Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[944] viXra:1604.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-24 20:26:21

A Resonance of Cherenkov Radiation Angles with Bremsstrahlung Radiation

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[943] viXra:1604.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-23 18:56:09

A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (Bidum Version 1.1, in a Short Summary) Based on a Series of Planck-Like Informational Constants and Using the Hypothetical Gravitonic Qubit as the Basic Unit of the (Bio)physical Information

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 14 Pages. This is a long summary of the full BIDUM version 1.1

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[942] viXra:1604.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 23:04:24

A Loop Quantum Gravity Inspired Model for Matter Consistent with Spacetime Atoms

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 5 Pages.

I propose a statistical mechanical model for black holes with the partition function sum taken over punctures of a spin network on a two-surface as given by Loop Quantum Gravity. Searching a unified quantum structure for spacetime and matter, I apply this scenario to matter particles using a composite model for quarks and leptons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[941] viXra:1604.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 08:55:30

The Density State of Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

Now , consider the relationship between the space-time geometry and its statistical description.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[940] viXra:1604.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-18 16:19:40

Using Field Theory Approach to “estimate” ‘particle Density’ of “Graviton Gas”, to Obtain Initial Value of Cosmological Constant

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 7 Pages. It will be given a home in the next 2 weeks, ie, a journal

We use the work of de Vega, Sanchez, and Comes (1997), to approximate the ‘particle density’ of a ‘graviton gas’ This ‘particle density’ derivation is compared with Dolgov’s (1997) expression of the Vacuum energy in terms of a phase transition. The idea is to have a quartic potential , and then to utilize the Bogomol’nyi inequality to refine what the phase transition states. We utilize Ng, Infinite quantum information procedures to link our work with initial entropy and other issues and close with a variation in the HUP: in the start of the expansion of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[939] viXra:1604.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 02:56:34

Generalized Uncertainty Relations, Curved Phase-Spaces and Quantum Gravity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 10 Pages. Submitted to Physical Review D

Modifications of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra $ [ { \bf x}^i, {\bf p}^j ] = i \hbar g^{ij} ( {\bf p } ) $ are proposed where the classical limit $g_{ij} ( p ) $ corresponds to a metric in (curved) momentum spaces. In the simplest scenario, the $ 2D$ de Sitter metric of constant curvature in momentum space furnishes a hierarchy of modified uncertainty relations leading to a minimum value for the position uncertainty $ \Delta x $. The first uncertainty relation of this hierarchy has the same functional form as the $stringy$ modified uncertainty relation with a Planck scale minimum value for $ \Delta x = L_P $ at $ \Delta p = p_{Planck} $. We proceed with a discussion of the most general curved phase space scenario (cotangent bundle of spacetime) and provide the noncommuting phase space coordinates algebra in terms of the symmetric $ g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } $ and nonsymmetric $ g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $ metric components of a Hermitian complex metric $ g_{ \mu \nu} = g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } + i g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $, such $ g_{ \mu \nu} = (g_{ \nu \mu})^*$. Yang's noncommuting phase-space coordinates algebra, combined with the Schrodinger-Robertson inequalities involving angular momentum eigenstates, reveals how a quantized area operator in units of $ L_P^2$ emerges like it occurs in Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). Some final comments are made about Fedosov deformation quantization, Noncommutative and Nonassociative gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[938] viXra:1604.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-16 02:11:15

A Rehabilitation of String Theory : from Grandcosmos to Massive Gluon

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[937] viXra:1604.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-15 10:48:14

A New Approach to the Beyond the Standard Model Analysis of the Inclusive Electron-Proton Scattering

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons and structure of bare electrons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.841 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[936] viXra:1604.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-14 07:08:08

About Physical Reality

Authors: W.Berckmans
Comments: 18 Pages.

This article presents a methodology to express the Physical Reality of our cosmos, its content and its evolution, as the outcome of a deductive axiomatic process starting from nihil and taking into consideration a limited set of presuppositions, a single creation event and 6 simple base laws. The recurrent application of these laws on the subsequent states of the cosmos must lead to a version with a content and a behavior which is, at least at detailed level and in qualitative terms, reconcilable with any observation or confirmed law of physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[935] viXra:1604.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-12 16:55:20

Gravity and Static Electricity: The Same Force at the Planck Scale?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper I will show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is exactly the same mathematically as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole, that is to say at the Planck scale. There are, therefore, good reasons to expect that they are ultimately the same force. Still, the gravitational force and the electrostatic force clearly look different when we move away from the density of a Planck mass. To claim that static electricity is not ruled by the same fundamental force as gravity could be similar to claiming that kinetic energy not is related to pure energy simply because a moving mass appears to be so different from moving photons (even mathematically).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[934] viXra:1604.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-12 11:42:21

Quantum Theory of Special Relativity

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain some of the fundamental concepts of the quantum nature of space - time, and a new definition of the speed of movement in the operator form .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[933] viXra:1604.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-12 08:52:31

A Note on The Dimensionless Gravitational Coupling Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we are rewriting the gravitational coupling constant in a slightly different form than has been shown before (without changing its value). This makes it simpler to understand what is meant and what is not meant by a “dimensionless gravitational coupling constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[932] viXra:1604.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-11 16:03:51

Decay of a Black Hole

Authors: P.R. Silva
Comments: 08 pages, 10 references

Non-linear Klein-Gordon-Yukawa equations, jointly with time-energy uncertainty relations, are used as a means to estimate the extinction time of a black hole. In a first step we produce the expression originally obtained by Hawking. In a second step we found a massive boson mediating the black hole decay. This boson can also be associated to the size of a vanishingly interacting string. Finally a modification is done in the treatment performed in the first step, going in the direction of Page’s results for the black hole decay time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[931] viXra:1604.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-11 07:29:51

Relative Probability, an Extended Probability Theory for the Physical World.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages.

As is well known, the standard Kolmogorov definition of probability may not be adequate for describing the physical world. In this work, we weaken the Kolmogorovian axioms and depart slightly from its measure theoretical context enabling one to describe systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. The resulting framework is more broad and physical than Kolmogorov’s and constitutes the basis for the understanding of Quantum Theory as envisioned by this author.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[930] viXra:1604.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-10 16:17:47

Gedankenexperiment for Start of Generation of Gravitons, in Initial Cosmology, Using V. Balck’s Tunneling in Cosmology Variant of the Wheeler De Witt Equation

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages.

We use a quantum tunnelling equation as given by V. Balck in the proceedings “Relativity and Gravitation, 100 years after Einstein in Prague” to delineate a relationship between spatial dimensions, and energy. Afterwards, we then scale the energy as related to formation of primordial black holes, in the onset of the big bang, and how they decay, to evaluate graviton production, and by extension graviton ‘particle’ induced entropy. The first section affirms that in principle we may have far fewer dimensions than was deemed necessary in string theory. In doing so, we compare the results with earlier work done where we used an argument by Haggard and Rovelli as far as the introduction of quantum effects, in the early universe. Note that Haggard and Rovelli delineated an outer radius as to the range of quantum effects, which extends past the Schwartzshield radius This is defined as 7/3 times the mass of the initial cosmological system. We also have a range of perturbative effects as delineated by Turok’s article which gives a range of values
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[929] viXra:1604.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-10 15:57:25

A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (Bidum Version 1.1) Based on a Series of Planck-Like Informational Constants and Using the Hypothetical Gravitonic Qubit as the Basic Unit of the (Bio)physical Information

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 52 Pages. More on BIDUM 1.1 here: https://univermed-cdgm.academia.edu/AndreiLucianDragoi

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system [3,4]; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [5]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [6,7]. In this BIDUM version 1.1[5,6,7][8]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE (Theory of Everything), together with the concept of biological information (BI) in a unified concept of biophysical information (BPI) [9].
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[928] viXra:1604.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-10 15:59:50

An Info-Digital Universe (Toy) Model (Idum) (In Brief) Using the Hypothetical Gravitonic Qubit as the Basic Unit of the Physical Information

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 11 Pages. More on the full version of BIDUM 1.1 here: https://univermed-cdgm.academia.edu/AndreiLucianDragoi

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: an important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [3]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [4,5]. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s Bio-IDUM (BIDUM) version 1.1 [6]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[927] viXra:1604.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-07 18:35:19

Protons to Neutron Mass Ratio and Coupling Dependence on Radiation Angles

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[926] viXra:1604.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-06 07:12:45

Divergence-Free Quantum Gravity in a Scalar Model

Authors: N.S. Baaklini
Comments: 17 pages, 55 equations, 6 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with gravity-like, non-polynomial interactions characterized by a dimensional coupling constant. This treatment would give a clear perspective regarding the viability of applying the divergence-free approach to quantum gravity. Issues regarding the masslessness of the effective graviton, while the virtual counterpart is massive, as well as, regarding the invariance of the basic Lagrangian, are discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[925] viXra:1604.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-04 12:14:19

What if the Atoms Were Made of Light?

Authors: Jonathan Crabb
Comments: 2 Pages.

We propose a new theory of subatomic particles that replaces the existing theory of "quarks" and "string theory". Instead, we consider a new approach: what if the atoms were actually made of light?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[924] viXra:1604.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-03 17:26:10

Improvement In The Thrust of the Electromagnetic Warp Drive Using Stimulated Emission Similar to a MASER

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 8 Pages.

A new concept of the vacuum describes the operation of the EM drive, the first warp drive that has been demonstrated by NASA and other researchers to produce thrust based on microwaves resonating in a tapered cavity. A new design for improving thrust in the cavity using stimulated emission of microwaves, such as in a MASER, is presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[923] viXra:1603.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-23 08:32:53

Book Review; Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity by Carlo Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 9 Pages.

Out of interest, I took up the book of Rovelli and Vidotto to see how far covariant Loop Quantum gravity had evolved over the years and how its foundations are framed. I hoped that the authors had filled in the necessary technical details which was somehow the promise of the book, that it was an easy accesible, thorough introduction to the subject. This report is my impression of the first 180 out of 250 pages, by then I encountered several difficulties and issues with the theory which require further explanation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[922] viXra:1603.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-19 08:32:00

Planck Quantization of Newton and Einstein Gravitation}

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we rewrite the gravitational constant based on its relationship with the Planck length and, based on this, we rewrite the Planck mass in a slightly different form (that gives exactly the same value). In this way we are able to quantize a series of end results in Newton and Einstein's gravity theories. The formulas will still give exactly the same values as before, but everything related to gravity will then come in quanta. Numerically this only has implications at a quantum scale; for macro objects the discrete steps are so tiny that they are close to impossible to notice. Hopefully this can give additional insight into how well (ad-hoc) quantized Newton and Einstein gravity are potentially linked with the quantum world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[921] viXra:1603.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 23:42:14

Reconsidering “Does the Sum Rule Hold at the Big Bang?”, with Pre Planckian HUP, and Division Algebras

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 16 Pages. Re done from a Prespacetime 2012 paper, which has substantially different content. The headers have the old Perspacetime template, but that is due to their construction, while the content is very different

In 2012, the author submitted an article to the Prespacetime journal based upon the premise of inquiry as to the alleged vanishing of disjoint open sets contributing to quantum vector measures no longer working. I.e. the solution in 2012 was that the author stated that quantum measures in 4 dimensions would not work, mandating, if measure theory were used, imbedding in higher dimensions was necessary for a singularity. The idea was to use the methodology of string theory as to come up with a way out of the impasse if higher dimensions do not exist. We revisit this question, taking into account a derived HUP, for metric tensors if we look at Pre-Planckian space-time introducing a pre-Quantum mechanical HUP which may be a way to ascertain a solution not mandating higher dimensions, as well as introducing cautions as to what will disrupt the offered solution. Note that first, measurable spaces allow disjoint sets. Also, that smooth relations alone do not define separability or admit sets Planck’s length, if it exists, is a natural way to get about the ‘bad effects’ of a cosmic singularity at the beginning of space-time evolution, but if a development is to believed, namely by Stoica in the article, about removing the cosmic singularity as a break down point in relativity, there is nothing which forbids space-time from collapsing to a point. Without the use of a Pre Planckian HUP, for metric tensors, the quatum measures in four dimensions break down. We try to ascertain if a Pre Planckian HUP is sufficient to avoid this pathology and also look at if division algebras which can link Octonionic geometry and E8, to Quark spinors, in the standard model and add sufficient definition to the standard model are necessary and sufficient conditions for a metric tensor HUP which may remove this break down of the sum rum in the onset of the ‘Big Bang’. Keywords: quantum measures, spatial diffeomorphism, cylinder sets, Caratheodary-Hahn –Huvanek theorem, Big Bang singularity, causal sets, Modified Pre Planckian HUP, Division Algebras
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[920] viXra:1603.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-12 12:51:20

Double-Slit Experiment is an Experiment to Detect Gravitational Waves.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 6 Pages.

Double-slit experiment is an experiment to detect gravitational waves. Hypothesis, elementary pulsation principle (electrons and photons are powerful gravitational wave sources that)... and to interpret. (The double-slit experiment was in gravitational wave detection)... and to interpret.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[919] viXra:1603.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 17:14:39

The Geometry of the Universe.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 11 Pages.

The geometry of the universe. (Dark energy pulsating principle) has found. 4-dimensional space, dark energy and dark matter. The hypothesis is consistent. Nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force. The hypothesis is suggested. New cosmic model. The hypothesis is consistent. Micro-space structure and maximal spatial structure. The hypothesis is described. As both a uniform geometry. The hypothesis was correct. Stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics. The hypothesis have solved the mystery. The mystery of the double-slit experiment. The hypothesis is given. The size of the particle. The hypothesis is. To suggest. 3: revolution in superstring theory. The hypothesis have solved the mystery. The mystery of the universe and the big bang singularity and the mystery of Galaxy distribution. The hypothesis is. To deny. Exponential function point space expansion model. The hypothesis is. Fix. The mystery of the beginning of time and space from nothingness.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[918] viXra:1603.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 05:47:48

Solutions to the Gravitational Field Equations in Curved Phase-Spaces}

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to Physical Review D

After reviewing the basics of the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime, via the introduction of nonlinear connections, we build an action and derive the generalized gravitational field equations in phase spaces. A nontrivial solution generalizing the Hilbert-Schwarzschild black hole metric in spacetime is found. The most relevant physical consequence is that the metric becomes momentum-dependent (observer dependent) which is what one should aim for in trying to $quantize$ geometry (gravity) : the observer must play an important role in any measurement (observation) process of the spacetime he/she lives in.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[917] viXra:1603.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 12:11:20

Minimal Black Hole Entropy Provides Evidence for the Anisotropy of Spacetime

Authors: Konstantin S Leskov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Based on the entropy of the minimal mass black hole, I propose the polyhedral structure of the event horizon. A hypothesis of the rhombic dodecahedral (pyritohedral) honeycomb lattice of the spacetime with anisotropic properties at the Planck scale is discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[916] viXra:1603.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-09 23:57:13

The Cosmological Constant and Sphere Theory

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper shows that the gravitational constant is approximately assuming gravity travels through one level of dimensions. It is also explained why the gravitational constant is smaller than this because gravity may actually travel through multiple levels of dimensions and curve our perception of space. Sarnowski showed in “Evidence for Granulated Space” (1) that gravitational forces can be calculated from Spheres within Spheres. In Sarnowski’s paper “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”, it was shown that the outer surface of a sphere packed with spheres, closely matches the amount of discontinuities created when packing spheres concentrically and thus predicts the amount of equivalent mass in the universe (2) Using Planck Pressure and the parameters derived for the Planck Sphere in “Evidence for Granulated Space” (1) and “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”(2) paper shows that the Cosmological Constant is the inverse ratio of Planck Spheres in the Hubble Sphere Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[915] viXra:1603.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-09 12:16:21

Pulsating Big Bang Universe Model.(2)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 6 Pages.

From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe. Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure. Over time, in the early universe. Void (bubble) group in each microcosm. Galaxy was born in each microcosm. The Galaxy by the pulsating bubble moved the boundary. The moved to the borders and bubbles. The hundred billion galaxies distributed to the boundary of the bubble (lattice). As a result, became no longer bubbles in Galaxy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[914] viXra:1603.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-08 20:59:10

Now for the Mukanov Boo boo

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages. USED as introduction of lecture by A. Beckwith , in a PhD teaching school of Ukrainian students in Bratislavia, in August 2015

Summary of mistakes made by Mukhanov in the Marcel Grossman meeting in 2015, in Italy. This is the source document for 15 papers, which in different variations are showing up in JHEPGC, which is a journal with Dr. Christian Corda as head editor. I.e. 6 of the nine papers already published by the Author in JHEPGC used this as the start of their take down of bogus reasoning by Mukhanov.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[913] viXra:1603.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-07 11:44:09

Pulsating Big Bang Universe Model.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 22 Pages.

Chapter 10.  Pulsating Big Bang universe model. [1]. the current universe model. [2]... to deny the cosmic inflation model. [3]. the large-scale structure of the universe. [4]... on ripples to the microcosm model cosmic large-scale structure. [5]... models of the universe birth starting with the size of the universe, without exceeding the speed of light. [6]... by dark energy pulsating pulsating universe model. [7]... pulsing microcosm was illustrated on the cover model. [8]... to solve the mystery of cosmic large-scale structure voids (bubbles) in in the Galaxy. [9]. pulsating voids (bubbles) each microcosm. [10]... solve the mystery of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[912] viXra:1603.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-06 11:08:51

 「No. 3: Revolution in Superstring Theory. 」 「Dark Energy Pulsating Principle」

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 9 Pages.

「No. 3: revolution in superstring theory. 」and 「Dark energy pulsating principle」 [1]. Advanced "superstring theory" [2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory. [3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space. [4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory. [5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[911] viXra:1603.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-06 08:02:33

Incorrectness of the Mainstream Cosmology of the Early Universe

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here we show that the mainstream cosmology incorrectly describes evolution of the early Universe. Using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers discovered galaxy GN-z11 that is placed close to the more distant edge of the region of reionization i.e. is placed in time distance about 13.4 Gyr. It is assumed that the reionization had begun due to the grouping of the first stars in quasars. On the other hand, we know that transformation of quasars into galaxies lasts a few gigayears (Gyr). It leads to conclusion that the mainstream-cosmology description of the early Universe is incorrect because in the field composed of the “free” first stars cannot appear galaxies during about 200 million years. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) provides the correct description of evolution of the early Universe and the observed most distant Universe (they are not the same thing) and shows that the period called dark ages is an illusion. SST shows that in the most distant observed Universe there should dominate galaxies, not quasars and/or free first stars.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[910] viXra:1603.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 16:06:01

No. 3: Revolution in Superstring Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 22 Pages.

No. 3: revolution in superstring theory. [1]. Advanced "superstring theory" [2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory. [3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space. [4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory. [5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[909] viXra:1603.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 15:02:44

The Nonlinear Equation for Quantum Gravity

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

Recently , in the LIGO experiment discovered gravitational waves with the merger of two black holes . This evidence points to the correct path to the construction of quantum gravity based on the dualism of wave-particle .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[908] viXra:1603.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 00:23:32

Deceleration Parameter Q (Z) and Examining if a Joint DM-DE Model is Feasizble,

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: three figures were cleaned up, as well as a discussion of results on pages 34-35 which discusses relationships of paper findings to the recent LIGO GW discovery

This paper is a revisit to a 2011 document , with the addition of results pertinent to singularities in the case of a single repeating universe, as well as when the multiverse voids the necessity of a classical GR singularity. When a classical singularity does not exist, it impacts the formation of a massive graviton for reasons brought up, and allows for re acceleration of the universe due to massive gravitons. The existence of massive gravitons would also affect initial entropy, and also lead to the datum, that a calculated inflaton may re-emerge after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The inflaton may be a contributing factor to, with non-zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the universe a billion years ago.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[907] viXra:1603.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 09:08:26

On the Origin of Force

Authors: Norbert Pionka
Comments: 4 Pages.

A novel approach is proposed. Known microscopic time-symmetrical laws of physics, or phenomena underlying them, are a source of variation for natural selection mechanism that is driven by information-related criteria. From this evolutionary mechanism entropic force emerges. This force not only implies second law of thermodynamics but may be interpreted as the origin of other forces found in nature, including gravity. Therefore, I explain that force is an emergent phenomenon and also show evidence that indeed laws of nature may be reformulated as purely entropy-driven.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[906] viXra:1603.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 05:13:51

The Transition from Pre Octonionic to Octonionic Gravity and How it May be Pertinent to a re do of the Hup for Metric Tensors

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 22 Pages.

The quantum gravity problem that the notion of a quantum state, representing the structure of spacetime at some instant, and the notion of the evolution of the state, does not get traction, since there are no real “instants”, is avoided by having initial Octonionic geometry embedded in a larger, non linear “pilot model” (semi classical) embedding structure. The Penrose suggestion of re cycled space time avoiding a ‘big crunch’ is picked as the embedding structure, so as to avoid the ‘instants’ of time issue. Getting Octionic gravity as embedded in a larger, Pilot theory embedding structure may restore Quantum Gravity to its rightful place in early cosmology without the complication of then afterwards ‘Schrodinger equation ‘ states of the universe, and the transformation of Octonionic gravity to existing space-time is explored via its possible linkage to a new version of the HUP involving metric tensors
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[905] viXra:1603.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-02 21:19:25

Gedankenexperiment for Initial Expansion of the Universe and Effects of a Nearly Zero Inflaton in Pre Planckian Physics Space-Time Satisfying Traditional Slow Roll Formulas Which Happens in Pre Planckian Regimes Even if

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages.

We first of all consider what if the initial inflaton, were nearly zero instead of proportional to a Planck mass, in a SUSY type potential. Using the construction of Padmanabhan about general inflaton physics and the conditions of what are usual constituent slow roll requirements for inflation, and also of Kolb, Pi and Raby about a SUSY potential, we come up with the counter intuitive formulation of how usual tests for slow roll give the standard answers even if the inflaton in the SUSY potential as given by Kolb, Pi, and Raby is initially zero. The result, gives support to a formulation of VEV conditions used right after a Planck instant of time. As it is, we will from first principles examine what adding acceleration does as to the HUP previously derived.. In doing so we will be tying it in our discussion with the earlier work done on the HUP. The HUP results, so modified are appropriate for the Pre Planckian results and may explain why the slow roll formulation as given by Padmanabhan holds where there is the phenomenon of for Pre-Planckian space-time . This leads to a very paradoxical result that in Pre Planckian physics that the traditional slow roll formulas are satisfied even if .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[904] viXra:1603.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-02 10:12:44

Gravity and Electromagnetic Forces. the Hierarchy Problem.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 2 Pages.

This document is correct below. viXra1603.0008 The unification of gravity and electromagnetism. Image picture.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[903] viXra:1603.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-02 06:46:24

Big Bang as a Spontaneous Destruction of Quantum Entanglement of the Physical Vacuum .

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 3 Pages.

If follow the laws of quantum mechanics , it turns out that the vacuum energy density at the Big Bang emerged as a result of the decoherence of the quantum state of the universe. Perhaps our universe emerged due to the destruction of the state of quantum entanglement of the physical vacuum .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[902] viXra:1603.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-01 21:01:52

The Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism.

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 18 Pages.

The unification of gravity and electromagnetism. [1]... to the goal of modern physics and the Super grand unified theory hypothesis. [2]. elementary pulsation principle announced in 1980, with the physical society of Japan. [3]... article published in 1980, has been kept on the cinii National Institute of Informatics, Japan physical society. [4]... on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles. [5]... an illustrated guide to the nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force. [6]... unity based on elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force. [7]. structure of pulsating principle model for finite nuclei. [8]. it front and back of the same photon-photon and quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[901] viXra:1603.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-01 06:31:48

Distributional Spacetime in Classical and Quantum Cosmology

Authors: Jaykov Foukzon
Comments: 22 Pages.

Distributional Spacetime in Classical and Quantum Cosmology are considered
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[900] viXra:1602.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-28 23:42:28

Explains the Mystery of the Double-Slit Experiment.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 22 Pages.

[1]. The duality of particles and waves. [2] .Solve the mystery of the double-slit experiment. [3]... may be gravity wave detection experiments double-slit experiment? [4]... contemporary version ether experiments. [5]... candidates for dark matter and dark energy. [6]... interpretation of the double-slit experiment matter waves.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[899] viXra:1602.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-29 00:12:02

The Diphoton Mass Spectrum for Proton-Proton Collisions from the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Theory of the condensates produced due to the confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs), described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), shows that some of the spectral lines in the diphoton mass spectrum with invariant mass larger than 200 GeV up to 2000 GeV for proton-proton collisions obtained in the LHC experiments are not due to statistical fluctuation but due to strictly defined phenomena - a new phenomenon needs more than 2-standard deviations and the width/invariant-mass ratio about 0.0265 for two-sigma. Here we described such phenomena within a coherent model for lines with invariant mass about 209 GeV, 742 GeV and 1579 GeV (in previous papers we showed that such model leads to the Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV). To explain the spectrum, most important are the atom-like structure of baryons, density of the Einstein spacetime, the quadrupole symmetry and masses of nucleons, pions and the two lightest quarks.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[847] viXra:1604.0336 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-28 17:49:16

A Resonance of Cherenkov Radiation Angles with Bremsstrahlung Radiation

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages. Added equations 5.3 and 5.4

When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[846] viXra:1604.0242 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-18 01:29:58

A Rehabilitation of String Theory : from Grandcosmos to Massive Gluon

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. From From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French.

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[845] viXra:1604.0240 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-27 09:44:21

A New Approach to the Beyond the Standard Model Analysis of the Inclusive Electron-Proton Scattering

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons, structure of bare electrons and electroweak theory described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.843 +- 0.002 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[844] viXra:1604.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-01 05:49:19

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism: GravityElectroMagnetism: A Probability Interpretation of Gravity

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a joint probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now on there is GravityElectroMagnetism!
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[843] viXra:1604.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-25 13:21:35

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism: GravityElectroMagnetism; A Probability Interpretation of Gravity

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a joint probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now on there is GravityElectroMagnetism!
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[842] viXra:1604.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-20 18:21:23

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism: GravityElectroMagnetism

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb’s electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now there is GravityElectroMagnetism, at least for the three enlightened ones still walking this earth.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[841] viXra:1604.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-21 04:45:28

A Note on The Dimensionless Gravitational Coupling Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we are rewriting the gravitational coupling constant in a slightly different form than has been shown before (without changing its value). This makes it simpler to understand what is meant and what is not meant by a “dimensionless gravitational coupling constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[840] viXra:1604.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-15 15:41:20

Protons to Neutron Mass Ratio and Coupling Dependence on Cherenkov Radiation Angles

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages. Corrected Typos

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from –pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[839] viXra:1604.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-10 17:20:41

Protons to Neutron Mass Ratio and Coupling Dependence on Radiation Angles

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[838] viXra:1604.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-24 18:46:46

Improvement In The Thrust of the Electromagnetic Warp Drive Using Stimulated Emission Similar to a MASER

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 9 Pages.

A new concept of the vacuum describes the operation of the EM drive, the first warp drive that has been demonstrated by NASA and other researchers to produce thrust based on microwaves resonating in a tapered cavity. A new design for improving thrust in the cavity using stimulated emission of microwaves, such as in a MASER, is presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[837] viXra:1603.0267 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-30 05:14:34

Planck Quantization of Newton and Einstein Gravitation

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we rewrite the gravitational constant based on its relationship with the Planck length and, based on this, we rewrite the Planck mass in a slightly different form (that gives exactly the same value). In this way we are able to quantize a series of end results in Newton and Einstein's gravitation theories. The formulas will still give exactly the same values as before, but everything related to gravity will then come in quanta. Numerically this only has implications at the quantum scale; for macro objects the discrete steps are so tiny that they are close to impossible to notice. Hopefully this can give additional insight into how well or not so well (ad hoc) quantized Newton and Einstein's gravitation are potentially linked with the quantum world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[836] viXra:1603.0267 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-28 11:55:04

Planck Quantization of Newton and Einstein Gravitation

Authors: Espen gaarder Haug
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we rewrite the gravitational constant based on its relationship with the Planck length and, based on this, we rewrite the Planck mass in a slightly different form (that gives exactly the same value). In this way we are able to quantize a series of end results in Newton and Einstein's gravitation theories. The formulas will still give exactly the same values as before, but everything related to gravity will then come in quanta. Numerically this only has implications at the quantum scale; for macro objects the discrete steps are so tiny that they are close to impossible to notice. Hopefully this can give additional insight into how well or not so well (ad hoc) quantized Newton and Einstein's gravitation are potentially linked with the quantum world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[835] viXra:1603.0267 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-21 12:57:19

Planck Quantization of Newton and Einstein Gravitation

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we rewrite the gravitational constant based on its relationship with the Planck length and, based on this, we rewrite the Planck mass in a slightly different form (that gives exactly the same value). In this way we are able to quantize a series of end results in Newton and Einstein's gravity theories. The formulas will still give exactly the same values as before, but everything related to gravity will then come in quanta. Numerically this only has implications at the quantum scale; for macro objects the discrete steps are so tiny that they are close to impossible to notice. Hopefully this can give additional insight into how well or not so well (ad-hoc) quantized Newton and Einstein's gravitation are potentially linked with the quantum world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[834] viXra:1603.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-10 16:23:51

The Cosmological Constant and Sphere Theory

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages. Corrected Typos

This paper shows that the cosmological constant is approximately assuming gravity travels through one level of dimensions. It is also explained why the cosmological constant is larger than this, by a 3 magnitudes, since gravity may travel through multiple levels of dimensions and curve our perception of space. Sarnowski showed in “Evidence for Granulated Space” (1) that gravitational forces can be calculated from Spheres within Spheres. In Sarnowski’s paper “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”, it was shown that the outer surface of a sphere packed with spheres, closely matches the amount of discontinuities created when packing spheres concentrically and thus predicts the amount of equivalent mass in the universe (2) Using the parameters derived for the Planck Sphere in “Evidence for Granulated Space” (1) and “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”(2) paper shows that the Cosmological Constant is the inverse ratio of Planck Spheres in the Hubble Sphere Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[833] viXra:1603.0037 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-14 08:14:33

On the Origin of Force

Authors: Norbert Pionka
Comments: 5 Pages.

A novel approach is proposed. Known microscopic time-symmetrical laws of physics, or phenomena underlying them, are a source of variation for natural selection mechanism that is driven by information-related criteria. From this evolutionary mechanism entropic force emerges. This force not only implies second law of thermodynamics but may be interpreted as the origin of other forces found in nature, including gravity. Therefore, I argue that force is an emergent phenomenon and also show evidence suggesting that indeed laws of nature may be reformulated as purely entropy-driven.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[832] viXra:1603.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-19 09:40:27

The Transition from Pre Octonionic to Octonionic Gravity and How it May be Pertinent to a re do of the Hup for Metric Tensors

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 25 Pages. Significant alterations, as to be congruent with objections by a reviewer

The quantum gravity problem that the notion of a quantum state, representing the structure of space-time at some instant, and the notion of the evolution of the state, does not get traction, since there are no real “instants”, is avoided by having initial Octonionic geometry embedded in a larger, nonlinear “pilot model” (semi classical) embedding structure. The Penrose suggestion of re cycled space time avoiding a ‘big crunch’ is picked as the embedding structure, so as to avoid the ‘instants’ of time issue. Getting Octionic gravity as embedded in a larger, Pilot theory embedding structure may restore Quantum Gravity to its rightful place in early cosmology without the complication of then afterwards ‘Schrodinger equation ‘ states of the universe, and the transformation of Octonionic gravity to existing space-time is explored via its possible linkage to a new version of the HUP involving metric tensors. We conclude with how specific properties of Octonion numbers algebra influence the structure and behavior of the early-cosmology model. This last point is raised in section 14, and is akin to a phase transition from Pre Octonionic geometry, in pre Planckian space-time, to Octonionic geometry in Planckian space-time. A simple phase transition is alluded to, making this clear is as simple as realizing that Pre Octonionic is for is Pre Planckian Space-time and Octonionic is for Planckian Space – time, with the resumption of the Standard Model in physics occurring in Planckian Space-time and the Standard Model of Physics NOT applying in Pre Planckian Space-time. This is commensurate with the Octonion number system NOT applying in Pre Plankian Space-time, but applying in Plankian Space-time. And the Last line of Eq. (54) giving a minimum time step in Pre Planckian Space-time which is when we do NOT have the Standard Model of physics, or Octonionic Geometry. Key
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[831] viXra:1603.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-12 03:28:28

Distributional Spacetime in Classical and Quantum Cosmology

Authors: Jaykov Foukzon
Comments: 22 Pages.

Distributional spacetime in classical and quantum cosmology are considered. Distributional quantum spacetime with distributional Ashtekar connection also are in detail considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory