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2019 - 1901(12) - 1902(22) - 1903(36) - 1904(25) - 1905(16) - 1906(13) - 1907(7)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1559] **viXra:1907.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-16 02:36:17*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The additional deceleration of massive bodies and the redshift of
remote objects in the model of low-energy quantum gravity are
caused by collisions with gravitons. Some results of numerical
modeling of a motion of bodies in the central field by the
influence of this additional deceleration are described here. The
two peculiarities of modified dynamics take place: an absence of
closed orbits and a possibility of the non-planar motion of
massive bodies in the central field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1558] **viXra:1907.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-09 10:04:29*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper proposes a Simple…Graviton(-based) Universe (toy-)Model (SGUM) which implies a short list of postulates, statements and assumptions (subquantum movement generating rest masses for almost all known elementary particles; a large palette of gravitons with various quantum angular spins, non-zero volumes and a common energetic density for all known elementary particles with non-zero positive rest energies/masses etc) with far reaching predictions and consequences beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, bringing quantum mechanics (QM) and Einstein’s general relativity (EGR) very close to each other:
(1)the existence of at least three more scalar bosons (called “X bosons” [Xbs]) heavier than Higgs boson (Hb), with the heaviest of them (named “super-Higgs boson” [SHb]) predicted to be the quanta of a “super-Higgs field” (SHF) which is a plausible candidate for a hypothetical primordial gravitational unified field that dominated the pre-Big-Bang quasi-singularity;
(2)a set of non-zero radii (and thus volumes) for all known elementary particles (EPs) with non-zero positive rest masses (rM)/ energies;
(3)a set of Planck-like gravitonic constants (measuring the quantum angular momentum of gravitons identified with EPs) for all known EPs with rM>0;

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1557] **viXra:1907.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-08 19:01:08*

**Authors:** Li xiaohong, Lini

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Is there a unified natural principle or theory of everything behind the natural phenomena observed in different disciplines?
Here is the formula for chord language, similar to Planck's formula.
S = HV, (S = semitone, H = equal temperament constant, V = frequency), minimum discrete value.
I=H^n.V (I=sound, n=sound value), allowing discrete values;
C=H^n1, n2, n3, n*.V (C=chord), discrete value spectrum.
The chord language consists of chord spectrum, with physics, mathematics (geometry) features such as quantization, string (open string, closed string, N string), symmetry, mirror image, etc., expressed in music, painting, meridian and other phenomena, used for time , space, life, spiritual expression, it has accumulated thousands of years of understanding, more mature mathematical models, can be observed, verified,This should be a feature of the theory of everything.
Similarly, physics theory also shows chord language features, such as: quantization, string theory, etc., is the role of chord language?
What is the theory of all things hidden in music and painting?
Key words: chord language, chord space-time, theory of everything, quantum, string, music, painting, meridian

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1556] **viXra:1907.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-06 14:32:39*

**Authors:** M. U. E. Pohl

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In first chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Time” [1] and second Chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Gravity” this author informed scientific community about the framework for the Theory of Everything concept, that must be applied in order to get back into Paradise on earth. Within this third chapter, the author explains in how to perform to decode the Matrix of thought and to get back into Paradise to save this planet earth from burning in climate change and to prevent the final fall of the empire of “human being” into the nothingness like the age of dinosaurs ended in nothingness.
Keywords: Theory of Everything, Key of Matrix, End of the World, World War, Artificial Intelligence, Flat Earth, Holografic Universe, Big Bang, Black Holes

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1555] **viXra:1907.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-03 15:57:50*

**Authors:** Cliff Ellgen

**Comments:** Pages.

This paper reproduces the dynamics of quantum mechanics with a four-dimensional spacetime manifold that is branched and embedded in a six-dimensional Minkowski space. Elementary fermions are represented by knots in the manifold, and these knots have the properties of the familiar particles. We derive a continuous model that approximates the behavior of the manifold's discrete branches. The model produces dynamics on the manifold that corresponds to the gravitational, strong, and electroweak interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1554] **viXra:1907.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-03 08:55:26*

**Authors:** John B. Wilson

**Comments:** 217 pages at time of submission

Using Special Relativity (SR) as a starting point, then noting a few empirical 4-Vector facts, one can derive the Principles that are normally considered to be Axioms of Quantum Mechanics (QM). Since many of the QM Axioms are rather obscure, this seems a more logical and understandable paradigm than QM as a separate theory from SR, and sheds light on the origin and meaning of the QM Principles. The SRQM or [SR→QM] Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: A Tensor Study of Physical 4-Vectors

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1553] **viXra:1906.0559 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-29 23:42:26*

**Authors:** Jonathan J. Dickau

**Comments:** 1 Page. Poster for GR22 session A3 modified theories of gravity (theor.)

The long-range transition to 5-d or higher, seen in DGP gravity, cascading DGP, and some other theories, can be interpreted as a prior epoch or precursor universe. This transition has therefore been proposed to be a black hole in 5-d → 4-d white hole and a spacetime bubble that is our cosmos. The same transition is represented in the Mandelbrot Set at (-0.75,0i), where the cardioid meets the circular disc, mimicking Cartan’s rolling ball analogy for G2 symmetries – when M is extended into higher dimensions. We can therefore study this in an archetypical setting, and it suggests a unique exit from a higher-dimensional origin, which conveniently explains the weakness of gravity and accelerating expansion. Other analogies allow us to discuss graviton properties and phenomenology. Notably the Misiurewicz point at about (-1.543689,0i) represents the quantum critical point in BEC formation, which has been connected to black hole event horizons. A consistent model for gravity with higher-dimensional origins is offered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1552] **viXra:1906.0558 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-29 23:54:39*

**Authors:** Jonathan J. Dickau

**Comments:** 1 Page. Poster for GR22 sess. D4 Quan. fields in curved spacetime, semi-Class. grav., Quan. grav. phen., & theor. of analogue grav.

The Mandelbrot Set displays features of the 5-d → 4-d transition in DGP gravity and in theories where a 5-d black hole gives rise to a 4-d white hole and spacetime bubble – which is our present-day cosmos – at (-0.75,0i). The ratio of radii here is 3:1 in imitation of Cartan’s rolling ball analogy for Lie group G2 symmetries. Holographic dualities are displayed across the boundary, linking the quantum mechanics in the precursor universe with the astrophysical realm in the current era, which we discuss. Then we examine the Misiurewicz point at about (-1.543689,0i) where is clearly depicted an analogy of BEC formation and Schwarzschild black hole event horizons, which forms an important part of the analog gravity program. The fact both of these dynamics are displayed in the same object indicates that the theories are not mutually-exclusive and could coexist in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1551] **viXra:1906.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-23 16:51:38*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

From the holographic perspective in quantum gravity, topological field theories like Chern-Simons are more than toy models for computation. An algebraic construction of the CFT associated to Witten's j invariant for 2+1 dimensional gravity aims to compute coefficients of modular forms from the combinatorics of quantum logic, dictated by axioms in higher dimensional categories, with heavy use of the golden ratio. This paper is self contained, including introductory material on lattices, and aims to show how the Monster group and its infinite module arise when the automorphisms of the Leech lattice are extended by special point sets in higher dimensions, notably the 72 dimensional lattice of Nebe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1550] **viXra:1906.0441 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-24 00:22:43*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper, a follow-on from papers 1-9 [1-9], the idea of consciousness as a feature of the process itself of scientific inquiry shall come to attention; here, as per the previous papers and in alliance with contemporary notions of the idea of consciousness and time, the idea of “consciousness” shall be presented as the ideal “fixed” frame of reference with time, going a step beyond the concept both Descartes and Einstein assumed in their works as a requirement of scientific theory genesis for the ideas of time and space, and above all “our required ability to exercise certain conscious functions to fully utilise the associated theory of time and space”. Ultimately, this proposed model of consciousness shall be demonstrated to not only abide with contemporary models of consciousness and thought, yet take those ideas a step ahead, as much as the new theory for time and space presented here as the golden ratio algorithm for time is being considered as a step ahead of contemporary ideas in physics. The aim here is not to change the impetus of our thinking, our philosophizing, or our world-view, yet to assess how a new theory of time and space aligns with a new ability, a new exercise of our conscious ability, to achieve that ability, to theorize time and space anew, as a step ahead of what has been previously thought possible in defining not just time, yet that tagged reference to time as consciousness.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1549] **viXra:1906.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-18 19:50:29*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Notes

Some notes on early material and contact.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1548] **viXra:1906.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-17 19:51:32*

**Authors:** Thomas Denley

**Comments:** 1 Page.

People have been adhering too rigidly to rules to divide by zero. Their calculators display it as undefined. The calculators were programmed by humans who did not yet understand what division by zero means.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1547] **viXra:1906.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-15 07:50:03*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Submitted to Classical and Quantum Gravity

A study of the simplest Jordan-Brans-Dicke-like action within the context of Weyl geometry, combined with the findings of Weinberg's Asymptotic Safety program in quantum gravity, leads to a plethora of nice numerical results : (i) like singling out the quartic potential from all others; (ii) having (Anti) de Sitter space as the most natural solution; (iii) furnishing the value of the observed vacuum energy density at the Hubble scale $ { 3 \over 8 \pi G_N R_H^2} \sim
10^{ - 122 } M_P^4$; (iv) a $ { 3 \over 8 \pi } M_P^4$ vacuum energy density at the Planck scale; and (v) allowing the possibility that our universe is a Black Hole whose horizon coincides with the cosmological Hubble horizon. It is warranted to explore deeper the interplay among Weyl geometry, Asymptotic safety and Maldacena's $AdS/CFT$ correspondence (holographic renormalization group flow). Also relevant is the work by Wetterich on the role of dilatation symmetry in higher dimensions and the vanishing of the cosmological constant. Last, but not least, we should also consider the implications of Penrose' Conformal Cyclic Cosmology and Nottale's Scale Relativity Theory
with the key findings of this work.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1546] **viXra:1906.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-15 11:19:33*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Local symmetries in the theory of emergent space-time are considered. It is shown that in this theory there are U(1) and SU(3) local symmetries. The wave-particle duality is considered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1545] **viXra:1906.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-13 13:42:16*

**Authors:** Yasser alsharif

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I am talking about the vibrating position of the spatial dimensions of the Planck length scale. The speed of the light is affected by this vibration. It is also transmitted through it, also how gravity is weak and how the velocity of Blanc's vibration affects the mass so that this mass absorbs this direction to create an opposite gravity towards it.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1544] **viXra:1906.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-13 16:24:40*

**Authors:** Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The many world interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, the extra dimensions of string theory, the unexplained entanglement in quantum theory, the mysterious dark energy and dark matter, all link together to the possibility that our three dimension universe is not the entire picture and that we need to find an improved model of space time that can deal with these new concepts. This paper will suggest a new way of looking at our three-dimension universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1543] **viXra:1906.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-11 04:37:17*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The independent E/M waves are created as another form of E/M waves, during the electron oscillations at an emission antenna. These waves do not compose the constant photon length, in contradiction to the fundamental E/M waves of photon. Additionally, the Compton phenomenon is interpreted, while the atomic orbitals are standing waves the self-superposition of the motion wave of electrons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1542] **viXra:1906.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-09 00:14:50*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper the entire spectrum of the recent modern history of the Standard Model of physics shall be presented and examined and exposed for upholding a “chimera” concept which has prevented physics from joining electromagnetism with gravity as theoretical and physical field driven entities. This chimera will be exposed to be “inertia”, the bane of relativity, otherwise leading to absurd conclusions in ultimate equations of field forces across the expanse of space and time. A “fix” to this chimera is proposed, as a new concept for time examining bodies in motion, namely the idea of time as “the” most fundamental concept in space, from which the golden ratio “scaling system” shall be once again calculated from this new primordial level of conception and bodies-in-motion relationship. From those calculations of the golden ratio scaling system for time, the idea of space will become apparent as an emergence from the dimension of time, and most importantly how time behaves as light in regard to space. Upon that emergent platform of space, a list of all the features derived from the golden ratio algorithm shall be once again be brought to attention as per the previous papers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8], highlighting these derived schemes as the mechanisms of “proof” for this new theory, as data and equations derived from first principles that then confirm what has been found through extensive historical scientific research. Such shall highlight the fundamental failure of the idea of “inertia” in physical equations and expose those equations as the “chimera” of modern-day physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1541] **viXra:1905.0607 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 10:41:57*

**Authors:** Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to theory of quantum gravity developed by me, the gravitational field consists of variable and constant components. The constant or invariable field does not change with distance. This field consists of a very large number of gravitational quanta.We have studied the gravitational force between two bodies at very large distances.From the calculation it is derived that, the smallest value of force exerted by quantum line of gravity called gravitational quanta, q̌ , is equal to 1.48 x 10-97 N.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1540] **viXra:1905.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-24 04:06:22*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We have recently presented a unified quantum gravity theory [1]. Here we extend on that work and present an even simpler version of that theory. For about hundred years, modern physics has not been able to build a bridge between quantum mechanics and gravity. However, a solution may be found here; we present our quantum gravity theory, which is rooted in indivisible particles where matter and gravity are related to collisions and can be described by collision space-time. In this paper, we also show that we can formulate a quantum wave equation rooted in collision space-time, which is equivalent to mass and energy.
The beauty of our theory is that most of the main equations that currently exist in physics are not changed (in terms of predictions), except at the Planck scale. The Planck scale is directly linked to gravity and gravity is, surprisingly, actually a Lorentz symmetry as well as a form of Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our theory gives a dramatic simplification of many physics formulas without altering the output predictions. The relativistic wave equation, the relativistic energy momentum relation, and Minkowski space can all be represented by simpler equations when we understand mass at a deeper level. This not attained at a cost, but rather a reflection of the benefit in having gravity and electromagnetism unified under the same theory.
This is version 1 of the current work and contains several important new equations and insight that builds on some of our previous papers. We expect to put out an enhanced version with more detailed explanations soon. In particular, it is worth noting how incredibly simple our new relativistic wave equation is when rooted in collision space-time. The beauty of such simplicity will be evident for those familiar with previous work on this topic; future work will highlight and augment these observations and analysis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1539] **viXra:1905.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-18 10:10:51*

**Authors:** Rahula T.R. Latchman, Gemma F. Lopez

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

This paper presents a model that bridges the gap between general relativity and quantum mechanics by providing a new understanding of space and time. The core principle of this formulation is impermanence, the fact that energy is never static, which has non-obvious consequences at the quantum level and leads to a formulation of quantum gravity. The results allow for a new interpretation of black holes and a resolution of the black hole information paradox. The model also presents the causes leading to the Big Bang as well as the Universe evolution, oﬀering a new perspective on galaxy formation and a natural explanation to the origin of dark matter, dark energy and the matter-antimatter asymmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1538] **viXra:1905.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-18 04:59:02*

**Authors:** Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO

**Comments:** 35 Pages. language: English and French

Gravity is currently understood as a space-time curvature. If gravity was a force, it quantization would be much easier. Then what if gravity was a force able to bend space-time?
We will see that gravity can be seen as such and what it would imply. We’ll then derive a new space-time bending equation thanks to a new principle equivalent to Einstein’s Equivalence Principle in low intensity fields.
Thanks to quantum mechanics studies in curved space-time we can then blend gravity in quantum mechanics in a coherent way.
Eventually, we'll see that applying these principles to cosmology, we can explain what we current call Dark Energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1537] **viXra:1905.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-17 01:50:47*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract.
A so called EmDrive defy classical physics expectations because it shows repellent less or reaction less thruster qualities.
According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) however, the magnetic field is build on two monopole rigid string particles in the form of curved radiation trajectories, ( North and South) mostly cooperating opposing each other.
Thus, the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped curved monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component.
This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field.
However, based on observation of iron filing-powder pattern loss close to direct currents in a wire, it is postulated, that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel locally parallel to each other inside the vacuum Axion/Higgs field, with a strong field reduction or even fading away as a result.
These field reductions (or dipping) are observed to be concentrated in a tubular for around the current in the wire.
As a consequence, the Lorentz force will become a non symmetric form, with a one sided reduced reaction force between the magnetic reduced field and a local magnet.
The magnet will create a normal Lorentz force on the electrons in the wire, but the magnets do not “feel” locally the opposing magnetic Standard Maxwell field around the current in the wire. The EM Drive as the result.
.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1536] **viXra:1905.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-15 05:56:05*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 10 Pages. FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND LHC EXPERIMENTATION.

EXOTIC DARK FLUID SWIRLING AND WHIRLING GIVING THE TOPOLOGY OF CURVED SPACE TIME OF EINSTEIN.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1535] **viXra:1905.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-13 06:03:25*

**Authors:** A Bermanseder

**Comments:** 121 Pages. ISSN: 2153-8301

Abstract:
Despite the experimental success of the quantum theory and the extension of classical physics in quantum field theory and relativity in special and general application; a synthesis between the classical approach based on Euclidean and Riemann geometries with that of 'modern' theoretical physics based on statistical energy and frequency distributions remains to be a field of active research for the global theoretical and experimental physics community.
In this paper a particular attempt for unification shall be indicated in the proposal of a third kind of relativity in a geometric form of quantum relativity, which utilizes the string modular duality of a higher dimensional energy spectrum based on a physics of wormholes directly related to a cosmogony preceding the cosmologies of the thermodynamic universe from inflaton to instanton.
In this way, the quantum theory of the microcosm of the outer and inner atom becomes subject to conformal transformations to and from the instanton of a quantum big bang or qbb and therefore enabling a description of the macrocosm of general relativity in terms of the modular T-duality of 11-dimensional supermembrane theory and so incorporating quantum gravity as a geometrical effect of energy transformations at the wormhole scale.
Using the linked Feynman lecture at Caltech as a background for the quantum relative approach; this paper shall focus on the way the classical electron with a stipulated electromagnetic mass as a function of its spacial extent exposes the difficulty encountered by quantum field theories to model nature as mathematical point-particles without spacial extent.
In particular, a classical size for the proton can be found in an approximation ½Re.X = Rp for a classical electron radius Re and where the factor X represents the symmetry equilibrium for a ß = (v/c} = f(A) velocity ratio distribution for the effective electron rest mass me proportional to the spacial extent of the electron and evolving real solutions for the electron parameters from a quasi-complex space solution for its rest mass meo.
Using the ß2 distribution in a unitary interval, then bounded in a function of the electromagnetic fine structure constant alpha; the SI-CODATA value for the rest mass of the electron is derived from first inflaton-based principles in the minimum energy Planck-Oscillator Eo=½hfo in a conformal mapping of the M-Sigma relation applied to the Black Hole Mass to Galactic Bulge ratio for the alpha bound. The M-Sigma ratio so can be considered as a scaling proportion between the interior of a Black Hole mapped holographically and radius-conformally as the internal monopolar volume of the electron as a basic premise of the quantum gravitational approach in quantum relativity and in scaling the Schwarzschild solution onto the electron.
A unification condition in a conformal mapping of the alpha fine-structure α onto X described by X ⇔ α in ℵ(Transformation) = {ℵ}3 : X → α{#}3 → # → #3 → (#2)3 → {(#2)3}3 is applied in this context to indicate the relative interaction strengths of the elementary gauge interactions in proportionality: SNI:EMI:WNI:GI = SEWG = #:#3:#18:#54.
For the symmetry equilibrium, the electric potential energy and the magnetic action energy are related for an electron velocity of veX = 0.78615138.c and an effective mass energy of mef = γme = mecf = 1.503238892x10-30 kg*. This mass-velocity relationship is supplemented by the Compton constant as: meRe = Compton constant = αh/2πc = lplanck.α.mplanck = mecrec , which proportionalises the quantum relativistic size of the electron with its mass.
The Compton constant ensures Lorentz invariance across all reference frames in cancelling the length contraction with the relativistic mass increase in the product of the proper length lo and the proper rest mass mo as lo.mo=loγ.mo/γ in special relativity (SR) in the self-relative reference frame of the monopolar electron.
Subsequently then for an electron speed veX and for rec = αh/2πcmecf = 1.71676104x10-15 m* as a decreased self-relative classical electron radius given by the Compton constant, we calculate a relatively negligible monopolar velocity component in (vps/c)2 = 1/{1+rec4/([2πα]2rps4)} = 1.55261006x10-35 and characteristic for any substantial velocity for the electron.
The analysis then defines a maximum velocity for the electron with a corresponding quantum relative minimum mass in the form of the electron (anti)neutrino in ve|max = (1 - 3.282806345x10-17) c and m(νe)=m(ντ)2 = 0.00297104794 eV* (0.002963740541 eV) respectively. At this energy then, no coupling between the electron and its anti-neutrino would be possible and the W- weakon could not exist.
Subsequently, we shall indicate the effect of the Compton constant and of the quantum relativistic monopolar electron to calculate all of the neutrino masses from first principles in setting
mν = mneutrino = me.(rneutrino)/Re and where rv naturally applies at the limit of the electron's dynamical self-interaction as indicated, that is the electron's quantum relativistic mass approaches that of the instanton of the qbb.
This leads to: mνElectronc2 = mv(νTauon2)c2 = mν(νMuon2+νHiggs2)c2 = μo{Monopole GUT masses ec}2rps/4πRe2 and where vHiggs is a scalar (anti)neutrino for the mass induction of the (anti)neutrinos in tandem with the mass induction of the scalar Higgs boson in the weak Goldstone interaction.
For the electrostatic electron the ß distribution at A=½, the Compton constant gives mecrec = meRe for ß2 = 0 and at A=1, the Compton constant gives mecrec = ½me.2Re for ß2 = X and as the mean for a unitary interval is ½, the electron radius transforms into the protonic radius containing monopolar charge as internal charge distribution in Rp = ½XRe and proportional to the effective electron rest mass me proportional to the spacial extent of the electron.
For the proton then, its 'charge distribution' radius becomes averaged as Rproton = 0.85838052x10-15 m* as a reduced classical electron radius and for a speed of the self-interactive or quantum relativistic electron of vps = 1.576125021x10-17 c. This monopolar quantum relativistic speed reaches its quantum relativistic {v/c = 1-} limit and its maximum QR monopolar speed of 0.0458 c at the instanton boundary and defines a minimum quantum monopolar relativistic speed for the electron at vpse = 1.50506548x10-18 c for its electrostatic potential, where Ue=∫{q²/8πεor²}dr = q²/8πεoRe = ½mec2 for a classical velocity of ve=0 in a non-interacting magnetic field B=0. 2Ue = mec2 so implies a halving of the classical electron radius to obtain the electron mass me = 2Ue/c2 and infers an oscillating nature for the electron size to allow a synergy between classical physics and that of quantum mechanics.
A reduced classical electron size is equivalent to a decrease of the Compton wavelength of the electron, rendering the electron more ‘muon like’ and indicates the various discrepancies in the measurements of the proton’s charge radius using Rydberg quantum transitions using electron and muon energies.
The calibration for the classical electron radius from the electron mass from SI units to star units is (2.81794032x10-15).[1.00167136 m*] = 2.82265011x10-15 m* and differing from Re = 2.777777778x10-15 m* in a factor of (2.82265011/2.777777…) = 1.01615404.
A reduction of the classical electron radius from Re = 2.777777778x10-15 m* to (2.777777778x10-15).[0.998331431 m] = 2.77314286x10-15 m, then gives the same factor of (2.81794032/2.77314286) = 1.01615404, when calibrating from star units.
The units for the Rydberg constant are 1/m for a Star Unit* – SI calibration [m*/m] = 0.998331431… for a ratio [Re/SI ]/[Re/*] = (2.77314286/2.777777) = (2.81794032/2.82265011)
Reducing the classical electron radius Re from 2.81794032 fermi to 2.77314286 fermi in a factor of 1.01615404 then calibrates the effective electron mass me to Re in the Compton constant
Re.me = ke2/c2 = (2.77777778x10-15).(9.29052716x10-31) = 2.58070198x10-45 [mkg]* with
Re.me = ke2/c2 = (2.81794033x10-15).(9.1093826x10-31) = 2.56696966x10-45 [mkg] with [mkg]* = (1.00167136)(1.00375313)[mkg] = 1.00543076 [mkg].
Using this reduced size of the electron then increases the Rydberg constant by a factor of 1.01615404
Using the Rydberg Constant as a function of Alpha {and including the Alpha variation Alpha|mod = 60πe2/h = 60π(1.6021119x10-19)2/(6.62607004x10-34) = 1/137.047072}
as Ry∞ = Alpha3/4πRe = Alpha2.mec/2h = mee4/8εo2h3c = 11.1296973x106 [1/m]* or 11.14829901x106 [1/m]
defines variation in the measured CODATA Rydberg constant in a factor 10,973,731.6x(1.01615404).(137.036/137.047072)3 = 11,148,299.0
Subsequently, using the Rydberg energy levels for the electron-muon quantum energy transitions, will result in a discrepancy for the proton's charge radius in a factor of 10,973,731.6/11,148,299.0 = 0.98434134… and reducing a protonic charge radius from 0.8768 fermi to 0.8631 fermi as a mean value between 0.8768 fermi and 0.8494 fermi to mirror the unitary interval from A=½ to A=1 for the electron’s relativistic ß distribution.
The local geometry related to the Compton radius h/2πm is shown to manifest in a linearization of the Weyl wormhole wavelength λps = λweyl of the qbb in the photon-mass interaction as a quantum gravitational limit proportional to the mass of the electron in rweyl = λweyl/2π = 2GoMc/c2 = h/2πcmps for a curvature mass Mc = hc/4πGomps conformally transforming Mc = 6445.79 kg* into 2.22..x10-20 kg* quantum gravitationally and in a corresponding increase of a sub Planck length linearization of rcplanck = 2Gomps/c2 = 5.4860785x10-47 m* (star units calibrated to the SI mensuration system) to the wormhole scale of the quantum big bang as a quantum geometric curvature effect.
The qbb results from a Planck scale conformal transformation of fundamental parameters in the inflaton, descriptive of energy transformations between five classes of superstrings culminating in the Weyl-Eps wormhole as the final superstring class of heterotic symmetry 8x8 to manifest the supermembrane EpsEss as the wormhole of the 'singularity creation', which is a derivative from a monopolar Planck-Stoney cosmogenesis.
Recircularizing the Compton radius into a Compton wavelength in a {photon - gauge photon} interaction labeled as electromagnetic monopolar radiation or {emr - emmr}, then is shown to define the quantum energy of the vacuum per unit volume as a horn toroidal space-time volumar in Vortex-PE = VPEps = ZPEweyl = 4πEps/λps3 and completing the encompassing energy spectrum in integrating the electric-, magnetic- and monopolar field properties in {½melectric + ½mmagnetic(v/c)2 + δmmonopolic}c2 = mc2.
The self-interaction of the electron in energy, so crystallizes its monopolar super brane origin in the addition of a quantum self-relative magnetic energy acting as a 'hidden' electromagnetic monopolar field in the volume of spacetime occupied by the electron as a conformal transformation from the inflaton epoch. A Planck-Stoney 'bounce' of the electronic charge quantum established the interaction potential between charge and mass energy to break an inherent supersymmetry to transform string class I into string class IIB in modular conformal self-duality of the monopole supermembrane. Following this initial transformation relating displacement to electric charge in the magneto charge of the monopole; a heterosis between string classes HO(32) and HE(64) enabled the bosonic superstring to bifurcate into fermionic parts in a quark-lepton hierarchy from the HO(32) superstring to the HE(64) superstring of the instanton of the qbb and who is called the Weyl or wormhole boson Eps in this paper.
We shall also indicate the reason for the measured variation of the fine structure constant by Webb, Carswell and associates; who have measured a variation in alpha dependent on direction.
This variation in alpha is found in the birth of the universe as a 'bounce' or oscillation of the Planck length as a minimum physical displacement and becomes related to the presence of the factor γ3 in the manifestation of relativistic force as the time rate of change of relativistic momentum prel.
Furthermore, the mass-charge ratio {e/meo} relation of the electron implies that a precision measurement in either the rest mass moe or the charge quantum e, would affect this ratio and this paper shall show how the electromagnetic mass distribution of the electron crystallizes an effective mass me from its rest mass resulting in meoγ = me'γ2 related to the coupling ratio between the electromagnetic (EMI) and the strong nuclear interaction (SNI), both as a function of alpha and for an asymptotic (not running) SNI constant defined from first principles in an interaction transformation between all of the four fundamental interactions.
Since {1-ß2} describes the ß2 distribution of relativistic velocity in the unitary interval from A=0 to A=1, setting the quantum relativistic mass ratio [moe/me]2 = {1-ß2} equal to a cosmological MSigma ratio conformally transformed from the Planck scale, naturally defines a potential oscillatory upper boundary for any displacement in the unit interval of A. An increase or decrease in the 'bare' electron mass, here denoted as moe can then result in a directional measurement variation due to the fluctuating uncertainty in the position of the electron in the unitary interval mirroring the natural absence or presence of an external magnetic field to either decrease or increase the monopolar part of the electron mass in its partitioning: melectric + mmagnetic + δmmonopolar = mec{½+½[v/c]²} + δpsmec = mec with mec2√{1 + v2γ2/c2} = mec2γ = mecc2 for m = mec from the energy-momentum relation E2 = Eo2 + p2c2 of classical and quantum theory. The cosmic or universal value of alpha so remains constant in all cosmological time frames; with the fluctuation found to depend on a constant #= α in a strong interaction constant as a function of alpha.
At the core of physical consciousness lies quantum consciousness; but there it is called selfinteraction of a particle or dynamical system in motion relative to its charge distribution. We shall indicate, that it is indeed the charge distribution within such a system and quantized in the fundamental nature of the electron and the proton as the base constituent of atomic hydrogen and so matter; that defines an internal monopolar charge distribution as a quantum geometric formation minimized in the classical size of the electron and the energy scale explored at that displacement scale.
Finally we describe the particles of the Standard Model and including a quantum geometric explanation for the CP violation of the weak interaction, from their genesis in the inflaton and a grand unification symmetry in a transformation of supermembranes and cosmic strings appearing today in a spectrum of cosmic rays:
SEWG------------------------SEWg--------SEW.G---------SeW.G--------S.EW.G------------S.E.W.G
Planck Unification I----------IIB----------HO32------------IIA-----------HE64---------Bosonic Unification

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1534] **viXra:1905.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-10 03:28:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

"But we've seen a lot of exciting things already with gravitational waves, and we will see a lot more. There are even plans to put a gravitational wave detector in space that would be sensitive to different sources than LIGO," Flanagan said. [27]
Researchers hoping to better interpret data from the detection of gravitational waves generated by the collision of binary black holes are turning to the public for help. [26]
Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1533] **viXra:1905.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-08 09:23:51*

**Authors:** Divyansh Mansukhani

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown using very few steps that under Poincare transformation, the Polyakov action is invariant and thus, globally symmetric. It is only over this argument that the local symmetries of bosonic strings such as diffeomorphism and Weyl symmetry can be discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1532] **viXra:1905.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-08 20:12:22*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Big Bang theory basically states that the universe is expanding and that there is point that there could be a critical density at which the universe could go on expanding forever or crunch. The theory of a rotating universe can also have a red shift, but the equations are different and the critical density is different for rotating universe. In fact, the particular rotating universe that this theory deals with is that our universe may be in equilibrium with neither contraction or expansion but with kinetic and potential energy.
In Sphere Theory of the Universe, the universe is rotating. This rotating universe has mass where parts of it are moving at familiar velocities and some are moving at relativistic velocities. Size itself is confused, in that nothing really travels in a straight line, and therefore we are trying to weed out these problems in calculating the size of the universe. It appears that light itself travels in a spiral, which is controlled by gravitational forces. The observed quantities of particles are further complicated in that the relativistic velocities make the quantities of particles look higher. The concentrations of particles are highest at the center of the sphere, but the rotation imparts energy that makes things look like the concentration is mostly uniform. This paper tries to sort out these problems and present a Mass, Size, and Equilibrium Density of the Universe. The mass of the universe, which would include matter, dark matter, and dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1531] **viXra:1905.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-07 06:28:22*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

A Semi Classical Theory of Everything,
based on Long Distance Multiverse Entangled Rigid String Topology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1530] **viXra:1905.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-07 11:09:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Many physicists claim that physics is in crisis but the followers of the dominant theories in physics still accept the unreal/pseudoscientific ideas because they were introduced by great physicists. It is time to give up ideas that contradict common sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1529] **viXra:1905.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-05 23:19:53*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The idea that time is concordant to our perception in our frame of temporal reference yet different to another person’s frame dependent on motion, as Einstein outlined in his work of general and special relativity, is essentially stating that we are conscious according to the parameters of space-time and how that flows dependent on what our reference of relative motion is. Yet is there a scientific mathematical link between frames of time as a relativity of time in space? Surely in not considering how each frame of time reference can be linked mathematically, all the facets of physical reality in time as “equations” of time will not match up, such as most basically gravity and electromagnetism? This paper, a follow-on from seven previous papers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] will present firstly the historical notions we have of time in science, as applied to scientific congress, and then discuss those problems that have been presented to us in using that axiom of time definition, most importantly that not knitting together those temporal notions presents us with a mathematics of space and mass and energy that are never knitted as mathematical equations in time yet only in using Einstein’s equation of e = mc2. So, a new axiom for time is presented as an algorithm that can knit together much of what we know of physical scientific data, including Einstein’s well-known equation. The quest of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to marry up electromagnetism with gravity using a common mathematical “function” for time universal in space, as temporal relativity, despite it offering a new set of equations for known physical data. Then finally a process of “proof” is offered for this new regard for time, as gravity emerging from electrodynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1528] **viXra:1905.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-06 03:17:40*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The accelerated electron creates the inductive-inertial phenomenon, whose the forces act on the electric units of dynamic space, forming the grouping units, namely the electric charges or forms of the electric field. This phenomenon is
the precondition to construct E/M waves, while the cause for the generation of E/M formations is the spin oscillations of the electron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1527] **viXra:1905.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-03 13:42:44*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We introduce the statistical physics of space-time events. We call the framework: geometric thermodynamics. As the main result we show that for all systems of geometric thermodynamics, the quantum entropy equals the space-time entropy equals the curvature of space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1526] **viXra:1905.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-01 12:49:25*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

This is a second follow up paper on a model, which treats the black hole as a 4-D spatial ball filled with blackbody radiation. For the interior radiative mass distribution, we employ a new type of truncated probability distribution function, the exponential distribution. We find that this distribution comes closest to reproducing a singularity at the center, and yet it is finite at 4-D radius, r=0. This distribution will give a constant gravitational acceleration for a test particle throughout the black hole, irrespective of radius. The 4-D gravitational acceleration is given by the expression, g^((4))=-.1c^2 λ=-.2λ GM_R/R , where R is the radius of the black hole, M_R is its mass, and λ is the exponential shape parameter, which depends only on the mass, or radius, of the black hole. We calculate the gravitational force, and the entropy within the black hole interior, as well as on its surface, the event horizon, which separates 3-D from 4-D space. Similar to a truncated Gaussian distribution, the gravitational force increases discontinuously, and dramatically, upon entry into the 4-D black hole from the 3-D side. It is also radius dependent within the 4-D black hole. Moreover, the total entropy is shown to be much less than the Bekenstein result, similar to the truncated Gaussian. For the gravitational force, we obtain, F_(G,r)^((4))=-.1c^2 λ〖 M〗_r , where M_r is the radiative mass enclosed within a 4-D volume of radius r. This unusual force law indicates that the gravitational force acting upon a layer of blackbody photons at radius r is strictly proportional to the enclosed radiative energy, M_r c^2, contained within that radius, with .1 λ being the constant of proportionality. For the entropy at radius, r, and on the surface, we obtain an expression which is order of magnitude comparable to the truncated Normal distribution. Tables are presented for three black holes, one having a mass equal to that of the sun. The other two have masses, which are ten times that of the sun, and 〖10〗^6 solar masses. The corresponding λ parameters are found to equal, (λ_A,λ_B,λ_C )=(.039569,.0037996,3.01229*〖10〗^(-8)), respectively. We compare these results to the truncated Gaussian distribution, which were worked out in another paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1525] **viXra:1905.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-01 04:23:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Physicists in California have loaded a bunch of ultracold caesium atoms into the back of a van and driven them up a hill to demonstrate how quantum interference can be used to measure gravity outside the laboratory. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1524] **viXra:1904.0599 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-30 06:39:10*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The new interpretation of Herbig Haro dual black hole systems by Quantum FFF Theory, is a firm reason to put the Herbig Haro systems at the forefront of the origin of Universal structure, together with the new rigid transformable string model based on quantum FORM..
Quantum FFF Theory ( FFF= Function Follows Form) is based on a new string particle model called “rigid transformable string”, which is able to generate topologies of all possible sub quantum particles, needed to fill a supersymmetric standard model and beyond.
The mother particle is called “Axion Higgs” and has the form of a ring, able to rotate internally by three hinges into electron and positron propeller shapes, into 1x Graviton, 5x monopole Photons or Gluons and 6x Neutrinos.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1523] **viXra:1904.0569 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-29 17:34:05*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

How many levels are there to the universe? “In Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”(1) The universe starts with a zero dimensional particle, builds up to 1, 2, and 3 dimensions and then levels of spheres. As it is stated, the Gravitational Constant is predicted, and predicted to be 6.6743792*10^-11 m^3/(kg*s^2). In each layer the quantity of spheres is divided by the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. It is proposed, that when the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron is multiplied enough times, the value is less than one half or less than 0.5. At this the square of the angular momentum of one particle becomes 2. That is where we go from a zero dimensional particle to a one dimensional two sphere. It grows again to two dimensions, three dimensions, and then levels to the universe. To a multiverse and mega-multiverse becomes a zero-dimensional particle and the process starts all over again. The whole process goes on again and again to infinity. And yet, size matters not. Calculations to follow in another paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1522] **viXra:1904.0547 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-29 03:29:57*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Based on a very simple model where mass, at the deepest level, is colliding indivisible particles and energy is indivisible particles not colliding, we get a new and simple model of matter that seems to be consistent with experiments. Gravity appears to be directly linked to collision time and also the space the collisions take up; we could call it collision space-time. This leads to a completely new quantum gravity theory that is able to explain and predict all major gravity phenomena without any knowledge of Newton's gravitational constant or the mass size in the traditional sense. In addition, the Planck constant is not needed.
Our model, combined with experimental data, strongly indicates that matter is granular and consists of indivisible particles that are colliding. Further, from experiments it is clear that the diameter of the indivisible indivisible particle is the Planck length. Our theory even predicts that there can be no time dilation in quasars, something that is consistent with observations and yet is inconsistent with existing gravity theories.
Several modern quantum gravity models indicate that Lorentz symmetry is broken at the Planck scale, but there have been no signs of this occurring, despite extensive efforts to look for Lorentz symmetry break downs. We show that Lorentz symmetry break downs indeed happen and, to our own surprise, this is actually quite easy to detect. In our model, it is clear that Lorentz symmetry break down is gravity itself. This seems contradictory, as Planck energies are very high energy levels, but we show that this must be seen in a new perspective.
We also introduce a new quantum wave equation that tells us that gravity is both Lorentz symmetry break down and Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our wave equation in this sense includes gravity. For masses less than a Planck mass, probability will also dominate gravity, it is then a probability for Heisenberg uncertainty break down. At Planck mass size and up, determinism dominates.
For the first time, we have a simple quantum theory that unifies gravity with the quantum, all derived from a very simple model about the quantum. Our theory is simple, and we show that an indivisible particle is the fundamental unit of all mass and energy -- a quantity that has been missing in physics all the time. Newton was one of the last great physicists who thought that such particle was essential, but it was naturally impossible for one man to solve the entire problem. This paper stands on the shoulders of giants like Newton, Einstein, Planck, and Compton to explore these long-standing questions.
The beauty of our theory is that it keeps almost all existing and well-tested equations completely intact (unchanged) all the way to the Planck scale. Anything else would be a big surprise; after all, some areas of physics have been extremely successful in predictions and have been well-tested. Still, in our work, the Planck scale and all equations are united into one simple and powerful theory. Unlike standard physics, there are no inconsistencies in our theory. QM is unified with gravity, and even a simplified version of the Minkowski space-time is consistent with QM and gravity. A long series of mysteries in QM vanish, under our new interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1521] **viXra:1904.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-27 08:21:05*

**Authors:** Zane Andrea Quintili

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this document we wish to show how the formula for the gravitational field expressed by the theory of general Relativity, can be valid also for measuring the atomic gravitational field through the substitution of the universal gravitational constant of Newton (G) with the quantum atomic constant of QHT (Gq) .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1520] **viXra:1904.0530 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-27 17:13:25*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

the material+masses effected+actions
quantity(masses)+magnitude (constants)+time
quantity(masses)+ material+magnitude(constants)+masses effected(constants)+actions
and time is pace

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1519] **viXra:1904.0485 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-26 05:45:29*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for the idea of the relativity of time, the key focus of this paper is the process of gravity emerging from electrodynamics and how that can be demonstrated per experiment. First, the nature of gravity as an emergent feature as per the golden ratio time-algorithm is discussed, highlighting mathematically its nature in space as a “singularity” that allows for the idea of kinetic energy, a feature known to co-exist with the idea of gravity. Two key experiments for gravity emerging from electrodynamics are then proposed, tested, the results of which then discussed, shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1518] **viXra:1904.0441 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-24 03:48:33*

**Authors:** Anindya Kumar Biswas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A relation like Hubble
equation is derived
on a $(1+1)$-dimensional
brane moving in the $AdS_{1+2}$-kerr space-time. The relation is used
to obtain a Cardy-Verlinde
formula on the brane.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1517] **viXra:1904.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-23 03:24:31*

**Authors:** Dong-Yih Bau

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is well-known that Einstein was most satisfied with his scientific discovery of general relativity. For this famous discovery, when he visited the Grand Canyon of the United States in 1931, the Hopi Indians praised him with the name of the “Great Relative.” However, do we really understand all of Einstein’s scientific thoughts? Herein, we introduce Einstein from the unfamiliar perspectives of principle theory, the success/failure system, and the cosmos, and we summarise our related series of work. The aim of this paper is to direct the general public and the scientific community to personally experience the scientific discovery of the mesocosmos as a solution to the problem of the cosmos, and to recognise this proposed new twenty-first century science. In an academic market where scientists and humanity sell and buy a great volume of bewildering scientific data, language, and mathematics without feeling amazement and awe at new fundamental and significant scientific discoveries, we suggest personally experiencing Einstein’s scientific thoughts, spreading this experiential gospel, and researching the cosmos in the era of the experience economy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1516] **viXra:1904.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-21 10:35:58*

**Authors:** Tomasz Kobierzycki

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this hypothesis i will present possible mathematical model which describes gravity as consequence of tensor _{Kαβ} and symmetry associated with it. This hypothesis allows moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, but only if the length of the smallest change in time can be less than the Planck time. This hypothesis connects spins of particle with symmetries which that system meets or breaks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1515] **viXra:1904.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-21 12:56:28*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

gravitation is because of electromagnetic waves in space the more the space expands the more the molecules start to get separated and the more electromagnetic waves are produced and whenever a molecule in some mass is separated electromagnetic waves push the masses toward each other
the reason for electrostatics is because the protons and electrons are aligned so that no proton come near a proton and no electron near an electron so that maximum amount of space is passed through at any moment

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1514] **viXra:1904.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-21 15:12:46*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

the universe has been hot for a long time after the big bang ans the heat produced afflicted masses in the universe with heat when the heat is cooled down from a mass the mass ends having extra space inside and as the heat produced as electromagnetic waves push two masses inwards due to them searching for extra space gravity happens

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1513] **viXra:1904.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-19 18:08:39*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in a previous paper called uniform field theory we have shown what happened to masses in space now its time to show how the masses interact with each other without the notion of spacetime now its all about electromagnetic waves electromagnetic waves produced by all masses push existing electromagnetic waves in space and so the mass moves in space because electromagnetic waves has a charge

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1512] **viXra:1904.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-16 03:31:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Gravitational echoes may be caused by the collision of two black holes, and may indicate that these objects have completely new physical properties. [21[
An international research team including astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has combined radio telescopes from five continents to prove the existence of a narrow stream of material, a so-called jet, emerging from the only gravitational wave event involving two neutron stars ever observed. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1511] **viXra:1904.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-14 13:47:40*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Was analyzed possible kind of equation of unified field in theory of emergent space-time matter

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1510] **viXra:1904.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-12 05:31:05*

**Authors:** Zane Andrea Quintili

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we want to present how an atomic quantum gravitational force hypothesis can be equivalent to the Coulomb force for the hydrogen atom, with quantum gravitational QHT.
FG = FC

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1509] **viXra:1904.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-10 07:16:11*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

any loss in energy in any way is a loss in thr form of heat or electromagnetic waves however there are some cases where energy is not lost but transferred from one thing to the other in a uniform system that is not heat loss but in any case any energy lost is lost in the form of heat even if the lost energy was in any form it woulf be in heat and electromagnetic waves

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1508] **viXra:1904.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-10 15:15:00*

**Authors:** Zane Andrea Quintili

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

we present a hypothesis to estimate the orbital radius of the electron in the hydrogen atom using new QHT equations.
QHT is a hypothesis of atomic quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1507] **viXra:1904.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-10 17:20:40*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In Sphere Theory, the universe is a sphere made of spheres. In “Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”[7]. It was shown how to construct the first zero, one, two, and three-dimensional objects. These are, perhaps, regions of high stability in the construction of the universe. It is proposed that these structures will have fractals in different levels of dimensions. It was found that the zero-dimensional object was made of one sphere, the one-dimensional object was composed of two spheres, the two-dimensional object was composed of six spheres, and the three-dimensional object was composed of 42 particles.
For reference, it is shown in Appendix A, how these layers of dimensions, and the cuboctahedron structure can be correlated to the masses of particles over one GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1506] **viXra:1904.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-08 19:20:15*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In Sphere Theory, the universe is a sphere made of spheres. Most of these spheres are packed in a cuboctahedron structure, but there are inclusion and dislocation defects. As part of the theory the high mass particles come from combinations of the layers of the cuboctahedron structures. The mass of these layers is shown in this paper, but what is interesting, is that there is one layer, that should be the most stable layer, that is missing as a stand-alone layer. Since this layer is one of the major layers for the first 3 dimensional object in the creation of the universe, which is the number of spheres on the 2nd layer of a cuboctahedron, it is proposed here, that it will be the mass of one of the most major components of dark matter. Why is it dark matter? It would be dark matter, because it would be one of the fractals of a stability region in the universe. The actual prediction for this major component of dark matter would be about 12.78 GeV.
Due to the propagation of light, gravity, charge, magnetism etc., and their quantized values, it has been hypothesized that, the universe should be filled with some type of almost homogeneous structure. It was shown in “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”( 1) that charge and gravity could be modeled by a sphere with a Compton wavelength radius of the neutron. If the neutron Compton wavelength is important to the propagation of charge and gravity then it is proposed that it also must be connected to some structure of the volume in which these forces are transmitted. “Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe” establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between the larger mass quarks and bosons, and a cuboctahedron –Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron and the combining of the layers of a cuboctahedron packing of spheres.
The layers of a cuboctahedron follow a consistent progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer. The masses of the w boson, z boson, bottom quark, top quark and the Higgs can be directly correlated to the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure, and in a mirror manner described in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1505] **viXra:1904.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-08 05:18:17*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages. .

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate, and gravity – the force that attracts all. Are two separate and distinct phenomena, yet they share an equivalence which has yet to be explained. In this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent, and how time is the underlining mechanism that links and governs them. To accomplish this, we took a step back and reanalyzed the nature of time, which subsequently led us to an undeniable conclusion. One that finally reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1504] **viXra:1904.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-06 15:05:52*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In Spinning Sphere Theory, the universe is spinning and the universe is a sphere made of spheres. When packing spheres in a spherical shape many imperfections or discontinuities are formed. These are postulated to be the basis for matter. These discontinuities end up being close to the surface area of the sphere which is calculated in “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”[6] When one calculates the total mass and the Lorentz mass from a rotating the universe the total mass ends up being pi times the rest mass. This Lorentz mass is postulated to be equivalent to the dark energy that is postulated in an expanding universe, but in the Spinning Sphere Theory, the universe is static, in the sense that it is not expanding. The dark energy fraction equal to the Lorentz fraction=(pi-1)/pi*100 percent=68.169 percent.
Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3 % of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5).
This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size. Calculations

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1503] **viXra:1904.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 02:34:58*

**Authors:** Simon Zhou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

try to explain gravity in another way

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1502] **viXra:1904.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 02:36:39*

**Authors:** Simon Zhou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Calculation of gravitational acceleration form the basic of All energy hypothesis

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1501] **viXra:1904.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-04 01:51:45*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 6 Pages. original article

We consider the string, the left end of which is fixed and the
right end of the string is in periodic motion. We derive the
quantum internal motion of this system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1500] **viXra:1904.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-01 23:02:46*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 10 Pages. an essay written for the 2019 Gravity Research Foundation competition.

The argument that modern string theory has become lost in math is compelling, controversial, and ever more timely. A perspective arguably of equal compulsion takes the view that the math is just fine, that string theory has become lost in physics. It's all about the wavefunction. Almost a century after Bohr and Copenhagen, ongoing proliferation of conflicting quantum interpretations of the unobservable wavefunction and its interactions attests to the profound confusion in philosophical foundations of basic quantum physics. Taking the octonion wavefunction to be comprised not of one-dimensional oscillators in eight-dimensional space, but rather the eight fundamental geometric objects of the Pauli algebra of 3D space - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors,
and one trivector pseudoscalar - yields a long overdue and much needed coherent phenomenology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1499] **viXra:1904.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-01 01:34:32*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The experimental search of standard model superpartners, and the derivation of the standard model from higher dimensional theories have been challenging for some time now. In this article these technologies are kept but they are applied to a simpler environment. A coherent scenario of particles based on Kaluza-Klein theory and unbroken supersymmetry is proposed. It offers an economic basis for constructing the standard model particles without the superpartner problem of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. With local supersymmetry one arrives at supergravity without Yang-Mills fields. A number of results in the literature would have to be reconsidered according to this model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1498] **viXra:1903.0562 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-31 20:30:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Cox

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as one stand-alone spatial dimension.
In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart.
This deductive quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to: (1) define black holes as wormholes into the fourth spatial dimension; (2) explain dark matter as photons which traveled through black holes and into the fourth spatial dimension; (3) predict dark energy to be the warping of the fourth spatial dimension in the presence of dark matter photons; and (4) establish the big bang as the beginning of three flat spatial dimensions in a cyclic universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1497] **viXra:1903.0486 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-27 22:36:00*

**Authors:** Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here, the fundamental constants namely vacuum permeability and permittivity, which comprise the numerical definition of the speed of light in vacuum, are determined. They are found to be composites correlated to Planck’s constant, Wien’s constant and the mass energy of the cosmic microwave background. Derivations for both a new fundamental composite speed of light in vacuum and vacuum impedance are performed. Furthermore, this newly suggested definition is correlated to a confined quantized radiation spectrum of the cosmic particle horizon.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1496] **viXra:1903.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-26 10:25:50*

**Authors:** Kurt L. Becker

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper attempts to give a theoretical foundation for the Modified Newtonian Dynamics equations developed by M. Milgrom Ref.1. It will show that there is a cross sectional limit, below which 1/r2 asymptotically changes to 1/r. When the cross section of a distant star falls below the minimum cross section of the geodesics of the paths of gravitons, then the inverse square law is no longer valid. Gravitational attraction then depends on the distance travelled by the gravitons and will result in the force of gravity varying as 1/r. Also, the mass, GM, used in Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation will change to √0. This is due to multiple paths of gravitons merging into one path. Geodesics have very small cross sections which resonate and continuously adjust to changes in space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1495] **viXra:1903.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-26 19:52:12*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 20 Pages. already published:Pilot,C, 2019, A New Type of Phase Transition Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron Relation Involving a Change in Spatial Dimension, Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) Vol 5, No 2, 291-309

Using a space filled with black-body radiation, we derive a generalization for the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to account for a phase transition, which involves a change in spatial dimension. We consider phase transitions from dimension of space, , to dimension of space, (−1), and vice versa, from (−1) to -dimensional space. For the former we can calculate a specific release of latent heat, a decrease in entropy, and a change in volume. For the latter, we derive an expression for the absorption of heat, the increase in entropy, and the difference in volume. Total energy is conserved in this transformation process. We apply this model to black-body radiation in the early universe and find that for a transition from = 4 to (−1) = 3, there is an immense decrease in entropy accompanied by a tremendous change in volume, much like condensation. However, unlike condensation, the volume change is not three-dimensional. The volume changes from 4, a four-dimensional construct, to 3, a three-dimensional entity, which can be considered a subspace of 4. As a specific example of how the equation works, we consider a transition temperature of 3∗1027 , and assume, furthermore, that the latent heat release in three-dimensional space is 1.8∗1094 . We find that for this transition, the energy densities, the entropy densities, and the volumes assume the following values (photons only). In four-dimensional space, we obtain, 4=1.15∗10125 −4, 4 = 4.81∗1097 −4 −1, and 4 = 2.14∗10−31 4. In three-dimensional space, we have 3 = 6.13∗1094 −3, 3 = 2.72∗1067 −3 −1, and 3 = .267 3. The subscripts 3 and 4 refer to three-dimensional and four-dimensional quantities, respectively. We speculate, based on the tremendous change in volume, the explosive release of latent heat, and the magnitudes of the other quantities calculated, that this type of transition might have a connection to inflation. With this work, we prove that space, in and of itself, has an inherent energy content. This is so because giving up space releases latent heat, and buying space costs latent heat, which we can quantify. This is in addition to the energy contained within that space due to radiation. We can determine the specific amount of heat exchanged in transitioning between different spatial dimensions with our generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1494] **viXra:1903.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-26 19:56:52*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 13 Pages. already published:Pilot, C, 2019, Proof That Spatial Transitions Release/Absorb Energy and That Compactification Necessarily Leads to Changes in Volume, Energy and Entropy, Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) Vol 5, No

Using simple box quantization, we demonstrate explicitly that a spatial transition will release or absorb energy, and that compactification releases latent heat with an attendant change in volume and entropy. Increasing spatial dimension for a given number of particles costs energy while decreasing dimensions supplies energy, which can be quantified, using a generalized version of the Clausius-Clapyeron relation. We show this explicitly for massive particles trapped in a box. Compactification from -dimensional space to (−1) spatial dimensions is also simply demonstrated and the correct limit to achieve a lower energy result is to take the limit, 0 , where is the compactification length parameter. Higher dimensional space has more energy and more entropy, all other things being equal, for a given cutoff in energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1493] **viXra:1903.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-25 22:45:39*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

This is the first paper in a two part series on black holes. In this work, we concern ourselves with the event horizon. A second follow-up paper will deal with its internal structure. We hypothesize that black holes are spatial 4-dimensional, steady state, self-contained spheres filled with black-body radiation. As such, the event horizon marks the boundary between two adjacent spaces, 4-D and 3-D, and there, we consider the radiative transfers involving black-body photons. We generalize the Stefan-Boltzmann law assuming that photons can transition between different dimensional spaces, and we can show how for a 3-D/4-D interface, one can only have zero, or net positive, transfer of radiative energy into the black hole. We find that we can predict the temperature just inside the event horizon, on the 4-D side, given the mass, or radius, of the black hole. For an isolated black hole with no radiative heat inflow, we will assume that the temperature, on the outside, is the CMB temperature, T_2=2.725 K. We take into account the full complement of radiative energy, which for a black body will consist of internal energy density, radiative pressure, and entropy density. It is specifically the entropy density which is responsible for the heat flowing in. We also generalize the Young-Laplace equation for a 4-D/3-D interface. We derive an expression for the surface tension, and prove that it is necessarily positive, and finite, for a 4-D/3-D membrane. This is important as it will lead to an inherently positively curved object, which a black hole is. With this surface tension, we can determine the work needed to expand the black hole. We give two formulations, one involving the surface tension directly, and the other involving the coefficient of surface tension. Because two surfaces are expanding, the 4-D and the 3-D surfaces, there are two radiative contributions to the work done, one positive, which assists expansion, and the other negative, which will resist the expansion. The 4-D side promotes expansion whereas the 3-D side hinders it. At the surface itself, we also have gravity, which is the major contribution to the finite surface tension in almost all situations, which we calculate in the second paper. The surface tension depends not only on the size, or mass, of the black hole, but also on the outside surface temperature, quantities which are accessible observationally. Outside surface temperature will also determine inflow. Finally, we develop a “waterfall model” for a black hole, based on what happens at the event horizon. There we find a sharp discontinuity in temperature upon entering the event horizon, from the 3-D side. This is due to the increased surface area in 4-D space, A_R^((4))=2π^2 R^3, versus the 3-D surface area, A_R^((3))=4πR^2. This leads to much reduced radiative pressures, internal energy densities, and total energy densities just inside the event horizon. All quantities are explicitly calculated in terms of the outside surface temperature, and size of a black hole. Any net radiative heat inflow into the black hole, if it is non-zero, is restricted by the condition that, 0<1/c dQ/dt<4 F_R^((3)), where, F_R^((3)), is the 3-D radiative force applied to the event horizon, pushing it in. We argue throughout this paper that a 3-D/3-D interface would not have the same desirable characteristics as a 4-D/3-D interface. This includes allowing for only zero or net positive heat inflow into the black hole, an inherently positive finite radiative surface tension, much reduced temperatures just inside the event horizon, and limits on inflow.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1492] **viXra:1903.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-25 22:49:34*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

A black hole is treated as a self-contained, steady state, spherically symmetric, 4-dimensional spatial ball filled with blackbody radiation, which is embedded in 3-D space. To model the interior distribution of radiation, we invoke two stellar-like equations, generalized to 4-D space, and a probability distribution function (pdf) for the actual radiative mass distribution within its interior. For our purposes we choose a truncated Gaussian distribution, although other pdf’s with support, r ϵ [0,R], are possible. The variable, r=r^((4)), refers to the 4-D radius within the black hole. To fix the coefficients, (μ,σ), associated with this distribution, we choose the mode to equal zero, which will give maximum energy density at the center of the black hole. This fixes the parameter, μ=0. Our black hole does not have a singularity at the center, and, moreover, it is well-behaved within its volume. The rip or tear in the space-time continuum occurs at the event horizon, as shown in a previous work, because it is there that we transition from 3-D space to 4-D space. For the shape parameter, σ, we make use of the temperature just inside the event horizon, which is determined by the mass, or radius, of the black hole. The amount of radiative heat inflow depends on mass, or radius, and temperature, T_2≥2.725 K, where, T_2 , is the temperature just outside the event horizon. Among the interesting consequences of this model is that the entropy, S^((4)), can be calculated as an extrinsic, versus intrinsic, variable, albeit in 4-D space. It is found that S^((4)) is not proportional to, R^2, the Bekenstein result, where R is the radius of the black hole. Rather, it is given by an expression involving the lower incomplete gamma function, γ(s,x), and interestingly, hardly scales at all with respect to radius. Thus, within our framework, the black hole is a highly-ordered state, in sharp contrast to current consensus. Moreover, the model-dependent gravitational “constant” in 4-D space, G_r^((4)), can be determined, and this will depend on radius. For the specific pdf chosen, G_r^((4)) M_r=.1〖 c〗^2 (r^4/σ^2), where M_r is the enclosed radiative mass of the black hole, up to, and including, radius r. At the event horizon, where, r=R, this reduces to G_R^((4))=.2 G〖 R〗^3/σ^2, due to the Schwarzschild relation between mass and radius. The quantity, G, is Newton’s constant. There is a sharp discontinuity in gravitational strength at the 3-D/4-D interface, identified as the event horizon, which we show. The 3-D and 4-D gravitational potentials, however, can be made to match at the interface. This lines up with previous work done by the author where a discontinuity between 3-D and 4-D quantities is required in order to properly define a positive-definite radiative surface tension at the event horizon. We generalize Gauss’ law in 4-D space as this will enable us to find the strength of gravity at any radius within the spherically symmetric, 4-D black hole. For the pdf chosen, g_r^((4))=G_r^((4)) M_r/r^3=.1 c^2 r/σ^2, a remarkably simple and elegant result. Finally, we show that the work required to assemble the black hole against radiative pressure, which pushes out, is equal to, .1 M_R c^2. This factor of .1 is specific to 4-D space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1491] **viXra:1903.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-26 04:37:50*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Quantum FFF Theory, is based on a new string particle model called “rigid transformable string”, which is able to generate topologies of all possible sub quantum particles, needed to fill a supersymmetric standard model and beyond.
The mother particle is called “Axion Higgs” and has the form of a ring, able to rotate internally by three hinges into electron and positron propeller shapes, into 1x Graviton, 5x monopole Photons or Gluons and 6x Neutrinos.
The Axion Higgs ring particle is assumed to fill all space with an oscillating chiral tetrahedral Planck lattice, inside all Universal bubbles of the raspberry shaped multiverse.
Most Leptons and Quarks are assumed to be complex knots of one or more propeller electron/positrons combined with one or more Gluon/Photons.
Black hole nuclei are assumed to be complex particle knots with the 123.5 to 375 GeV Higgs bosons as unstable base adding up to stable nuclei of Super Massive Black Holes located in the Galaxy centers and at the end adding up to the Big Crunch black hole nucleus.
At all black hole horizon shell, the oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum is forced by collision to create Eletron Positron pairs. The chirality of the vacuum lattice seems to be the origin of the natural creation of positive charged Quark knots leaving the negative singular Electrons apart in an external shell, which is assumed to be the reason that all black holes ( inside our material universe) are negative charged.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1490] **viXra:1903.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-23 21:57:40*

**Authors:** Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We will discuss the gravitational force between two black holes by using the fundamental concept of general relativity and test whether it is correct or not. This discussion is based on two black holes. We will check the validity of the concept of space-time curvature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1489] **viXra:1903.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-22 05:15:19*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 11 Pages. submitted to Physics Letters B

After a brief review of the thermal relativistic $corrections$ to the Schwarzschild black hole entropy, it is shown how
the Stefan-Boltzman law furnishes large modifications to the evaporation times of Planck-size mini-black holes, and which might furnish important clues to the nature of
dark matter and dark energy since one of the novel consequences of thermal relativity is that black holes do $not$ completely evaporate but leave a Planck size remnant.
Equating the expression for the modified entropy (due to thermal relativity corrections) with Wald's entropy
should in principle determine the functional form of the modified gravitational Lagrangian $ {\cal L } (R_{abcd}) $. We proceed to derive the generalized uncertainty relation which corresponds to the effective temperature $ T_{eff} = T_H ( 1 - { T^2_H \over T^2_P } )^{ - 1/2} $ associated with thermal relativity and given in terms of the Hawking ($T_H$) and Planck ($T_P$) temperature, respectively. Such modified uncertainty relation agrees with the one provided by string theory up to first
order in the expansion in powers of $ { (\delta p)^2 \over M^2_P} $. Both lead to a minimal length (Planck size) uncertainty. Finally, an explicit analytical expression is found for the modifications to the purely thermal spectrum of Hawking radiation which could cast some light into the resolution of the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1488] **viXra:1903.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-20 23:44:33*

**Authors:** Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The quest to unify the four fundamental forces has been sought after for decades but has remained elusive to all physicists. The first clues to unification were given when information horizons were associated to radiation by Unruh and Hawking. This was then extended to be a discrete spectrum in nature by McCulloch. Here, it is suggested that the limitation, or confinement, of an allowed spectrum is relevant in order to compute all the fundamental forces. The maximum spectrum is defined by the size of the cosmic particle horizon and the Planck length. Notably, all fundamental forces can be computed by using the same core equation and can be extended to reflect the different information horizons and particle interaction scenarios. This result suggests that for unification the radiation spectrum provides alterations of the momentum space to generate energy gradients. The force derivatives of the energy fields indicate numerical convergence to the observed fundamental forces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1487] **viXra:1903.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-20 03:15:28*

**Authors:** Malik Al Matwi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We restrict the Einstein-Hamiltonian Lagrangian to $3D$ surface $S^3(\sigma _1, \sigma _2, \sigma _3)$, we let this surface be immersed in arbitrary $4D$ spacetime manifold $M$ at constant time $x^0$. The gauge theory of general relativity asserts that the Einstein-Hamiltonian Lagrangian is invariant under infinitesimal variation of that surface, this determines the surface. By that we get continuity equation in arbitrary $4D$ spacetime, then we search for Lagrangian and equation of motion that give same continuity equation according to canonical field theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1486] **viXra:1903.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-20 05:08:22*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
The resulting model is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model.
As a consequence, the standard model could be extended with changes for supersymmetric Monopole Photons also acting as Gluons at subatomic distances and series of alternative Monopole Photonic bosons called Higgs particle of different masses (recent LHC measurements with bumps at 123.5GeV- 126 GeV , 350 GeV etcetera) based on different geometrical structures as a base for unstable- and stable black holes..
At the same time there seems to open a new field of physics around quantum gravity, interpreted as the result of dipole opposing pressure forcers between the oscillatory pressure of the massless Axion Higgs vacuum field and the fermion created graviton pressure.
The planetary mass related local lightspeed drag, and a pyrochlore topological superconductive vacuum.
In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface.
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles to form Quarks quantum knots and all other particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1485] **viXra:1903.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-18 11:13:51*

**Authors:** Bernard GUY

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

We examine the possible relations between general relativity and quantum mechanics, from the point of view of their representations of space and time, which are different. We refer to our own understanding of space and time, built in opposition to each other from the physical phenomena, and not constituting an a priori external frame. Within a relation-based thinking, we can only compare the phenomena to the other phenomena, and, from this confrontation, space-time frames arise, as drawn by the trajectories of certain phenomena arbitrarily considered in a privileged way. It is within this framework that one must think the possible association of general relativity (which has not the monopoly of space and time) and quantum mechanics (which has not the monopoly of quantization, to be understood from the comparison of two classes of phenomena within a probabilistic approach). The general question to ask is that of possible exchanges between the different points of views, supported by the various possible phenomena, that is to say those on which space and time are defined, and the others. Space and time do not disappear, the points of views are exchanged. These exchanges are made possible by representing space and time, like the other phenomena, by a pair of fields (r, t); r and t are vectors in a three-dimensional space (time is marked by the position of a moving point in the same space as that defining the positions of the ordinary points), as opposed to field pairs (f, g) associated with the other phenomena (such as the pair of the electric and magnetic fields). One may ultimately envisage quantization of space and time; one may also envisage the definition of time and space solely by quantum mechanics. A preliminary and qualitative framework is presented as a basis for future quantitative research.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1484] **viXra:1903.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-19 04:24:05*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 10 Pages. THE ILLUSION OF REALITY.

THE PILOT WAVES IN QUANTUM PHYSICS AND AN EMERGENT GRAVITY FROM GRAVITOETHERTONS .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1483] **viXra:1903.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-17 08:27:41*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. in Russian

Statement of questions:
Dualism as a principle of physical description.
"Ontologization" of space-time relations as the embodiment of the dualism principle.
Anthropic principle.
Out-of-space-time aspect of the Universe.
Size and age of the Universe.
Multidimensional as a way of uniting interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1482] **viXra:1903.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 19:30:59*

**Authors:** Tatsuyuki Sugawa

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

We investigate the Friedmann equations and the Wheeler-DeWitt equations in three
dimensional pure gravity under the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) effects.
In addition we study the wave functions near the Big-Bang singularity as the solutions
of the deformed Wheeler-DeWitt equation in momentum space. The resulting wave
functions are represented as the Mathieu functions. The GUP is considered in the
context of the Snyder non-commutative space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1481] **viXra:1903.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-13 17:50:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Granular Spacetime Sphere Theory predicts that our universe is a sphere made of spheres. This theory is taken down to its roots and shows that the universe starts with what could be labeled a quasi-point particle and builds it up to a multiverse. The theory can now be used to predict a gravitational constant of G=6.674379282299*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}This is in line with the low sigma measurements of 6.674184 *10^{-11} [6]6.674484*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}[6] 6.67433*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}[7] and the UZur-06 measurement of 6.67425*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}
This value obtained in this paper affirms the values shown in the Nature Article “Measurements of the gravitational constant using two independent methods” and it affirms that there really was no big bang and the universe is actually rotating and the size is limited by the outer edge not being able to move faster than the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1480] **viXra:1903.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-13 19:14:10*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Granular Spacetime Sphere Theory predicts that our universe is a sphere made of spheres. This theory is taken down to its roots and shows that the universe starts with what could be labeled a quasi-point particle and builds it up to a multiverse. This paper shows that the gravitational constant can be predicted by a rotating universe and thus disproves the Big Bang Theory. This paper shows that the size of the universe is limited by the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1479] **viXra:1903.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-11 10:37:14*

**Authors:** Jonathan J. Dickau

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Essay written for 2019 Gravity Research Foundation Awards for Essays on Gravitation – submitted March 5, 2019

The AdS/CFT conjecture of Juan Maldacena is a cornerstone of
Modern Physics, but why it works remains a mystery. The appearance of
Cartan’s rolling-ball analogy for G2 symmetries in the Mandelbrot Set offers
a window on correspondences between interactions in the higher-d precursor
and 4-d spacetime implied by AdS/CFT. Recent theories suggest a literal
embodiment of AdS/CFT in a black hole in 5-d → 4-d white hole/bubble on
the holographic boundary. This transition is represented in the Mandelbrot
Set at (-0.75,0i) where the boundary folds back on itself and we see a
pseudo-symmetric mirroring of features in the cardioid, depicting 5-d
evolution, with features in the circular region representing 4-d spacetime.
This shows how the force of fermionic mass in the outward-pressing
hypersurface of the early universe becomes the inward-facing pull of gravity
toward the center of massive objects, in the present-day cosmos, which
explains the weakness of gravity, and accelerating expansion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1478] **viXra:1903.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-12 02:16:10*

**Authors:** David Gross

**Comments:** 18 Pages. in Russian

David Gross presents the motivation for such a bold attempt to tie together all the forces of nature, discusses the basic structure of string theory, the surprises it presents, the successes it has achieved and the promises it has not yet fulfilled. And, finally, discusses the coming revolutions in fundamental physics implied by string theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1477] **viXra:1903.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-10 23:33:10*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 211 Pages.

For the first time in mankind, *Universal* and *Unified Field Theory* is philosophically, mathematically and empirically revealed the workings of *Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. *The nature of the universe has its *Event Operations* ontologically and systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric commutations progressively at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

*Principles of Natural Philosophy and Universal Topology**Framework of Contravariant and Covariant Manifolds**World Equations and Universal Field Equations**Boost Transform and Torque Transport Generators**Horizon Hierarchy of World Plane and Spacetime**Gauge Invariance and Quantum Chromodynamics**Fluxions of Symmetric Scalar and Vector Potentials**Thermodynamics, Dark Energy and Blackbody Radiation**Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Gravitation**Fundamentals of Weak, Strong and Spontaneous Forces**Asymmetric Dynamics and General Relativity**Cosmological Field Equations**Superphase Evolutions of Ontology*

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from *Newtonian* to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - *Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Reality*.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary, this manuscript completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics.

[1476] **viXra:1903.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-09 14:17:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Why do not we receive correct answers to fundamental questions in orthodox physics?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1475] **viXra:1903.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-09 19:43:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

What is the mathematical basis for the construction of the universe? This paper calculates the size of the universe, which it looks like the speed of light is the limiting factor. It turns out that light takes a curved path, which may be a form of a Golden Ratio spiral.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1474] **viXra:1903.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-08 20:40:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

What is the mathematical basis for the construction of the universe? This paper intends to show a start of how the universe is constructed. It also answers the question, did the hand of God build the universe? This paper shows how, mathematically, the universe could start from a single point and then is built up into the universe and the multiverse.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1316] **viXra:1907.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-14 05:19:31*

**Authors:** Li xiaohong, Lini

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Is there a unified natural principle or theory of all things behind the natural phenomena that are observed in different disciplines and scattered?
Below is the chord language value formula used in music, painting:
S = HV, (S = semitone, H = equal temperament constant, V = frequency), minimum discrete value.
I=H^n.V (I=sound, n=sound value), allowing discrete values;
C=H^n1, n2, n3, n*.V (C=chord), discrete value spectrum.
Here's the spatial semantics of common chords:
major chord = closed string
minor chord = open string
Discord = Non-linear string
The above formula shows that the chord language has both quantized and string features, and the chord value formula is similar to the Planck formula.
Chord language consists of chord spectrum, with quantum, string (open, closed, N-string), symmetry, mirroring and other physical, mathematical (geometric) characteristics, manifested in music, painting, meridian and other disciplines, produced time, space, life, spiritual expression. There have been thousands of years of history, mature mathematical models, can be observed and verified.
Chord language is both a spiritual phenomenon and a physical phenomenon. Observing chord language events, such as music and painting, is also observing physical events. It has spiritual and physical isomorphism, which is its philosophical and cognitive characteristics.
Chord language, chord theory contains quantum theory, string theory? Is it the law of all things, the theory of all things?
Key words: chord language, chord space-time, theory of everything, quantum, string, music, painting, meridian

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1315] **viXra:1907.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-10 18:11:55*

**Authors:** LI xiaohong

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Is there a unified natural principle or theory of all things behind the natural phenomena that are observed in different disciplines and scattered? Below is the chord language formula used in music, painting, with typical quantization features, and similar to the Planck formula:
S = HV, (S = semitone, H = equal temperament constant, V = frequency), minimum discrete value.
I=H^n.V (I=sound, n=sound value), allowing discrete values;
C=H^n1, n2, n3, n*.V (C=chord), discrete value spectrum.
Chord language consists of chord spectrum, with quantum, string (opening, closed string, N string), symmetry, mirroring (space-time duality) and other physical, mathematical (geometric) characteristics, manifested in music (time expression), painting (spatial expression), meridian (life expression) and other disciplines, with Spiritual, physica isomorphism, It has thousands of years of knowledge accumulation, more mature mathematical models, can be observed, verified, should be the theoretical characteristics of everything.
Chord language is both a spiritual phenomenon and a physical phenomenon. It has spiritual and physical isomorphism. Observing chord language events (music, painting, etc.) is also observing physical events. This is the most prominent philosophical feature of chord language.
Is chord language the law of all things, or the theory of all things?
Key words: chord language, chord space-time, theory of everything, quantum, string, music, painting, meridian

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1314] **viXra:1907.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-08 07:10:49*

**Authors:** M. U. E. Pohl

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In first chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Time” [1] and second Chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Gravity” this author informed scientific community about the framework for the Theory of Everything concept, that must be applied in order to get back into Paradise on earth. Within this third chapter, the author explains in how to perform to decode the Matrix of thought and to get back into Paradise to save this planet earth from burning in climate change and to prevent the final fall of the empire of “human being” into the nothingness like the age of dinosaurs ended in nothingness. Keywords: Theory of Everything, Key of Matrix, End of the World, World War, Artificial Intelligence, Flat Earth, Holografic Universe, Big Bang, Black Holes

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1313] **viXra:1907.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-08 03:42:42*

**Authors:** M. U. E. Pohl

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In first chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Time” [1] and second Chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Gravity” this author informed scientific community about the framework for the Theory of Everything concept, that must be applied in order to get back into Paradise on earth. Within this third chapter, the author explains in how to perform to decode the Matrix of thought and to get back into Paradise to save this planet earth from burning in climate change and to prevent the final fall of the empire of “human being” into the nothingness like the age of dinosaurs ended in nothingness. Keywords: Theory of Everything, Key of Matrix, End of the World, World War, Artificial Intelligence, Flat Earth, Holografic Universe, Big Bang, Black Holes

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1312] **viXra:1907.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-06 09:08:23*

**Authors:** Manfred U.E. Pohl

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In first chapter of ToE-Framework “Unified Principles of Nature” : “The Solution to the Problem of Time” [1] this author informed scientific community about the framework for the Theory of Everything concept, that must be applied in order to get back into Paradise on earth. It was written by this author : “If we flow with the wave of time not trying to violate the laws of nature, one could flow on a healthy wave as individual, as community, as society and as globalized economy.” This second paper is to explain on how to understand the concept of “Gravity”, which is the eternal “Love” guiding planet earth along its way.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1311] **viXra:1906.0512 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-04 08:19:11*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Here we present a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. Under the premise that science is the best methodology to understand the World, then presumably a formalization of such is its best mathematical framework. Axiomatic science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science and it has numerous desirable properties. Axiomatic science is a model of science and of physics, and as such, it contains a 'science' part and a 'physics' part. Axiomatic science is able to derive the 'physics' part, including the laws of physics, using the 'science' part as the starting point. Axiomatic science thus explains the origins of the laws of physics as a theorem of the formal practice of science. Finally, axiomatic science is 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1310] **viXra:1906.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-14 16:06:53*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

From the holographic perspective in quantum gravity, topological field theories like Chern-Simons are more than toy models for computation. An algebraic construction of the CFT associated to Witten's j-invariant for 2+1 dimensional gravity aims to compute coefficients of modular forms from the combinatorics of quantum logic, dictated by axioms in higher dimensional categories, with heavy use of the golden ratio. This paper is self contained, including introductory material on lattices, and aims to show how the Monster group and its infinite module arise when the automorphisms of the Leech lattice are extended by special point sets in higher dimensions, notably the 72 dimensional lattice of Nebe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1309] **viXra:1906.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-03 16:10:06*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

From the holographic perspective in quantum gravity, topological field theories like Chern-Simons are more than toy models for computation. An algebraic construction of the CFT associated to Witten's j-invariant for 2+1 dimensional gravity aims to compute coefficients of modular forms from the combinatorics of quantum logic, dictated by axioms in higher dimensional categories, with heavy use of the golden ratio. This paper is self contained, including introductory material on lattices, and aims to show how the Monster group and its infinite module arise when the automorphisms of the Leech lattice are extended by special point sets in higher dimensions, notably the 72 dimensional lattice of Nebe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1308] **viXra:1906.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-28 17:32:44*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

From the holographic perspective in quantum gravity, topological field theories like Chern-Simons are more than toy models for computation. An algebraic construction of the CFT associated to Witten's j invariant for 2+1 dimensional gravity aims to compute coefficients of modular forms from the combinatorics of quantum logic, dictated by axioms in higher dimensional categories, with heavy use of the golden ratio. This paper is self contained, including introductory material on lattices, and aims to show how the Monster group and its infinite module arise when the automorphisms of the Leech lattice are extended by special point sets in higher dimensions, notably the 72 dimensional lattice of Nebe.
\end

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1307] **viXra:1906.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-20 00:58:29*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A study of the simplest Jordan-Brans-Dicke-like action within the context of Weyl geometry, combined with the findings of Weinberg’s Asymptotic Safety program in quantum gravity, leads to a plethora of nice numerical results : (i) like singling out the quartic potential from all the others; (ii) having (Anti) de Sitter space as the most natural solution; (iii) furnishing the value of the observed vacuum energy density at the Hubble scale (3/8 pi G_N R_H^2) ~ 10^{−122} M_P^4 ; (iv) and a value of {3/8 pi) M^4_P for the vacuum energy density at the Planck scale; (v) interpreting the “Bang” of the Big Bang as the singularity of the Weyl gauge field of dilations at t = 0 ushering in the era of inflation, and (vi) allowing the possibility that our universe is a Black Hole whose horizon coincides with the cosmological Hubble horizon. It is warranted to explore deeper the interplay among Weyl geometry, Asymptotic safety and Maldacena’s AdS/CFT correspondence (holographic renormalization group flow). Also relevant is the work by Wetterich on the role of dilatation symmetry in higher dimensions and the vanishing of the cosmological constant. Last, but not least, we should also consider the implications of Penrose’ Conformal Cyclic Cosmology and Nottale’s Scale Relativity Theory with the key findings of this work.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1306] **viXra:1906.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-13 05:07:26*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The independent E/M waves are created, during the electron oscillations at an emission antenna. These waves do not compose the constant photon length, in contrast to the fundamental E/M waves of photon. Additionally, the Compton phenomenon is interpreted, while the atomic orbitals are standing waves the self-superposition of the motion wave of electrons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1305] **viXra:1906.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-09 21:45:20*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper the entire spectrum of the recent modern history of the Standard Model of physics shall be presented and examined and exposed for upholding a “chimera” concept which has prevented physics from joining electromagnetism with gravity as theoretical and physical field driven entities. This chimera will be exposed to be “inertia”, the bane of relativity, otherwise leading to absurd conclusions in ultimate equations of field forces across the expanse of space and time. A “fix” to this chimera is proposed, as a new concept for time examining bodies in motion, namely the idea of time as “the” most fundamental concept in space, from which the golden ratio “scaling system” shall be once again calculated from this new primordial level of conception and bodies-in-motion relationship. From those calculations of the golden ratio scaling system for time, the idea of space will become apparent as an emergence from the dimension of time, and most importantly how time behaves as light in regard to space. Upon that emergent platform of space, a list of all the features derived from the golden ratio algorithm shall be once again be brought to attention as per the previous papers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8], highlighting these derived schemes as the mechanisms of “proof” for this new theory, as data and equations derived from first principles that then confirm what has been found through extensive historical scientific research. Such shall highlight the fundamental failure of the idea of “inertia” in physical equations and expose those equations as the “chimera” of modern-day physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1304] **viXra:1905.0459 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-05 20:09:20*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

We have recently presented a unified quantum gravity theory [23]. Here we extend on that work and present an even simpler version of that theory. For about hundred years, modern physics has not been able to build a bridge between quantum mechanics and gravity. However, a solution may be found here; we present our quantum gravity theory, which is rooted in indivisible particles where matter and gravity are related to collisions and can be described by collision space-time. In this paper, we also show that we can formulate a quantum wave equation rooted in collision space-time, which is equivalent to mass and energy.
The beauty of our theory is that most of the main equations that currently exist in physics are not changed (in terms of predictions), except at the Planck scale. The Planck scale is directly linked to gravity and gravity is, surprisingly, actually a Lorentz symmetry as well as a form of Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our theory gives a dramatic simplification of many physics formulas without altering the output predictions. The relativistic wave equation, the relativistic energy momentum relation, and Minkowski space can all be represented by simpler equations when we understand mass at a deeper level. This not attained at a cost, but rather a reflection of the benefit in having gravity and quantum mechanics unified under the same theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1303] **viXra:1905.0459 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-26 16:20:18*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

We have recently presented a unified quantum gravity theory [1]. Here we extend on that work and present an even simpler version of that theory. For about hundred years, modern physics has not been able to build a bridge between quantum mechanics and gravity. However, a solution may be found here; we present our quantum gravity theory, which is rooted in indivisible particles where matter and gravity are related to collisions and can be described by collision space-time. In this paper, we also show that we can formulate a quantum wave equation rooted in collision space-time, which is equivalent to mass and energy.
The beauty of our theory is that most of the main equations that currently exist in physics are not changed (in terms of predictions), except at the Planck scale. The Planck scale is directly linked to gravity and gravity is, surprisingly, actually a Lorentz symmetry as well as a form of Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our theory gives a dramatic simplification of many physics formulas without altering the output predictions. The relativistic wave equation, the relativistic energy momentum relation, and Minkowski space can all be represented by simpler equations when we understand mass at a deeper level. This not attained at a cost, but rather a reflection of the benefit in having gravity and electromagnetism unified under the same theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1302] **viXra:1905.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-21 03:59:26*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Abstract.
A so called EmDrive ( Electro Magentic Drive) defy classical physics expectations because it shows repellent less or reaction less thruster qualities.
According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) however, the magnetic field is build on two monopole rigid string particles in the form of curved radiation trajectories, ( North and South) mostly cooperating opposing each other.
Thus, the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped curved monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component.
This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field.
However, based on observation of iron filing-powder pattern loss close to direct currents in a wire, it is postulated, that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel locally parallel to each other inside the vacuum Axion/Higgs field, with a strong field reduction or even fading away as a result.
These field reductions (or dipping) are observed to be concentrated in a tubular form around the current in the wire.
There are two possible levitation principles, using the field reduction around a current in a conductor.
1: Levitation by dual conductor-magnet interference.
2: Levitation by dual conductor-conductor interference.
Ad 1, The Lorentz levitation force will become a non symmetric ( reduced) form, with a one sided reduced reaction force of the Anti Maxwell area around conductor coils on a local magnet ( figure 5)
The magnet will create a normal Lorentz force on the electrons in the wire for levitation, but the magnets do not “feel” locally the opposing magnetic Standard Maxwell field around the current in the wire. The EM Drive as the result.
Ad 2, The Lorentz levitation force will become a non symmetric ( reduced) form, with a one sided reduced reaction force created by the Anti Maxwell dipping area around the conductor coil with larger diameter conductor tubes, for effective screening of a second conductor coil with smaller diameter tubes conductors. ( figure 6)
The configuration of both systems (of 1 and 2) are suggested to most effective in the form of a disc, however the middle disc section of such a disc can be left out for easy manufacturing.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1301] **viXra:1905.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-13 03:41:26*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything, also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical Big Bang into 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric copy universes.
The Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy multiverse entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be conscious by its entanglement with 8 or 12 CP symmetric copy particles located inside 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric universal bubbles at long distance in raspberry shape.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Quantum FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for such consciousness theories of everything.
David Bohm suggested in the "Copenhagen interpretation", that reality is not
created by the eye of the human observer, and second: elementary particles should be "guided
by a pilot wave" inside an “UNDIVIDED UNIVERSE”
In this Quantum-FFF Theory translated into: an “ UNDIVIDED MULTIVERSE” with multi universal instant entanglement between CP symmetric mirror strings)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1300] **viXra:1905.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-13 00:13:47*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The idea that time is concordant to our perception in our frame of temporal reference yet different to another person’s frame dependent on motion, as Einstein outlined in his work of general and special relativity, is essentially stating that we are conscious according to the parameters of space-time and how that flows dependent on what our reference of relative motion is. Yet is there a scientific mathematical link between frames of time as a relativity of time in space? Surely in not considering how each frame of time reference can be linked mathematically, all the facets of physical reality in time as “equations” of time will not match up, such as most basically gravity and electromagnetism? This paper, a follow-on from seven previous papers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] will present firstly the historical notions we have of time in science, as applied to scientific congress, and then discuss those problems that have been presented to us in using that axiom of time definition, most importantly that not knitting together those temporal notions presents us with a mathematics of space and mass and energy that are never knitted as mathematical equations in time yet only in using Einstein’s equation of e = mc2. So, a new axiom for time is presented as an algorithm that can knit together much of what we know of physical scientific data, including Einstein’s well-known equation. The quest of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to marry up electromagnetism with gravity using a common mathematical “function” for time universal in space, as temporal relativity, despite it offering a new set of equations for known physical data. Then finally a process of “proof” is offered for this new regard for time, as gravity emerging from electrodynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1299] **viXra:1905.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-08 15:09:20*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We introduce the quantum statistical physics of space-time events. Quantum statistical physics connects a microscopic/quantum description to a macroscopic/bulk state by the use of statistical priors and under the principle of maximum entropy. As the main result, we show that the statistical distribution of events in space-time, quantified by entropy, is a microscopic equivalent to the bulk curvature of space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1298] **viXra:1904.0547 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-03 09:09:15*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Based on a very simple model where mass, at the deepest level, is colliding indivisible particles and energy is indivisible particles not colliding, we get a new and simple model of matter that seems to be consistent with experiments. Gravity appears to be directly linked to collision time and also the space the collisions take up; we could call it collision space-time. This leads to a completely new quantum gravity theory that is able to explain and predict all major gravity phenomena without any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant or the mass size in the traditional sense. In addition, the Planck constant is not needed.
Our model, combined with experimental data, strongly indicates that matter is granular and consists of indivisible particles that are colliding. Further, from experiments it is clear that the diameter of the indivisible indivisible particle is the Planck length. Our theory even predicts that there can be no time dilation in quasars, something that is consistent with observations and yet is inconsistent with existing gravity theories.
Several modern quantum gravity models indicate that Lorentz symmetry is broken at the Planck scale, but there have been no signs of this occurring, despite extensive efforts to look for Lorentz symmetry break downs. We show that Lorentz symmetry break downs indeed happen and, to our own surprise, this is actually very easy to detect. In our model, it is clear that Lorentz symmetry break down is gravity itself. This seems contradictory, as Planck energies are very high energy levels, but we show that this must be seen in a new perspective.
We also introduce a new quantum wave equation that tells us that gravity is both Lorentz symmetry break down and Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our wave equation in this sense includes gravity. For masses smaller than a Planck mass, probability will also dominate gravity; it is then a probability for Heisenberg uncertainty break down. At the Planck mass size and up, determinism dominates.
For the first time, we have a quantum theory that unifies gravity with the quantum, all derived from a very simple model about the quantum. Our theory is simple, and we show that an indivisible particle is the fundamental unit of all mass and energy – a quantity that has been missing in physics all this time. Newton was one of the last great physicists who thought that such particle was essential, but it was naturally impossible for one man to solve the entire problem. This paper stands on the shoulders of giants like Newton, Einstein, Planck, and Compton to explore these long-standing questions.
The beauty of our theory is that it keeps almost all existing and well-tested equations completely intact (unchanged) all the way to the Planck scale. Anything else would be a surprise; after all, some areas of physics have been extremely successful in predictions and have also been well-tested. Still, in our work, the Planck scale and all equations are united into one simple and powerful theory. Unlike standard physics, there are no inconsistencies in our theory. QM is unified with gravity, and even a simplified version of the Minkowski space- time is consistent with QM and gravity. A long series of mysteries in QM vanish, under our new interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1297] **viXra:1904.0547 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-03 07:53:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Based on a very simple model where mass, at the deepest level, is colliding indivisible particles and energy is indivisible particles not colliding, we get a new and simple model of matter that seems to be consistent with experiments. Gravity appears to be directly linked to collision time and also the space the collisions take up; we could call it collision space-time. This leads to a completely new quantum gravity theory that is able to explain and predict all major gravity phenomena without any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant or the mass size in the traditional sense. In addition, the Planck constant is not needed.
Our model, combined with experimental data, strongly indicates that matter is granular and consists of indivisible particles that are colliding. Further, from experiments it is clear that the diameter of the indivisible indivisible particle is the Planck length. Our theory even predicts that there can be no time dilation in quasars, something that is consistent with observations and yet is inconsistent with existing gravity theories.
Several modern quantum gravity models indicate that Lorentz symmetry is broken at the Planck scale, but there have been no signs of this occurring, despite extensive efforts to look for Lorentz symmetry break downs. We show that Lorentz symmetry break downs indeed happen and, to our own surprise, this is actually very easy to detect. In our model, it is clear that Lorentz symmetry break down is gravity itself. This seems contradictory, as Planck energies are very high energy levels, but we show that this must be seen in a new perspective.
We also introduce a new quantum wave equation that tells us that gravity is both Lorentz symmetry break down and Heisenberg uncertainty break down at the Planck scale. Our wave equation in this sense includes gravity. For masses smaller than a Planck mass, probability will also dominate gravity; it is then a probability for Heisenberg uncertainty break down. At the Planck mass size and up, determinism dominates.
For the first time, we have a quantum theory that unifies gravity with the quantum, all derived from a very simple model about the quantum. Our theory is simple, and we show that an indivisible particle is the fundamental unit of all mass and energy – a quantity that has been missing in physics all this time. Newton was one of the last great physicists who thought that such particle was essential, but it was naturally impossible for one man to solve the entire problem. This paper stands on the shoulders of giants like Newton, Einstein, Planck, and Compton to explore these long-standing questions.
The beauty of our theory is that it keeps almost all existing and well-tested equations completely intact (unchanged) all the way to the Planck scale. Anything else would be a surprise; after all, some areas of physics have been extremely successful in predictions and have also been well-tested. Still, in our work, the Planck scale and all equations are united into one simple and powerful theory. Unlike standard physics, there are no inconsistencies in our theory. QM is unified with gravity, and even a simplified version of the Minkowski space- time is consistent with QM and gravity. A long series of mysteries in QM vanish, under our new interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1296] **viXra:1904.0485 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-30 03:47:16*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for the idea of the relativity of time, the key focus of this paper is the process of gravity emerging from electrodynamics and how that can be demonstrated per experiment. First, the nature of gravity as an emergent feature as per the golden ratio time-algorithm is discussed, highlighting mathematically its nature in space as a “singularity” that allows for the idea of kinetic energy, a feature known to co-exist with the idea of gravity. Two key experiments for gravity emerging from electrodynamics are then proposed, tested, the results of which then discussed, shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1295] **viXra:1904.0441 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-30 10:48:50*

**Authors:** Anindya Kumar Biswas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A relation like Hubble equation is derived on a $(1+1)$-dimensional brane moving in the $AdS_{1+2}$-kerr space-time. The relation is used to obtain a Cardy-Verlinde formula on the brane.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1294] **viXra:1904.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-06 15:21:36*

**Authors:** Tomasz Kobierzycki

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Is it possible to remove older versions? It's same paper but mistakes are corrected.

In this hypothesis i will present possible mathematical model which describes gravity as consequence of tensor K and symmetry associated with it. This hypothesis allows moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, but only if the length of the smallest change in time can be less than the Planck time. This hypothesis connects spins of particle with symmetries which that system meets or breaks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1293] **viXra:1904.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-28 03:34:21*

**Authors:** Tomasz Kobierzycki

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this hypothesis i will present possible mathematical model which describes gravity as consequence of tensor K and symmetry associated with it. This hypothesis allows moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, but only if the length of the smallest change in time can be less than the Planck time. This hypothesis connects spins of particle with symmetries which that system meets or breaks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1292] **viXra:1904.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-22 15:37:07*

**Authors:** Tomasz Kobierzycki

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this hypothesis i will present possible mathematical model which describes gravity as consequence of tensor K_{αβ} and symmetry associated with it. This hypothesis allows moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, but only if the length of the smallest change in time can be less than the Planck time. This hypothesis connects spins of particle with symmetries which that system meets or breaks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1291] **viXra:1904.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-16 07:00:15*

**Authors:** Tomasz Kobierzycki

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this hypothesis i will present possible mathematical model which describes gravity as consequence of tensor K_{αβ} and symmetry associated with it. This hypothesis allows moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, but only if the length of the smallest change in time can be less than the Planck time. This hypothesis connects spins of particle with symmetries which that system meets or breaks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1290] **viXra:1904.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-18 07:04:24*

**Authors:** Tomasz Kobierzycki

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this hypothesis i will present possible mathematical model which describes gravity as consequence of tensor K_{αβ} and symmetry associated with it. This hypothesis allows moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, but only if the length of the smallest change in time can be less than the Planck time. This hypothesis connects spins of particle with symmetries which that system meets or breaks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1289] **viXra:1904.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-04 09:35:42*

**Authors:** Tomasz Kobierzycki

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

_{αβ} and symmetry associated with it. This hypothesis allows moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, but only if the length of the smallest change in time can be less than the Planck time. This hypothesis connects spins of particle with symmetries which that system meets or breaks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1288] **viXra:1904.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-28 08:49:52*

**Authors:** Tomasz Kobierzycki

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

_{αβ} and symmetry associated with it. This hypothesis allows moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, but only if the length of the smallest change in time can be less than the Planck time. This hypothesis connects spins of particle with symmetries which that system meets or breaks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1287] **viXra:1904.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-26 21:23:38*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate, and gravity – the force that attracts all. Are two separate and distinct phenomena, yet they share an equivalence which has yet to be explained. In this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent, and how time is the underlining mechanism that links and governs them. To accomplish this, we took a step back and reanalyzed the nature of time, which subsequently led us to an undeniable conclusion. One that finally reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1286] **viXra:1903.0452 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-01 18:31:42*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 40 Pages. This is a revised version of viXra:19030452

This is the first paper in a two part series on black holes. In this work, we concern ourselves with the event horizon. A second follow-up paper will deal with its internal structure. We hypothesize that black holes are spatial 4-dimensional, steady state, self-contained spheres filled with black-body radiation. As such, the event horizon marks the boundary between two adjacent spaces, 4-D and 3-D, and there, we consider the radiative transfers involving black-body photons. We generalize the Stefan-Boltzmann law assuming that photons can transition between different dimensional spaces, and we can show how for a 3-D/4-D interface, one can only have zero, or net positive, transfer of radiative energy into the black hole. We find that we can predict the temperature just inside the event horizon, on the 4-D side, given the mass, or radius, of the black hole. For an isolated black hole with no radiative heat inflow, we will assume that the temperature, on the outside, is the CMB temperature, T_2=2.725 K. We take into account the full complement of radiative energy, which for a black body will consist of internal energy density, radiative pressure, and entropy density. It is specifically the entropy density which is responsible for the heat flowing in. We also generalize the Young-Laplace equation for a 4-D/3-D interface. We derive an expression for the surface tension, and prove that it is necessarily positive, and finite, for a 4-D/3-D membrane. This is important as it will lead to an inherently positively curved object, which a black hole is. With this surface tension, we can determine the work needed to expand the black hole. We give two formulations, one involving the surface tension directly, and the other involving the coefficient of surface tension. Because two surfaces are expanding, the 4-D and the 3-D surfaces, there are two radiative contributions to the work done, one positive, which assists expansion, and the other negative, which will resist the expansion. The 4-D side promotes expansion whereas the 3-D side hinders it. At the surface itself, we also have gravity, which is the major contribution to the finite surface tension in almost all situations, which we calculate in the second paper. The surface tension depends not only on the size, or mass, of the black hole, but also on the outside surface temperature, quantities which are accessible observationally. Outside surface temperature will also determine inflow. Finally, we develop a “waterfall model” for a black hole, based on what happens at the event horizon. There we find a sharp discontinuity in temperature upon entering the event horizon, from the 3-D side. This is due to the increased surface area in 4-D space, A_R^((4))=2π^2 R^3, versus the 3-D surface area, A_R^((3))=4πR^2. This leads to much reduced radiative pressures, internal energy densities, and total energy densities just inside the event horizon. All quantities are explicitly calculated in terms of the outside surface temperature, and size of a black hole. Any net radiative heat inflow into the black hole, if it is non-zero, is restricted by the condition that, 0<1/c dQ/dt<4 F_R^((3)), where, F_R^((3)), is the 3-D radiative force applied to the event horizon, pushing it in. We argue throughout this paper that a 3-D/3-D interface would not have the same desirable characteristics as a 4-D/3-D interface. This includes allowing for only zero or net positive heat inflow into the black hole, an inherently positive finite radiative surface tension, much reduced temperatures just inside the event horizon, and limits on inflow.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1285] **viXra:1903.0451 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-03 11:42:46*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 54 Pages. This is a revised version of viXra:19030451

A black hole is treated as a self-contained, steady state, spherically symmetric, 4-dimensional spatial ball filled with blackbody radiation, which is embedded in 3-D space. To model the interior distribution of radiation, we invoke two stellar-like equations, generalized to 4-D space, and a probability distribution function (pdf) for the actual radiative mass distribution within its interior. For our purposes we choose a truncated Gaussian distribution, although other pdf’s with support, r ϵ [0,R], are possible. The variable, r=r^((4)), refers to the 4-D radius within the black hole. To fix the coefficients, (μ,σ), associated with this distribution, we choose the mode to equal zero, which will give maximum energy density at the center of the black hole. This fixes the parameter, μ=0. Our black hole does not have a singularity at the center, and, moreover, it is well-behaved within its volume. The rip or tear in the space-time continuum occurs at the event horizon, as shown in a previous work, because it is there that we transition from 3-D space to 4-D space. For the shape parameter, σ, we make use of the temperature just inside the event horizon, which is determined by the mass, or radius, of the black hole. The amount of radiative heat inflow depends on mass, or radius, and temperature, T_2≥2.725 K, where, T_2 , is the temperature just outside the event horizon. Among the interesting consequences of this model is that the entropy, S^((4)), can be calculated as an extrinsic, versus intrinsic, variable, albeit in 4-D space. It is found that S^((4)) is much less than the comparable Bekenstein result. It also scales not as, R^2, where R is the radius of the black hole. Rather, it is given by an expression involving the lower incomplete gamma function, γ(s,x), and interestingly, scales with a more complicated function of radius. Thus, within our framework, the black hole is a highly-ordered state, in sharp contrast to current consensus. Moreover, the model-dependent gravitational “constant” in 4-D space, G_r^((4)), can be determined, and this will depend on radius. For the specific pdf chosen, G_r^((4)) M_r=.1〖 c〗^2 (r^4/σ^2), where M_r is the enclosed radiative mass of the black hole, up to, and including, radius r. At the event horizon, where, r=R, this reduces to G_R^((4))=.2 G〖 R〗^3/σ^2, due to the Schwarzschild relation between mass and radius. The quantity, G, is Newton’s constant. There is a sharp discontinuity in gravitational strength at the 3-D/4-D interface, identified as the event horizon, which we show. The 3-D and 4-D gravitational potentials, however, can be made to match at the interface. This lines up with previous work done by the author where a discontinuity between 3-D and 4-D quantities is required in order to properly define a positive-definite radiative surface tension at the event horizon. We generalize Gauss’ law in 4-D space as this will enable us to find the strength of gravity at any radius within the spherically symmetric, 4-D black hole. For the pdf chosen, g_r^((4))=G_r^((4)) M_r/r^3=.1 c^2 r/σ^2, a remarkably simple and elegant result. Finally, we show that the work required to assemble the black hole against radiative pressure, which pushes out, is equal to, .1 M_R c^2. This factor of .1 is specific to 4-D space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1284] **viXra:1903.0447 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-09 03:47:22*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Quantum FFF Theory is based on a new string particle model called “rigid transformable
string”, which is able to generate topologies of all possible sub quantum particles, needed to fill a supersymmetric standard model and beyond.
The mother particle is called “Axion Higgs” and has the form of a ring, able to rotate
internally by three hinges into electron and positron propeller shapes, into 1x Graviton, 5x
monopole Photons or Gluons and 6x Neutrinos.
The Axion Higgs ring particle is assumed to fill all space with an oscillating chiral tetrahedral
Planck lattice, inside all Universal bubbles of the raspberry shaped multiverse.
Most Leptons and Quarks are assumed to be complex knots of one or more propeller
electron/positrons combined with one or more Gluon/Photons.
Black hole nuclei are assumed to be complex particle knots with the 123.5 to 375 GeV Higgs
bosons as unstable base adding up to stable nuclei of Super Massive Black Holes located in
the Galaxy centers and at the end adding up to the Big Crunch black hole nucleus.
At all black hole horizon shells, the oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum is forced by collision to
create Electron Positron pairs. The chirality of the vacuum lattice seems to be the origin of the natural creation of positive charged Quark knots leaving the negative singular Electrons apart in an external shell, which is assumed to be the reason that all black holes ( inside our material universe) are negative charged.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1283] **viXra:1903.0447 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-05 05:07:01*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Quantum FFF Theory is based on a new string particle model called “rigid transformable string”, which is able to generate topologies of all possible sub quantum particles, needed to fill a supersymmetric standard model and beyond.
The mother particle is called “Axion Higgs” and has the form of a ring, able to rotate internally by three hinges into electron and positron propeller shapes, into 1x Graviton, 5x monopole Photons or Gluons and 6x Neutrinos.
The Axion Higgs ring particle is assumed to fill all space with an oscillating chiral tetrahedral Planck lattice, inside all Universal bubbles of the raspberry shaped multiverse.
Most Leptons and Quarks are assumed to be complex knots of one or more propeller electron/positrons combined with one or more Gluon/Photons.
Black hole nuclei are assumed to be complex particle knots with the 123.5 to 375 GeV Higgs bosons as unstable base adding up to stable nuclei of Super Massive Black Holes located in the Galaxy centers and at the end adding up to the Big Crunch black hole nucleus.
At all black hole horizon shells, the oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum is forced by collision to create Electron Positron pairs. The chirality of the vacuum lattice seems to be the origin of the natural creation of positive charged Quark knots leaving the negative singular Electrons apart in an external shell, which is assumed to be the reason that all black holes ( inside our material universe) are negative charged.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1282] **viXra:1903.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-25 22:39:31*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Submitted to Phys. Letts. B

After a brief review of the thermal relativistic $corrections$ to the Schwarzschild black hole entropy, it is shown how
the Stefan-Boltzman law furnishes large modifications to the evaporation times of Planck-size mini-black holes, and which might furnish important clues to the nature of
dark matter and dark energy since one of the novel consequences of thermal relativity is that black holes do $not$ completely evaporate but leave a Planck size remnant.
Equating the expression for the modified entropy (due to thermal relativity corrections) with Wald's entropy
should in principle determine the functional form of the modified gravitational Lagrangian $ {\cal L } (R_{abcd}) $. We proceed to derive the generalized uncertainty relation which corresponds to the effective temperature $ T_{eff} = T_H ( 1 - { T^2_H \over T^2_P } )^{ - 1/2} $ associated with thermal relativity and given in terms of the Hawking ($T_H$) and Planck ($T_P$) temperature, respectively. Such modified uncertainty relation agrees with the one provided by string theory up to first
order in the expansion in powers of $ { (\delta p)^2 \over M^2_P} $. Both lead to a minimal length (Planck size) uncertainty. Finally, an explicit analytical expression is found for the modifications to the purely thermal spectrum of Hawking radiation which could cast some light into the resolution of the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1281] **viXra:1903.0253 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-17 15:32:46*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Corrected location of equal sign.

Granular Spacetime Sphere Theory predicts that our universe is a sphere made of spheres. This theory is taken down to its roots and shows that the universe starts with what could be labeled a quasi-point particle and builds it up to a multiverse. The theory can now be used to predict a gravitational constant of G=6.674379282299*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}This is in line with the low sigma measurements of 6.674184 *10^{-11} [6]6.674484*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}[6] 6.67433*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}[7] and the UZur-06 measurement of 6.67425*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2} This value obtained in this paper affirms the values shown in the Nature Article “Measurements of the gravitational constant using two independent methods” and it affirms that there really was no big bang and the universe is actually rotating and the size is limited by the outer edge not being able to move faster than the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1280] **viXra:1903.0253 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-16 15:24:10*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Granular Spacetime Sphere Theory predicts that our universe is a sphere made of spheres. This theory is taken down to its roots and shows that the universe starts with what could be labeled a quasi-point particle and builds it up to a multiverse. The theory can now be used to predict a gravitational constant of G=6.674379282299*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}This is in line with the low sigma measurements of 6.674184 *10^{-11} [6]6.674484*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}[6] 6.67433*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}[7] and the UZur-06 measurement of 6.67425*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2} This value obtained in this paper affirms the values shown in the Nature Article “Measurements of the gravitational constant using two independent methods” and it affirms that there really was no big bang and the universe is actually rotating and the size is limited by the outer edge not being able to move faster than the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1279] **viXra:1903.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-17 15:35:37*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Granular Spacetime Sphere Theory predicts that our universe is a sphere made of spheres. This theory is taken down to its roots and shows that the universe starts with what could be labeled a quasi-point particle and builds it up to a multiverse. This paper shows that the gravitational constant can be predicted by a rotating universe and thus disproves the Big Bang Theory. This paper shows that the size of the universe is limited by the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1278] **viXra:1903.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-16 15:21:24*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Granular Spacetime Sphere Theory predicts that our universe is a sphere made of spheres. This theory is taken down to its roots and shows that the universe starts with what could be labeled a quasi-point particle and builds it up to a multiverse. This paper shows that the gravitational constant can be predicted by a rotating universe and thus disproves the Big Bang Theory. This paper shows that the size of the universe is limited by the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1277] **viXra:1903.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-29 21:45:38*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 220 Pages.

For the first time in mankind, *Universal* and *Unified Field Theory* is philosophically, mathematically and empirically revealed the workings of *Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. *The nature of the universe has its *Event Operations* ontologically and systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric commutations progressively at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

*Principles of Natural Philosophy and Universal Topology**Framework of Contravariant and Covariant Manifolds**World Equations and Universal Field Equations**Boost Transform and Torque Transport Generators**Horizon Hierarchy of World Plane and Spacetime**Gauge Invariance and Quantum Chromodynamics**Fluxions of Symmetric Scalar and Vector Potentials**Thermodynamics, Dark Energy and Blackbody Radiation**Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Gravitation**Fundamentals of Weak, Strong and Spontaneous Forces**Asymmetric Dynamics and General Relativity**Cosmological Field Equations**Superphase Evolutions of Ontology*

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from *Newtonian* to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - *Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Reality*.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary, this manuscript completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics.