**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(6) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(7) - 1111(10) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(9) - 1202(11) - 1203(12) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(10) - 1211(8) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(14) - 1305(12) - 1306(8) - 1307(10) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(6) - 1311(16) - 1312(18)

2014 - 1401(16) - 1402(15) - 1403(15) - 1404(9) - 1405(15) - 1406(13) - 1407(18) - 1408(13) - 1409(19) - 1410(17)

Any replacements are listed further down

[650] **viXra:1410.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 13:17:08*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is an intuitive but general conviction that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity. Here we show that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture, discussing a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. Our model has important implications on the BH information puzzle and on the non-strictly random character of Hawking radiation. It is also in perfect agreement with existing results in the literature, starting from the famous result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
This paper improves, clarifies and finalizes some recent results that, also together with collaborators, we published in various peer reviewed journals.
Preliminary results on the model in this paper have been recently discussed in an Invited Lecture at the 12th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[649] **viXra:1410.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 00:24:19*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Consider the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is it possible that Milgrom’s acceleration law is wrong? No, because Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski have elaborated too much empirical evidence in its favor. There are only 2 possibilities: (1) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is 100% correct but appears to be significantly wrong for some unknown reason. (2) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory really is slightly wrong. Where did Newton go wrong? Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. To every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction: in other words, the actions of two bodies in relation to each other are always equal and directed in contrary parts. Within the universe to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction. Newton’s Third Law should perhaps be: Within the multiverse to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction provided that the action and the reaction are both confined to one particular universe. In other words, I suggest that Newton and Einstein made the mistake of assuming that gravitational energy is conserved. Start with Kepler’s laws and follow Newton’s reasoning with the removal of the assumption that gravitational energy is conserved. The result is not F = G * m1 * m2 / r^2 but instead F = ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * G * m1 * m2 / r^2 , where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 if gravitational energy is conserved, > 0 if gravitational energy is unexpectedly large, and < 0 if gravitational energy in unexpectedly small. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximated sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[648] **viXra:1410.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 06:17:46*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this article, the formal definition for the participator model is given. This solves the participator requirement for the General Grand Unification Problem. This is the participator aspect for the generation of universes via the GGU-model cosmogony schemes. It is shown to be representable as a finite meet semi-lattice with lower unit.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[647] **viXra:1410.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-25 21:50:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Will be presented in South Africa, in Capetown in Dark Side of the Universe. This is an accepted talk

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step , then generate DM via axions. Through Ngs quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[646] **viXra:1410.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 11:45:36*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What are the tests of string theory? What is Milgromian string theory, and how might Milgromian string theory be tested? If the string theorists are correct about string theory and if Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically valid when gravitational accelerations are low, then what might be the meaning of “Milgromian string theory”? What might be the physical basis of MOND? Consider 3 ideas: (1) Fernández-Rañada and Tiemblo-Ramos suggested that atomic time might be different from astronomical time. (2) Dark matter has zero inertial mass-energy and positive gravitational mass-energy. (3) Dark energy has zero inertial mass-energy and negative gravitational mass-energy. My guess is that the preceding ideas combined with Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) plausibly imply the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect. Replace the –1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s gravitational field equations by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^-5 . Designate this constant by D-M-C-C. In the “Meaning of Relativity” 5th edition page 87, the formula (101) should have – κ/(2π) replaced by (–κ/(4π)) * (1/2 – D-M-C-C)^-1 on the hypothesis of the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[645] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 06:29:06*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to a Special issue of Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the
cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value
and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[644] **viXra:1410.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 01:11:42*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Newton's inverse square law of gravity is very accurate in predicting the mutual gravitational responses of bodies within galaxies. Its predictions fail however in the outskirts of many galaxies and in cosmological scale analyses of the universe. Dark entities can be hypothesized for maintaining the law intact, yet the possibility that something is faulty not with our qualifications to sense dark constituents of the universe but with the law itself, cannot be ruled out. Through algebraic discussion I show that Newton equations can be interpreted in a new way at least as legitimate as their conventional way of interpretation. According to this new interpretation of Newton equations it comes out that the laws of gravity alter when the ratio between the mass of a gravitational source and the distance from it is smaller from a predetermined value. I indicate that gravitational fields may have a cutoff border at some mass dependent distance, i.e. possibly the influence of gravity is restricted in range and galaxies receding from one another according to Hubble law are gravitationally disconnected. My conclusion is that the common use of GR for cosmological scale analysis of the universe is very speculative and lacks any observational support.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[643] **viXra:1410.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 07:29:16*

**Authors:** Piyush Mohan Singhal

**Comments:** 13 Pages. A peer review is requested.

The formation of a trefoil knot in a measurement space with entropy is described. It is shown that for a given prime knot, invariants with the characteristics of Laurent polynomials can be developed in 2+1 dimensional measurement space. These polynomials distinguish chiral property and uniquely address charge, parity and time symmetries.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[642] **viXra:1410.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 21:44:39*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists have long suggested that the four observed fundamental forces of nature are separate manifestations of what was once a single force at times close to the Big Bang. If so, magnitude of the unified force can be assumed to be equal to . Strength of any interaction can be defined as the ratio of the operating force magnitude and the magnitude of . Let the gravitational interaction at black holes be called as ‘Schwarzschild interaction’. If strength of Schwarzschild interaction is unity, then weak interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction and strong interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction. Based on these concepts and considering the Avogadro number as an absolute and discrete number, basics of final unification can be understood.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[641] **viXra:1410.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 04:47:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The scale-symmetric physics (S-SET) leads to the atom-like structure of baryons containing the core, composed of entangled or/and confined Einstein-spacetime components, which is the black hole in respect of strong interactions. The structure of the core leads to conclusion that at high energy proton-proton collisions we should detect 25% more electrons than muons. On the other hand, at the LHC Physics conference in New York City (June 2014) the LHCb collaboration announced that probably there appear 25% more electrons than muons. In the Standard Model the electrons and muons (in the S-SET as well) are the particles of the same type so number of electrons and muons should be the same. This 25 percent excess of electrons follows from the internal structure of the core of baryons described within S-SET whereas within the Standard Model such excess is incomprehensible i.e. suggests existence of new physics. Just S-SET is the lacking part of ultimate theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[640] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 02:35:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in sections entitled “Speculations Concerning Future Humanity” and “Quantum Gravity Personalized”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[639] **viXra:1410.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 09:47:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Steinhauer black hole is an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate containing an analogue black-hole horizon and an inner horizon as in a charged black hole (online it was published on 12 October 2014). Jeff Steinhauer observed the exponential growth of a standing wave between the horizons. On the other hand, the scale-symmetric physics (S-SET) leads to the charged core of baryons which is the charged black hole in respect of strong interactions producing two horizons, i.e., the luminal-spin-speed horizon in distance A = 0.69744 fm and the luminal-radial-speed horizon in distance 2A. On both horizons are produced the virtual bosons with an energy of 282.9 MeV for which the characteristic length is equal to A. Such virtual bosons appear in the liquid-like-plasma theory, in the cosmic-neutrino-background theory and in the theory of the spin-1 and spin-3 charmed, strange D resonances with a mass of 2860 MeV. The Steinhauer black hole with two horizons is an analog to the charged core of baryons and an analog to the neutron black holes. The structures of the charged core of baryons and of the neutron black holes, producing two horizons, were described already in 1997 (online it was published on 6 March 2012). This leads to conclusion that the Steinhauer discovery is the indirect evidence for existence of the charged core of baryons described within S-SET.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[638] **viXra:1410.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 13:31:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, the resonant substructure of strange B to charmed D, kaon and pion decays is studied. The study is based on the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET) i.e. the lacking part of ultimate theory that main part leads to the structures of bare objects and to the origin of physical constants. The Kasner solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations lead to the structure of the core of baryons and next to their atom-like structure. Here, within the phenomena characteristic for the core of baryons, we calculated the masses of the spin-1 and spin-3 charmed, strange D resonances with a mass of 2860 MeV. The calculated masses are respectively 2858.5 MeV and 2860.8 MeV (they are very close to the experimental central values (!)) whereas to obtain the exact spins equal to 1 and 3 we need a broadening of masses respectively about -+ 5.3 MeV and 0.9 MeV and it is as well consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[637] **viXra:1410.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 03:04:32*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space refers first to the structure of the isotropic space, based on the electrical and dynamic antithesis (opposition) of positive and negative elementary units. This antithesis emerges as the unique principle of the Cosmos structure, which is the «union of opposites» of Heraclitus that we observe in all natural phenomena, as pairs of opposites.
If the isotropic space were infinite, then the attractive and repulsive forces of space elementary units would be at balance, in the form of a cubic grid of infinite dimensions, as a sole existence.
The physical space (the Universe), though, is not infinite. It has been created by the spherical deformity of the isotropic space, as its first deformation. At space limits, the vacuum (non units-non space) tows (sucks) the space-existence, because of the antithesis (opposition) principle between existence and nonexistence.
Τhis first space deformation creates the cohesive forces, which cause the chaotic (huge) cohesion pressure (see chapter B, paragraph 2). In this vast storehouse of energy (see chapter A, paragraph 4), the unique invisible force is the electrical one between positive and negative elementary units. The five evident Nature forces (1.antigravity, 2.gravity, 3.cortex, 4.nuclear, 5.electrical) are derived by this unique electrical force (see bibliography: Theory of Dynamic Space - The Universal Truth chapter 4, paragraphs 4.5.1. and 4.5.2. and chapter 5).
The first grand Cosmic event is the Genesis of matter, with the creation of the primordial neutron in the Universe center, as a second (local) space deformation (hole-bubble of empty space).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[636] **viXra:1410.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-07 13:48:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), we described the dark-matter mechanism which leads to the equality of spin speeds of stars outside the central stellar bulge of spiral galaxy. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts for the Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy and Triangular Galaxy. The equality of spin speeds of stars for defined spiral galaxy follows from the weak interactions, via leptons, of the baryonic matter with virtual loops in the Einstein spacetime - the loops mimic the motions in fermions. There is as well the cold dark matter (the iron-plus-nickel lumps) between and outside galaxies the clusters of galaxies consist of - it leads to the gravitational lensing. The constancy of spin speeds of stars outside central bulge and the gravitational lensing are the very different phenomena. Moreover, we do not need some exotic matter to explain their origin. Just we need the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) and the iron-plus-nickel lumps as the remnants of the explosions of the Population III supernovae (the first-generation big stars).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[635] **viXra:1410.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-02 14:06:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Kasner metric is a solution to the vacuum Einstein equations and we apply this metric to the modified Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating, non-relativistic, superluminal pieces of space (tachyons). The three additional laws of conservation lead to the scale-symmetric physics. Due to the four succeeding phase transitions, there are in existence the four scales: the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale concerning the Einstein-spacetime components, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Within such theory we can derive the formulae for the physical constants so we can interpret them correctly. The scale-symmetric physics starts from seven parameters only and within this theory we calculated the physical constants and hundreds of results that are consistent or very close to experimental data. For example, within this theory we calculated the exact mass, spin and radii of proton - it is still impossible within the Standard Model. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (SSET), we interpret the formulae for the reduced Planck constant, for the speed of light in “vacuum”, gravitational constant, electric charge of electron, and fine-structure constant. The reduced Planck constant and the speed of light in “vacuum” are the invariants. The gravitational constant can change only infinitesimally. For ordinary conditions (for example, for atomic-nucleus density) the electric charge and the fine-structure constant are the invariants as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[634] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-28 10:40:01*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[633] **viXra:1409.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-27 09:13:21*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitali

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
holographic quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of the principle of
the Heisenberg uncertainty over the measurement information about the state of the quantum object.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[632] **viXra:1409.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:28:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The hierarchy of phases with effective value of Planck constant coming as an integer multiple of the ordinary Planck constant and interpreted as dark matter is crucial in the TGD inspired model of living matter. The challenge is to identify physical mechanisms forcing the increase of effective Planck constant h_{eff} (whether to call it effective or not is to some extent matter of taste). The work with certain potential applications of TGD led to a discovery of a new mechanism possibly achieving this. The method would be simple: apply constant torque to a rotating system. I will leave it for the reader to rediscover how this can be achieved. The importance of the result is that it provides strong mathematical motivations for zero energy ontology (ZEO), causal diamonds (CDs), and hierarchy of (effective) Planck constants . Quite generally, the results apply to systems with external energy feed inducing generalized force acting in some compact degrees of freedom. Living matter represents basic example of this kind of system. Amazingly, ATP synthase enzyme contains generator with a rotating shaft: a possible TGD based interpretation is that the associated torque forces the generation of large h_{eff} phases.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[631] **viXra:1409.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:31:01*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A generalization of twistor Grassmannian approach defines a very promising vision about the construction of generalized Feynman diagrams. Since particles are replaced with 3-D surfaces and since string like objects emerge naturally in TGD framework, one expects that scattering amplitudes define a generalization of twistor Grassmannian amplitudes with a generalized Yangian symmetry. The realization of this approach has been however plagued by long-standing problems. SUSY in some form seems to be strongly supported by theoretical elegance and TGD indeed suggests a good candidate for a broken SUSY realized in terms of covariantly constant right-handed neutrino and not requiring Majorana spinors. Separate conservation of baryon and lepton number imply that super-generators carry quark or lepton number. This has been the main obstacle in attempts to construct stringly amplitudes. In this article it is found that this obstacles can be overcome and that stringy approach is forced both by the TGD view about physical particles and by the cancellation of UV and IR divergences. Also the planarity restriction emerges automatically in stringy approach. Absolutely essential ingredient is that fundamental fermions can be regarded as massless on-shell fermions having non-physical helicity with propagator replaced with its inverse: this representation follows by perfoming the integration over the virtual four-momentum squared using residue calculus.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[630] **viXra:1409.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:33:26*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists M. Tajmar and C. J. Matos and their collaborators working in ESA (European Satellite Agency) have made an amazing claim of having detected strong gravimagnetism with gravimagnetic field having a magnitude which is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by General Relativity.

Tajmar et al have proposed the gravimagnetic effect as an explanation of an anomaly related to the superconductors. The measured value of the mass of the Cooper pair is slightly larger than the sum of masses whereas theory predicts that it should be smaller. The explanation would be that actual Thomson field is larger than it should be because of gravimagnetic contribution to quantization rule used to deduce the value of Thomson field. The required value of gravimagnetic Thomson field is however 28 orders of magnitude larger than General Relativity suggests. TGD inspired proposal is based on the notion of gravitational Planck constant assignable to the flux tubes connecting to massive objects. It turns out that the TGD estimate for the Thomson field has correct order of magnitude. The identification h_{eff} = h_{gr} at particle physics and atomic length scales emerges naturally.

A vision about the fundamental role of quantum gravitation in living matter emerges. The earlier hypothesis that dark EEG photons decay to biophotons with energies in visible and ultraviolet range receives strong quantitative support. Also a mechanism for how magnetic bodies couple bio-chemistry emerges. The vision conforms with Penrose's intuitions about the role of quantum gravity in biology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[629] **viXra:1409.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:35:12*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The earlier attempts to understand the relationship between TGD and GRT have been in terms of solutions of Einstein's equations imbeddable to M^{4} ×CP_{2} instead of introducing GRT space-time as a fictive notion naturally emerging from TGD as asimplified concept replacing many-sheeted space-time. This resolves also the worries related to Equivalence Principle. TGD can be seen as a "microscopic" theory behind TGD and the understanding of the microscopic
elements becomes the main focus of theoretical and hopefully also experimental work some day.

The understanding of Kähler Dirac action has been second long term project. How can one guarantee that em charge is well-defined for the spinor modes when classical W fields are present? How to avoid large parity breaking effects due to classical Z^{0} fields? How to avoid the problems due to the fact that color rotations induce vielbein rotation of weak fields? The common answer to these questions is restriction of the modes of induced spinor field to 2-D string world sheets (and possibly also partonic 2-surfaces) such that the induced weak fields vanish. This makes string picture a part of TGD.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[628] **viXra:1409.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:37:00*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The construction of Kähler geometry of WCW ("world of classical worlds") is fundamental to TGD program. I ended up with the idea about physics as WCW geometry around 1985 and made a breakthrough around 1990, when I realized that Kähler function for WCW could correspond to Kähler action for its preferred extremals defining the analogs of Bohr orbits so that classical theory with Bohr rules would become an exact part of quantum theory and path integral would be replaced with genuine integral over WCW. The motivating construction was that for loop spaces leading to a unique Kähler geometry. The geometry for the space of 3-D objects is even more complex than that for loops and the vision still is that the geometry of WCW is unique from the mere existence of Riemann connection.

This article represents the updated version of the construction providing a solution to the problems of the previous construction. The basic formulas remain as such but the expressions for WCW super-Hamiltonians defining WCW Hamiltonians (and matrix elements of WCW metric) as their anticommutator are replaced with those following from the dynamics of the modified Dirac action.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[627] **viXra:1409.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:58:39*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

An updated view about M^{8}-H duality is discussed. M^{8}-H duality allows to deduce M^{4}× CP_{2} via number theoretical compactification. One important correction is that octonionic spinor structure makes sense only for M^{8} whereas for M^{4}× CP_{2} complefixied quaternions characterized the spinor structure.

Octonions, quaternions, quaternionic space-time surfaces, octonionic spinors and twistors and twistor spaces are highly relevant for quantum TGD. In the following some general observations distilled during years are summarized.

There is a beautiful pattern present suggesting that H=M^{4}× CP_{2} is completely unique on number theoretical grounds. Consider only the following facts. M^{4} and CP_{2} are the unique 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure. Octonionic projective space OP_{2} appears as octonionic twistor space (there are no higher-dimensional octonionic projective spaces). Octotwistors generalise the twistorial construction from M^{4}; to M^{8} and octonionic gamma matrices make sense also for H with quaternionicity condition reducing OP_{2} to to 12-D G_{2}/U(1)× U(1) having same
dimension as the the twistor space CP_{3}× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) of H assignable to complexified quaternionic representation of gamma matrices.

A further fascinating structure related to octo-twistors is the non-associated analog of Lie group defined by automorphisms by octonionic imaginary units: this group is topologically six-sphere. Also the analogy of quaternionicity of preferred extremals in TGD with the Majorana condition central in super string models is very thought provoking. All this suggests that associativity indeed could define basic dynamical principle of TGD.

Number theoretical vision about quantum TGD involves both p-adic number fields and classical number fields and the challenge is to unify these approaches. The challenge is non-trivial since the p-adic variants of quaternions and octonions are not number fields without additional conditions. The key idea is that TGD reduces to the representations of Galois group of algebraic numbers realized in the spaces of octonionic and quaternionic adeles generalizing the ordinary adeles as Cartesian
products of all number fields: this picture relates closely to Langlands program. Associativity would force sub-algebras of the octonionic adeles defining 4-D surfaces in the space of octonionic adeles so that 4-D space-time would emerge naturally. M^{8}-H correspondence in turn would map the space-time surface in M^{8} to M^{4}× CP_{2}.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[626] **viXra:1409.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:00:12*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

This piece of text was written as an attempt to provide a popular summary about TGD. This is of course mission impossible since TGD is something at the top of centuries of evolution which has led from Newton to standard model. This means that there is a background of highly refined conceptual thinking about Universe so that even the best computer graphics and animations fail to help. One can still try to create some inspiring impressions at least. This chapter approaches the challenge by answering the most frequently asked questions. Why TGD? How TGD could help to solve the problems of recent day theoretical physics? What are the basic princples of TGD? What are the basic guidelines in the construction of TGD?

These are examples of this kind of questions which I try to answer in using the only language that I can talk. This language is a dialect of the language used by elementary particle physicists, quantum field theorists, and other people applying modern physics. At the level of practice involves technically heavy mathematics but since it relies on very beautiful and simple basic concepts, one can do with a minimum of formulas, and reader can always to to Wikipedia if it seems that more
details are needed. I hope that reader could catch the basic principles and concepts: technical details are not important. And I almost forgot: problems! TGD itself and almost every new idea in the development of TGD has been inspired by a problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[625] **viXra:1409.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:01:53*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

One manner to see TGD is as a solution of the energy problem of General Relativity in terms of sub-manifold gravity. The translations act now as translations of 8-D imbedding space M^{4}×CP_{2} rather than in space-time itself and four-momentum can be identified as Noether charge. The detailed realization of this vision however involves several conceptual delicacies. What does Equivalence Principle mean in this framework: equivalence of gravitational and inertial momenta or just Einstein's equations or their generalization? What is the precise definition of inertial and gravitational four-momenta? What does quantum classical correspondence mean and could Equivalence Principle reduce to it? p-Adic mass calculations and the notion of generalised conformal invariance provide strong constraints on the attempts to answer these questions. This article provides the most recent view about the most plausible looking answer to these questions. Twistor Grassmann approach relies on the Yangian variant of 4-D conformal symmetry generalizing in TGD framework to Yangian variants of huge conformal symmetry algebras due to the effective 2-dimensionality of light-like 3-surfaces. This suggest also a generalization of four-momentum bringing in multilocal contributions analogous to interaction energy and also this is discussed in some detail.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[624] **viXra:1409.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:20:39*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 592 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.

- p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2
^{k}, k integer, in particular prime, define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. - A much deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2
^{k}- and 2-fractality. - Certain anomalous empirical findings inspire in TGD framework the hypothesis about the existence of entire hierarchy of phases of matter identifiable as dark matter. The levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.

- The first part of the book is devoted to the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics.
- In second part is devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.

[623] **viXra:1409.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:23:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 729 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants.

- Configuration space spinors indeed define a canonical example about hyper-finite factor of type II
_{1}. The work with TGD inspired model for quantum computation led to the realization that von Neumann algebras, in particular hyper-finite factors of type II_{1}could provide the mathematics needed to develop a more explicit view about the construction of M-matrix. This has turned out to be the case to the extent that a general master formula for M-matrix with interactions described as a deformation of ordinary tensor product to Connes tensor products emerges. - The idea about hierarchy of Planck constants emerged from anomalies of biology and the strange finding that planetary orbits could be regarded as Bohr orbits but with a gigantic value of Planck constant. This lead to the vision that dark matter corresponds to ordinary particles but with non-standard value of Planck constant and to a generalization of the 8-D imbedding space to a book like structure with pages partially characterized by the value of Planck constant. Using the intuition provided by the inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II
_{1}one ends up to a prediction for the spectrum of Planck constants associated with> M^{4}; and CP_{2}degrees of freedom. This inspires the proposal that dark matter could be in quantum Hall like phase localized at light-like 3-surfaces with macroscopic size and behaving in many respects like black hole horizons.

**Comments:** 729 pages

[622] **viXra:1409.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 02:06:29*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Not reviewed in: Classical and Quantum Gravity, Foundations of Physics, Annalen der Physik

I take a very exciting and revival excurse on a hypothesis that has risen in the midst of General Relativity and Quantum field description (in the form of the electromagnetic wave). I do not present new hypotheses but recall known facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[621] **viXra:1409.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 08:02:48*

**Authors:** Moses Turkle Bility

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The main purpose of this article is to elucidate a mechanical interpretation of the gravitation phenomenon. Additionally, this article unifies Newtonian and general relativity theoretical frameworks using the wave equation, which is the mathematical framework of quantum physics. Here I propose a novel theory, “Equilibrium theory” which asserts that the universe is an infinitesimally large and continuous differential energy density structure - a compressible fluid, as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame. Equilibrium theory asserts that the universe is always at equilibrium and is composed of demarcated “compressed fluid” (i.e. matter – planets, objects) and demarcated “stretched fluid” (i.e. photon) of approximately uniform energy density along with demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density (i.e. space); thus it is accurately represented using the wave equation, which describes the nature and dynamics of non-discrete and continuous structures.
Dynamics in weak and strong gravitational field results from the energy exchange within the “compressible fluid”, resulting in the reconfiguration of the differential energy density within the “compressible fluid”, and thus termed motion. Furthermore, dynamics in strong gravitational field (gravitational dynamics) is due to the existence of demarcated surrounding space of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; this differential energy density is induced by the existence of a relatively high energy density structure (i.e matter – planet). Dynamics in weak gravitational field (dynamics in inertial reference frame) is also due to the existence of demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; thus it is equivalent to the gravitation phenomenon, albeit transient due to rapid dissipation during perturbations. Equilibrium theory provides a novel framework for elucidating the nature and dynamics of the universe using a fluid mechanical model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[620] **viXra:1409.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-23 03:25:37*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We consider the relations of the energy density and its entropic density with the temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and holographic dark energy (HDE). On the basis of literature [4], we obtain the energy density of the scalar field being proportional to the square of the Hawking-Unruh temperature near the event horizon, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Hawking-Unruh one. Basing on [6], we find the equation of gravitational energy density inside SBH; derive that the gravitational energy density is proportional to the square of the effective temperature far from the event horizon in SBH interior, whether the gravitational fields of SBH are Coulomb-like or wave-like; and their entropic density is directly proportional to the effective temperature. Basing on [7, 8, 9], we gain the HDE density being proportional to square of the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Gibbons-Hawking one. These equations are similar and have relations with each other. We suggest that these relations are interesting and significant for SBH and HDE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[619] **viXra:1409.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 02:55:23*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Some novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) were explored recently. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations allowed for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, but breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. In this work we analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. A generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra, involving polyvector-valued coordinates and momenta operators, furnishes a realization of an extended Poincare algebra in $C$-spaces. In addition to the Planck constant $\hbar$, one finds that the commutator of the Clifford scalar components of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra requires the introduction of a $dimensionless$ parameter which is expressed in terms of the ratio of two length scales : the Planck and Hubble scales. We finalize by discussing the concept of ``photons", null intervals, effective temporal variables and the addition/subtraction laws of generalized velocities in $C$-space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[618] **viXra:1409.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 07:20:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, we unify the weak and strong interactions inside protons with the strong gravitational interactions in active galactic nuclei i.e. we unify particle physics with cosmology. Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I showed that outside the strong fields the gluons behave as photons. Due to the leaking internal structure of protons and the changing distances between the entangled Einstein-spacetime components, there appear the virtual structures with different sizes which mimic the internal structure of protons and the characteristic motions of the entangled part of the Einstein spacetime inside it. The characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime cause that there appear characteristic distribution and advection of the mass inside the nuclei of active galaxies. The core of proton consists of the condensate composed of the confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is the black hole with respect of the weak interactions) surrounded by the torus composed of the carriers of gluons. There as well appear loops composed of entangled Einstein-spacetime components. On the other hand, a nucleus of active galaxy consists of gravitational black hole surrounded by accretion disc and much bigger opaque torus of neutral gas and dust. Here, due to the characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime, the advection is the transport mechanism of the mass of a nucleus of active galaxy by the moving entangled part of the Einstein spacetime. There as well appear the two relativistic jets which direction overlaps with the axis of the opaque torus. For their creation are responsible the two baryonic-plasma loops with parallel spins and opposite internal helicities. They appear on the Schwarzschild surface of the gravitational black hole. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[617] **viXra:1409.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-10 01:39:39*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The Italian scientist Galileo described his experiments mathematically some 400 years ago. Ever since, scientists all over the world seem to distrust articles that don't include mathematics, comparing them to mistakes made by the members of the ancient Greek philosophers who didn't use maths (unless, of course, those articles are the result of Einstein's "thought experiments"). Many famous scientists have said that if you really understand something, you can explain it in plain English or to a young person with no maths training. So, as I normally do, I'll shy away from equations and scientific language (the great Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein used both things, so I think I must use them to some degree if I want to understand the universe) and try to rely on pure logic. Another great scientist of 100 years ago, Niels Bohr, was said to be able to do his work without relying on maths, so perhaps equations are over-rated and are actually the servants of intuitive insights. The early-20th-century's Jules Henri Poincare was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times, but also one of the greatest believers in intuition.
This article feels more like doing a 40-year-long jigsaw puzzle than something that required me to be an author. Sure, it took a long time and required a lot of thinking. There were times when the going felt frustrating, or tiring, or like smooth sailing. But I always had the feeling, similar to that of Paul McCartney when he wrote the song “Yesterday” for the Beatles or of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writing his classical music in the 18th century, that all the pieces of the puzzle already exist and I just had to put them together. Sometimes, I even felt as though pieces were being handed to me in the right order … at the right time. The article was written after reading “How the Universe Will End” by Francis Reddy (a senior science writer at NASA) in Astronomy magazine – Sep. 2014, and my article is restricted to the 6 topics which came to mind while reading it. The 6 steps are 1) Space Cannot Expand Faster Than Light, 2) Cosmic Inflation Replaced, 3) Dark Energy and the Big Rip, 4) What Is the Relation Between Gravitation and Black Holes?, 5) What Is Dark Matter?, and 6) The Universe Will Not End.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[616] **viXra:1408.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 08:10:02*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
holographic models of quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of wave
functions via the Feynman integral for the transmission of information about the quantum object.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[615] **viXra:1408.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 20:44:02*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Email: newphysics@safe-mail.net

This is a conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of Spacetime, Strings and Branes. Taking this conception through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology. A form of inflation and positive cosmological constant naturally flows from this model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[614] **viXra:1408.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 17:22:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The hierarchy problem follows from the very big energetic gap between the Planck scale and the masses of the most massive known particles. This problem is solved within the scale-symmetric Everlasting Theory. This theory is based on the four succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs field composed of the superluminal pieces of space (due to the size of our Cosmos, the next phase transitions are impossible). There appear the four very different scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the electron and muon neutrinos are the stable particles. The observed oscillations follow from the decays or creations of the unstable tau “neutrinos” and from the exchanges of the free neutrinos for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[613] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 11:31:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine
structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large
Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent
numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very
close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary
particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent
and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of
Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used
to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the
Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the
Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and
Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the
number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is
proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called
Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck
Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron
structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine
structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[612] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 14:11:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We are able to place gravity and the conversion of space to time (as on planet Earth) and vice versa (as on our Sun) within the context of a much wider theory which unifies all four forces of physics beneath the symmetry-conserving mantle of Noether's Theorem: "The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[611] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 07:12:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free E-spacetime components so superluminal entanglons escaping from our Universe could solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[610] **viXra:1408.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 11:20:05*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Planck CMB data lead to conclusion that there should be about two times more galaxy clusters than we observe. Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I show that the discrepancy follows from the collisions/mergers of protogalaxy clusters at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. The time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.4 gigayears but they are 7.5 gigayears old so we cannot see the collisions of protogalaxy clusters. It is a wrong assumption that creation of galaxies can last a few hundred years only. For 4 times more spiral galaxies than elliptical galaxies, we obtain that there should be observed 2.4 times less galaxy clusters than it follows from the Planck CMB data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[609] **viXra:1408.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:36:12*

**Authors:** Robert E S Watson

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Kaluza’s 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach
is presented that includes torsion, unifying gravity and electromagnetism
in a Kaluza-Cartan theory. Emphasis is placed on admitting important
electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza’s original theory, and on a
Lorentz force law. This is investigated via a non-Maxwellian kinetic def-
inition of charge related to Maxwellian charge and 5D momentum. Two
connections are used. General covariance and global properties are inves-
tigated via a reduced non-maximal atlas. Conserved super-energy is used
in place of the energy conditions for 5D causality. Explanatory relation-
ships between matter, charge and spin are present.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[608] **viXra:1408.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 03:44:27*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Formulae for the electron's charge, electron's mass, fine structure constant, proton's radius, proton's mass, gravitational coupling constant and proton-to-electron mass ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[607] **viXra:1408.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 10:17:37*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A possible basic perspective common to four fundamental forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, and plus dark energy was found. That is different from gauge theory. This text shows that a theory for everything is realized by new perspective named energy body. The concept of energy body theory is that the whole universe including fundamental particles is made of the only one raw material. In other words, space and elementary particles are both energy body. And then energy body vibrates by the medium of energy cell bodies. And all forces work with the difference of energy level between energy body systems. Energy body is divided into two systems that are static energy body of space and kinetic energy bodies of elementary particles. As a result, the insight showed that gravity and dark energy are simultaneously generated by static energy body's (space) collapse and change into fundamental particles, in the process of fundamental particles' concentration. At the time, the two kinds of different energy level are caused in the space. One is in the direction of a star's center. That is gravity which is generated by compression of energy body (space). The other is in the direction of the verge of the universe. That is dark energy which is generated by the diffusion of energy body (space). Also, it was found out that there is a large scale of convection of space and fundamental particles. Therefore the universe inflation is not caused by big ban.
The other three forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction are explained by the shape of kinetic energy bodies (fundamental particles). Kinetic energy bodies have a character of waves that rotates on their own axes and a spherical shape in the central part. The closer the wave is to the axis, the higher the energy state, the shorter the wavelength, conversely, the father it moves away, the energy level decreases. Because of that, individual kinetic energy body behaves independently each other. Also, the shape beautifully explains interference fringes of electron, electron transition, and occurrence of magnetic field. Interaction of kinetic energy bodies is decided by the direction of the reciprocal waves. When they are the same at the place where two systems meet, it works as attractive force, when they are the opposite, repulsive force. Because, there is a rise of energy level or a fall. Outside of an atomic nucleus, weak wave of kinetic energy body works as electromagnetic force. When fundamental particles move, the tilt of it plays important roles. Inside of an atomic nucleus, strong wave of kinetic energy body works as nucleus force,
At the time, small kinetic energy bodies mediate.
More, there are some cases of synthesis or separation of kinetic energy bodies, because they are the waves of same material. Energy is the vibration of energy body. By this concept, the simplest principle is gotten that all forces work by the energy level difference of each energy body system at the place where each system meets.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[606] **viXra:1408.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 23:07:50*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, and is an entirely new interpretation of the wave function, which is fully equivalent probabilistic formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[605] **viXra:1408.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 04:59:49*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Simple formulae showing how the electron's mass is linked to the Golden ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[604] **viXra:1407.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-30 04:39:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the UV-photon underproduction crisis. The observational facts lead to conclusion that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate for the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest should be larger than the predicted value. The Everlasting Theory shows that it is directly associated with evolution of the dark matter at the beginning of expansion of the Universe and with the ratio of the present-day radius of the Universe and its initial radius.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[603] **viXra:1407.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-29 15:46:10*

**Authors:** Harry Theunissen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Given a simple set of assumptions, this paper gives an elegant explanation how ElectroMagnetism, the Stong nuclear force, the Weak nuclear force, Gravity, Inertia, matter and Time all could “emerge” from a single “fundamental” force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[536] **viXra:1410.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-30 06:33:14*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity, General Relativity and E=mc^2 confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[535] **viXra:1410.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:17:15*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Added more to the conclusion. Fixed error in title, plus typos and added a formula and additional comments / formula to the conclusion

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[534] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-23 22:26:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[533] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 03:05:35*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[532] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-21 04:52:00*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The final words in a TV program about it (“Virtual Universe” on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s “Catalyst” – Oct. 16, 2014) are
"On the left is the real Hubble image. On the right is the one from the mock Hubble. The two were extraordinarily similar. Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved."
The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in sections entitled “Speculations Concerning Future Humanity” and “Quantum Gravity Personalized”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[531] **viXra:1410.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-08 05:15:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), we described the dark-matter mechanism which leads to the equality of spin speeds of stars outside the central stellar bulge of spiral galaxy. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts for the Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy and Triangular Galaxy. The equality of spin speeds of stars for defined spiral galaxy follows from the weak interactions, via leptons, of the baryonic matter with virtual loops in the Einstein spacetime - the loops mimic the motions in fermions. There is as well the cold dark matter (the iron-plus-nickel lumps) between and outside galaxies the clusters of galaxies consist of - it leads to the gravitational lensing. The constancy of spin speeds of stars outside central bulge and the gravitational lensing are the very different phenomena. Moreover, we do not need some exotic matter to explain their origin. Just we need the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) and the iron-plus-nickel lumps as the remnants of the explosions of the Population III supernovae (the first-generation big stars).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[530] **viXra:1409.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-19 10:45:37*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 26 Pages. I would appreciate comments. genebarbee@msn.com

Black holes are interesting to the scientific community. Observations indicate that remnants of stars that become black holes range from about 4 solar masses through about 20 solar masses. A supermassive black hole with mass 4.2e40 Kg has also been observed. Astronomers use x-ray emission and the bending of light around massive objects to study them and observations to date challenge physicists to extend their knowledge.
A layer by layer model of pressure, temperature, density and fusion power (MeV/sec) of the sun was developed and compared to a supermassive black hole with similar density and fusion kinetics. To simulate smaller black holes, the author developed a method to determine the pressure and density as a function of radius. Conditions at the core of small black holes are extreme enough to cause degenerate (relativistic) behavior of know forces. It was unknown however, whether collapse actually occurs. The author uses a cellular model of gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6]. Quantum gravity indicates that black holes do not involve a singularity. Gravitational kinetic energy resists the pressure at the core of black holes similar to the way electromagnetic kinetic energy controls the thermodynamics of gases.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[529] **viXra:1409.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-06 18:34:00*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 22 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

Black holes are interesting to the scientific community. Observations indicate that remnants of stars that become black holes range from about 4 solar masses through about 20 solar masses. A supermassive black hole with mass 4.2e40 Kg has also been observed. Astronomers use x-ray emission and the bending of light around massive objects to study them and observations to date challenge physicists to extend their knowledge.
A layer by layer model of pressure, temperature, density and fusion power (MeV/sec) of the sun was developed and compared to a supermassive black hole with similar density and fusion kinetics. To simulate smaller black holes, the author developed a method to determine the pressure and density as a function of radius. Conditions at the core of small black holes are extreme enough to cause degenerate (relativistic) behavior of know forces. It was unknown however, whether collapse actually occurs. The author uses a cellular model of gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6]. Quantum gravity indicates that black holes do not involve a singularity. Gravitational kinetic energy resists the pressure at the core of black holes similar to the way electromagnetic kinetic energy controls the thermodynamics of gases.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[528] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 17:26:06*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[527] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 12:58:18*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.
Comments: 6 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[526] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-30 15:42:27*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[525] **viXra:1409.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-28 02:02:41*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 592 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.

- p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2
^{k}, k integer, in particular prime, define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. - A much deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2
^{k}- and 2-fractality. - Certain anomalous empirical findings inspire in TGD framework the hypothesis about the existence of entire hierarchy of phases of matter identifiable as dark matter. The levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.

- The first part of the book is devoted to the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics.
- In second part is devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.

[524] **viXra:1409.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 14:05:24*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. DE BROGLIE is like self-announced dictator: "on this concept of the duality of waves and corpuscles... all future development of this science will apparently have to be founded."

I take a very exciting and revival excurse on a hypothesis that has risen in the midst of General Relativity and Quantum field description (in the form of the electromagnetic wave). The Emeritus Dr. Cooperstock has derived the absence of energy harvesting from the gravitational waves using wave description of light, however latter MUST be seen as photon gas. Let me show this necessity in the paper. The paper explains the known result of Dr. Cooperstock, hereby defending the previous authors (which the Dr. Cooperstock criticizes). I show, that they do not contradict the Dr. Cooperstock result, but very strongly support it.
Also presented my attempt to generalize the Dr. Cooperstock result to more nonlinear, more higher precision.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[523] **viXra:1409.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-21 01:24:37*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We consider the relations of the energy density and its entropic density with the temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and holographic dark energy (HDE). On the basis of literature [8], we obtain the energy density of the scalar field of SBH being proportional to the square of the Hawking-Unruh temperature near outside of the event horizon when the distance from the film to the horizon ε and the film thickness δ are constant, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Hawking-Unruh temperature when ε and n are constant. Basing on [16], we find the equation of gravitational energy density inside SBH; derive that the gravitational energy density is proportional to the square of the effective temperature far from the event horizon in SBH interior, whether the gravitational fields of SBH are Coulomb-like or wave-like; and their entropic density is directly proportional to the effective temperature. Basing on [20, 21, 22], we gain the HDE density being proportional to the square of the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. These equations are similar and have relations with each other. We suggest that these relations are interesting and significant for SBH and HDE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[522] **viXra:1409.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-09 05:04:05*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The Italian scientist Galileo described his experiments mathematically some 400 years ago. Ever since, scientists all over the world seem to distrust articles that don't include mathematics, comparing them to mistakes made by the members of the ancient Greek philosophers who didn't use maths (unless, of course, those articles are the result of Einstein's "thought experiments"). Many famous scientists have said that if you really understand something, you can explain it in plain English or to a young person with no maths training. So, as I normally do, I'll shy away from equations and scientific language (the great Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein used both things, so I think I must use them to some degree if I want to understand the universe) and try to rely on pure logic. Another great scientist of 100 years ago, Niels Bohr, was said to be able to do his work without relying on maths, so perhaps equations are over-rated and are actually the servants of intuitive insights. The early-20th-century's Jules Henri Poincare was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times, but also one of the greatest believers in intuition.
This article feels more like doing a 40-year-long jigsaw puzzle than something that required me to be an author. Sure, it took a long time and required a lot of thinking. There were times when the going felt frustrating, or tiring, or like smooth sailing. But I always had the feeling, similar to that of Paul McCartney when he wrote the song “Yesterday” for the Beatles or of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writing his classical music in the 18th century, that all the pieces of the puzzle already exist and I just had to put them together. Sometimes, I even felt as though pieces were being handed to me in the right order … at the right time. The article was written after reading “How the Universe Will End” by Francis Reddy (a senior science writer at NASA) in Astronomy magazine – Sep. 2014, and my article is restricted to the 6 topics which came to mind while reading it. The 6 steps are 1) Space Cannot Expand Faster Than Light, 2) Cosmic Inflation Replaced, 3) Dark Energy and the Big Rip, 4) What Is the Relation Between Gravitation and Black Holes?, 5) What Is Dark Matter?, and 6) The Universe Will Not End.
An important point to remember –
Einstein’s General Relativity gives a geometrical description of space-time and gravitation. The “Digital String Theory” section, speaking of the Mobius loop etc, doesn’t contradict that description but complements it since the Mobius and Klein bottle belong to a branch of geometry called topology or “rubber-sheet geometry”. String theory has been called “a little piece of the 21st century that dropped into the 20th century” (it’s the 21st century now, so it’s time for string theory to become more than a self-consistent theory and to blossom into the wondrous thing it was destined to be). Combining it with electronics and the above topology into “Digital String Theory” might possibly present an accuracy to description of space-time which simply wasn’t available when Albert Einstein lived (although one of the first papers on topology was mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler's 1736 paper on the Seven Bridges of Königsberg, the digital age was only approx. a decade old when Einstein died).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[521] **viXra:1409.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-27 02:37:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The Italian scientist Galileo described his experiments mathematically some 400 years ago. Ever since, scientists all over the world seem to distrust articles that don't include mathematics, comparing them to mistakes made by the members of the ancient Greek philosophers who didn't use maths (unless, of course, those articles are the result of Einstein's "thought experiments"). Many famous scientists have said that if you really understand something, you can explain it in plain English or to a young person with no maths training. So, as I normally do, I'll shy away from equations and scientific language (the great Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein used both things, so I think I must use them to some degree if I want to understand the universe) and try to rely on pure logic. Another great scientist of 100 years ago, Niels Bohr, was said to be able to do his work without relying on maths, so perhaps equations are over-rated and are actually the servants of intuitive insights. The early-20th-century's Jules Henri Poincare was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times, but also one of the greatest believers in intuition.
This article feels more like doing a 40-year-long jigsaw puzzle than something that required me to be an author. Sure, it took a long time and required a lot of thinking. There were times when the going felt frustrating, or tiring, or like smooth sailing. But I always had the feeling, similar to that of Paul McCartney when he wrote the song “Yesterday” for the Beatles or of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writing his classical music in the 18th century, that all the pieces of the puzzle already exist and I just had to put them together. Sometimes, I even felt as though pieces were being handed to me in the right order … at the right time. The article was written after reading “How the Universe Will End” by Francis Reddy (a senior science writer at NASA) in Astronomy magazine – Sep. 2014, and my article is restricted to the 6 topics which came to mind while reading it. The 6 steps are 1) Space Cannot Expand Faster Than Light, 2) Cosmic Inflation Replaced, 3) Dark Energy and the Big Rip, 4) What Is the Relation Between Gravitation and Black Holes?, 5) What Is Dark Matter?, and 6) The Universe Will Not End.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[520] **viXra:1408.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-04 14:50:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Due to the mergers of the binary systems of protogalaxies, there were created the elliptical protogalaxies whereas evolution of the not merging binary systems of protogalaxies leads to the spiral protogalaxies. Due to evolution of the disc-sphere structures described within the Everlasting Theory, some elliptical protogalaxies transformed into lenticular galaxies whereas some spiral protogalaxies into peculiar galaxies. Some of the peculiar galaxies a second time transformed into spiral galaxies. For distant massive galaxies we obtain following abundances: for elliptical is 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 30.4% and for peculiar 50.7%. On the other hand, for the local massive galaxies we obtain: for elliptical 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 71.0% and for peculiar 10.1%. The theoretical results obtained within the Everlasting Theory are consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[519] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 08:03:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[518] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-27 09:32:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Fixed fine structure constant notation.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[517] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-24 16:16:43*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. adding new bottom section

Time and gravity are intimately linked, in that gravity creates time from space to form an alternative, causal entropic domain (history) for massive objects (bound forms of electromagnetic energy - atomic matter), the temporal analog of the spatial, a-causal entropic domain of free (massless) forms of electromagnetic energy - light. Expanding, cooling space is the entropic conservation domain of free electromagnetic energy; expanding, aging history is the analogous temporal entropic conservation domain for bound forms of electromagnetic energy. These two entropic conservation domains are connected by gravity, which converts either into the other, giving us historic spacetime, a composite entropic conservation domain in which both free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy can find their conservations needs met in an appropriately expanding metric.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[516] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 16:26:56*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 Pages. adding postscript

Ultimately, we are able to place gravity and the conversion of space to time (as on planet earth) and vice versa (as on the sun) within the context of a much wider theory which unifies all four forces of physics beneath the symmetry-conserving mantle of Noether's theorem: "The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[515] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-24 07:22:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free Einstein-spacetime components so the superluminal entanglons frozen or escaping from our Universe can solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerated. The duality of relativity described within the Everlasting Theory leads to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe for redshift about 0.40 (i.e. about 5.2 gigayears ago). The sum of the gravitational and kinematical redshift leads to an illusion of deceleration of expansion for redshift greater than about 0.60. Due to the frozen entanglons, there was very rapid acceleration of expansion of the Universe at the beginning of the soft big bang (the Universe exited from its black-hole state) but we cannot see it because the most distant galaxies, in reality, are already 7.5 gigayears old.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory