**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(6) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(7) - 1111(10) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(9) - 1202(11) - 1203(12) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(10) - 1211(8) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(15) - 1305(12) - 1306(8) - 1307(10) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(6) - 1311(16) - 1312(18)

2014 - 1401(16) - 1402(15) - 1403(15) - 1404(9) - 1405(15) - 1406(13) - 1407(18) - 1408(13)

Any replacements are listed further down

[618] **viXra:1408.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 14:16:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Due to the mergers of the binary systems of protogalaxies, there were created the elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies whereas evolution of the not merging binary systems of protogalaxies leads to the spiral (S) and peculiar (P) ones. The scale-symmetric Everlasting Theory shows that there is an analogy between the strong interactions and the strong gravitational interactions at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. Moreover, the early interactions of grouping but not-merging binary systems of protogalaxies mimicked the interactions of the groups composed of 3 protons and 5 neutrons we find in massive atomic nuclei. Due to the asymmetrical inflows of the dark energy, there should be galaxies with lower metallicity (the H-type galaxies) and with higher metallicity (the Fe-type galaxies). These three mechanisms lead to theoretical results concerning abundances of distant and local massive galaxies consistent with observational facts. For distant massive galaxies we obtain following abundances: for E is 3.66%, for S0 14.66%, for S 30.63% and for P 51.05%. On the other hand, for the local massive galaxies we obtain: for E 3.66%, for S0 14.66%, for S 71.47% and for P 10.21%.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[617] **viXra:1408.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 08:10:02*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
holographic models of quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of wave
functions via the Feynman integral for the transmission of information about the quantum object.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[616] **viXra:1408.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 20:44:02*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Email: newphysics@safe-mail.net

This is a conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of Spacetime, Strings and Branes. Taking this conception through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology. A form of inflation and positive cosmological constant naturally flows from this model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[615] **viXra:1408.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 17:22:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The hierarchy problem follows from the very big energetic gap between the Planck scale and the masses of the most massive known particles. This problem is solved within the scale-symmetric Everlasting Theory. This theory is based on the four succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs field composed of the superluminal pieces of space (due to the size of our Cosmos, the next phase transitions are impossible). There appear the four very different scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the electron and muon neutrinos are the stable particles. The observed oscillations follow from the decays or creations of the unstable tau “neutrinos” and from the exchanges of the free neutrinos for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[614] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 11:31:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine
structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large
Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent
numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very
close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary
particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent
and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of
Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used
to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the
Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the
Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and
Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the
number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is
proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called
Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck
Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron
structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine
structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[613] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 14:11:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We are able to place gravity and the conversion of space to time (as on planet Earth) and vice versa (as on our Sun) within the context of a much wider theory which unifies all four forces of physics beneath the symmetry-conserving mantle of Noether's Theorem: "The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[612] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 07:12:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free E-spacetime components so superluminal entanglons escaping from our Universe could solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[611] **viXra:1408.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 11:20:05*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Planck CMB data lead to conclusion that there should be about two times more galaxy clusters than we observe. Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I show that the discrepancy follows from the collisions/mergers of protogalaxy clusters at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. The time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.4 gigayears but they are 7.5 gigayears old so we cannot see the collisions of protogalaxy clusters. It is a wrong assumption that creation of galaxies can last a few hundred years only. For 4 times more spiral galaxies than elliptical galaxies, we obtain that there should be observed 2.4 times less galaxy clusters than it follows from the Planck CMB data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[610] **viXra:1408.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:36:12*

**Authors:** Robert E S Watson

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Kaluza’s 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach
is presented that includes torsion, unifying gravity and electromagnetism
in a Kaluza-Cartan theory. Emphasis is placed on admitting important
electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza’s original theory, and on a
Lorentz force law. This is investigated via a non-Maxwellian kinetic def-
inition of charge related to Maxwellian charge and 5D momentum. Two
connections are used. General covariance and global properties are inves-
tigated via a reduced non-maximal atlas. Conserved super-energy is used
in place of the energy conditions for 5D causality. Explanatory relation-
ships between matter, charge and spin are present.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[609] **viXra:1408.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 03:44:27*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Formulae for the electron's charge, electron's mass, fine structure constant, proton's radius, proton's mass, gravitational coupling constant and proton-to-electron mass ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[608] **viXra:1408.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 10:17:37*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A possible basic perspective common to four fundamental forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, and plus dark energy was found. That is different from gauge theory. This text shows that a theory for everything is realized by new perspective named energy body. The concept of energy body theory is that the whole universe including fundamental particles is made of the only one raw material. In other words, space and elementary particles are both energy body. And then energy body vibrates by the medium of energy cell bodies. And all forces work with the difference of energy level between energy body systems. Energy body is divided into two systems that are static energy body of space and kinetic energy bodies of elementary particles. As a result, the insight showed that gravity and dark energy are simultaneously generated by static energy body's (space) collapse and change into fundamental particles, in the process of fundamental particles' concentration. At the time, the two kinds of different energy level are caused in the space. One is in the direction of a star's center. That is gravity which is generated by compression of energy body (space). The other is in the direction of the verge of the universe. That is dark energy which is generated by the diffusion of energy body (space). Also, it was found out that there is a large scale of convection of space and fundamental particles. Therefore the universe inflation is not caused by big ban.
The other three forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction are explained by the shape of kinetic energy bodies (fundamental particles). Kinetic energy bodies have a character of waves that rotates on their own axes and a spherical shape in the central part. The closer the wave is to the axis, the higher the energy state, the shorter the wavelength, conversely, the father it moves away, the energy level decreases. Because of that, individual kinetic energy body behaves independently each other. Also, the shape beautifully explains interference fringes of electron, electron transition, and occurrence of magnetic field. Interaction of kinetic energy bodies is decided by the direction of the reciprocal waves. When they are the same at the place where two systems meet, it works as attractive force, when they are the opposite, repulsive force. Because, there is a rise of energy level or a fall. Outside of an atomic nucleus, weak wave of kinetic energy body works as electromagnetic force. When fundamental particles move, the tilt of it plays important roles. Inside of an atomic nucleus, strong wave of kinetic energy body works as nucleus force,
At the time, small kinetic energy bodies mediate.
More, there are some cases of synthesis or separation of kinetic energy bodies, because they are the waves of same material. Energy is the vibration of energy body. By this concept, the simplest principle is gotten that all forces work by the energy level difference of each energy body system at the place where each system meets.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[607] **viXra:1408.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 23:07:50*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, and is an entirely new interpretation of the wave function, which is fully equivalent probabilistic formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[606] **viXra:1408.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 04:59:49*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Simple formulae showing how the electron's mass is linked to the Golden ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[605] **viXra:1407.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 04:39:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the UV-photon underproduction crisis. The observational facts lead to conclusion that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate for the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest should be larger than the predicted value. The Everlasting Theory shows that it is directly associated with evolution of the dark matter at the beginning of expansion of the Universe and with the ratio of the present-day radius of the Universe and its initial radius.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[604] **viXra:1407.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-29 15:46:10*

**Authors:** Harry Theunissen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Given a simple set of assumptions, this paper gives an elegant explanation how ElectroMagnetism, the Stong nuclear force, the Weak nuclear force, Gravity, Inertia, matter and Time all could “emerge” from a single “fundamental” force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[603] **viXra:1407.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-28 04:51:35*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal.

The present reading is part of our on-going attempt at the foremost endeavour of physics since man began to comprehend the heavens and the earth. We present a much more improved unified field theory of all the Forces of Nature i.e. the gravitational, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces. The proposed theory is a radical improvement of Professor Herman Weyl's supposed failed attempt at a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. As is the case with Professor Weyl's theory, unit vectors in the resulting/proposed theory vary from one point to the next, albeit, in a manner such that they are compelled to yield tensorial affinities. In a separate reading, the Dirac equation is shown to emerge as part of the description of the these variable unit vectors. The nuclear force fields -- i.e., electromagnetic, weak and the strong -- together with the gravitational force field are seen to be described by a four vector field, which forms part of the body of the variable unit vectors and hence the metric of spacetime. The resulting theory very strongly appears to be a logically consistent and coherent unification of classical and quantum physics and at the same time a grand unity of all the forces of Nature. Unlike most unification theories, the present proposal is unique in that it achieves unification on a four dimensional continuum of spacetime without the need for extra-dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[602] **viXra:1407.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 06:51:12*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[601] **viXra:1407.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 18:47:09*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Unruh temperature, entropy and entropic force on the Schwarzschild black hole (S BH) can be modified. The
general modified equipartition law of energy (ELOE) is proposed by unification, the modified Unruh temperature
on event horizon and it quantization are obtained by quantization method. And the modified entropy and entropic
force are derived. These are significant to solve the black hole modified question.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[600] **viXra:1407.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 09:17:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[599] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 17:24:28*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Electro-gravity won't be measurable by Pico-Farad or less with 50Kv, asymmetrical capacitors. These will only cause ions wind in air. The real effect requires large charge separation which results in a Sciama Inertial Induction machine

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity.
Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in
http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” to whom the author
owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional
peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction
of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2.
Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant
improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are
the same.
Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result
of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by nongeodesic
acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In
order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a
formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by
an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every
event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big
bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began.
Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it
may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If
more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a
vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient
as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field.
This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energymomentum-
tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum
physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[598] **viXra:1407.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-15 14:46:43*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[597] **viXra:1407.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 07:31:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) -
We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[596] **viXra:1407.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 08:01:16*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[595] **viXra:1407.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 12:08:55*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A recent study entitled “The Photon Underproduction Crisis” claims that there are two surprising possibilities: the first possibility is that galaxies and quasars contribute far more photons than astronomers now believe; the second possibility is that the ΛCDM model of the low-redshift universe is significantly wrong. Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) implies that the ΛCDM model is significantly wrong. This brief communications makes a Photon Underproduction Profile Prediction based upon a speculative MOND-based theory of string theory with the Finite Nature Hypothesis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[594] **viXra:1407.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 06:37:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, evolution of the Milky Way, and similar massive galaxies, has to be explained descriptively and partially quantitatively. There is described production of the protoarms of the massive spiral galaxies, production of the Fermi Bubbles and dwarf galaxies. Due to the two succeeding transformations of groups of the binary systems of electron-positron pairs via the electromagnetic-type weak condensates inside bare electrons, there are emitted the gamma-rays with central values of energy in approximation equal to: 1.3 GeV, 2.6 GeV, 5.3 GeV, 10.6 GeV, 21 GeV, 42 GeV and 85 GeV. For muon-antimuon pair we obtain about 137 GeV, whereas for kaon-antikaon pair is 639 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[593] **viXra:1407.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 04:53:19*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We study the mechanism by which the particle-antiparticle entangled state collapses instantaneously at a distance. By making two key assumptions, we are able to show not only that instantaneous collapse of a wave function at a distance is possible but also that it is an invariant quantity under Lorentz transformation and compatible with relativity. In addition, we will be able to detect in which situation a many-body entangled system exhibits the maximum collapse speed among its entangled particles. Finally we suggest that every force in nature acts via entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[592] **viXra:1407.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 09:18:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[591] **viXra:1407.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-10 13:44:08*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author, the ratio ${H(z) / (1+z)}$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. Here, the weighted average value of the Hubble constant has been
found using 29 observed values of the Hubble parameter $H(z)$:
$

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[590] **viXra:1407.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-07 13:41:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[589] **viXra:1407.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-06 10:37:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I proved that the unidentified emission line approximately 3.56 keV follows from the weak and electromagnetic interactions in plasma composed of fully ionized atoms of iron (the atomic nuclei of iron) and of free electrons. Temperature of the plasma is adequate for the captures of the free electrons by the ions in their n = 1 state, where n is the principal quantum number. Next, there are the transitions of the emitted X-rays/photons into electromagnetic-type or weak-type weak condensates inside protons. The energy of the weak condensates leaks from protons and again transforms into electromagnetic energy. Such two succeeding transitions via the electromagnetic-type weak condensate decrease the initial energy to 3.5566 keV - it is some analogy to the phenomenon dominating in a LASER, i.e. the wave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The obtained theoretical result (3.5566 keV) is consistent with the MOS and PN (they are the two different CCD detectors on XMM-Newton) observations. Probability of creation of the weak-type weak condensates is very low – their production decreases the initial energy to 3.5157 keV. In the Everlasting Theory, the dark matter consists of the iron-nickel lumps and its present-day temperature, generally, is the same as the CMB so it is very difficult to detect it. But there were and still are the very hot regions filled with the plasma so the line 3.56 keV is the indirect evidence that the theory of the dark matter described within the Everlasting Theory is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[588] **viXra:1407.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 22:25:34*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1)
No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[587] **viXra:1406.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-26 18:35:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This article shows that the formula for the Schwarzschild radius (black hole radius) is a special case of the abovementioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[586] **viXra:1406.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 06:34:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[585] **viXra:1406.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 07:06:35*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article analyzes the properties of information in discrete structure of space-time. In this model, each cell structure has its 1 bit of information that is stored, regardless of the state of the whole system. However, in addition to its own 1 bit each cell is stored foreign information about other cells. This way you can ensure data transmission throughout the discrete structure of space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[584] **viXra:1406.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 04:00:18*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The electric forces are immensely great in comparison with the gravitational forces. There have already been many attempts to explain the gravitation by the immense electric forces. Thanks to the quantization of the electrical energy I have succeeded in it here now. And this in conformity with general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[583] **viXra:1406.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 10:57:07*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 6 Pages

The validity of Planck's constant in gravitational wave detection experiments is brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. It is shown that in the absence of a purely gravitational measurement of Planck's constant one cannot at present rule out the possibility that gravitational quanta may not be scaled by Planck's constant. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[582] **viXra:1406.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-17 18:40:14*

**Authors:** George Rhude

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Why the Michelson-Morley experiment was a bust.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[581] **viXra:1406.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 17:18:43*

**Authors:** Thierry PERIAT

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The so-called theory of the (E) question introduces extended Lie brackets in physics. This allows a renewed vision concerning the cosmic strings and quasi-empty cosmological volumes (vacuum). That new document is an attempt connecting diverse concepts: vacuum, strings, supra-conduction and the "birth" of Newtonian field. Although just an introduction, it probably sketches a totally original path in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[580] **viXra:1406.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 18:54:41*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper I propose a quantization of General relativity of Einstein which leads to photon mediates gravitation. My quantization of GR depends on the modified special relativity MSRT which introduces a new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations depending on quantum theory (Copenhagen school) [25-27]. My new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation leads to the Lorentz transformation is vacuum energy dependent instead of the relative velocity in Einstein’s interpretation to the Lorentz transformation in the SRT. Furthermore my new interpretation leads to the wave-particle duality as in quantum theory, and thus agrees with Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In my proposed quantized force, the force is given as a function of frequency [1]. Where, in this paper I defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the relativistic kinetic energy held by a body and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently I introduce in section (2) Newton’s second law as it is relativistic quantized force, and in section (3) I introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[579] **viXra:1406.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 04:51:44*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Alloy Q. Abanto

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this study, we will show that the heroic pursuit for the fabled Unified Field Theory can still be continued and justified with the advent of recent Topological Revolution that recently swept the mathematical world by storm at the turn of the 21st century. It is argued here that the Unified Field Appraoch (UFA) did not flourish in its infancy at the first half of the 20th century, not only because the pioneer physicists who advocated it did not yet have the quantum insight on the nature of spacetime at microscopic level but most importantly, the right mathematics is not yet readily available to them during their time. Einstein, Weyl, Eddington and Schrodinger are ahead of their time when they envisioned that all forces and particles are "geometric" at its fundamental level. It is shown here that the famous Ricci Flow and the recently discovered Hyperbolic Geometric Flow can be used for the formulation of a new Unified Field Theory that is essentially a revision of Weyl's 1918 unification theory. The theory to be developed here is a theory of topological geometrodynamics that describes not only the metrical fluctuation of spacetime at large scale but also at Quantum level down to the Planck scale.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[578] **viXra:1406.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-07 08:17:28*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Professor Brian Martin, a physicist and now professor of social sciences at Wollongong University, Australia, has published a Controversy Manual (Irene Publishing, 2014). It’s blurb states: “If you care about an issue, how can you be more effective in arguing for your viewpoint and campaigning in support of it? ... The Controversy Manual provides information for understanding controversies, arguing against opponents, getting your message out, and defending against attack. ... the emphasis is on fostering fair and open debate and opposing those who use power and manipulation to get their way.” On page 112, Martin explains how controversies are resolved: “a controversy is closed. What this means is that there is little or no debate. It doesn’t necessarily mean that everyone agrees, just that the weaker side is hardly trying any more, or perhaps is totally excluded from public arenas.”

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[577] **viXra:1406.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-06 17:56:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The present investigation is concerned with the problem of finding a quantum description
applicable to all phenomena including black holes. Thus, this paper introduces the universal
uncertainty principle which is an extension of Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This
extension includes the quantum nature of space-time due to the Planck length while the
effects of the zero point momentum/zero point energy are omitted. This formulation predicts
the thermodynamics properties -temperature and the entropy- of black holes. The main
prediction emerging from this theory is a general equation for the temperature of the black
hole. This equation shows a surprising result - the temperature of the black hole depends not
only on the mass of the black hole but also on its radius. This theory is applicable to black
holes of all sizes; however, the impact of the radius is significant for microscopic black holes
only. Finally, this theory predicts that the Berkenstain-Hawking temperature formula is a
special case of the more general formulation presented here.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[576] **viXra:1406.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-06 14:07:33*

**Authors:** Sebastian Aloys

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This theory will be able to create the theory of everything

In this paper I am trying to say that, the laws of universe are same in everywhere and every action. We can explain everything in the same mode. According to me there is no any specialty in black body radiation or photoelectric effect. We can explain them naturally like every action occurring in our surroundings. Nature is giving us the answers if we observe it clearly. We can observe everything as simple even big bang, inflation or any action happening in our surroundings as the same. Everything in the nature is working under the same laws. I am trying to say we can observe inflation in every action where a force is applying. Here I am trying to understand about the force and energy. If we can understand very well, what is happening, when a force is applying to an object? It will give us the answer for everything. For me kinetic energy or potential energy of the object will not change the equilibrium of the system, so it is not mingling with the stored energy in it. I am not adding any new ideas here; I am just explaining what we know. A single photon doesn't have a rest mass but it can show gravity and it can add a mass to a system. I am trying to state that, gravity is closely related to the frequency of a particle than its mass. For me to explain the quantum gravity we have to bring the planks relation into macroscopic level. If bring it into the macroscopic level we can find the relationship between mass and frequency in macroscopic level.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[575] **viXra:1406.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-03 09:54:02*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In General Relativity Einstein summarized the law of gravitation of Newton for a large mass and velocity, and this theory is currently the main. However, on a small scale, you must associate gravity and quantum mechanics. Alternative theories of quantum gravity there is a great many, but none of them has not won the right to replace the General theory of relativity.However, in the last time there was a way out of this situation. It is called the holographic principle. Therefore, in this work will be discussed the connection between gravity and the holographic principle. Such synthesis gives a chance to understanding quantum gravity theory, which is based on the concepts of information, entropy, and the geometry of space-time. In this work these concepts are combined into a single law.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[574] **viXra:1405.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-30 06:58:49*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This article discusses the relationship between the principle of relativity and the holographic principle. Such synthesis gives a chance to understanding quantum gravity theory, which is based on the concepts of information, entropy, and the geometry of space-time. In this work these concepts are combined into a single law.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[573] **viXra:1405.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 06:59:23*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan, A. T. Jaccaci

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Ours is an electromagnetic universe of free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy (matter and light - as we learn from annihilation reactions), and hence to the "Great Asymmetry" of stand-alone matter we may add the "Great Gauge" of the invariant electromagnetic constant "c", and the "Great Charge" of the invariant electric charge. In this regard, it should be noted that light itself (in the form of virtual photons) is the field vector or force carrier of electric charge. We therefore see light protecting its own symmetric energy state through electric charge and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions - especially including annihilations between virtual particle-antiparticle pairs.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[572] **viXra:1405.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 06:25:51*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

A Clifford-Gravity based model is exploited to build a generalized action (beyond the current ones used in the literature) and arrive at relevant numerical results which are consistent with the presently-observed de Sitter accelerating expansion of the universe driven by a very small vacuum energy density $ \rho_{obs} \sim 10^{ -120} (M_P)^4 $ ($ M_P $ is the Planck mass) and provide promising dark energy/matter candidates in terms of the $16$ scalars corresponding to the degrees of freedom associated with a $ Cl(3,1)$-algebra valued scalar field $ {\bf \Phi} $ in four dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[571] **viXra:1405.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 18:52:58*

**Authors:** Cliff Ellgen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We use the assumptions of knot physics to prove that a collection of interacting neutrinos and antineutrinos maximize their quantum probability when all neutrinos are of the same helicity and all antineutrinos are of the opposite helicity. Knot physics demonstrates that the geometry of gravity spontaneously breaks symmetry. We show here that the geometry of gravity couples the neutrino linear momentum to its quantum phase. Likewise, the quantum phase of an interacting neutrino couples to its spin angular momentum. Therefore, the symmetry breaking of gravity couples the linear momentum of an interacting neutrino to its spin angular momentum, producing consistent helicity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[570] **viXra:1405.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 15:36:43*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Due to the interaction of the Higgs field with the Einstein-spacetime components and neutrinos all matter consists of, in the Higgs field are produced the gradients/gravitational-fields. The Higgs field consists of the non-gravitational tachyons which speed is about 89 powers of ten higher than the speed of light in “vacuum” so the gravitational lines of forces look as spokes stiffly welded on to masses. When a mass rotates then the lines rotate as well. The speed of light is the speed in relation to a frame of reference which is in the rest in relation to rotating (or not) system of the divergent lines of gravitational forces. It means that the Michelson-Morley experiment is not the evidence against the aether theory so number of phenomena which can be described within the special relativity correctly is smaller than it is assumed, especially it concerns cosmology. The lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, shows as well that not all masses are relativistic: the masses of neutrinos, the masses of Einstein-spacetime components and of galaxies in the rest in relation to the local expanding dark energy are invariant. And finally, due to the conservation of the ground states of the Higgs field and Einstein spacetime, sometimes, contrary to the special relativity, the speed of light can be not invariant. It all leads to the duality of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[507] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 08:03:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[506] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-27 09:32:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Fixed fine structure constant notation.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[505] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 16:26:56*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 Pages. adding postscript

Ultimately, we are able to place gravity and the conversion of space to time (as on planet earth) and vice versa (as on the sun) within the context of a much wider theory which unifies all four forces of physics beneath the symmetry-conserving mantle of Noether's theorem: "The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[504] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-24 07:22:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free Einstein-spacetime components so the superluminal entanglons frozen or escaping from our Universe can solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerated. The duality of relativity described within the Everlasting Theory leads to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe for redshift about 0.40 (i.e. about 5.2 gigayears ago). The sum of the gravitational and kinematical redshift leads to an illusion of deceleration of expansion for redshift greater than about 0.60. Due to the frozen entanglons, there was very rapid acceleration of expansion of the Universe at the beginning of the soft big bang (the Universe exited from its black-hole state) but we cannot see it because the most distant galaxies, in reality, are already 7.5 gigayears old.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[503] **viXra:1407.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-27 17:21:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be
modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a
sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size.
It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a
charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this
theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the
levels of the Universe and its properties.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[502] **viXra:1407.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 08:53:03*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[501] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-21 17:35:00*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 36 Pages. DOI : 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9676 is sufficient to mention as the open source "Properly Cited" policy of the peer reviewed journal

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity.
Note: Please note that this paper is based on a previous paper DOI : 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9676
however, the presented theory has been improved and more importantly an experiment is offered.
Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result
of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by nongeodesic
acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In
order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a
formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by
an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every
event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big
bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began.
Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it
may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If
more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a
vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient
as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field.
This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energymomentum-
tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum
physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[500] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 08:42:54*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Electro-gravity from a field that is the reason for the electric field. Leads to Sciama Inertial Induction machine and explains Dark Matter

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122 to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[499] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 19:13:54*

**Authors:** Eytan H. Suchard

**Comments:** 34 Pages. The theory solves the Dark Matter problem and is a basis for creating Dennis Sciama Inertial Induction machines

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal” http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122 to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[498] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 07:06:29*

**Authors:** Eytan Suchard

**Comments:** 34 Pages. (14) was updated for accuracy and a link was added in the abstract

Aim: To develop a model of matter that will account for electro-gravity. Note: Please note that this paper is based on the published one in http://www.sciencedomain.org “Physical Science International Journal”
http://www.sciencedomain.org/download.php?f=Suchard482014PSIJ11129_1.pdf&aid=5122
to whom the author owes acknowledgement of the dramatic improvement due to a high standard and professional peer review process. The differences from the other published paper are three. 1. Correction of a qualitative classical limit calculation, term (1) which is of less importance. 2. Transformation matrix B and not A after term (12). This is a small correction. 3. Constant improvement due to feedback from a colleague. The theory and the mathematical terms are the same. Matter is characterized by force fields and in non-inertial and non-geodesic motion as a result of interactions. The measurement of how non geodesic a test particle is can be done by non- geodesic acceleration which in 4 dimensional space-time is perpendicular to the 4-velocity. In order to give a new meaning to matter by using such acceleration there is a need to reach a formalism free of specific trajectories, namely by a scalar curvature field. This can be done by an introduction of a new meaning of time that can't be realized as a coordinate. From every event, we define the limit of the maximal possible measurable proper time back to the "big bang" singularity or manifold of events from which we can say cosmic expansion had began. Yet such time is not a physical observable in the sense that it can't be locally calculated and it may exist as a limit only. The gradient of such time, however, is local and thus "physical". If more than one curve measuring such time cross the same event then the gradient which is a vector field can't be parallel to all such intersecting trajectories. That implies that the gradient as a vector field will not be parallel to itself or in other words, will manifest a curvature field. This idea leads to a new formalism of matter that replaces the conventional stress-energy- momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical but also for quantum physics and will result in a theory of electro-gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[497] **viXra:1407.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-15 19:15:27*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[496] **viXra:1407.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-22 00:42:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) -
We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics.
Reason for replacement of previous version – to add a subsection proposing 1) that time travel can account for ordinary atomic matter being the basis of ALL dark matter, 2) that the Sun is centuries younger then we think, 3) that the anthropic principle restricts the amount of time travel.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[495] **viXra:1407.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-16 04:56:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. There are produced the binary systems of discs composed of the W or Z bosons. They decay to two tagged photons moving in opposite directions. Since there as well are possible the other channels of decay so the decays to two tagged photons are very rare. The discs have strictly determined mass so the photons have strictly determined energy as well. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. The smallest mass/energy of disc/photon should be detected in CERN. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[494] **viXra:1407.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-09 09:31:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[493] **viXra:1407.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-29 08:08:15*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This update explains the reasoning why the calculation of the gravitational constant is also a calculation of the Planck Constant

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[492] **viXra:1407.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-25 05:00:32*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This version summarizes the steps for the calculation of the Gravitational Constant in Equation 1.1

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1)
No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[491] **viXra:1407.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 13:01:21*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This version includes a relationship between gravity and charge forces.

The best estimate of the Gravitational Constant is a conglomerate of measurements. (1) No method has been found to actually show a derivation of any of the fundamental constants or masses of particles. In this paper, the gravitational constant is defined in terms of the Planck’s constant, the speed of light, the mass of the electron and the mass of the neutron. The genesis of its derivation and its many similarities to the derivation of the calculation of fundamental charge show that it has meaning

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[490] **viXra:1406.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-16 16:14:47*

**Authors:** Thierry PERIAT

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The so-called theory of the (E) question introduces extended Lie brackets in physics. This allows a renewed vision concerning the cosmic strings and quasi-empty cosmological volumes (vacuum). That new document is an attempt connecting diverse concepts: vacuum, strings, supra-conduction and the "birth" of Newtonian field. Although just an introduction, it probably sketches a totally original path in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[489] **viXra:1406.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-21 08:13:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the evolution of massive galaxies. Within the new cosmology, applying very simple mathematics, we can answer following questions. Why many of the oldest most massive galaxies reside in clusters? Is the gravitational redshift important for the E/S0 galaxies? What is contribution of the kinematical Doppler effect of Special Relativity to the total cosmological redshift? Is the acceleration of expansion of the Universe an illusion? Why the massive red evolved galaxies are already in place at high redshift? Why the red-sequence has a boundary at z = 0.44? When and how were produced the first-generation stars the E/S0 galaxies consist of? What was the origin of a rapid build-up of the red sequence and why it is quiescent i.e. why there do not appear numerous new stars i.e. what are the phenomena responsible for the powerful shut-down mechanism of new-star formation i.e. why E/S0 galaxies evolve in a purely passive way? Why evolution of the most massive E/S0 galaxies was quicker for lower redshift i.e. why number of massive red galaxies is greater for redshift smaller than 0.7? Why there is a significant population of massive blue galaxies at high redshift?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[488] **viXra:1406.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-19 03:14:16*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the evolution of massive galaxies. Within the new cosmology, applying very simple mathematics, we can answer following questions. Why many of the oldest most massive galaxies reside in clusters? Is the gravitational redshift important for the E/S0 galaxies? What is contribution of the kinematical Doppler effect of Special Relativity to the total cosmological redshift? Is the acceleration of expansion of the Universe an illusion? Why the massive red evolved galaxies are already in place at high redshift? Why the red-sequence has a boundary at z = 0.44? When and how were produced the first-generation stars the E/S0 galaxies consist of? What was the origin of a rapid build-up of the red sequence and why it is quiescent i.e. why there do not appear numerous new stars i.e. what are the phenomena responsible for the powerful shut-down mechanism of new-star formation i.e. why E/S0 galaxies evolve in a purely passive way? Why evolution of the most massive E/S0 galaxies was quicker for lower redshift i.e. why number of massive red galaxies is greater for redshift smaller than 0.7? Why there is a significant population of massive blue galaxies at high redshift?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory