**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(13)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(6) - 1107(4) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(7) - 1111(11) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(10) - 1202(11) - 1203(12) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(10) - 1211(8) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(16) - 1304(15) - 1305(12) - 1306(8) - 1307(10) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(6) - 1311(16) - 1312(18)

2014 - 1401(17) - 1402(15) - 1403(16) - 1404(6)

Any replacements are listed further down

[559] **viXra:1404.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 12:10:40*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a 2007 publication Lestone suggested that at the Planck scale there might be a model of the electron consisting of 3 vibrating strings confined to a 2-sphere. Lestone’s heuristic string theory suggests that, at the Planck scale, among the fundamental particles of the Standard Model massive bosons might be 1-spheres, leptons might be 2-spheres, and quarks might be 3-spheres. I have conjectured that the Koide formula and Lestone’s heuristic string theory are essential for understanding the foundations of physics. I have also conjectured that contrived brane interactions can allow string theory and eternal cosmological inflation to explain any plausible or implausible physics. String theory with the infinite nature hypothesis might imply the string landscape, superpartners, and eternal cosmological inflation. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis might imply that the multiverse has a big bang that recurs every 81.6 ± 1.7 billion years, that the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect is empirically valid, and that the inflaton field emits electromagnetic radiation according to the Space Roar Profile Prediction. From the data for the Lambda-CDM model, for the total observed mass-energy, the fraction of dark energy is .728±.016. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis might explain why (1 – .728)/.728 is approximately 3/8 (= 27/72). In this brief communication there is a discussion of the compatibility of Lestone’s heuristic string theory with eternal cosmological inflation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[558] **viXra:1404.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-10 10:41:51*

**Authors:** Piyush Singhal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concepts of divergence and curl and their applications to the j-space are described. The importance of the observer's capability and the correlation to the commutation property and the measurement space quanta is explained. Finally the significance of lower “mass” bound in j-space is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[557] **viXra:1404.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 12:57:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Planck Pressure = 4.63309*10^113 Pascals. In this paper the author
proposes that Planck Pressure could be the gravitational force of attraction
between two equal sized universes all concentrated on the tiny area of one
fourth of Planck Area. This paper shows that the Critical density of the
Hubble Sphere Universe gives the same exact mass of the universe as the
Planck Pressure requires between two Hubble Sphere Universes, attracted
gravitationally and applied to the one fourth of Planck Area. This shows, that
for such an enormous pressure, to be concentrated on such a small area
results in an extremely rigid components of space and implies that matter and
its properties could not entirely travel through space, but must be transmitted
mostly through another mechanism which, likely, is a wave mechanism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[556] **viXra:1404.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-06 09:01:56*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Alloy Q. Abanto

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Special Thanks to Sir E. Richards and T. E. Raptis

We review Shu and Shen [1] black hole solution using the Hyperbolic Geometric Flow (HGF)--the main mathematical tool of Wave Metric Theory (WMT), a unification theory recently put forward in \cite{1, 2, 3, 4}. We have shown its similarity to the black hole solution of Weyl's field equation which is HGF in form and considered as one of the possible exact field equation of WMT. Some predictions of the theory were also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[555] **viXra:1404.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-04 23:08:05*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Due to the propagation of light, gravity, charge, magnetism etc., and their quantized values, it has been hypothesized that, the universe should be filled with some type of almost homogeneous structure. It was shown in “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”( 1) that charge and gravity could be modeled by a sphere with a Compton wavelength radius of the neutron. If the neutron Compton wavelength is important to the propagation of charge and gravity then it is proposed that it also must be connected to some structure of the volume in which these forces are transmitted. “Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe” establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between the larger mass quarks and bosons, and a cuboctahedron –Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron and the combining of the layers of a cuboctahedron packing of spheres.
The layers of a cuboctahedron follow a consistent progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer. The masses of the w boson, z boson, bottom quark, top quark and the Higgs can be directly correlated to the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure, and in a mirror manner described in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[554] **viXra:1404.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-04 02:38:24*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Alloy Q. Abanto

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Adding some predictions of the theory are partially motivated through some personal correspondence with other interested physicists.

We presented the Wave Metric Theory (WMT), a unification theory at Planck Scale that this author put forward in [1-4]. In this study, the theory will be further developed and it will be shown that it is in essence, a revision of Weyl's 1918 Unification theory. A review of Weyl's Unification Theory will be presented based on [5]. The usual criticisms on Weyl's theory will be discussed and on how the revision made by WMT answered it. The major modification to Weyl's Theory to be presented is the exact derivation of the scalar function in Weyl's metric transformation that he simply guessed as the electromagnetic 4-potential. It is shown that at low energy limit, it is none other than the famous Probability Density of Quantum Mechanics

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[553] **viXra:1403.0943 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 01:05:57*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 21 pages, 90 equations, 22 references

The development of covariant quantum gravity in flat spacetime demands, for the sake of consistency, that any vacuum (or cosmological constant) terms that are generated from loop contributions must vanish. This consistency condition enables us, in the framework of the effective action with ultraviolet cutoff, to relate the cutoff parameter to the gravitational coupling, order by order in the perturbative scheme. We develop the formalism of covariant quantum gravity that enables us to compute the vacuum contributions up to the second loop order, dealing with the system describing the self-interactions of virtual gravitons, together with scalar and vector fields. We show how the vanishing of the resulting vacuum contributions gives a relation between the cutoff and the gravitational coupling. In a fundamental theory unifying gravity and the other interactions, this approach offers an ultimate solution to the problems of quantum field divergences.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[552] **viXra:1403.0501 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-21 11:48:15*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, on base of the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the production of the E- and B-modes in the CMB. The obtained result 0.22 for the ratio of amplitudes of the B-modes to E-modes (i.e. the tensor-to-scalar ratio) for the beginning of expansion of the very early Universe, for multipole moment equal to 384, is close to the central value in the BICEP2 data. The tensor-to-scalar ratio depends on density of the Einstein-spacetime and is higher for higher densities. The calculated energies carried by the Einstein-spacetime components the spreading condensates were built of (such condensates produced the B-modes in the CMB), were in approximation the sixteen powers of ten of GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[551] **viXra:1403.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-20 11:25:34*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

With the current global human population surpassing the 7 billon mark, energy requirements exponentially rise (shift) with demographics. Living in a planetary system of finite natural resources the Biosphere in turn overstretched. Humanity has to think outside the box to satisfy / quench this first for energy within our technology means. I herein apply the notion of harnessing the energy of the sun (star using green Biomass as the only efficient means that not only ‘cleans’ our planet of a biotic factors upsetting the planet’s climate, but provide sustainable energy to power the rising population while also promoting biodiversity but providing all life forms on planet suitable Biomes for we all need one another for successful co-existence. The reader of this work is left with the meditative task of answering on where we lie on the cosmic energy scale (kardesher scale) our obligations, where we should be. The leader should derive methods which he/she can personal apply in life making the best out of the scenarios within, with the ultimate goal making the planet for all life (not only humans) with one foot on each and the other in the heavens we set forth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[550] **viXra:1403.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-20 09:39:36*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

This work presents a relativistic mathematical space-distributed model for electrons and positrons, model that is based on Fundamental Particles (FPs) that are continuously emitted and absorbed by the electrons and positrons and where the energy is stored as rotations at the FPs defining longitudinal and transversal angular momenta. The rays of FPs from electrons or positrons cross in space at focal points where
traditionally the energies of electrons or positrons are thought to be concentrated. Electrons and positrons interact via the angular momenta of their FPs. The rules of interactions between the longitudinal and transversal angular
momenta of FPs are defined in that way, that the linear momenta for all known forces can be derived as rotors from one vector field generated by the longitudinal and transversal angular momenta of the FPs.
The model allows the deduction of all experimentally proven basic laws of physics, namely, Coulomb, Ampere, Lorentz, Gravitation, Maxwell and Bragg. It also explains the coexistence of particles with same charge in nucleons without the need of gluons, and explains the flattening of galaxies' rotation curve without defining dark matter.
From the model results that the focal radius of a subatomic particle is inverse proportional to its energy and, that the incremental time to generate the force out of linear momenta is quantized.
The neutrino is defined as a pair of FPs with opposed angular momenta and thephoton introduced as a sequence of neutrinos.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[549] **viXra:1403.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-18 05:37:44*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Physics Letters B

We improve our earlier work in [14] and derive the minimal length string/membrane uncertainty relations by imposing momentum slices in flat Clifford spaces. The Jacobi identities associated with the modified Weyl-Heisenberg algebra require noncommuting spacetime coordinates, but commuting momenta, and which is compatible with the notion of curved momentum space. Clifford Phase Space Relativity requires the introduction of a maximal scale which can be identified with the Hubble scale and is a consequence of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Principle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[548] **viXra:1403.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-18 04:00:32*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

What do you think of today's attention to so-called echoes of the big bang (imprints of gravitational waves from the time of the big bang that have left their trace in the cosmic microwave background)? It's obviously an amazing discovery but my fear is that it's going to be used more for alleged confirmation of present theories than for investigation of the questions it raises (especially in the short term). A starting point for these questions is, "If the universe expanded to about the size of a football in 10^-36 second, what was outside the football?" Many people will say this is an invalid question because no space or time existed outside the football. But I think that's mere evasion of the question (understandable if there are no other ideas to fall back on).
There's a simple alternative which says there was space and time outside the football, and this alternative is supported by the modern idea of a multiverse. I'll take a lazy approach to the last sentence and copy/paste relevant sections from a couple of my recent vixra articles - "Defining Division by Zero (Making it not Just Possible, But Essential) and Relating Zero to Infinity" (http://vixra.org/abs/1402.0087) and "Connecting Bioscience, Atoms, Gravitation, Black Holes, and Strings” (http://vixra.org/abs/1403.0149). I heard a short talk with Dr. Lawrence Krauss, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University in the US (http://www.abc.net.au/newsradio/content/s3965819.htm), whose comments about gravity being a quantum theory and the universe originating from “absolutely nothing” are addressed by my articles. If the binary digits of 1 and 0 are the basis for manufacturing space-time (whose curves and warps are gravity), this is in firm agreement with gravity being a quantum theory. And electronic bits could easily avoid Dr. Krauss’s “supernatural shenanigans” by being a product of human technology – we know this much to be true – that is recycled to 13.8 billion years ago by our future discovery of how to time travel into the past (a hypothesis explaining this is presented).
It seems unfortunate that no science journal is interested in my ideas (maybe it’s the way I write?) because I’m certain I’m correct, even if my ideas sound too strange to be true. I don’t think I’ll bother sending these thoughts to Dr. Krauss (professional scientists don’t answer my emails) – but I just might, if I get impulsive.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[547] **viXra:1403.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-17 12:58:58*

**Authors:** Piyush M. Singhal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concept of super-symmetry in terms of measurement capabilities of an observer with finite measurement capability is discussed. It is suggested that the symmetry establishing the correct definition of the origin in observer's measurement space, should be the symmetry to which other known symmetries must converge to.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[455] **viXra:1403.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-12 08:01:33*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere,
Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many
spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of
smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See image below for an
example of a sphere made of spheres.
The calculations, herein, imply space to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is
transferred to the Continuous Discrete Space that is activated by the appropriate
environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations
developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same
spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in
section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some
Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for
the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in
section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete
Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron,
vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in
section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[454] **viXra:1403.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-10 14:16:47*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere,
Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many
spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of
smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See image below for an
example of a sphere made of spheres.
The calculations, herein, imply space to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is
transferred to the Continuous Discrete Space that is activated by the appropriate
environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations
developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same
spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in
section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some
Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for
the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in
section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete
Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron,
vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in
section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[453] **viXra:1403.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-21 21:11:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza).
The calculations, herein, imply space to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Space that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[452] **viXra:1403.0315 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-13 07:58:49*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 09 Pages.

With the current global human population surpassing the 7 billon mark, energy requirements exponentially rise (shift) with demographics. Living in a planetary system of finite natural resources the Biosphere in turn overstretched. Humanity has to think outside the box to satisfy / quench this first for energy within our technology means. I herein apply the notion of harnessing the energy of the sun (star using green Biomass as the only efficient means that not only ‘cleans’ our planet of a biotic factors upsetting the planet’s climate, but provide sustainable energy to power the rising population while also promoting biodiversity but providing all life forms on planet suitable Biomes for we all need one another for successful co-existence. The reader of this work is left with the meditative task of answering on where we lie on the cosmic energy scale (Kardashev scale) our obligations, where we should be. The leader should derive methods which he/she can personal apply in life making the best out of the scenarios within, with the ultimate goal making the planet for all life (not only humans) with one foot on earth and the other in the heavens(Cosmos) we set forth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[451] **viXra:1403.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-19 01:04:07*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to Physics Letters B

We improve our earlier work in [14] and derive the minimal length
string/membrane uncertainty relations by imposing momentum slices in flat Clifford spaces. The Jacobi identities associated with the modified Weyl-Heisenberg algebra require noncommuting spacetime coordinates, but commuting momenta, and which is compatible with the notion of curved momentum space. Clifford Phase Space Relativity requires the introduction of a maximal scale which can be identified with the Hubble scale and is a consequence of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Principle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[450] **viXra:1403.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-18 08:24:35*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** Replaced because I left out about 5 pages that try to answer questions.

What do you think of today's attention to so-called echoes of the big bang (imprints of gravitational waves from the time of the big bang that have left their trace in the cosmic microwave background)? It's obviously an amazing discovery but my fear is that it's going to be used more for alleged confirmation of present theories than for investigation of the questions it raises (especially in the short term). A starting point for these questions is, "If the universe expanded to about the size of a football in 10^-36 second, what was outside the football?" Many people will say this is an invalid question because no space or time existed outside the football. But I think that's mere evasion of the question (understandable if there are no other ideas to fall back on).
There's a simple alternative which says there was space and time outside the football, and this alternative is supported by the modern idea of a multiverse. I'll take a lazy approach to the last sentence and copy/paste relevant sections from a couple of my recent vixra articles - "Defining Division by Zero (Making it not Just Possible, But Essential) and Relating Zero to Infinity" (http://vixra.org/abs/1402.0087) and "Connecting Bioscience, Atoms, Gravitation, Black Holes, and Strings” (http://vixra.org/abs/1403.0149). I heard a short talk with Dr. Lawrence Krauss, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University in the US (http://www.abc.net.au/newsradio/content/s3965819.htm), whose comments about gravity being a quantum theory and the universe originating from “absolutely nothing” are addressed by my articles. If the binary digits of 1 and 0 are the basis for manufacturing space-time (whose curves and warps are gravity), this is in firm agreement with gravity being a quantum theory. And electronic bits could easily avoid Dr. Krauss’s “supernatural shenanigans” by being a product of human technology – we know this much to be true – that is recycled to 13.8 billion years ago by our future discovery of how to time travel into the past (a hypothesis explaining this is presented).
It seems unfortunate that no science journal is interested in my ideas (maybe it’s the way I write?) because I’m certain I’m correct, even if my ideas sound too strange to be true. I don’t think I’ll bother sending these thoughts to Dr. Krauss (professional scientists don’t answer my emails) – but I just might, if I get impulsive.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[449] **viXra:1403.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-17 14:24:42*

**Authors:** Piyush M. Singhal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concept of super-symmetry in terms of the measurements made by an observer with finite capability is discussed. It is suggested that the symmetry establishing the correct definition of the origin in observer's measurement space, should be the symmetry to which other known symmetries must converge to.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory