**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(6) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(6) - 1111(10) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(8) - 1202(10) - 1203(12) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(8) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(15) - 1305(12) - 1306(8) - 1307(11) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(6) - 1311(14) - 1312(12)

2014 - 1401(15) - 1402(12) - 1403(14) - 1404(6) - 1405(14) - 1406(12) - 1407(16) - 1408(12) - 1409(18) - 1410(18) - 1411(19) - 1412(16)

2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(15) - 1503(17) - 1504(11) - 1505(17) - 1506(15) - 1507(20) - 1508(17) - 1509(19) - 1510(31) - 1511(20)

Any replacements are listed further down

[852] **viXra:1511.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 10:41:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A collision of two very big pieces of space leads to the initial conditions for the inflation field and next to the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal inflation field (i.e. of the superluminal Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating tachyons) so there appear different scales. Due to the inflation, there appear two boundaries of our Cosmos that cause that the basic physical constants are invariant. The fourth phase transition of the Higgs field, described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, leads to the cosmological structures (protoworlds) which appeared in our Cosmos after the inflation. Evolution of the protoworlds leads to the dark matter, dark energy, and expanding universes - the three components of a universe consist of the components of the luminal Einstein spacetime that appeared during the inflation (the components are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The inflows of the dark matter and dark energy into the baryonic matter cause the exits of the universes from their black-hole state. To describe correctly dynamics of an expanding universe, we must know that the speed of light in “vacuum” c, is the speed in relation to source or in relation to a last-interaction object/detector - it follows from the superluminal quantum entanglement. Such cosmological dynamics shows that the Universe is 21.614 Gyr old but we can see only the last period 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr of evolution of the galaxies. Moreover, the last period is the time distance, not the spatial distance that is equal to about 4.971 Gyr only. Among many other things, we calculated the abundances of the dark matter, dark energy and the baryonic matter, Hubble constant, number of CMB photons, we described the origin of the large-scale structure of the Universe, the anisotropy power for the CMB radiation, and the standard ruler in cosmology, we calculated as well the ratio of B-modes to E-modes and abundance of helium and hydrogen.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[851] **viXra:1511.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 15:20:32*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 44 Pages. Chongqing University presentation made in front of officials from the Chinese academy of sciences, in November 17, 2015

How Plasma Fusion Burning makes
possible GW analysis in place of only
using Electric Fields in Plasma’s

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[850] **viXra:1511.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 20:33:11*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Do time and space exist because there exist mathematical structures that determine the empirical facts about physics? Does time exist because 2^46 divides the order of the monster group? Does space exist because 3^20 divides the order of the monster group? This brief communications offers speculation concerning string theory and a possible unified theory of mathematics, theoretical physics, and theoretical computer science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[849] **viXra:1511.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 04:15:05*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Here we showed that the non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is the lacking part of Theory of Everything (ToE). General Relativity (GR) leads to the Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating tachyons. Due to the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal Higgs field, there appear different scales - it is the foundations of the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Theories of three scales are dual i.e. ratios of physical quantities in these scales concerning the same mechanisms, have the same values. Due to the succeeding phase transitions, there appear the binary systems of superluminal closed strings (i.e. the entanglons that are responsible for the quantum entanglement), neutrinos and neutrino-antineutrino pairs the luminal Einstein spacetime consists of, cores of baryons, and cores of cosmic structures (the cores of protoworlds) that evolution leads to dark matter, dark energy, and to the expanding universes. There appear three additional interactions i.e. viscosity of tachyons, superluminal linear quantum entanglement, and volumetric confinement. There appears the four-particle symmetry that solves many problems. Here as well we described the internal dynamics of baryons that leads to the atom-like structure of baryons and next to mesons and to the composite Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV. Among many other things, we described symmetries and laws of conservation that result from the initial parameters, we calculated the physical constants from initial conditions, coupling constants, running coupling for nuclear strong interactions and masses of quarks. Due to the superluminal Higgs field, the neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. Theoretical results are much better than results obtained within Standard Model. We apply 7 parameters only and very simple mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[848] **viXra:1511.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:03:44*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Anthropic Multiverse cosmology in 12 ‘continuous-state’ dimensions. The paradigm with many new parameters is cast in a scale-invariant conformal covariant Dirac polarized vacuum utilizing extended HD forms of the de Broglie-Bohm and Cramer interpretations of quantum theory. The model utilizes a unique form of M-Theory based in part on the original hadronic form of string theory that had a variable string tension, TS and included a tachyon. The model is experimentally testable, thus putatively able to demonstrate the existence of large-scale additional dimensionality (LSXD), test for QED violating tight-bound state spectral lines in hydrogen ‘below’ the lowest Bohr orbit, and surmount the quantum uncertainty principle utilizing a hyperincursive Sagnac Effect resonance hierarchy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[847] **viXra:1511.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 16:25:39*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 32 Pages. This is a new gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale. I discovered the graviton: the impulse of the graviton, the energy of the graviton, the speed of the graviton, the frequency of the graviton and the mass of the graviton.

I explained Gravitation with quantum mechanics; this means all four fundamental forces acting on the atomic scale are described with quantum mechanics.
I found another wall, the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall.
The single graviton state is an eigenstate of H and the corresponding energy is aν.
I replaced Max Planck equation E = h × f with the Ferent equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f
I discovered the impulse of the graviton: p = a / λ
I replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Δp × Δx ≥ h / 4π with Ferent Uncertainty Principle: Δp × Δx ≥ a
In my view the electromagnetic wave is the superposition of 3 sinusoids, because the photon has relativistic mass and travels with a coupled graviton.
The graviton has negative impulse, negative mass and negative energy.
I am the first who understood and explained that the gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep the constellations and the galaxy together. I explained the gravitation with the speed of the gravitons bigger than the speed of light.
I calculated the volume of the universe at Planck wall and the volume of the universe at Ferent wall.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[846] **viXra:1511.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 17:55:40*

**Authors:** Fermin Aldabe

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The U (1) × SO(4) covariant derivative produces an action where the SO(4) generators do not commute with the Dirac matrices because the generators themselves are constructed from those matrices. This yields additional interactions absent in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang Mills theories. The contributions from these interactions produce T-matrix elements consistent with the Newtonian and post Newtonian interactions found in the low energy limit of classical general relativity theory for both matter-matter and matter-photon interactions. The theory here proposed not only reproduces the observed experimental results of general relativity, but it is also renormalizable and more importantly it can be coupled to the standard model in a trivial way. Thus, SO(4) × SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) Yang Mills best describes all
interactions in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[845] **viXra:1511.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 10:34:45*

**Authors:** Cesar Alcalde Blanco

**Comments:** 28 Pages. the article is written in spanish

This article discusses the theory formulated by the Polish physicist Theodor
Kaluza in 1919.
In this theory, it generalized Kaluza's equations of general relativity
four spatial dimensions (rather than the three we know), obtaining
results in the symmetry associated with freedom of movement
He allowed the new dimension caused the existence of a force field like
the electromagnetic, thus unifying the gravitational fields
and electromagnetic.
This theory, later improved by the Swedish mathematician Oskar Klein, had a
serious defect that ultimately was the cause of it fell into oblivion, and it was
it lacked an explanation of the origin of that extra dimension as well
and the fact that we can not see or feel it.
In this article, through the formulation of the Theory of Fluctuations
Spontaneous, I try to give an explanation of the genesis of this dimension,
and see how this new dimension, hitherto neglected, is
essential to unify and understand concepts such as the origin of mass,
electric charge, acceleration, expansion of the universe, energy
dark, the unification of the four fundamental forces, etc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[844] **viXra:1511.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 13:03:20*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown here that the incidence of sonic waves on a solid can reduce its gravitational mass. This effect is more relevant in the case of the Aerogels, in which it is possible strongly reduce their gravitational masses by using sonic waves of low frequency.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[843] **viXra:1511.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 08:11:23*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I propose a phenomenological model for the radiation of black holes. The radiation consists of thermal Hawking radiation and a leptonic component which is a consequence of quantum number neutralization assuming the no-hair theorem. The latter component grows relatively stronger with increasing black hole mass and can be tested in principle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[842] **viXra:1511.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 07:33:22*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

I raise some issues when one combines the dynamical causal sequential growth dynamics with the static approach towards quantum ﬁeld theory. A proper understanding of these points is mandatory before one attempts to unite both approaches. The conclusions we draw however appear to transcend causal set theory and apply to any theory of spacetime and matter which involves topology change.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[841] **viXra:1511.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-15 12:19:43*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Roger Penrose believed that the collapse of the wave function is associated with gravity and the Schrödinger equation is modified as nonlinear. Here the result is obtained that at the Planck scale is not met the principle of superposition and is given a physical nature of the wave function in the form of a soliton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[840] **viXra:1511.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 05:43:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Further evidence is provided why a $ Cl ( 5, C ) $ gauge field theory in four dimensions furnishes the $simplest$ Grand Unification model of Gravity and the Standard Model.
In essence we have four copies of $ Cl ( 4, R )$, one copy per each axis-direction in our observed $ D = 4$-dim spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[839] **viXra:1511.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 14:08:44*

**Authors:** Zanyar Mohammadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The way human beings have thought shows that any being has propelled himself/herself to the intellectual challenges by the issue of the universe reality in such a way that its results have led to introducing some theories and rules as the standard model for the universe. So far, some remarkable advancement has been made that clarifies the truth and nature of everything. Having been presented theoretically, the accuracy or inaccuracy of these issues has been declared by contributing them in practical events.
Nowadays, having examined the structure within the particlesand the fission within atoms, other particles such as Quarks that are known as the minimal possible level so far have been discovered. This minimal level of particles and the irregularity among them came up with ambiguous or vague observations as it could be expected. To overcome these ambiguities, an algorithm has been merely introduced theoretically and in some cases practically by some theories such as M Reference Theory, Superstring Theory, or the principles of the standard model for the fundamental concepts of the universe. By taking the advancements on the area into consideration and also by referring to Peter Ware Higgs' theory; assuming that there is a particle called Higgs' particle which links or describes whatsoever exists in the universe under a cosmos wide field as a carrier for particles and the interaction among them, stating that it is the contrast or mutuality that gives mass and meaning to everything. From the 1970s, it has been struggled to find out the Higgs' particle by investing a lot on this area so that the major nature of the universe can be determined.
According to the aforementioned issues, the following question can be proposed:
Is what is considered as space-time [the universe] nowadays the true understanding of this concept regarding the Theoretical Physics or there might be something else?
The present study attempts to discuss the concepts in another viewpoint using synthetic subjects which are different from the current theoretical ones; seeking to provide an acceptable idea to shed some light to the field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[838] **viXra:1511.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 01:45:26*

**Authors:** Sudhanva s joshi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Its my first research paper.hoping to find a solution for theory of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[837] **viXra:1511.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 16:41:11*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook, Stanley G. Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Emails of more detailed discussion with the associate editor of Physical Review Letters on 22 January 2003 over the mechanism of gravity (see http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0012 for brief summary or http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0111 and related uploads to vixra for more detail). Once specious and otherwise false claims by Physical Review Letters are omitted, we are left with an email from the associate editor Richard Price which arrogantly and ignorantly declares: "You are
proposing a very nonstandard mechanism for gravity ... Your mechanism/model is highly nonstandard and, as such, needs very thorough justification. Physical Review Letters is not the appropriate journal for such a presentation." This last sentence basically terminates any possibility of publishing the facts in the PRL, regardless of the thoroughness of the presentation, because they state that the journal is not the place for a scientific revolution based on proved facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[836] **viXra:1511.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 16:23:05*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook, Stanley G. Brown

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Email discussion with the editor of Physical Review Letters on 2 January 2003 over the mechanism of gravity (see http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0012 for brief summary or http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0111 and related uploads to vixra for more detail). Notice that Stanley G. Brown, editor of PRL, makes a large number of unproved, misleading, speculative and false assertions in failing to publish the paper (which he falsely claims is speculative, suggesting he has not read it or checked the calculations made) and begins with the assertion that I have a doctorate, which is incorrect and proves that even my covering letter letter has not been read. When you exclude all the incorrect statements made by Stanley G. Brown, you are left with merely "Physical Review Letters does not, in general, publish papers on alternatives to currently accepted theories ..." This tells you a lot about the stagnation of quantum gravity in "peer" reviewed journals since 2003. These people are proved ignorant by their replies, and do not even read the letters to see whether authors have a PhD or not. So, given that error, why trust their judgement to censor the paper itself? There was a further exchange of emails with the associate editor over a longer period, in which the associate editor correctly called the mechanism "an extremely non-standard theory", but it turned out that instead of praising the new idea for its accurate prediction of the amount of dark energy two years before observation, what he really meant was that he only wanted spin-2 superstring theories of the failed Edward Witten variety that did not predict the observed dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[835] **viXra:1511.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 07:49:45*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

On a previous paper (see http://viXra.org/abs/1505.0211), the inductive-inertial G phenomenon is developed, which is a precondition to create E/M waves, while the cause for the creation of E/M formations is the Γ phenomenon, namely the rotary oscillations of the electron.
So, the creation of E/M waves is interpreted as photons at the emission and absorption in the atomic orbitals, while the Compton scattering is interpreted, as a result of the absorption inability of the high energy photons from the electron.
Also, the emission of neutrinos and antineutrinos is interpreted as independent E/M formations, which are created when a neutron breaks down into a proton and an electron (beta decay). Specifically, at the contact limits of the neutron quarks, due to the acceleration of the surface charges of the neutron cortex (see http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097), the adjacent opposite units are accelerated strongly, causing grouping units (G phenomenon) outside the neutron cortex, as an E/M wave of one spindle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[834] **viXra:1511.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 01:52:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We examine what Padmanabhan presented in an exercise as of a linkage to (Electromagnetic) E and M fields with Gravitation. The modifications we bring up take the nonrelativistic approximation as the beginning of an order of magnitude estimate as to gravitons, E and M fields, and are by definition linked to the total angular momentum of an initial configuration of ‘particles’ of space-time import. The innovation put into Padmanbhan’/s calculation is to for total mass M, used, to substitute in M ~ N(gravitons) times m(g), where m(g) is about 10^-62 grams, as well as specify distances, for the object spinning as being about Planck length in size, give or take a few orders of magnitude. The results are by definition very crude, and do not take into account relativistic effects, but are probably within an order of magnitude important comparisons

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[833] **viXra:1511.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 06:00:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we describe the origin of the inflation field, we give the reasons for non-existence of higher spatial dimensions (there appear additional degrees of freedom that have nothing with additional spatial dimensions), and we point the limitations for General Relativity that follow from wrongly understood internal structure of gravitational fields (gravitons and gravitational waves are not in existence).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[832] **viXra:1510.0508 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-30 12:58:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed how are unified the particle physics and mental world within the Einstein spacetime which is composed of the luminal neutrino-antineutrino pairs and neutrinos. The neutrino-antineutrino pairs in the Einstein spacetime can interact gravitationally only (it concerns the ground state of the Einstein spacetime and the dark energy) or can be entangled (they are the dark-matter structures; the mental solitons are the dark-matter structures as well). The dark matter structures can be entangled with ordinary matter. Due to the internal structure of neutrinos, the neutrino-antineutrino pairs cannot annihilate. On such basis, we present the difference between the simulating computers and mental computers. Mental computers need senses and must produce mental solitons via their nervous system, not via algorithms which are used in the simulating computers but, of course, we can use algorithms additionally (the hybrid computers). Creativeness is even not probabilistic so it cannot be simulated via algorithms i.e. cannot be controlled. Here as well we showed that linear structures composed of entangled neutrinos are the precursors of DNAs.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[831] **viXra:1510.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 18:09:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Needs a home to be based in

We will be looking at the energy of a graviton, based upon the Stress energy tensor, and from there ascertaining how fluctuations in early universe conditions impact the mass of a graviton. Physically the mass of the graviton would be shrinking right after Planck time and presumably it would be going to its equilibrium value of about 10^-62 grams, for its present day value. It, graviton mass, would increase up to the Plank time of about 10^-44 seconds.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[830] **viXra:1510.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 11:44:05*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper shows that the space- time foam gives a contribution to the vacuum energy density as mean quadratic form curvature geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[829] **viXra:1510.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:15:56*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The search for an all comprehensive Theory of Everything unifying the four fundamental forces described by Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity has always been an elusive one. Among the plethora of theories including Superstring Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity proposed in recent years, the present article focuses on the E8 Theory of Everything. After a brief overview on the underlying principles of this theory, the principles of “Metahomeomorphism” and Quantum Computation are explored to represent the 8D Charge space of the E8 Theory using a 3 Qubit system. A Chaos Theory based interpretation of Quantum Mechanics is then proposed, to represent the 3 qubits as three chaotic signals. The result is an extension of the E8 theory, termed the Chaotic Quantum Information based E8 Theory of Everything (CQIE8ToE). The physical interpretation of this theory is explored along with particle creation and particle interaction formulations. While the validation of the E8 Theory await experimental evidence, the principles of metahomeomorphism, quantum computation and subsequently the CQIE8ToE ensure that any representation of a unified theory in a Lie Group based on a charge space yields to the elegant merging of Relativity, Quantum Physics, Particle Physics and Chaos Theory, into a simple yet effective World-View.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[828] **viXra:1510.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 01:18:11*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Thought experiment

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of time, and .of comparing a general formula of a cosmological Potential energy as given by Padmanbhan, with Weinberg’s Quintessence Potential energy . Isolating a given time component which may serve as an introduction, to a discussion which isolates a value of about 10^32 Hz for Pre Planckian value generated GW, which would drop about 22 orders of magnitude in the present era.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[827] **viXra:1510.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 10:29:07*

**Authors:** Jacques Consiglio

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

Here we show that free parameters are inexistent in physics; their values are geometrical. This result originates in a resonance concept in absorber theory. The conceptual leap is that we do consider energy in all forms as a composite resonance process involving only currents.
We first address the mass and coupling parameters of the standard model of particles physics, deduce their origin, their form, and the valid resonances from group theory arguments and geometry; then we show the coherence of the mass spectrum with the predictions and we compute the fine structure constant from geometry and SU(2). We also address the CKM and PMNS matrices, and show that they come from the same resonances.
Next we show how gravitation comes from the absorber and we end-up with a complete reversal in concepts; we find that the origin of energy and gravitation is linear cosmos expansion. The link with quantum physics is rather trivial and it first shows that the wave is momentum. The resulting gravitational force gives an acceleration H c at galaxies borders but not in the solar system; it is compatible with the absence of dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[826] **viXra:1510.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 04:28:01*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Mod. Phys. A

Accelerated strings in tangent bundle backgrounds are studied in further detail than it has been done in the past. The worldsheet associated with the accelerated open string described in this work envisages a continuum family of worldlines of accelerated points. It is when one embeds the two-dim string worldsheet into the tangent bundle $ TM$ background (associated with a uniformly accelerated observer in spacetime) that the effects of the maximal acceleration are manifested The induced worldsheet metric as a result of this embedding has a $null$ horizon. It is the presence of this null horizon that limits the acceleration values of the points inside string. If the string crosses the null horizon some of its points will exceed the maximal acceleration value and that portion of the string will become causally disconnected from the rest of string outside the horizon. It is explained why our results differ from those in the literature pertaining the maximal acceleration modifications of the Rindler metric. We also find a modified Rindler metric which has a true curvature singularity at the location of the null horizon due to a finite maximal acceleration. One of the salient features of studying the geometry of the tangent bundle is that the underlying spacetime geometry becomes $observer ~dependent$ as Gibbons and Hawking envisioned long ago. We conclude with some remarks
about generalized QFT in accelerated frames and the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[825] **viXra:1510.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 22:36:18*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Will find an appropriate journal for it in the next several weeks

We will from first principles examine what adding acceleration does, and will not do as to the HUP previously derived. In doing so we will be examining a Friedmann equation for the evolution of the scale factor, using explicitly two cases, one case being when the acceleration of expansion of the scale factor is kept in, another when it is out, and the intermediate cases of when the acceleration factor, and the scale factor is important but not dominant. In doing so we will be tying it in our discussion with the earlier work done on the HUP. The ratio of 2nd derivative of a (time derivative), divided by a (a is a scale factor) set equal to zero would mean that the ratio of the 1st derivative of a (time derivative) divided by a could have complex solution roots, whereas the ration of the 2nd derivative of a (time derivative) divided by a with a, the scale factor as a ration not equal to zero, but constant, and large would frequently imply the first time derivative of a divided by a would have three dissimilar real valued roots. From the sake of physical analysis, the situation with not equal to zero yields more tractable result for which will have implications for the HUP inequality

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[824] **viXra:1510.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 13:49:59*

**Authors:** Wayne R. Lundberg

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Presentation at the DPF 2015 Meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields, Ann Arbor, Michigan, August 4-8, 2015.

The No-Boundary Wave Function (NBWF) instanton formulation provides a particle theory basis due to its consistency with causality and cosmology. Terms of the NBWF instanton action are identified with intrinsic metrics of finite-dimensional particle theory. This approach yields a new type of finitary particle theory, in which the string (or finite graviton) is replaced with band representation geometry. A band is simply the well-known string with an intrinsic stiffness. Representation geometric metrics of area and curvature are thus intrinsic descriptors of particle mass and energy. The ground states of a band are inherently tripartite (having three portions), which motivates assignment of QCD color local gauge fields to portions of the band. For completeness, band-theoretic representation requires a quantum state algebra. A quantum state algebra that is one-to-one with standard model particle theory was sought -and found. The band theory quantum state algebra is a subgroup of index 12 of a cross product of two wreath products. A subgroup of this unique non-commutative algebra has proven to be 1-1 with standard model QCD particles, via its fundamental tie to preons. Further, band theory produces _exactly_ three particle generations (or families or flavors). Three flavors of neutrinos are thus predicted by a well-founded particle formulation, which is qualitatively consistent with observations of massive oscillating neutrinos.
Band theory is the particulate portion of a comprehensive theory, which includes cyclic cosmology. Cyclic cosmology has been demonstrated to have no cosmological coincidence problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[823] **viXra:1510.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 07:40:34*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

. We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, with statistical inference based on Ha’s presentation in the ICGC2011 meeting. We conclude with work akin to what Mukhanov worked with in early Universe cosmology in terms of in terms of leading to an initial time step of the order of Planck time, as opposed to the GR equation which postulates time set at t = 0 initially. We then compare this to when delta g(tt) times delta T(time component of energy stress tensor) = h bar / volume

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[822] **viXra:1510.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 05:22:51*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Simple geometric algebra, logarithmic functions and equations will be used in the paper to present new quantum gravity aspects such as: curving and expansion of the space-time continuum and subsequently the acceleration of the expansion, dark matter, dark energy and that particles known as “gravitons” are a quantum of dark matter as well as relations of dimensions of space and the dimension of time regarding space-time curving and its expansion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[821] **viXra:1510.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 07:09:37*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A second entry into the Entropy on line conference. May or may not be accepted

We initially look at a nonsingular universe representation of Entropy, based in
part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto. This is a gateway to bringing up
information and computational steps ( as defined by Seth Lloyd) as to what would be
available initially due to a modified ZPE formalism. The ZPE formalism is modified as due
to Matt Vissers’s alternation k(maximum) ~ 1/(Planck length), with a specific initial
density giving rise to initial information content which may permit fixing the initial
Planck’s constant, h, which is pivotal to the setting of physical law . This would be in the
spirit of Christi Stoica’s removal of initial conditions of non pathological initial starting
points in Cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[820] **viXra:1510.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-21 06:17:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present the next incorrect mainstream views. The very short remarks and justifications concern the glueballs, oscillations of neutrinos, and quantization. We answered following questions. Is it true that glueballs, i.e. the condensates of gluons, are created purely from nuclear strong force? It is suggested that neutrinos can spontaneously change their internal structure. Are the observed oscillations of neutrinos the forbidden transformations as it is in the mainstream theory or they are the allowed exchanges and decays of neutrinos that result from correctly described within SST the internal structure of spacetime? Why the methods of quantization of classical mechanics applied in the Standard Model do not lead to precise mass, spin, and muon radius of nucleons or to masses of quarks?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[819] **viXra:1510.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-20 14:37:38*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** 19 pages

Quantum gravity, dark matter and dark energy have here been modelled using Hexark and Preon Model #7. Catalyst bosons stimulate a force exchange between fermions and/or between bosons. The photon, Z and gluon form a family of three generations. There are separate families of generations of higgs, W, dark boson and also the graviton. The third generation gluon, higgs, dark and graviton are all coloured in a similar way. Gravitons are in three generations. Gravitational QCD acts as an extremely weak third generation version of QCD while Gravitational QED acts as a weak first generation copy of QED. There is also a gravitational weak force which very weakly mimics the second generation Z force. Dark matter is a third generation dark boson as also is the higgs boson. Gravity is not wholly attractive but the coloured graviton (third generation) is a mainly attractive and dominant Gravitational QCD force on an intergalactic scale, as the strong force is a dominant attractive force within an atomic nucleus. The relative weakness of the gravitational force enables an attractive dominance to extend over a huge domain, but not an unlimited extent. The first generation gravitons enable a repulsive force to dominate outside the sphere of the attractive third generation graviton, just as the first generation photon enables different nuclei to repel one other electromagnetically. This first generation gravitational QED force gives rise, at a very large distance away, to dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[818] **viXra:1510.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-20 04:29:30*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. It has to find a home. So be it.

We look at what may occur if Boltzmann equations, as presented by Muramaya in 2007, Les Houches, are applied to graviton density in a pre Planckian universe setting. Two restrictions are in order. First of all, we are assuming a graviton mass on the order of 10^-62 grams, as if the pre Planckian regime does not change the nature of Graviton mass, in its low end.. Secondly, we are also assuming that a comparatively low temperature regime (far below the Planckian temperature) exist . Secondly we are leaving unsaid what may happen if Gravitational waves enter the Planck regime of ultra high temperature. With those two considerations, we proceed to examine a Graviton density value resulting from perturbation from low to higher temperatures. Either cyclic conformal cosmology as ventured by Penrose may be the genesis of a low temperature regime, or a multiverse.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[817] **viXra:1510.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 13:25:35*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We investigate the most general Lagrangian in the Minkowski space for the symmetric tensor field of the second rank.
Then, we apply the Higgs mechanism to provide the mass to the appropriate components.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[816] **viXra:1510.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 10:50:54*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 5 pages. The twelfth paper based on reality

It is proposed that the so-called universal gravitational constant is actually the 'G of Earth' for its present speed. 'G of Earth' can be theoretically deduced from the electrostatic constant, based on the proposed structures of electron, proton and neutron. The deduced value is close to the measured value of G indicating that G depends on the nature of the body and its speed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[815] **viXra:1510.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 17:15:06*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Conference Proceedings Paper – Entropy www.sciforum.net/conference/ecea-2 ; Second international Electronic conference on Entropy; Admissible for the Journal Entropy if chosen by the Judges/

: We will reference entropy as a count of initial gravitons as part of a formulation leading to structure formation in the universe. To do this we use a linkage between gravitation and electrodynamics the author shared with Unnishkan at Rencontres De Moriond (2015). Then we find that a time step minimization procedure given by Peebles (1993) fine tunes an NLED contribution to time step as formulated by Camara et.al. (2004), which the author then links to gravity due to adopting the fifth force formalism of Fishbach et.al, in a (1988) Rencontres De Moriond 5th force – Neutrino physics school. A talk by Fishbach in (2015) Rencontres De Moriond supports using Unnishkan’s linkage of classical gravity with magnetism in a way which the author extends to the problem of not only gravity, but gravitons .Then take a linkage between the number of gravitons, a minimum grid size, and the time evolution of Hubble’s parameter, to ascertain a minimum number of initial gravitons produced, which in turns of Ng’s infinite quantum statistics is a measure of entropy. .As to structure formation, we find that the stronger an early universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/ H, with H early universe Hubble’s constant, per Planck time interval in evolution. The H so obtained is directly from gravitons, and entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[814] **viXra:1510.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-15 03:47:07*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Follow up to calculation of curvature paper, with emphasis upon Kinetic energy being totally dominant in the Pre Inflationary era

Abstract. We use Padmabhan’s “Invitation to Astrophysics” formalism of a scalar field evolution of the early universe, from first principles, to show something which seems counter intuitive. How could , just before inflation, KINETIC energy be larger than potential energy in pre Planckian physics, and what physics mechanism is responsible for the Planckian physics result that Potential energy is far larger than KINETIC energy. This document answers that question, as well as provides a mechanism for the dominance of KINETIC energy in Pre Planckian space-time, as well as its reversal in the Planckian era of cosmology. the KE initially proportional to g times T ^ 4 power , with g the initial degrees of freedom and T the initial temperature just before the onset of inflation. Our key assumption is the smallness of curvature, as given in the first equation, which permits adoption of the Potential energy and Kinetic energy formalism used, in the Planckian and Pre Planckian space-time physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[813] **viXra:1510.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 18:56:28*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Maybe sent to a Journal edited by Dr. Christian Corda. Topic is of interest to both him and myself

Abstract. This document will from first principles delineate the degree of flatness, or deviations from, in early universe models. We will, afterwards, make comparison with recent results we have looked at concerning metric tensor fluctuations and comment upon the role of what early universe gravitational energy may play a role in the presumed deviation from flat space results. Note that N ~ S ~ 10^37 will be tied into the presumed results for initial state density, in ways we will comment upon. Leading to observations as to leading to Eq.(25) of this document as to GW, from relic conditions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[812] **viXra:1510.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 21:42:47*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This is continuation of 1507.0023 with different title and content.

I propose a phenomenological model for the decay of black holes near Planck mass. The decay takes place via a quantum state between general relativity and a grand unified field theory like SO(10). This group is favored also by a no-scale SUGRA GUT model for Starobinsky inflation by other authors.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[811] **viXra:1510.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-13 03:31:19*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Flux particle theory is a complete theory of everything... including Gravity, The four forces and a completely new way to understand the way dimensionality actually works.

It is based solely on irrefutable logic. And although it is easily understandable by anyone, it requires an open mind and a completely new way of thinking.

It uses strings but not the string theory type and everything is easily explained:

WHY THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS "C"

There is a high tension string particle field in space (not the string theory type). Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing). A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual string lengths are approximately one Ångström). Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web.

If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a string particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field strings have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is.

If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

Here is a regular string tension formula... Tension = velocity squared x mass / Length.

If we plug c in and rearrange we get... TL = mc^2

Both sides of the equation are in joules or energy... equivalent to "E".

It means the Tension of the strings in space times their length is equal to their energy.

This is why the speed of light is involved in Einsteins mass energy equivalence equation... E = mc^2 ...and actually why light travels at the speed of light

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[810] **viXra:1510.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-10 19:58:44*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Needs a home to go to. Will find a place for it to be published in

Inter relationships between conditions for perturbation theory being appropriate for a bounce as given by Turok (non zero singularity) and the initiation of quantum effects in cosmology, using ideas from Haggard and Rovelli . The metric tensor uncertainty effect is alluded to as well, with comments as to future research conditions added.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[809] **viXra:1510.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-10 04:17:45*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dimensionality : Are you really three dimensions?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[808] **viXra:1510.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-07 07:49:47*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this work it is shown that it is necessary to modify the schrödinger equation to ensure that it described the collapse of the wave function. The basic idea lies in the fact that the Schrodinger equation is actually nonlinear, considering own gravity a free particle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[807] **viXra:1510.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 22:48:46*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Flux particle theory is a complete theory of everything... including Gravity, The four forces and a completely new way to understand the way dimensionality actually works.

It is based solely on irrefutable logic. And although it is easily understandable by anyone, it requires an open mind and a completely new way of thinking.

It uses strings but not the string theory type and everything is easily explained:

WHY THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS "C"

There is a high tension string particle field in space (not the string theory type). Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing). A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual string lengths are approximately one Ångström). Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web.

If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a string particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field strings have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is.

If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

Here is a regular string tension formula... Tension = velocity squared x mass / Length.

If we plug c in and rearrange we get... TL = mc^2

Both sides of the equation are in joules or energy... equivalent to "E".

It means the Tension of the strings in space times their length is equal to their energy.

This is why the speed of light is involved in Einsteins mass energy equivalence equation... E = mc^2 ...and actually why light travels at the speed of light

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[806] **viXra:1510.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 13:44:25*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work is based on modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of matter by the vacuum. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations (SnIa, SDSS-BAO and reduction of acceleration of the expanding universe). In this theory, there is no Big Bang at the beginning, but some local bangs during the evolution are probable. Also, there is no critical density of the universe and, therefore, no dark energy. Based on exact Gaussian solution for the scale factor, it is shown that an effective age of the universe is about 327 billion years. Production of primary dark matter particles have started 43 billion years later. It is shown that characteristic distance between particles is 30 times smaller than the thermal de Brogle wavelength, so that quantum effects, including formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate, can dominate. "Ordinary" matter was synthesized from dark matter in galaxies. Supplementary exact solutions are obtained for various ranges of parameters. From the theory we get an interface between dark and ordinary matter (IDOM), which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and our brain.
Key words: cosmology; age of the universe; dark matter; interface between dark and ordinary matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[805] **viXra:1510.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 05:34:37*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this work it is shown that it is necessary to modify the schrödinger equation for
to describe the collapse of the wave function. The basic idea lies in the fact that
the Schrodinger equation is actually nonlinear in the scale of the Planck length, where
a significant role is played by gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[804] **viXra:1510.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 04:01:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We know that the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) fails at low energies. For example, within QCD, we cannot calculate precise mass and spin of nucleons. It does not concern the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Moreover, experimental data show that at low energies the effective range parameters for nn, np, and pp scatterings are similar, but different. Why? Here, applying SST, we calculated the effective range parameters for nn (2.732 fm), for np (2.778 fm), and pp (2.824 fm). These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. At low energies, the effective range parameters follow from exchanges of virtual pions (which are responsible for the nuclear strong interactions) and production of the virtual condensates (which are responsible for the nuclear weak interactions at low energies). The condensates insignificantly increase the effective ranges. Just at low energies, the effective range parameters for nucleons follow from their strong-weak interactions described within SST. The obtained here and within SST results show that QCD is the incomplete and partially incorrect theory - the same concerns the electroweak theory at low energies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[803] **viXra:1510.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 23:24:50*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

In the first section of this paper we attempted to show that the fundamental particles can be built from infinite superpositions borrowing mass from a Higgs type scalar field and energy from zero point vector fields. Because zero point fields are limited especially at cosmic wavelengths we attempted to show that this borrowing connects with the warping of spacetime around mass and the expansion of the universe. In the interests of clarity we tried to keep things simple. In this second part we try to fill in those details and correct some errors. We attempt to show that there is a tensor relation between the cosmic wavelength quanta density borrowed and the contracted Ricchi curvature tensor. It does however require a small change to the Schwarzchild metric that has effect close to Black Holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[802] **viXra:1509.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 23:13:09*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 14 Pages. I discovered the graviton: the impulse of the graviton, the energy of the graviton, the speed of the graviton, the frequency of the graviton and the mass of the graviton. That is why my theory is a Quantum Gravity theory.

It is our ultimate task to discover a new quantum theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale and creates a new frontier.
I found another wall, the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall.
I replaced Max Planck equation E = h × f with the Ferent equation for the energy of a photon:
E = h × f + a × f
I discovered the impulse of the graviton: p = a / λ
I replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Δp × Δx ≥ h / 4π with Ferent Uncertainty Principle:
Δp × Δx ≥ a
I discovered a new electromagnetic theory.
The graviton has negative impulse, negative mass and negative energy.
I am the first who understood and explained that the gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep the constellations and the galaxy together. I explained the gravitation with the speed of the gravitons bigger than the speed of light.
The mass of a body, of a system M = m1 + im2 where m1 is the real mass and m2 is the imaginary mass, it is the rest mass of the gravitons.
I calculated the volume of the universe at Planck wall and the volume of the universe at Ferent wall.
My quantum gravity theory shows that the gravitons are too small to be detected by today’s technology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[801] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 00:15:51*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submission to Dr. P. Monitz's section of the Marcel Grossman 14 conference

First principle treatment as to how entropy may be affected by a metric tensor fluctuation, affecting initial temperature as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[800] **viXra:1509.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 04:09:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We are more than ready to hear the plucked strings of space-time. Last Friday, the revamped LIGO took its first observations – a step towards picking up the ripples that Einstein predicted should come from exotic cosmic collisions. [5]
Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[799] **viXra:1509.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 01:56:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The space roar is the unsolved problem in cosmology and particle physics. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that the ARCADE 2 and other literature the space roar for frequencies from 22 MHz to 10 GHz follows from the motion of the very early Universe in relation to the ground state of the luminal Einstein spacetime, follows also from the expansion of the Universe, and from the decays of the quadrupoles of charged pions and of the bottom quark-antiquark pairs into photons. Derived here the excess power-law spectrum in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 +- 0.001 K is consistent with observational data. Here as well we calculated the precise mass of the bottom quark: 4167.58 MeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[798] **viXra:1509.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 07:38:03*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain new results on the estimation of the maximum amount of information in material objects. Is considered for comparison and analysis, the limit of entropy of Bekenstein-Hawking. In the final part of the article derived the formula of the maximum amount of information for any physical system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[797] **viXra:1509.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 01:12:42*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Theory of Everything is The Holy Grail in physics. Physicists and like all over the world have searched the theory for a very long time. Modern day technological advances are finally opening the vast universe in all scales for curious human beings to explore. What we have accomplished is two theoretical platforms, relativity theories and quantum mechanics which are usable in their own domains. Obviously we have done good but we are still missing the theory. Due to all unsuccessful searches for the theory some people have suggested that there won't be such a theory.
Theory of Everything by Illusion 2.0 is based on the good ideas in previous Theory of Everything by Illusion. In an addition, few new ideas have emerged and at the same time few old, not so good, ideas have vanished as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[796] **viXra:1509.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 10:41:58*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published on the General Science Journal on 25th September 2015.

The void space does not have any meaning as itself. The space exists only when a particle (a fermion or a boson) occupies it. This means, if new particles appear in a region of space, the quantity of space increases in that area, creating distortions in that area of space, distortions that we call gravitation. A type of bosons, the photons, transmit the electromagnetic field using their energy. But in parallel, they create new space by its existence itself. If a particle emits photons, apart from the electromagnetic field, creates space by the new space occupied/created by the photons emitted. This new space creates distortions that correspond to gravitation effects. We will see, that the space created by a photon (and any other elemental particle) is related to the Planck length constant. Following the model and using only geometric and electromagnetic calculations we will arrive to the factor Gm/c²r for distortions of space caused by a mass. We will see that this is exactly the factor predicted by the Schwarzschild equation of general relativity. Also, following the model and using only geometric and electromagnetic equations, we will arrive to the factor 1/sqrt{1-(v²/c²)} as the relation between a moving mass and a motionless mass. The same relation predicted by special relativity equations. Besides, the immediate question using this model of how it is possible that particles have different masses and charges will be answered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[795] **viXra:1509.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 05:52:47*

**Authors:** L.A.N. de Paula

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The search for a consistent theory of quantum gravity has motivated the development of radically different approaches. This seeks consists of constructing a mathematical apparatus that encapsulates both concepts of quantum theory and general relativity. However, none approach has been definitive and the problem remains open. As the quantization of the metric is an alternative, this paper shows how a metric operator may be explicitly obtained by introducing a temporal operator, defining an induced metric and invoking some spacetime symmetries. This makes it possible to relate the effective acoustic metric to the model proposed here. The metric operator equations are expressed in terms of a hamiltonian operator describing the degrees of freedom of quantum vaccum whose dynamics gives rise to the metric field. These findings may help understand and study the quantum vacuum at Planck scale, consisting of one more tool for the community working on quantization of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[699] **viXra:1511.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 06:26:10*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Do time and space exist because there exist mathematical structures that determine the empirical facts about physics? Does time exist because 2^46 divides the order of the monster group? Does space exist because 3^20 divides the order of the monster group? This brief communication offers speculation concerning string theory and a possible unified theory of mathematics, theoretical physics, and theoretical computer science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[698] **viXra:1510.0500 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-18 11:01:19*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 612 Pages.

This is a set of 60 selected articles published by Dr. Fran De Aquino along 16 years; all of them developed starting from the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they provide the theoretical foundations for the Technology of Control of the Gravitational Energy. The author is Professor Emeritus of Physics of Maranhao State University, UEMA, and Titular Researcher (R) of National Institute for Space Research, INPE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[697] **viXra:1510.0500 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-17 16:24:00*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 612 Pages.

This is a set of 59 selected articles published by Dr. Fran De Aquino along 16 years; all of them developed starting from the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they provide the theoretical foundations for the Technology of Control of the Gravitational Energy. The author is Professor Emeritus of Physics of Maranhao State University, UEMA, and Titular Researcher (R) of National Institute for Space Research, INPE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[696] **viXra:1510.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-31 19:22:57*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to the IJMPA

Accelerated strings in tangent bundle backgrounds are studied in further detail than it has been done in the past. The worldsheet associated with the accelerated open string described in this work envisages a continuum family of worldlines of accelerated points. It is when one embeds the two-dim string worldsheet into the tangent bundle $ TM$ background (associated with a uniformly accelerated observer in spacetime) that the effects of the maximal acceleration are manifested. The induced worldsheet metric as a result of this embedding has a $null$ horizon. It is the presence of this null horizon that limits the acceleration values of the points inside string. If the string crosses the null horizon some of its points will exceed the maximal acceleration value and that portion of the string will become causally disconnected from the rest of string outside the horizon. It is explained why our results differ from those in the literature pertaining the maximal acceleration modifications of the Rindler metric. We also find a modified Rindler metric which has a true curvature singularity at the location of the null horizon due to a finite maximal acceleration. One of the salient features of studying the geometry of the tangent bundle is that the underlying spacetime geometry becomes $observer ~dependent$ as Gibbons and Hawking envisioned long ago. We conclude with some remarks about generalized QFT in accelerated frames and the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[695] **viXra:1510.0382 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-25 22:15:32*

**Authors:** Wayne R. Lundberg

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 5 figures, Presentation at the DPF 2015 Meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields, Ann Arbor, Michigan, August 4-8, 2015.

The No-Boundary Wave Function (NBWF) instanton formulation provides a particle theory basis due to its consistency with causality and cosmology. Terms of the NBWF instanton action are identified with intrinsic metrics of finite-dimensional particle theory. This approach yields a new type of finitary particle theory, in which the string (or finite graviton) is replaced with band representation geometry. A band is simply the well-known string with an intrinsic stiffness. Representation geometric metrics of area and curvature are thus intrinsic descriptors of particle mass and energy. The ground states of a band are inherently tripartite (having three portions), which motivates assignment of QCD color local gauge fields to portions of the band. For completeness, band-theoretic representation requires a quantum state algebra. A quantum state algebra that is one-to-one with standard model particle theory was sought -and found. The band theory quantum state algebra is a subgroup of index 12 of a cross product of two wreath products. A subgroup of this unique non-commutative algebra has proven to be 1-1 with standard model QCD particles, via its fundamental tie to preons. Further, band theory produces exactly three particle generations (or families or flavors). Three flavors of neutrinos are thus predicted by a well-founded particle formulation, which is qualitatively consistent with observations of massive oscillating neutrinos.
Band theory is the particulate portion of a comprehensive theory, which includes cyclic cosmology. Cyclic cosmology has been demonstrated to have no cosmological coincidence problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[694] **viXra:1510.0350 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-31 06:26:01*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Re done paper after some stupidity which no one could believe possible from the conference organizers of the Entropy conference

We initially look at a nonsingular universe representation of Entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto. This is a gateway to bringing up information and computational steps (as defined by Seth Lloyd) as to what would be available initially due to a modified Zero Point Energy formalism. The Zero Point Energy formalism is modified as due to Matt Vissers’s setting of an angular plane number in early universe cosmology as k(maximum) ~ 1/(Planck length), with a specific initial density giving rise to initial information content which may permit fixing the initial Planck’s constant, h, which is pivotal to the setting of physical law . This would be in the spirit of Christi Stoica’s removal of initial conditions of non-pathological initial starting points in Cosmology. What we want are necessary and sufficient conditions so . We also in addition make a brief survey into 5th force arguments in gravity which also have a strict entropy interpretation. I.e. how to link gravity, quantum mechanics, and E and M through Entropy production.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[693] **viXra:1510.0350 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-23 08:46:39*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Asked by the Entropy conference to explain inputs into the Friedmann equation. Complied, although I thought the request was rediculous

We initially look at a nonsingular universe representation of Entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto. This is a gateway to bringing up information and computational steps (as defined by Seth Lloyd) as to what would be available initially due to a modified Zero Point Energy formalism. The Zero Point Energy formalism is modified as due to Matt Vissers’s setting of an angular plane number in early universe cosmology as k(maximum) ~ 1/(Planck length), with a specific initial density giving rise to initial information content which may permit fixing the initial Planck’s constant, h, which is pivotal to the setting of physical law . This would be in the spirit of Christi Stoica’s removal of initial conditions of non-pathological initial starting points in Cosmology. What we want are necessary and sufficient conditions so hbar(initial value)= hbar(final value)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[692] **viXra:1510.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-17 08:20:21*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Christian Corda likes this version far better, i.e. my earlier one, so this is the one you guys get. Enjoy

This document will from first principles delineate the degree of flatness, or deviations from, in early universe models. We will, afterwards, make comparison with recent results we have looked at concerning metric tensor fluctuations and comment upon the role of what early universe gravitational energy may play a role in the presumed deviation from flat space results. Note that N ~ S ~ 10^37 will be tied into the presumed results for initial state density, in ways we will comment upon. Leading to this document as to GW, we are talking about taking steps to avoid the same mistake as Bicep2 which measured Dust, from Galaxies, i.e. steps to find a frequency of presumed GW different from Inter Galactic dust

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[691] **viXra:1510.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-17 03:58:10*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Responded to a slew of corrections asked for, . Initially 12 pages, this has been cut 3 pages, To 9 pages. Still has the same chapters as the original 12 page document done in the last several hours

This document will from first principles delineate the degree of flatness, or deviations from, in early universe models. We will, afterwards, make comparison with recent results we have looked at concerning metric tensor fluctuations and comment upon the role of what early universe gravitational energy may play a role in the presumed deviation from flat space results. Note that N ~ S ~ 10^37 will be tied into the presumed results for initial state density, in ways we will comment upon. Leading to this document as to GW, we are talking about taking steps to avoid the same mistake as Bicep2 which measured Dust, from Galaxies, i.e. steps to find a frequency of presumed GW different from Inter Galactic dust

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[690] **viXra:1510.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-15 07:18:38*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 5 more references added from prior document. Accepted by Dr. Corda, after corrections, significant expansion of the conclusion based upon the five references added

Abstract. This document will from first principles delineate the degree of flatness, or deviations from, in early universe models. We will, afterwards, make comparison with recent results we have looked at concerning metric tensor fluctuations and comment upon the role of what early universe gravitational energy may play a role in the presumed deviation from flat space results. Note that N ~ S ~ 10^37 will be tied into the presumed results for initial state density, in ways we will comment upon. Leading to observations as to leading to Eq.(25) of this document as to GW, from relic conditions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[689] **viXra:1510.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-28 11:30:13*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published version, Open Access Library Journal, 2: e2031. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102031

I propose a phenomenological model for the decay of black holes near Planck mass. The decay takes place via a quantum state between general relativity and a grand unified field theory like SO(10). This group is favored also by a no-scale SUGRA GUT model for Starobinsky inflation by other authors

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[688] **viXra:1510.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-16 15:33:37*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Flux particle theory is a complete theory of everything... including Gravity, The four forces and a completely new way to understand the way dimensionality actually works.

It is based solely on irrefutable logic. And although it is easily understandable by anyone, it requires an open mind and a completely new way of thinking.

It uses strings but not the string theory type and everything is easily explained:

WHY THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS "C"

There is a high tension string particle field in space (not the string theory type). Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing). A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual string lengths are approximately one Ångström). Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web.

If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a string particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field strings have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is.

If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

Here is a regular string tension formula... Tension = velocity squared x mass / Length.

If we plug c in and rearrange we get... TL = mc^2

Both sides of the equation are in joules or energy... equivalent to "E".

It means the Tension of the strings in space times their length is equal to their energy.

This is why the speed of light is involved in Einsteins mass energy equivalence equation... E = mc^2 ...and actually why light travels at the speed of light

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[687] **viXra:1510.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-23 17:01:34*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dimensionality : Are you really three dimensions?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[686] **viXra:1510.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-13 03:49:15*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dimensionality : Are you really three dimensions?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[685] **viXra:1510.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-10 04:31:27*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

It is based solely on irrefutable logic. And although it is easily understandable by anyone, it requires an open mind and a completely new way of thinking.

It uses strings but not the string theory type and everything is easily explained:

WHY THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS "C"

There is a high tension string particle field in space (not the string theory type). Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing). A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual string lengths are approximately one Ångström). Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web.

If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a string particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field strings have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is.

If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

Here is a regular string tension formula... Tension = velocity squared x mass / Length.

If we plug c in and rearrange we get... TL = mc^2

Both sides of the equation are in joules or energy... equivalent to "E".

It means the Tension of the strings in space times their length is equal to their energy.

This is why the speed of light is involved in Einsteins mass energy equivalence equation... E = mc^2 ...and actually why light travels at the speed of light

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[684] **viXra:1510.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-03 10:13:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We know that the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) fails at low energies. For example, within QCD, we cannot calculate precise mass and spin of nucleons. It does not concern the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Moreover, experimental data show that at low energies the effective range parameters for nn, np, and pp scatterings are similar, but different. Why? Here, applying SST, we calculated the effective range parameters and scattering lengths for nn (respectively 2.732 fm and -18.806 fm), for np (2.778 fm and -23.867 fm), and pp (2.824 fm and -16.995 fm). These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. At low energies, the effective range parameters follow from exchanges of virtual pions (which are responsible for the nuclear strong interactions) and production of the virtual condensates (which are responsible for the nuclear weak interactions at low energies). The condensates insignificantly increase the effective ranges. Just at low energies, the effective range parameters for nucleons follow from their strong-weak interactions described within SST. On the other hand, the scattering lengths we interpret as the circumferences of the produced gluon/photon loops with maximum radius. The obtained here and within SST results show that QCD is the incomplete and partially incorrect theory - the same concerns the electroweak theory at low energies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[683] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-02 21:04:16*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Re do of equation 12, with explanations of dimensional scaling put in ; 6 Pages. For Marcel Grossman 14. Details put in as to Riemannian Penrose inequality only being used here due to a non zero scale factor, initially.

Initial temperature, particle count are tied into entropy genration, and we make a reference to the Riemannian Penrose inequality, in terms of , if it is an equality what it says about admissible frequencies, as to the early universe. The author is fully aware of the Riemannian Penrose inequality's usual application, black hole physics. Its application to early universe cosmology is due to assuming a non zero, but extremely small initial scale factor at the start of inflation. The frequency, of Eq.(12) is proportional to [1/ distance] with the distance ~ Area to the 1/3rd power. Which is used as a bound to make sense of the range of frequencies assumed in this problem

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[682] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-02 00:48:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. For Marcel Grossman 14. Details put in as to Riemannian Penrose inequality only being used here due to a non zero scale factor, initially, Explanations included in for meeting MG 14 standards of submission quality

Initial temperature, particle count are tied into entropy genration, and we make a reference to the Riemannian Penrose inequality, in terms of , if it is an equality what it says about admissible frequencies, as to the early universe. The author is fully aware of the Riemannian Penrose inequality's usual application, black hole physics. Its application to early universe cosmology is due to assuming a non zero, but extremely small initial scale factor at the start of inflation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[681] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-01 01:12:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Changed my cite name from A.W.Beckwith, to Andrew Beckwith

Initial temperature, particle count are tied into entropy genration, and we make a reference to the Riemannian Penrose inequality, in terms of , if it is an equality what it says about admissible frequencies, as to the early universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[680] **viXra:1509.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-30 05:41:36*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The space roar is the unsolved problem in cosmology and particle physics. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that the ARCADE 2 and other literature the space roar for frequencies from 22 MHz to 10 GHz follows from the motion of the very early Universe in relation to the ground state of the luminal Einstein spacetime, follows also from the expansion of the Universe, and from the decays of the quadrupoles of charged pions and of the bottom quark-antiquark pairs into photons. Derived here the excess power-law spectrum in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 +- 0.001 K is consistent with observational data. Here as well we calculated the precise mass of the bottom quark: 4167.58 MeV. We showed also that production of the Higgs bosons during the period of time the CMB was produced cannot be neglected in a theory of the early Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[679] **viXra:1509.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 09:38:17*

**Authors:** Alexander Kritov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The author provides the evidence that Holographic principle may be formally derived from Mach’s principle and from two Large Number Numerical Coincidences hypothesized in recent author’s work. Those, two main paradigms of the physics Holographic principle and Mach’s principle may be connected with the use of Large Number Numerical Coincidences – new formal and exact relations for big Dirac’s number.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory