**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(6) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(6) - 1111(10) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(9) - 1202(11) - 1203(12) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(8) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(14) - 1305(12) - 1306(8) - 1307(11) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(6) - 1311(14) - 1312(13)

2014 - 1401(15) - 1402(13) - 1403(15) - 1404(6) - 1405(14) - 1406(12) - 1407(16) - 1408(12) - 1409(18) - 1410(17) - 1411(19) - 1412(16)

2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(15) - 1503(18) - 1504(12) - 1505(14)

Any replacements are listed further down

[730] **viXra:1505.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 06:27:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this work, we study the Unruh effect from the point of view of electrodynamics. You can get a
formula for the specific conductivity of the Unruh vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[729] **viXra:1505.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 06:28:23*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages. submitted to the Gravity journal of Hindawi press

We use a linkage between gravitation and electrodynamics the author shared with Unnishkan . In doing so, we find that a time step minimization procedure given by Peebles may be given further definition as to fine tune an NLED contribution to time step, which the author then links to gravity due to adopting the fifth force formalism of Fishbach . The rest of the document takes, then a derivation of a linkage between the number of gravitons, a minimum grid size, and the time evolution of Hubbles parameter, to ascertain a minimum number, n, of initial gravitons produced, which in turns of Ng’s infinite quantum statistics can be then a measure of entropy. This ‘count’ of gravitons is compared with Ng’s infinite quantum statistics versions of entropy, initially, as well as comments as to how to avoid having zero entropy initially. As to structure formation, we find that the stronger an early universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/H with H the magnitude of the early universe Hubble’s constant, per Planck time interval in evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[728] **viXra:1505.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 06:32:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Experimentalists used an entangled state of two photons to show that time is going in different way for internal and external observers. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we show that such scenario concerns the elliptical states of electron in atoms. There are two different entangled circular states of an elliptical state and jumps of entanglon, responsible for quantum entanglement, between them. It causes that global energy is static whereas an internal observer associated with one of two entangled circular states (the clock) sees evolution of the other circular state. It is the duality of time from quantum entanglement. Similar mechanism concerns two mass states of proton and of neutron but there is exchanged electric charge between the very dense gluon fields. Such exchanges lead to the mean fractional charges of the dense gluon fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[727] **viXra:1505.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 21:15:18*

**Authors:** S Bogue, T Bogue, E Bogue

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This theory of Quantum Gravity will describe the physical process which causes the force of Gravity. The energy of the vacuum causes photon pressure on every particle and energy wave in the universe. As interactions occur with the vacuum energy, it creates a locally uneven distribution of energy density. When another object is within a region of uneven density, it will be accelerated towards the object which created the variance in density. This theory uses the quite large energy of the vacuum 10^113J/m^3, C, and the small Planck length 10^-35m to calculate G, the gravitational constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[726] **viXra:1505.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 09:16:25*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Maybe every elementary particle has channels for the transmission of quantum information in a vacuum. Sounds pretty wild. However, it is experimentally proved that a single particle can have quantum entanglement, and hence to process some information. In this article, the Unruh effect is obtained as the thermal processing of quantum information in physical vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[725] **viXra:1505.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:33:27*

**Authors:** Gy. Szondy

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Presentation of the seminar 2015.04.29 at Eötvö Lorand University (ELTE)

In Special Relativity minkowski four-force is known to be perpendicular to the four-velocity and four-momentum vector. In the ‘50s Károly Novobátzky worked out the generalization of this four-force. We will shortly explain how this formalism can be used to describe conservative fields and how it leads to a Scalar-Tensor gravity that also fits the mathematical background of GPS. We also explain how this Scalar-Tensor gravity related to General Relativity and how can we derive the necessary scalar function (gravitation potential) from the Ricci scalar of the metric tensor. As a final thought we introduce an enhancement of a quantum particle model, where rest mass depends on backgound curvature - explaining the correspondance between gravitation potential and background curvature as revealed in the ST theory above.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[724] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 05:46:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The S-SP, due to the succeeding phase transitions, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[723] **viXra:1505.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 09:02:53*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The vacuum energy density of free scalar quantum field with a distributional background spacetime also is considered.It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, sub-dominant contributions. Here we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background distributional spacetime such BHs, to become dominant over any classical energydensity component. This semiclassical gravity effect finds its roots in the singular behavior of quantum fields on curved spacetimes. In particular we obtain that the vacuum fluctuations <Ф^2> has a singular behavior on BHs horizon r_+: <Ф^2>~|r−r_+|^−2.We argue that this vacuum dominance may bear importent astrophysical implications.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[722] **viXra:1505.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 03:19:58*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this article, I propose new paradigm of physics. The paradigm leads to simple and unified picture of world. Such simplification and unification has cost of several key concepts of philosophy, including Being. I propose very radical hypothesis of emergent space-time-matter, in which space-time-matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. The hypothesis of emergent reality (ER- hypothesis later) shows how it is possible to find space-time-matter from a more fundamental, static field and space without time and matter. In the article, I show how it is possible to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity in one conceptual model, how to unify all existing forces. Changes in equations of general relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. New model of Big Bang is described and new cosmological model is proposed. New law for recession velocity was proposed, the hypothesis predicts what Hubble law is not applicable at large distance. ER-hypothesis predicts what Theory of Everything is non-gauge theory and cannot be based on space of states. The ER-hypothesis also describes possible parallel universes, propose way of theoretical finding of parallel universes, and way to calculate interactions between parallel universes. Theory of time is described in the article.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[721] **viXra:1505.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 09:28:40*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In his 2007 publication “Physics based calculation of the fine structure constant “ J. P. Lestone suggested that “the photon emission and absorption area A of an electron is controlled by a length scale” where the length scale is near the Planck length. What might be some of the implications of Lestone’s hypothesis? Renormalization in quantum electrodynamics deals with infinite integrals that arise in perturbation theory. Does Lestone’s hypothesis have important implications for renormalization? I conjecture that, EVEN AFTER QUANTUM AVERAGING, Maxwell’s equations might be false at the Planck scale, because Lestone’s heuristic string theory might be empirically valid. Let ρ represent the electric charge density (charge per unit volume). I conjecture that, in equation (19b) on page 23 of Einstein’s “The Meaning of Relativity” (5th edition), ρ should be replaced by the expression ρ/ (1 – (ρ^2 / (ρ(max))^2))^(1/2), where ρ(max) is the maximum of the absolute value of the electric charge density in the physical universe. Polchinski (2003) offered “two general principles of completeness: (1) In any theoretical framework that requires charge to be quantized, there will exist magnetic monopoles. (2) In any fully unified theory, for every gauge field there will exist electric and magnetic sources with the minimum relative Dirac quantum n = 1 (more precisely, the lattice of electric and magnetic charges is maximal).” It seems to me that Polchinski’s two general principles are likely to be correct if and only if nature is infinite. This brief communication considers two conjectures: String theory with the infinite nature hypothesis is empirically valid if and only if magnetic monopoles occur in nature. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis is empirically valid if and only if magnetic monopoles do not occur in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[720] **viXra:1505.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-08 19:08:53*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Submitted to Int.. J. Geom. Methods in Mod. Phys.

A Moyal deformation of a Clifford $ Cl (3, 1) $ Gauge Theory of (Conformal) Gravity is performed for canonical noncommutativity (constant $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters). In the very special case when one imposes certain constraints on the fields, there are $no$
first order contributions in the $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters to the Moyal deformations of
Clifford gauge theories of gravity. However, when one does $not$ impose constraints on the fields, there are first order contributions in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ to the Moyal deformations in variance with the previous results obtained by other authors and based on different gauge groups. In particular, there are Moyal deformations of the Einstein-Hilbert gravitational action with a cosmological constant to first order in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ . Despite that the generators of $U(2,2), SO(4,2), SO(2,3)$ can be expressed in terms of the Clifford algebra generators this does $not$ imply that these algebras are isomorphic to the Clifford algebra. Therefore one should not expect identical results to those obtained by other authors.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[719] **viXra:1505.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-08 14:45:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we present four selected cosmological problems. In the Universe the total dynamic pressure of baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy practically should not depend on spatial coordinates so the baryonic matter displaces dark matter. The high-energy astrophysical particles are produced by baryonic plasma - there appear segments composed of charge-anticharge pairs and their cascade annihilation leads to high-energy particles especially neutrinos, photons and electrons. Flavor ratio of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos should be the same for source and at Earth: (electron-neutrinos-to-muon-neutrinos-to-tau-neutrinos) = (1 : 0 : 0). In the gamma ray spectrum produced by the inner Milky Way there is an apparent maximum at energies about 1.5 - 4 GeV and a drop at energy close to 30 GeV - here we show that these features follow from the weak interactions of the components of baryonic plasma, not from dark matter annihilation. The Holographic Principle concerns the quantum entanglement, not gravitational interactions. It causes that there are both the real volumetric Universe and the cosmological hologram in which is stored some part of information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[718] **viXra:1505.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 06:26:42*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We propose a model scheme of microscopic black holes. We assume that at the center of the hole there is a spin 1/2 core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. Possible frameworks for non-singular models are discussed briefly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[717] **viXra:1504.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 05:22:44*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 464-472

In conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number, the extra space dimensions are compactized. In string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly, and there is no compactization. Dimension number decreases with decreasing speed of light. and increasing rest mass. The 4D particle has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. The two different oscillations between 10D and 4D are the stepwise oscillation passing through every dimension number and the direct oscillation oscillating directly between 10D and 4D without the intermediate dimension numbers. Dark energy represents the stepwise oscillation, and dark energy becomes observable only when it has 4D space-time. 4D baryonic matter and 4D dark matter represent the direct oscillation directly from 10D to 4D. Our universe is the dual cyclic universe of the dark energy universe and the baryonic-dark matter universe. The Big Bang in the baryonic-dark matter universe produced irreversible kinetic energy that stopped the reversible direct oscillation. The reversible direct oscillation will resume after the Big Crush to remove irreversible kinetic energy. Our cyclic universe started from the zero-energy universe through the four-stage transformation. The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 68.3, 26.4, and 5.3, respectively, in agreement with observed 68.3, 26.8, and 4.9, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.28 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 billion years ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[716] **viXra:1504.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 05:42:41*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 1234-1243

In this paper, all elementary particles (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson) can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles based on string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, instead of conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number. Dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly. The oscillation of space-time dimension number (D) is accompanied by mass dimension number (d) to represent mass. Space-time dimension number decreases with increasing mass dimension number, decreasing speed of light and increasing rest mass. 4D particle originally is 4D10d particle, and has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. According to the proposed cosmology, the non-gravitational 4D10d particles were sliced into 4D4d core particles surrounded by 6 separated mass dimensions as the 6 dimensional orbitals constituting the non-gravitational forces (electromagnetism, strong, and weak). The combination of the 6 dimensional orbitals and the gravitational 4D10d particle resulted in the 7 dimensional orbitals. As the periodic table of elements based on the atomic orbitals, the periodic table of elementary particles is based on the combination of the two asymmetrical sets of the 7 dimensional orbitals. One set as the principal dimensional orbitals is mainly for leptons and gauge bosons, and another set as the auxiliary orbitals is mainly for individual quarks. The calculated constituent masses of leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson are in good agreement with the observed values. For examples, the calculated mass of top quark is 176.5 GeV in good agreement with the observed 173.34 GeV, and the calculated average mass of the Higgs boson is 128.8 GeV in good agreements with the observed 125 or 126 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[715] **viXra:1504.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 15:14:43*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 02 pages, 04 links

In the present letter the time evolution of the universe is compared with the growth of a polymer chain. It is proposed a link between the Evolving Block Universe, a model by Ellis and Rothman, with the Self Avoiding Random Walk Model. An old popular song: “Que Sera, Sera”, nicely fits to the model’s unpredictability.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[714] **viXra:1504.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 05:27:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A recent article in Physical Review Letters proposed a new way to detect gravitons. The setup could be done in a lab, which is in stark contrast to the usual view that you’d need a Jupiter-mass detector orbiting a neutron star to detect gravitons. It’s one of those “if we pull this off we’ll eat like kings” experiments…so naturally we should be a little skeptical. [6]
Unambiguous detection of individual gravitons, though not prohibited by any fundamental law, is impossible with any physically reasonable detector. The reason is the extremely low cross section for the interaction of gravitons with matter. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[713] **viXra:1504.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 02:59:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article bosonic string is output as quantum entanglement between two points in space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[712] **viXra:1504.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-23 06:15:56*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper considers a thought experiment in which an idealized version of the double slit experiment is carried out in a gravitational field. It is argued that the interference pattern observed will be modified from the pattern observed in the identical experiment performed in free space as a result of the blue/red shift of the photons fired at the screen caused by the gravitational field. The results of this are then interpreted in the context of an atom falling in a gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[711] **viXra:1504.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics that leads to the atom-like structure of baryons, the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the energy coordinates and some qualitative and partially quantitative description of proton flux as a function of rigidity are presented. Obtained results are consistent with the AMS data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[710] **viXra:1504.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 07:15:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unambiguous detection of individual gravitons, though not prohibited by any fundamental law, is impossible with any physically reasonable detector. The reason is the extremely low cross section for the interaction of gravitons with matter. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[709] **viXra:1504.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 03:31:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A single equation within Theory of Everything would be infinitely complex so we should formulate a fractal skeletal theory which should lead to the much simpler partial theories. In such theory should not appear free parameters and the indeterminate mathematical forms. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST) is such skeletal theory. Its structure looks as a Christmas tree. Here, within a model which is dual to the structure of baryons, applying the S-ST, we calculated the median effective radius of the Type 1 cosmological voids in observed redshift coordinates, number of such voids in the Universe, the quantized median effective radii of such voids, radius of the WMAP Cold Spot and the Cosmological Ruler. Obtained results are consistent with observational facts. Moreover, there is calculated the expected void abundance. Presented here theoretical results suggest that the picture of the high-redshift Universe obtained within the mainstream cosmology is misshapen.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[708] **viXra:1504.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-03 11:43:10*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The charged radius (r) of Fermion closes at 1/2 spin from the Compton wavelength [λ = h/mc = (1/2)πr] of Photon (Boson). These 1/2 spin means having the axiality to space-time. "The proton radius 0.841 (fm) was calculated from the proton mass" and "The proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen" are consistent.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[707] **viXra:1504.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 12:35:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the original Kaluza-Klein theory (KK-theory), the radion, i.e. the circumference or size of the fifth dimension, was invariant. In the newer versions of this theory, the radion is not constant. On the other hand, in the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), the radions are quantized and their sizes follow from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field. In S-SP there are the four radions associated respectively with the loops responsible for the quantum entanglement, with the weak charge of neutrinos, with the strong charge in baryons (the radion is the neutral pion), and with the superstrong charge of the cosmic structure before the expansion of the Universe (the radion was the very early Universe). All such radions are the pseudoscalars. The real Higgs boson is composed of two non-rotating and entangled (it is the shortest-distance entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components with antiparallel unitary spins so it is the pseudoscalar as well. But the condensates composed of the real Higgs bosons are the scalars as it is in the Standard Model. Just the detected Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is the composite Higgs boson built of the confined real Higgs bosons. Here as well we explained the difference between photon, gluon, masson, photomasson and gluomasson (in S-SP we must replace the massless gravitons for the massons that are the binary systems of non-rotating Einstein-spacetime components with parallel unitary spins).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[706] **viXra:1503.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 10:18:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, the critical remarks about luminal gravitational waves and luminal gravitons are presented. The mechanism of emission of the potential gravitational energy differs very much from the mechanism described within the General Relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[705] **viXra:1503.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 16:37:23*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Awards for Essays on Gravitation

Geometric algebra is universal, encompassing all the tools of the mathematical physics toolbox, is background independent, and is the foundation of gauge theory gravity. Similarly, impedance is a fundamental concept of universal validity, is background independent, and the phase shifts generated by impedances are at the foundation of gauge theory. Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Generalizing quantum impedances from photon and quantum Hall to all forces and potentials generates a network of both scale dependent and scale invariant impedances. This essay conjectures that these quantum impedances can be identified with the gauge fields of gauge theory gravity, scale dependent with the translation field and scale invariant with rotation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[704] **viXra:1503.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 12:26:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[703] **viXra:1503.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 11:45:41*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a Mathematica notebook saved as PDF which theorizes a relationship between fundamental constants (c, Planck, Gravity, Hubble, FineStructure) and computes within current experimental values the values of a (Higgs) particle mass of 124.443...GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[702] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 11:36:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[701] **viXra:1503.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 07:24:05*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

On site http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first and second space deformation, while on http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097 described the third space deformation. The fourth and fifth space deformation is a consequence of the presence of a proton and an electron in the dynamic space, after the inevitable end of the primary neutron (beta decay). So, it is caused an electrostatic induction of positive and negative units of the surrounding space and an inverse electric field of the proton (nucleus) is created, with reduction of the space cohesive pressure. The nuclear force now is interpreted as an electric force, 100 times stronger than the corresponding force of the outer electric field that extends beyond the potential barrier.
The Universal and the particulate (see http://viXra.org/abs/1501.0111) antigravity force is complemented by the stronger nuclear antigravity force, since at the lower nuclear field the reduction of the cohesive pressure is rapid and contributes to the architecture of the nuclei structure. Moreover, the reduction of cohesive pressure at the lower nuclear field is the cause of the neutron mass deficit, while protons do not undergo mass deficit, as it will be described below.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[700] **viXra:1503.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 16:21:29*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used.
In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[699] **viXra:1503.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 09:27:27*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Physics shows that the detected mainstream Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is a composite particle. Due to the Mexican-hat mechanism, it consists of the confined luminal Einstein-spacetime components i.e. of the still undetected neutrino-antineutrino pairs (their gravitational mass is in an approximation the inverse of 67 powers of ten kilograms). It is not true that the mainstream sham Higgs boson can consist of more massive condensates - it follows from the fact that due to the Mexican-hat mechanism and very high dynamic pressure, all Type sham-Higgs-boson condensates have practically the same gravitational-mass density so more massive condensates have bigger radius. But the non-gravitating energy frozen in each Einstein-spacetime component is about 119 powers of ten higher than its gravitational mass. The geometric mean of the non-gravitating energy and the gravitational mass of an Einstein-spacetime component is close to the Planck mass - it solves the hierarchy problem. Here we calculated the rigorous radius of the mainstream Higgs boson and the coupling constants which follow from the Mexican-hat mechanism (i.e. from the confinement) and from the quantum entanglement. They are the fifth and sixth forces. The quantum-entanglement coupling constant depends on distance. The coupling constant for the shortest-distance quantum entanglement is about 92 powers of ten and is responsible for the very stable structure of the torus-charge inside the core of baryons - it is the reason that the core of proton is practically indestructible. On the other hand, the coupling constant responsible for the confinement is the inverse of 15 powers of ten so the condensates are the very unstable particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[698] **viXra:1503.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 09:46:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Physics, is presented the fragmentation of hadrons in the pp and Pb-Pb collisions. Applying the Stefan-Boltzmann law the calculated production of pion/kaon/proton in pp and Pb-Pb collisions is in an excellent agreement with the ALICE data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[697] **viXra:1503.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 00:55:28*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The best place to begin is with Einstein, who revolutionized understanding of gravity and said “time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter” (this must include matter's electric charges and magnetic poles). Following the introductory paragraphs, Einstein's theory that gravitation is a push created by the hills and valleys of curved space is recalled and there’s a paragraph explaining the Krasinsky/Blumberg astronomy paper in terms of gravitational waves being a repelling force, with a brief explanation reconciling this repulsion with gravity’s apparent attraction. Believing everything from the quantum to the cosmic is intricately united, I shift to discussion of gravity, the ocean tides and cosmology. Then the final paragraph says gravitational waves move in two directions. Since gravitation forms matter and its forces, the dualism naturally extends to the electromagnetism of particles, resulting in electric charges that are positive or negative (combination of these two produces neutrality) and magnetic polarities being either north or south.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[696] **viXra:1503.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-20 15:23:01*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are the two long-distance interactions so spacetime is composed of two fields (the superluminal Higgs field and the luminal Einstein spacetime) with very different properties (there are respectively the superluminal pieces of space which lead to gravity and the luminal neutrino-antineutrino pairs which lead to electromagnetism and strong and weak interactions) - it causes that unification of General Relativity and Standard Model is impossible. We do not need new differential equations to solve the many unsolved problems in particle physics and cosmology - we need a fractal structure of Nature which leads from small-scales/high-energies to larger and larger scales i.e. to lower and lower energies. The fractal structure follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field described within the Scale-Symmetric Physics - it is the lacking part of ultimate theory which solves the hierarchy problem (the masses of the detected Standard-Model particles are much lower than the Planck mass). Pions are the superpartners of baryons whereas the early Universe (it was the double cosmic loop composed of neutrons) was the superpartner of the cosmic structure which transformed into the dark matter (it consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components entangled with visible matter) and dark energy (it consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components not entangled with visible matter). The mainstream supersymmetry and M-theory are, generally, incorrect. The Einstein spacetime is grainy so there can appear vortices with left and right internal helicity. Our vortex had the left internal helicity and such internal helicity have nucleons (antinucleons are right-handed) - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe. The nucleons consist of three very dense fields composed of entangled and/or confined Einstein-spacetime components which are the carriers of gluons - it solves the spin crisis of proton. The three-valence-quarks model of nucleons is incorrect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[695] **viXra:1503.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-15 07:58:04*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Gravity between particles is due to quantum entanglement with the physical vacuum. When they converge, then increases quantum entanglement with the physical vacuum and accordingly a measure of the entropy of entanglement, which affects the energy properties of the particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[694] **viXra:1503.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-13 10:13:09*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages. This is an attempt at a unified field theory.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[693] **viXra:1503.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 07:20:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The unspoken background for this article is a hypothesis for origins (of life, the universe and everything). That hypothesis believes human science is responsible for everything, and neither supernatural nor evolutionary means originate anything. In a biological sense, the Theory of Evolution certainly explains adaptations and modifications. But believing it also explains origins is unwarranted extrapolation. It takes an idea that accounts for some parts of life and, since it’s the only scientific explanation we currently have, assumes it accounts for all parts of life.
Albert Einstein showed space-time is warped, so it’s possible our own computer science (and terraforming, and biotechnology from many centuries in the future) found its way into the past. Dr Graham Phillips said “(The physicist) Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God, but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics that allow for the existence of minds in the first place.”
To discover what the unknown is, we must relate it to the known. In this comment, a possible answer to what dark matter is will be proposed by relating it to General Relativity's curvature of space-time. A Mobius strip is given a twist of 180 degrees before its ends are joined. Assuming space-time is modelled on the Mobius strip is one way to explain why space-time is curved. Such a model is plausible if string theory is invoked.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[692] **viXra:1503.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 10:55:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics/Theory (S-ST), is presented some recapitulation concerning structure of proton. It shows that distribution of gluons described within the Quantum Chromodynamics is incorrect - there appears the spin crisis. The S-ST shows that there appear three super-dense fields composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components. The three super-dense gluon fields follow from the short-distance quantum entanglement and/or confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components and they are as follows: the torus/strong-charge (its mass density is about 37 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; external radius is about 0.7 fm), central condensate (its mass density is about 3 times greater than 23 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; radius is about 0.009 fm) and relativistic pion on the S orbit (radius of the orbit is about 1.2 fm). Range of the strong interactions is about 2.9 fm. Within such model we calculated the rigorous mass, spin and two radii (the electron radius and muon radius) of proton. The torus/strong-charge is spinning and its spin is half-integral. We can compare the densities of the super-dense gluon fields with the mean mass density of proton on assumption that its radius is the range of the strong interactions: about 1.6 times greater than 16 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter. Barbara Jacak, a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, claims that the much faster than expected formation of baryonic-plasma droplets and the spin crisis follow from existence of a super-dense gluon field instead discrete gluons - it is consistent with S-ST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[691] **viXra:1503.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 13:52:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Casimir effect has been demonstrated with electromagnetic waves, which transport energy. The general idea of Quach’s proposal is to exploit the gravitational opacity of superconductors to, in theory, produce a similar effect from gravity. Doing so, by inference, would pave the way for the detection of the graviton. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[690] **viXra:1503.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 05:06:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[689] **viXra:1502.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 09:50:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Information can be sent with superluminal speed between entangled particles but new entanglement is created when luminal particles are very close one from another - it leads to conclusion that we cannot send information with superluminal speed because at first we must separate the entangled luminal particles. But when such separation is made then superluminal information is possible - it leads to the superluminal entanglement in quantum physics. Arrangements of the entangled Einstein-spacetime components in the physical matter and mental matter are different. For example, the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components on a torus/electric-charge are perpendicular to surface of the torus whereas the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components in the loops the thoughts consist of are tangent to the loops. It causes that the mental matter is flexible (the mental solitons are flexible) whereas the physical matter is rigid i.e. the bare particles are rigid. It is true that the superluminal dark photons responsible for quantum entanglement mimic the electromagnetic interactions but they cannot be detected directly i.e. they are dark. The dark matter is entangled with baryonic matter due to the superluminal dark photons carried by the superluminal entanglons the luminal Einstein-spacetime components consist of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[607] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-23 10:05:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The S-SP, due to the succeeding phase transitions, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[606] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 05:12:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The S-SP, due to the succeeding phase transitions, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[605] **viXra:1505.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 16:59:54*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP.

A Moyal deformation of a Clifford $ Cl (3, 1) $ Gauge Theory of (Conformal) Gravity is performed for canonical noncommutativity (constant $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters). In the very special case when one imposes certain constraints on the fields, there are $no$
first order contributions in the $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters to the Moyal deformations of
Clifford gauge theories of gravity. However, when one does $not$ impose constraints on the fields, there are first order contributions in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ to the Moyal deformations in variance with the previous results obtained by other authors and based on different gauge groups. Despite that the generators of $U(2,2), SO(4,2), SO(2,3)$ can be expressed in terms of the Clifford algebra generators this does $not$ imply that these algebras are isomorphic to the Clifford algebra. Therefore one should not expect identical results to those obtained by other authors. In particular, there are Moyal deformations of the Einstein-Hilbert gravitational action with a cosmological constant to first order in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ . Finally, we provide a mechanism which furnishes a plausible cancellation of the huge vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[604] **viXra:1505.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 12:48:16*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez Nunez.

**Comments:** 28 Pages. This theory is do not perfect scoeres, but you can say that if you have a roulette, and in continous movement, the 90 percent is light, the 9 percent is energy and 1 percent is mass, you can say that the energy is 9 times the velocity of the mass, and the

This theory is do not perfect scoeres, but you can say that if you have a roulette, and in continous movement, the 90 percent is light, the 9 percent is energy and 1 percent is mass, you can say that the energy is 9 times the velocity of the mass, and the light is 10 times and 90 times the velocity of the mass, and energy, but if you add 90 percent, plus 9 percent, plus 1 percent, you can say that is equal 100 percent, light, mass, and energy., and this is the effect of this camp, this is the same case about the gravity forcé is the same form, but in effect of camp.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[603] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-20 16:25:22*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then. Results: Four solutions to the gravitational wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[602] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 15:07:39*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 pages

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then. Results: Four solutions to the gravitational wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[601] **viXra:1504.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 12:55:26*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The charge radius (r = 2λ/π) of Fermion closes at ±1/2 spin from the Compton wavelength (λ = h/mc) of Photon (Boson). These ±1/2 spin means having the axiality to space-time. "The proton radius (0.841 fm) was calculated from the proton mass" and "The proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen" are consistent. Closed Yukawa potential at charge radius is going to reduce the linear density in accordance with 1/r potential, and become material density of mass (1.672E-27 kg/m), which is published on the 1 meter scale. How the fermion to acquire the radius and mass pave the way for quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[600] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-31 07:55:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[599] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-30 02:27:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[598] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 10:39:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[597] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 07:15:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[596] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-27 14:57:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[595] **viXra:1503.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-09 08:00:36*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used. In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[594] **viXra:1503.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-28 09:49:12*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used. In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[593] **viXra:1503.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:45:13*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[592] **viXra:1503.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-09 15:11:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics/Theory (S-ST), is presented some recapitulation concerning structure of proton. It shows that distribution of gluons described within the Quantum Chromodynamics is incorrect - there appears the spin crisis. The S-ST shows that there appear three super-dense fields composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components. The three super-dense gluon fields follow from the short-distance quantum entanglement and/or confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components and they are as follows: the torus/strong-charge (its mass density is about 37 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; external radius is about 0.7 fm), central condensate (its mass density is about 3 times greater than 23 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; radius is about 0.009 fm) and relativistic pion on the S orbit (radius of the orbit is about 1.2 fm). Range of the strong interactions is about 2.9 fm. Within such model we calculated the rigorous mass, spin and two radii (the electron radius and muon radius) of proton. The torus/strong-charge is spinning and its spin is half-integral. We can compare the densities of the super-dense gluon fields with the mean mass density of proton on assumption that its radius is the range of the strong interactions: about 1.6 times greater than 16 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter. Barbara Jacak, a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, claims that the much faster than expected formation of baryonic-plasma droplets and the spin crisis follow from existence of a super-dense gluon field instead discrete gluons - it is consistent with S-ST. Here as well are calculated the fundamental quantities characteristic for partonic plasma - they are consistent with the PHENIX data. Among other things, a puzzle of anomalous enhancement of (anti)protons relative to pions is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[591] **viXra:1503.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-06 05:14:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Ludwig et al. derived solar ages up to 22.3 Gyr (2009). The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the mainstream-cosmology age of the Universe (about 13.8 Gyr). On the other hand, the Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST) shows that the age of the Universe is about 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but due to the duality of relativity (the speed of light, c, is the speed in relation to source of light or to a last-interaction object) we cannot see the initial period about 7.75 Gyr of evolution of the protogalaxies/quasars. The calculated time distance to the observed most distant galaxies is 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr but they are already 7.75 Gyr old. The era of the quasars and the big stars in quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the last period about 2.3 Gyr. The GASER (the Gamma Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) leads to conclusion that in big stars dominates the transition from helium to iron. With time the abundance of helium in big stars decreases. Here, by an analogy to the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we obtain formulae for change in abundance of helium-4 and hydrogen in the expanding Universe. On the assumption that today abundances are 24.5% for helium and 75.5% for hydrogen (ratio = 3.1; we neglect the other chemical elements), we obtain that at the end of the era of quasars there should be 29% of helium (ratio = 2.45) whereas in the most distant observed Universe there should be about 30% helium (ratio = 2.3). The ratio for the primordial unobserved Universe was close to 1.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory