the shape of the antenna, a shortening of the length of a meter by accelerated time. The shortening of a meter creates stress in space, which is cohesive and resistant to change. Both space and time possess inertia.
In this paper, first a Gravitational Equivalency Constant for the force in time relative to the force in Newtons is mathematically derived.
This is used to mathematically derive the mass/energy “Dark Matter” content of the Andromeda galaxy, and again in the Elementary Particles section to derive the formation of quanta and their entanglement in space/time that forms complex particles, mathematically explaining why the masses of protons and neutrons are so much larger than the sum of the masses of their constituent particles, and how gravity is responsible for the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces.
In Relativity, time dilation creates an increase in space to maintain the speed of light, C, as C is constant in any inertial reference frame. This increase in space is usually accounted for by the addition of meters. This is not correct. As C is a constant at so many m/s, the number of meters must remain the same between any two frames of reference when the rate of time increases or decreases between those frames, 299 m/s is not the same as 310 m/s. There must always be the same number of meters. This means it is the length of the meter that changes. If a meter = 1 in your inertial frame, a meter in a faster time frame = <1 standard meter. This is a relative meter.
Using this, the Red Shift of Gn-z11, the farthest known galaxy with the highest red shift, is determined, placing it at 13.4 Gly in actual and “lookback” time, contradicting theories of an accelerating expansion of the universe. It explains why the cosmic red shift is not due to cosmic expansion, but relativistic effects.
The Andromeda dark matter and red shift derivations eliminate the need for either dark matter or dark energy.
We see time dilation as a result of mass, but when we look at the processes in time, we see that mass is the result of time dilation. Space/time is not being stretched and thinned by mass. Space/time is not isotropic to begin with, especially in the time aspect. This theory demonstrates that the fluctuations in rates of time create gravity waves that result in the formation of mass in slow time rate areas and, unlike Relativity, the math works on the galactic scale, as in the Andromeda Dark Matter derivation.
This paper is based on the interactions of the true, temporal, direction of time all observers experience in their own inertial reference frames and the relativistic apparent lateral shift of the update of time down-gradient through time dilation fields in external frames; two forward directions of time.
Einstein’s geometric curvature in the future evolution of space/time is due to the effects in time this theory explains: reference frames shift forward in space/time in the direction of the lateral update.
On the quantum level, temporal time and space curve sharply in the spins of the quanta as temporal time and space follow the lateral shift into a spin, a space/time vortex. Because space is also drawn into the spin, and is limited by the restrictions of Planck units, the quanta can be quantized at the Planck level in space, though not in time, which is dimensionless.
This theory does not try to alter the mathematics describing gravity and other effects used in Relativity that work so well on the scale of the solar system, but it explains gravity in different terms that give us gravity waves that can be applied to larger systems, such as galaxies and galactic clusters, where time dilation fields are irregular in shape and where Relativity fails to accurately describe gravity, resulting in theories of dark matter.
This is a grand unification theory. The reader will find much correlation between quantum and cosmic events, tying the two scales together.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[955] **viXra:1605.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 18:41:02*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

What happens deeper than quantum mechanics? Perhaps deeper quantum mechanics with the same laws. The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances with processes that are like the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom could give the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation.
An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung, Cherenkov type radiation, and an orbital type model at a deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a rough idea for the electron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[954] **viXra:1605.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 03:24:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The measured prompt spectra in the RENO experiment show an excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. This observation suggests that we should modify the current reactor neutrino model. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV. We also explain why in the average nuclear fission there is released about 4.5% of energy as the radiation of neutrinos. The calculated within SST excess of the ~ 5 MeV events should constitute about 2.6% of the total observed reactor neutrinos. This result is close to the RENO result ~ 3%.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[953] **viXra:1605.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 17:43:45*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A string theory of the elementary particle size. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[952] **viXra:1605.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 02:10:46*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time and a linkage between quantum bits of information along the lines of what was done by Yan – Gang Miao, Ying- Jie Zhao , and compare it with quantum computing and cosmology which was brought up by Ganbini, Porto and Pullin. Namely the purported number of quantum computing operations. If the two are equivalent, there is an implied relationship to determine an optimal radial distance. Afterwards, we use that in conjunction with a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to come up with some fundamental cosmological phenomenology. In particular a first ever guess as to the value of an initial inflaton.
Key words, Quantum Computing , Cosmological constant, Modified HUP, inflaton

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[951] **viXra:1605.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 03:13:30*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I correct a contribution in front, "a figure of gravity and the electromagnetic force".
This is a right figure.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[950] **viXra:1605.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 13:39:47*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The author announced the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis in the Physical Society of Japan of 1980.
To date, I study an elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
This page is the gravity in the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis and an article about the electromagnetic force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[949] **viXra:1605.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 06:17:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Starting off with the Usual Energy Density for Electro-Magnetic fields, we adopt Padmanbhan’s Gravo – Electric and Gravo Magnetic field formulation to come up with an initial frequency, at the start of the universe, and then using work done by the author, take the inverse of this frequency as a way to initiate a practical time step, which will then be related to earlier work the Author did. The miminum time step iteratively relates to a “cosmological constant” initial value, and a range of initial GW frequencies which for a scale factor which would correspond to GW of about 10^36 Hertz, red shifted to 10^4 Hertz in the modern era. If the scale factor were of the order of 10^-55, the GW waves initially would be as high as 10^42 Hertz which would be red shifted to 10^10 Hertz, for relic GW. All this assumes that the graviton rest mass remains invariant about 10^-62 grams in the aftermath of the creation of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[948] **viXra:1605.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 12:59:01*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new type of device for controlling gravity is here proposed. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy at subatomic length scale (10-20m). From the technical point of view this device is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for controlling gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[947] **viXra:1605.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 15:14:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Anderson et al. have found that experimental values for gravitational constant, G, are oscillatory with a period of P = 5.899 +- 0.062 yr and an amplitude of A = (0.001619 +- 0.000103) F, where F is a factor that is the inverse of the 11 powers of ten expressed in SI Base Units. The period P correlates with the 5.9 year periodic signal in length of day (LOD). Previously it was assumed that changes in LOD follow from fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. But the origin of the G/LOD correlation is still not explained. Next, Schlamminger et al. have found that corrections to the G data reported by Anderson et al. significantly weaken the G/LOD correlation. But in Table III there appears the fit sinusoidal function for G with period fixed at 5.93 year. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the periodic changes in LOD and the illusory changes in G and the origin of the experimental amplitude of G that is illusory as well. The calculated period of LOD and illusory period of G are both 5.941 yr whereas illusory amplitude of G is 0.00183 F. Here, the 5.941 year periodic signal in LOD we interpret as due to advection of the virtual cloud, composed of the virtual electron-positron pairs produced by Earth, caused by its interactions with the dark-matter (DM) structures that overlap with the Earth orbit. Such advection follows from the confinement and entanglement of virtual electrons and positrons and DM structures. The advection causes periodic increase in mass of Earth and measuring apparatus. The amplitude of the changes in mass of Earth follows directly from masses of nucleons (we must take into account the nuclear binding energy) and electrons. The changes in mass lead to the illusion of periodic changes in G. The SST results are consistent with experimental data. Moreover, SST shows that the real changes in G can be infinitesimal only.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[946] **viXra:1605.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-19 23:41:15*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modified uncertainty principle Heisenberg defines a minimum scale of the space length.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[945] **viXra:1605.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 10:48:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. quantum gravity, classical gravity and HUP together.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. The strain value of h~10^-25 to 10^-27 are obtained. . Such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology. We conclude with statements as to comparing our basic results with those of Yan-Gang Miao, Ying-Jie Zhao as to their generalized HUP which gives support to the suppositions given in our comparison of the character of gravitons which are initially at the start of inflation versus those of our present era, as measured by the Tokamak

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[944] **viXra:1605.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 12:28:28*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ESTM-theory and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ESTM-theory. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ESTM-theory and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ESTM-theory. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[943] **viXra:1605.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 09:45:05*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This holographic wave function gives a simple interpretation of the space-time geometry of Minkowski on the basis of the rotation group in the complex plane.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[942] **viXra:1605.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 19:50:22*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Every elementary particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts particle or wave to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects.
In this paper, we show that X-particles of dark energy can create the wave appearance of a quantum-scale particle, and argue that the particle is indeed a particle. Our theory is deterministic and local, and is based on classical mechanics. Double-slit experiment and quantum entanglement are explained by the X-particle interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[941] **viXra:1605.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-12 20:59:21*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As an origin of dark energy, an X-particle with repulsive force proportional to energy
density has been proposed [1]. In this paper, we will develop the X-particle theory
further, and postulate how dark energy could form a ubiquitous gravitational field and
inertial reference of frames, and why they might be the reason for the uncertainty
principle. Like photon, an X-particle has only relativistic mass, and acts like a particle
that has a definite position and momentum. It creates spaces between them by forces of
gravitational attraction and repulsion. However, unlike photon that travels in space, an
X-particle only needs to pass signals to its neighboring particles to form the ubiquitous
gravitational field. This model could explain how gravitational signals propagate at
the speed of light, how their values are stored in X-particles, and why the uncertainty
principle could arise from this.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[940] **viXra:1605.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 14:30:22*

**Authors:** J. P. Lestone

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 2 figures, presented at the APS April Meeting Salt Lake City 2016

Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for several QED processes including electrostatics, Compton scattering, and the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. By invoking a far-field L=0 photon-particle interaction cross section of piƛ2, with the inclusion of near-field effects, the model calculated elementary charge is q=1.602177x10^-19 C with a corresponding calculated inverse fine structure constant of alpha^-1=137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[939] **viXra:1605.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 22:52:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In a 2013 paper, Freeman Dyson presented thought experiments challenging the detectability of gravitons via LIGO interferometry and via the Gertsheshtein effect. Dyson assumed a distance of several light years would be required for detection of the interaction between gravitational waves (GWs) and tenuous B fields and photons, making gravitons experimentally undectable. In this paper, we present contrary theoretical evidence for detectability of near-field interaction of gravitons, photons, and a magnetic field. Our first example of 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working is due to a GW generated by a tokamak with a interaction of GW, B field, and photons, in a volume on the order of a few cubic meters. The 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working leads to gravitons interacting with a strong uniform magnetic field, resulting in photons which are detected by appropriate instrumentation. In addition, we will also comment upon another issue, that of relic GW, as may be generated by a new uncertainty principle as elucidated by the author. And how that effects relic considerations as to inflaton physics. I.e. the frequency range of the early universe GW (gravitons?) and those of gravitons (GW) produced by the Tokamak may be one and the same i.e. very pronounced overlap. And we explain why. Key words: Gertenshtein effect, LIGO, Octonionic, Pre Octonionic, Modified HUP( Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[938] **viXra:1605.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 04:06:15*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we study the nature of space - time based on the geometry of the holographic surface .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[937] **viXra:1605.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 05:01:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[936] **viXra:1605.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-06 20:10:49*

**Authors:** Adel Sadeq

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The simulation programs links are in color at the end of each section.

In This essay I shall derive the laws of nature from a simple mathematical system from a postulate that reality is indeed a mathematical structure. The system can be simulated by a computer program to generate many results that agree with Quantum mechanics. Also I will show that the system can be put in regular more familiar mathematical formalism. The postulate lead to assume particles are made of random lines were one end originates in a small region representing the particle and it extends to all other points in space and some ending on other particles. The points are really nothing but random numbers, hence reality is nothing but some relation between random numbers. Moreover, the lines are responsible for the interaction by a process of crossing or not crossing or meeting.The start point and the end point of these lines define space and the length of the line is interpreted as energy, time is just a change of state. The system unifies space, time, matter, energy and interaction, all in one coherent picture, so particles and the laws of nature governing them appear naturally. The simulations generate some basic Quantum Mechanics results and the 1/r law as in quantum field Theory. There are many other results such as the hydrogen 1s level where the universal constants like c, h, e and their relation that lead to Fine Structure constant automatically fall out of the simulation. Two such simulations are carried out; one is Bohr like model and the other Schrodinger like equations solution and show the equivalency. Also, the mass of the electron appear naturally using a simulation which is an extension of the Bohr model which in turn leads to the predicting the size of the proton. The system automatically displays the non-local behavior and explains the EPR in simple terms and shows the origin of spin. Some interesting formulas connecting proton to electron mass ratio, FSC and electron g-factor are produced. While it is shown that coulomb potential is produced by line crossing, Gravity appears when lines meet at a region of Planck's length(gravity needs more investigation).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[935] **viXra:1605.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 02:36:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation due to the time of recombination. The temperature variations on very large angular scales observed by WMAP and Planck are both larger than expected (there appears the CMB axis of evil) and, contrary to smaller-scale fluctuations, aligned with each other. The initial inflation in the big-bang model suggests that both deviations cannot be realized by Nature. The CMB axis of evil, if it exists, leads to the distinguished frame of reference in the Universe and is a sign of new cosmological phenomena. There are many ideas to explain the deviations in CMB. If we neglect the trivial explanation that the applied statistics is incomplete then there are two important ideas: that CMB is a local variation of an infinite universe or some characteristic features of finite/”small” universe. It was shown in 2003 (A. de Oliveira-Costa, M. Tegmark, M. Zaldarriaga, A. Hamilton) that “the simplest small universe model where the universe has toroidal topology with one small dimension of order half the horizon scale, in the direction towards Virgo, could explain three independent anomalies involving the quadrupole and octopole but the applied S-statistic and the circle test on the WMAP data show that we should rule out this model”. Here we present a solution that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Due to the phase transitions of inflation field (i.e. of the Higgs field), the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) was separated in time from the inflation (the big bang). The dark matter had initially toroidal topology with internal helicity and inside such 3-dimensional torus with central condensate there were two very thin (in cosmic scale) baryonic loops (the loops had left-handed internal helicity and antiparallel unitary spins). It leads to the CMB axis of evil. We solved a few other cosmological problems as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[934] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 20:26:21*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[933] **viXra:1604.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 18:56:09*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This is a long summary of the full BIDUM version 1.1

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[932] **viXra:1604.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 23:04:24*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I propose a statistical mechanical model for black holes with the partition function sum taken over punctures of a spin network on a two-surface as given by Loop Quantum Gravity. Searching a unified quantum structure for spacetime and matter, I apply this scenario to matter particles using a composite model for quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[931] **viXra:1604.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 08:55:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Now , consider the relationship between the space-time geometry and its statistical description.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[930] **viXra:1604.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 16:19:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. It will be given a home in the next 2 weeks, ie, a journal

We use the work of de Vega, Sanchez, and Comes (1997), to approximate the ‘particle density’ of a ‘graviton gas’ This ‘particle density’ derivation is compared with Dolgov’s (1997) expression of the Vacuum energy in terms of a phase transition. The idea is to have a quartic potential , and then to utilize the Bogomol’nyi inequality to refine what the phase transition states. We utilize Ng, Infinite quantum information procedures to link our work with initial entropy and other issues and close with a variation in the HUP: in the start of the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[929] **viXra:1604.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 02:56:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to Physical Review D

Modifications of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra $ [ { \bf x}^i, {\bf p}^j ] = i \hbar g^{ij} ( {\bf p } ) $ are proposed where the classical limit $g_{ij} ( p ) $ corresponds to a metric in (curved) momentum spaces. In the simplest scenario, the $ 2D$ de Sitter metric of constant curvature in momentum space furnishes
a hierarchy of modified uncertainty relations leading to a minimum value for the position uncertainty $ \Delta x $. The first uncertainty relation of this hierarchy has the same functional form as the $stringy$ modified uncertainty relation with a Planck scale minimum value for $ \Delta x = L_P $ at $ \Delta p = p_{Planck} $.
We proceed with a discussion of the most general curved phase space scenario (cotangent bundle of spacetime) and provide the noncommuting phase space coordinates algebra in terms of the symmetric $ g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } $ and nonsymmetric $ g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $ metric components of a Hermitian complex metric
$ g_{ \mu \nu} = g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } + i g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $, such $ g_{ \mu \nu} = (g_{ \nu \mu})^*$. Yang's noncommuting phase-space coordinates algebra, combined with the Schrodinger-Robertson inequalities involving angular momentum eigenstates, reveals how a quantized area operator in units of $ L_P^2$ emerges like it occurs in Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). Some final comments are made about Fedosov deformation quantization, Noncommutative and Nonassociative gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[928] **viXra:1604.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-16 02:11:15*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[927] **viXra:1604.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 10:48:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons and structure of bare electrons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.841 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[926] **viXra:1604.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 07:08:08*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article presents a methodology to express the Physical Reality of our cosmos, its content and its evolution, as the outcome of a deductive axiomatic process starting from nihil and taking into consideration a limited set of presuppositions, a single creation event and 6 simple base laws.
The recurrent application of these laws on the subsequent states of the cosmos must lead to a version with a content and a behavior which is, at least at detailed level and in qualitative terms, reconcilable with any observation or confirmed law of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[861] **viXra:1606.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-19 06:31:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Precise maximum mass for DM loop corresponds to the upper limit for frequency 1669 Hz. Intensity for the frequency 1669 Hz should be highest. But emphasize that the DM loops are the perfectly elastic structures. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature. The correct big bang, i.e. the inflation and the “soft” big bang of the Universe, is described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[860] **viXra:1606.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-18 19:23:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Added types of universes.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres. This however does mean that everything is made of one sphere. Part of what we call the universe would be a sphere made of tightly packed spheres, mostly packed in a cuboctahedron structure. Some small groups of these spheres could be held together by a large scale universe type force similar to electromagnetic force, but obvious a much grander scale and too uniform at our level to perceive. One of these shapes maybe be a toroid. Perhaps similar to proposed radiationless structure as shown by Dr Miroshnichenko in “New theory to lead to radiationless revolution”(1) Dr. Miroshnichenko shows that there may be radiationless structures that are made of radiating materials, that are toroid shape. First we review the Hubble Constant values. We will review the values of the Hubble constant from WMAP, Planck Mission, Hubble Telescope, other measurements and compares it to Sphere Theory Hubble Constant. Reviewing the observable universe we see a universe that we can see back 13.8 billion light years, but because of expansion must be about 91 billion light years in diameter. This paper shows that our universe may be a combination of spheres in a toroid shape. Each sphere would be the size of the Hubble Sphere, as calculated by Sphere Theory. The toroid shape as acknowledged, as a possibility, by other physicists, like Max Tegmark The toroid, which in this paper, is a 6 sphere structure organized as a hexagon that may explain the size of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[859] **viXra:1605.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:10:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: an important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [3]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [4,5]. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s Bio-IDUM (BIDUM) version 1.1 [6]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[858] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 12:35:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Updated Paper

The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances could give the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[857] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-12 22:23:29*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added Bremsstrahlung Lorentz factor electron adjustment

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[856] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 10:58:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Corrected typos, and missing information, corrected some format

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[855] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-05 15:56:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. corrected typos in abstract

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[854] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-04 20:43:07*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Added sections

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[853] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-28 17:49:16*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added equations 5.3 and 5.4

When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[852] **viXra:1604.0323 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:13:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[851] **viXra:1604.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-18 01:29:58*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French.

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[850] **viXra:1604.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 09:44:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons, structure of bare electrons and electroweak theory described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.843 +- 0.002 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory