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2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(15) - 1503(18) - 1504(3)

Any replacements are listed further down

[709] **viXra:1504.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 03:31:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A single equation within Theory of Everything would be infinitely complex so we should formulate a fractal skeletal theory which should lead to the much simpler partial theories. In such theory should not appear free parameters and the indeterminate mathematical forms. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST) is such skeletal theory. Its structure looks as a Christmas tree. Here, within a model which is dual to the structure of baryons, applying the S-ST, we calculated the median effective radius of the Type 1 cosmological voids in observed redshift coordinates, number of such voids in the Universe, the quantized median effective radii of such voids, radius of the WMAP Cold Spot and the Cosmological Ruler. Obtained results are consistent with observational facts. Moreover, there is calculated the expected void abundance. Presented here theoretical results suggest that the picture of the high-redshift Universe obtained within the mainstream cosmology is misshapen.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[708] **viXra:1504.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-03 11:43:10*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The charged radius (r) of Fermion closes at 1/2 spin from the Compton wavelength [λ = h/mc = (1/2)πr] of Photon (Boson). These 1/2 spin means having the axiality to space-time. "The proton radius 0.841 (fm) was calculated from the proton mass" and "The proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen" are consistent.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[707] **viXra:1504.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 12:35:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the original Kaluza-Klein theory (KK-theory), the radion, i.e. the circumference or size of the fifth dimension, was invariant. In the newer versions of this theory, the radion is not constant. On the other hand, in the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), the radions are quantized and their sizes follow from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field. In S-SP there are the four radions associated respectively with the loops responsible for the quantum entanglement, with the weak charge of neutrinos, with the strong charge in baryons (the radion is the neutral pion), and with the superstrong charge of the cosmic structure before the expansion of the Universe (the radion was the very early Universe). All such radions are the pseudoscalars. The real Higgs boson is composed of two non-rotating and entangled (it is the shortest-distance entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components with antiparallel unitary spins so it is the pseudoscalar as well. But the condensates composed of the real Higgs bosons are the scalars as it is in the Standard Model. Just the detected Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is the composite Higgs boson built of the confined real Higgs bosons. Here as well we explained the difference between photon, gluon, masson, photomasson and gluomasson (in S-SP we must replace the massless gravitons for the massons that are the binary systems of non-rotating Einstein-spacetime components with parallel unitary spins).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[706] **viXra:1503.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 10:18:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, the critical remarks about luminal gravitational waves and luminal gravitons are presented. The mechanism of emission of the potential gravitational energy differs very much from the mechanism described within the General Relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[705] **viXra:1503.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 16:37:23*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Awards for Essays on Gravitation

Geometric algebra is universal, encompassing all the tools of the mathematical physics toolbox, is background independent, and is the foundation of gauge theory gravity. Similarly, impedance is a fundamental concept of universal validity, is background independent, and the phase shifts generated by impedances are at the foundation of gauge theory. Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Generalizing quantum impedances from photon and quantum Hall to all forces and potentials generates a network of both scale dependent and scale invariant impedances. This essay conjectures that these quantum impedances can be identified with the gauge fields of gauge theory gravity, scale dependent with the translation field and scale invariant with rotation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[704] **viXra:1503.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 12:26:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[703] **viXra:1503.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 11:45:41*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a Mathematica notebook saved as PDF which theorizes a relationship between fundamental constants (c, Planck, Gravity, Hubble, FineStructure) and computes within current experimental values the values of a (Higgs) particle mass of 124.443...GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[702] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 11:36:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[701] **viXra:1503.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 07:24:05*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

On site http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first and second space deformation, while on http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097 described the third space deformation. The fourth and fifth space deformation is a consequence of the presence of a proton and an electron in the dynamic space, after the inevitable end of the primary neutron (beta decay). So, it is caused an electrostatic induction of positive and negative units of the surrounding space and an inverse electric field of the proton (nucleus) is created, with reduction of the space cohesive pressure. The nuclear force now is interpreted as an electric force, 100 times stronger than the corresponding force of the outer electric field that extends beyond the potential barrier.
The Universal and the particulate (see http://viXra.org/abs/1501.0111) antigravity force is complemented by the stronger nuclear antigravity force, since at the lower nuclear field the reduction of the cohesive pressure is rapid and contributes to the architecture of the nuclei structure. Moreover, the reduction of cohesive pressure at the lower nuclear field is the cause of the neutron mass deficit, while protons do not undergo mass deficit, as it will be described below.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[700] **viXra:1503.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 16:21:29*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used.
In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[699] **viXra:1503.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 09:27:27*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Physics shows that the detected mainstream Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is a composite particle. Due to the Mexican-hat mechanism, it consists of the confined luminal Einstein-spacetime components i.e. of the still undetected neutrino-antineutrino pairs (their gravitational mass is in an approximation the inverse of 67 powers of ten kilograms). It is not true that the mainstream sham Higgs boson can consist of more massive condensates - it follows from the fact that due to the Mexican-hat mechanism and very high dynamic pressure, all Type sham-Higgs-boson condensates have practically the same gravitational-mass density so more massive condensates have bigger radius. But the non-gravitating energy frozen in each Einstein-spacetime component is about 119 powers of ten higher than its gravitational mass. The geometric mean of the non-gravitating energy and the gravitational mass of an Einstein-spacetime component is close to the Planck mass - it solves the hierarchy problem. Here we calculated the rigorous radius of the mainstream Higgs boson and the coupling constants which follow from the Mexican-hat mechanism (i.e. from the confinement) and from the quantum entanglement. They are the fifth and sixth forces. The quantum-entanglement coupling constant depends on distance. The coupling constant for the shortest-distance quantum entanglement is about 92 powers of ten and is responsible for the very stable structure of the torus-charge inside the core of baryons - it is the reason that the core of proton is practically indestructible. On the other hand, the coupling constant responsible for the confinement is the inverse of 15 powers of ten so the condensates are the very unstable particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[698] **viXra:1503.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 09:46:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Physics, is presented the fragmentation of hadrons in the pp and Pb-Pb collisions. Applying the Stefan-Boltzmann law the calculated production of pion/kaon/proton in pp and Pb-Pb collisions is in an excellent agreement with the ALICE data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[697] **viXra:1503.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 00:55:28*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The best place to begin is with Einstein, who revolutionized understanding of gravity and said “time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter” (this must include matter's electric charges and magnetic poles). Following the introductory paragraphs, Einstein's theory that gravitation is a push created by the hills and valleys of curved space is recalled and there’s a paragraph explaining the Krasinsky/Blumberg astronomy paper in terms of gravitational waves being a repelling force, with a brief explanation reconciling this repulsion with gravity’s apparent attraction. Believing everything from the quantum to the cosmic is intricately united, I shift to discussion of gravity, the ocean tides and cosmology. Then the final paragraph says gravitational waves move in two directions. Since gravitation forms matter and its forces, the dualism naturally extends to the electromagnetism of particles, resulting in electric charges that are positive or negative (combination of these two produces neutrality) and magnetic polarities being either north or south.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[696] **viXra:1503.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-20 15:23:01*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are the two long-distance interactions so spacetime is composed of two fields (the superluminal Higgs field and the luminal Einstein spacetime) with very different properties (there are respectively the superluminal pieces of space which lead to gravity and the luminal neutrino-antineutrino pairs which lead to electromagnetism and strong and weak interactions) - it causes that unification of General Relativity and Standard Model is impossible. We do not need new differential equations to solve the many unsolved problems in particle physics and cosmology - we need a fractal structure of Nature which leads from small-scales/high-energies to larger and larger scales i.e. to lower and lower energies. The fractal structure follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field described within the Scale-Symmetric Physics - it is the lacking part of ultimate theory which solves the hierarchy problem (the masses of the detected Standard-Model particles are much lower than the Planck mass). Pions are the superpartners of baryons whereas the early Universe (it was the double cosmic loop composed of neutrons) was the superpartner of the cosmic structure which transformed into the dark matter (it consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components entangled with visible matter) and dark energy (it consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components not entangled with visible matter). The mainstream supersymmetry and M-theory are, generally, incorrect. The Einstein spacetime is grainy so there can appear vortices with left and right internal helicity. Our vortex had the left internal helicity and such internal helicity have nucleons (antinucleons are right-handed) - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe. The nucleons consist of three very dense fields composed of entangled and/or confined Einstein-spacetime components which are the carriers of gluons - it solves the spin crisis of proton. The three-valence-quarks model of nucleons is incorrect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[695] **viXra:1503.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-15 07:58:04*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Gravity between particles is due to quantum entanglement with the physical vacuum. When they converge, then increases quantum entanglement with the physical vacuum and accordingly a measure of the entropy of entanglement, which affects the energy properties of the particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[694] **viXra:1503.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-13 10:13:09*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages. This is an attempt at a unified field theory.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[693] **viXra:1503.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 07:20:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The unspoken background for this article is a hypothesis for origins (of life, the universe and everything). That hypothesis believes human science is responsible for everything, and neither supernatural nor evolutionary means originate anything. In a biological sense, the Theory of Evolution certainly explains adaptations and modifications. But believing it also explains origins is unwarranted extrapolation. It takes an idea that accounts for some parts of life and, since it’s the only scientific explanation we currently have, assumes it accounts for all parts of life.
Albert Einstein showed space-time is warped, so it’s possible our own computer science (and terraforming, and biotechnology from many centuries in the future) found its way into the past. Dr Graham Phillips said “(The physicist) Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God, but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics that allow for the existence of minds in the first place.”
To discover what the unknown is, we must relate it to the known. In this comment, a possible answer to what dark matter is will be proposed by relating it to General Relativity's curvature of space-time. A Mobius strip is given a twist of 180 degrees before its ends are joined. Assuming space-time is modelled on the Mobius strip is one way to explain why space-time is curved. Such a model is plausible if string theory is invoked.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[692] **viXra:1503.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 10:55:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics/Theory (S-ST), is presented some recapitulation concerning structure of proton. It shows that distribution of gluons described within the Quantum Chromodynamics is incorrect - there appears the spin crisis. The S-ST shows that there appear three super-dense fields composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components. The three super-dense gluon fields follow from the short-distance quantum entanglement and/or confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components and they are as follows: the torus/strong-charge (its mass density is about 37 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; external radius is about 0.7 fm), central condensate (its mass density is about 3 times greater than 23 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; radius is about 0.009 fm) and relativistic pion on the S orbit (radius of the orbit is about 1.2 fm). Range of the strong interactions is about 2.9 fm. Within such model we calculated the rigorous mass, spin and two radii (the electron radius and muon radius) of proton. The torus/strong-charge is spinning and its spin is half-integral. We can compare the densities of the super-dense gluon fields with the mean mass density of proton on assumption that its radius is the range of the strong interactions: about 1.6 times greater than 16 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter. Barbara Jacak, a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, claims that the much faster than expected formation of baryonic-plasma droplets and the spin crisis follow from existence of a super-dense gluon field instead discrete gluons - it is consistent with S-ST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[691] **viXra:1503.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 13:52:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Casimir effect has been demonstrated with electromagnetic waves, which transport energy. The general idea of Quach’s proposal is to exploit the gravitational opacity of superconductors to, in theory, produce a similar effect from gravity. Doing so, by inference, would pave the way for the detection of the graviton. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[690] **viXra:1503.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 05:06:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[689] **viXra:1502.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 09:50:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Information can be sent with superluminal speed between entangled particles but new entanglement is created when luminal particles are very close one from another - it leads to conclusion that we cannot send information with superluminal speed because at first we must separate the entangled luminal particles. But when such separation is made then superluminal information is possible - it leads to the superluminal entanglement in quantum physics. Arrangements of the entangled Einstein-spacetime components in the physical matter and mental matter are different. For example, the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components on a torus/electric-charge are perpendicular to surface of the torus whereas the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components in the loops the thoughts consist of are tangent to the loops. It causes that the mental matter is flexible (the mental solitons are flexible) whereas the physical matter is rigid i.e. the bare particles are rigid. It is true that the superluminal dark photons responsible for quantum entanglement mimic the electromagnetic interactions but they cannot be detected directly i.e. they are dark. The dark matter is entangled with baryonic matter due to the superluminal dark photons carried by the superluminal entanglons the luminal Einstein-spacetime components consist of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[688] **viXra:1502.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 18:19:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[687] **viXra:1502.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 12:13:12*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published also in FQXi Essay Contest 2015

Extraordinary mathematicality of physics is also shown by dimensionlessness of Planck spacetime and mass. At the same time the Planck granularity of spacetime also shows that physics can be simulated by a binary computer. So physics is informational. But mathematics is not everything in physics, consciousness cannot be solely explained by mathematics. The reason that quantum gravity (QG) does not yet exist is the lack of knowledge about spacetime as background. Quantum mechanics is not complete, because foundational principle is not yet known, and because consciousness and QG are not yet explained. The free will and quantum randomness are similar unexplained phenomena. Even philosophy is important in physics, because what mathematics cannot describe in physics is ontology. And, intuition affects what is mainstream physics. Simplicity and clearness of physics and mathematics of physics are important not only for beginners, but also for the development of the fundamental physics. Uncertainty principle is so simple that maybe it could be derived without the use of wave functions. On the simplicity and clearness of fundamental physics it can be done a lot.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[686] **viXra:1502.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-18 10:28:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Physics we showed that the structure of proton leads to the Theory of Chaos. We proved that the structure of the nonchaotic star KIC 5520878 mimics the internal structure of the core of baryons. The more precise observations should show that the ratio of the two principal frequencies for KIC 5520878 is 1.5711 (the today observations lead to 1.57) and has nothing with the golden ratio 1.618…. Moreover, notice that the ratio of the radius of the equator of the torus in the core of proton to the radius of the gluon loops the neutral pions consist of is 1.5 so there should be stars with such ratio of principal frequencies also. The same concerns the quasars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[685] **viXra:1502.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 08:41:40*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

On site http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first (Universal) and the second (local) space deformation, which change the geometric structure of the isotropic space. These geometric deformations created the dynamic space, the Universe, and the space holes (bubbles of empty space), the early form of matter. The Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space describes how the neutron cortex is structured around the space holes with the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) of space at the light speed, defining on the one hand this elementary motion as quantum time in the units region and on the other the completion of the elementary phenomenon (i.e. the creation of a particle, photon etc.) as quantum time in the formations region. So, an electrical and geometric deformation of the neutron cortex occurs, as the third space deformation, resulting in the creation of surface electric charges (quarks) in the neutron cortex, to which the particles spin is due.
The inevitable end of the primary neutron is its breaking (beta decay), due to the growing space cohesive pressure, as the neutron is accelerated centrifugally to the Universe periphery. The presence of the proton and electron has result in induction of the electrical units of dynamic space, with the creation of the inverted electric (nuclear) field and the outer electric field.
Finally, the physical meaning of Planck’s constant is interpreted, as the product of two Nature entities: of the above quantum time in the formations region and of the energy talantonio (oscillator), which is the foundation of motion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[684] **viXra:1502.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 08:06:47*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There has been some confusion about the previous paper on this subject, so some basic calculations were included to allow for mathematically minded people to understand the concepts more fluidly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[683] **viXra:1502.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 18:20:08*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Sphere Discontinuity Theory of the Universe proposes that the Universe is a sphere made of spheres, that again is made of spheres. This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. To further extend the Sphere Discontinuity Theory it will be shown how the discontinuities can account for the Lorentz Transformations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[682] **viXra:1502.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 15:34:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, the non-perturbative quantum electrodynamics of electron is presented. We calculated the lower and upper limits for the fine structure constant (1/137.035999053(11194)). The error is equal to the value of the coupling constant for the electron-proton weak interactions. The obtained results are very close to the experimental values which follow from the experimental values of the electron charge and reduced Planck constant (1/137.35999053(12095)). As expected, the error is a little higher than the theoretical value. There appeared papers in which theoretical and experimental values of the fine structure constant have much higher accuracy than the quantities which appear in its definition. In this paper is proven that the higher accuracies are groundless. Using the combined value of the fine structure constant (the experimental central value plus the theoretical limits), 1/137.035999053(11194), we obtain a theoretical value of the electron anomaly 0.001159652191(95). The weak interactions cause that this value cannot have higher accuracy. Within the Scale-Symmetric Physics are calculated physical constants and other quantities which appear in definitions, from the fundamental initial conditions. The initial parameters lead to 1/137.036001 and 0.001159652174. We can see that both results are consistent with the determinations. Emphasize that today the mainstream QED contains the 12,672 diagrams (number of terms is tremendous) whereas presented here non-perturbative QED contains only one diagram with six terms. The difference follows from an improperly understood weak interactions and production of virtual pairs in the Einstein spacetime. To calculate all needed quantities we do not need supercomputers, we used the Microsoft Office Excel with 13 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[681] **viXra:1502.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 13:06:12*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Relativistic mass follows from constancy of the speed of light in “vacuum” and the law of conservation of spin. Relativistic mass appears in grainy spacetime. The Einstein-spacetime components have mass and luminal speed but they are the non-relativistic objects. In the Einstein spacetime can appear virtual objects. A virtual object consists of a particle-antiparticle pair or a condensate carrying positive mass and of a mass “hole” carrying negative mass. The gravitational fields are not directly associated with the luminal Einstein spacetime, they are directly associated with the superluminal Higgs field. Today production of virtual objects in the Higgs field is impossible - it is the reason that we cannot unify directly (within the same methods) gravity with electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions i.e. a direct unification of gravity and Standard Model is impossible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[680] **viXra:1502.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-03 12:49:33*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 10 references

Flory’s model of a polymer deals with three characteristics lengths, namely: the monomer’s length, the chain’s length and the length of the radius of gyration. A first analogy can be established between this model and that of the electrical conductivity of good metals at the room temperature, by taking the Compton’s length, the electron mean free path and the Fermi’s length. A second analogy is considered, thinking the universe world line as a segmented chain, where we have the Planck’s length, the radius of the observable universe and the length associated to the cosmological constant. A characteristic time for the evolution of the universe is obtained (not the Hubble’s time), and it is compared with a possible proton’s decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[679] **viXra:1502.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 21:42:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Using the approximation of constant pressure , a thermodynamic identity for GR as given by Padmanabhan is applied to Early universe graviton production, We build upon an earlier result in doing this calculation. Previously, we reviewed a relationship between the magnitude of an inflaton, the resultant potential, GW frequencies and also GW wavelengths. The NLED approximation makes full use of the Camara et.al. result about density and magnetic fields to ascertain when the density is positive or negative , meaning that at a given magnetic field strength, if one uses a relationship between density and pressure at the start of inflation one can link the magnetic field to pressure. From there an estimated initial temperature is calculated. This temperature scales down if the initial entropy grows.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[678] **viXra:1502.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 21:49:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Submitted to IOP DICE 2014 conference proceedings, in December 2014

We find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Mukhanov’s chapter on “self reproduction” of the universe in in his reference. The stronger an early-universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/H, with H the early-universe Hubble constant, per Planck time interval in evolution. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as comparing entropy in galaxies versus entropy in the universe, through a lens of Mistra’s quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[677] **viXra:1502.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 22:04:56*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using Tokamaks to identify and possibly detect GW generated due to processes identified with Plasma Fusion burning, in Tokamaks, with experimental equipment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[676] **viXra:1502.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 09:09:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We use the results of A. Montiel et al, as to the contribution of energy density of non linear magnetic components to RW inflationary physics, as well as the standard of ephemeris time to come up with a standard of bound to early universe graviton mass. In doing so, we also ascertain that using the derived evolution equations that the mass of the graviton today could be different from the early universe value with obtain in closed form. Our results also indicate that quintessence, i.e. a time varying cosmological “constant” parameter, will in the case of large initial values of this “cosmological constant” inevitably lead to a singularity. . If one has a magnetic field contributing to a non zero initial scale factor, we will be assuming that the “cosmological constant” remains invariant during space-time expansion. The case of a fast roll physics treatment of inflation is gone over in the end, as a counter point to some of the discussion so offered. I.e. a fast roll, approximation means that the simple cancellation given below in Eq.(3) is no longer assumed. Which would influence the value of initial graviton mass. I.e. heavy gravity in the case of the elimination of slow roll is almost 20 orders of magnitude larger in initial magnitude for gravitons than the observations today portend for massive gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[675] **viXra:1501.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 07:48:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Entanglement Makes Quantum Particles Measurably Heavier, Says Quantum Theorist. The discovery is a long sought-after link between the theories of quantum mechanics and general relativity. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[674] **viXra:1501.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 03:13:24*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A solution to the mechanism of forces and space-time that is too simple to be true, yet too elegant to be ignored.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[673] **viXra:1501.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 17:01:32*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. To be published in the "Proceedings of Science", http://pos.sissa.it/

Recently, several discussions on the possible observability of 4-vector fields have been published
in literature. Furthermore, several authors recently claimed existence of the helicity=0 fundamental
field. We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials.
We study the massless limits. In fact, theoretical motivation for this venture is the old papers
of Ogievetskiı and Polubarinov, Hayashi, and Kalb and Ramond. They proposed the concept of
the notoph, whose helicity properties are complementary to those of the photon. We analyze the
quantum field theory with taking into account mass dimensions of the notoph and the photon. We
also proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the
Bargmann-Wigner formalism. They are consistent with the general relativity. Particular attention
has been paid to the correct definitions of the energy-momentum tensor and other Nöther currents.
We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph.
PACS number: 03.65.Pm , 04.50.-h , 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[672] **viXra:1501.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 21:01:10*

**Authors:** Kyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get basic provisions on the conclusion of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is given a completely different interpretation of the curvature geometry through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time. The entanglement entropy of the gravitational field as a parameter occurs in geometric flows Ricci .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[671] **viXra:1501.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 03:58:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[670] **viXra:1501.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 04:48:35*

**Authors:** Robert Watson

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Kaluza's 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach is
presented that more fully unies gravity and electromagnetism. Emphasis
is placed on admitting important electromagnetic elds not present in
Kaluza's original theory, and on deriving a Lorentz force law. This is
done by identifying 5D momentum with charge. By doing so the usual
assumption of Ricci
atness for sourceless electromagnetic elds is made
obsolete and replaced by the simple and physically intuitive assumption
that background 5D momentum is vanishing. An electromagnetic limit is
imposed by assuming a constant scalar eld.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[598] **viXra:1504.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 12:55:26*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The charge radius (r = 2λ/π) of Fermion closes at ±1/2 spin from the Compton wavelength (λ = h/mc) of Photon (Boson). These ±1/2 spin means having the axiality to space-time. "The proton radius (0.841 fm) was calculated from the proton mass" and "The proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen" are consistent. Closed Yukawa potential at charge radius is going to reduce the linear density in accordance with 1/r potential, and become material density of mass (1.672E-27 kg/m), which is published on the 1 meter scale. How the fermion to acquire the radius and mass pave the way for quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[597] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-31 07:55:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[596] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-30 02:27:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[595] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 10:39:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[594] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 07:15:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[593] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-27 14:57:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[592] **viXra:1503.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-28 09:49:12*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used. In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[591] **viXra:1503.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:45:13*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[590] **viXra:1503.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-09 15:11:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics/Theory (S-ST), is presented some recapitulation concerning structure of proton. It shows that distribution of gluons described within the Quantum Chromodynamics is incorrect - there appears the spin crisis. The S-ST shows that there appear three super-dense fields composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components. The three super-dense gluon fields follow from the short-distance quantum entanglement and/or confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components and they are as follows: the torus/strong-charge (its mass density is about 37 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; external radius is about 0.7 fm), central condensate (its mass density is about 3 times greater than 23 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; radius is about 0.009 fm) and relativistic pion on the S orbit (radius of the orbit is about 1.2 fm). Range of the strong interactions is about 2.9 fm. Within such model we calculated the rigorous mass, spin and two radii (the electron radius and muon radius) of proton. The torus/strong-charge is spinning and its spin is half-integral. We can compare the densities of the super-dense gluon fields with the mean mass density of proton on assumption that its radius is the range of the strong interactions: about 1.6 times greater than 16 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter. Barbara Jacak, a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, claims that the much faster than expected formation of baryonic-plasma droplets and the spin crisis follow from existence of a super-dense gluon field instead discrete gluons - it is consistent with S-ST. Here as well are calculated the fundamental quantities characteristic for partonic plasma - they are consistent with the PHENIX data. Among other things, a puzzle of anomalous enhancement of (anti)protons relative to pions is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[589] **viXra:1503.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-06 05:14:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Ludwig et al. derived solar ages up to 22.3 Gyr (2009). The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the mainstream-cosmology age of the Universe (about 13.8 Gyr). On the other hand, the Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST) shows that the age of the Universe is about 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but due to the duality of relativity (the speed of light, c, is the speed in relation to source of light or to a last-interaction object) we cannot see the initial period about 7.75 Gyr of evolution of the protogalaxies/quasars. The calculated time distance to the observed most distant galaxies is 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr but they are already 7.75 Gyr old. The era of the quasars and the big stars in quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the last period about 2.3 Gyr. The GASER (the Gamma Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) leads to conclusion that in big stars dominates the transition from helium to iron. With time the abundance of helium in big stars decreases. Here, by an analogy to the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we obtain formulae for change in abundance of helium-4 and hydrogen in the expanding Universe. On the assumption that today abundances are 24.5% for helium and 75.5% for hydrogen (ratio = 3.1; we neglect the other chemical elements), we obtain that at the end of the era of quasars there should be 29% of helium (ratio = 2.45) whereas in the most distant observed Universe there should be about 30% helium (ratio = 2.3). The ratio for the primordial unobserved Universe was close to 1.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[588] **viXra:1502.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-01 00:51:29*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Mass ratios of electron and proton to neutron.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[587] **viXra:1502.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-26 14:09:27*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), are the short remarks concerning the Einstein-spacetime, dark-energy and dark-matter particle. Such particle carries unitary spin and very small gravitational mass. It is the neutrino-antineutrino pair which we will refer to as the Planck boson. The superluminal energy frozen in the Planck boson is about 119 powers of ten higher than its gravitational mass. Detection of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs is much difficult than neutrinos because their resultant weak charge is equal to zero. The different properties of dark energy and dark matter follow from the quantum entanglement. Emphasize that the particle associated with the Einstein spacetime, dark matter and dark energy is the same particle so there can appear different interpretations. The obtained here theoretical results for the today Universe: visible matter 4.91%, dark matter 26.46%, dark energy 68.63%, and the ratio of dark and visible matter 5.389, are consistent with the Planck results (CMB + lensing) at the 68% levels. The Higgs boson is not the Standard Model particle associated with the Higgs mechanism. The Higgs boson is the condensate composed of confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is due to the Mexican-hat mechanism). The mechanism describing the transition from gravitationally massless pieces of space to the gravitational mass of neutrinos all Principle-of-Equivalence particles consist of is beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity. Such mechanism is described within S-SP.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[586] **viXra:1502.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-27 03:14:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), I present the incorrect mainstream views. The very short remarks and justifications concern the Type gravitational-wave B-modes in CMB, matter-antimatter asymmetry, constancy of the physical constants, dark matter, two different spacetimes, duality of relativity, production of black holes before galaxies, dark energy, decays of the superphotons, the preferred frame of reference in CMB, smoothness of CMB, bare particles, quark model and masses of quarks, mass and spin and two radii of proton, non-existence of ground quantum state, many-worlds interpretation of quantum physics, and universal time and travel in time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[585] **viXra:1502.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 00:49:32*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Replaced Lorentz Transformation with Lorentz Factor

The Sphere Discontinuity Theory of the Universe proposes that the Universe is a sphere made of spheres, that again is made of spheres. This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. To further extend the Sphere Discontinuity Theory it will be shown how the discontinuities can account for the Lorentz Factor

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[584] **viXra:1502.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-15 04:55:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, the non-perturbative quantum electrodynamics of electron is presented. We calculated the lower and upper limits for the fine structure constant (1/137.035999053(11194)). The error is equal to the value of the coupling constant for the electron-proton weak interactions. The obtained results are very close to the experimental values which follow from the experimental values of the electron charge and reduced Planck constant (1/137.35999053(12095)). As expected, the error is a little higher than the theoretical value. There appeared papers in which theoretical and experimental values of the fine structure constant have much higher accuracy than the quantities which appear in its definition. In this paper is proven that the higher accuracies are groundless. Using the combined value of the fine structure constant (the experimental central value plus the theoretical limits), 1/137.035999053(11194), we obtain a theoretical value of the electron anomaly 0.001159652191(95). The weak interactions cause that this value cannot have higher accuracy. Within the Scale-Symmetric Physics are calculated physical constants and other quantities which appear in definitions, from the fundamental initial conditions. The initial parameters lead to 1/137.036001 and 0.001159652174. We can see that both results are consistent with the determinations. Emphasize that today the mainstream QED contains the 12,672 diagrams (number of terms is tremendous) whereas presented here non-perturbative QED contains only one diagram with six terms. The difference follows from an improperly understood weak interactions and production of virtual pairs in the Einstein spacetime. To calculate all needed quantities we do not need supercomputers, we used the Microsoft Office Excel with 13 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[583] **viXra:1501.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-29 05:04:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is assumed in the mainstream cosmology that at the Chandrasekhar limit the white dwarfs explode due to the conditions in a Fermi gas. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I showed that there appears the tower of the Chandrasekhar limits and that the stars/white-dwarfs with the threshold masses explode via a neutron-star state. Neutron stars behave as liquid crystal. There are the needed flat structures and the elongated rectangular prisms. There appears the upper limit for mass of neutron star, i.e. of the neutron black hole, equal to 24.81 solar masses. But due to perfect energy flow from core of a star toward its surface there as well appear at least three Chandrasekhar limits i.e. masses of stars which explode as Type Ia supernovae via sudden collapse of whole star to the neutron-star state which leads to violent full volumetric explosion so there is not created a neutron-star remnant – the threshold masses are 1.395, 11.20 and 0.891 solar masses. The first mass is the very well known Chandrasekhar limit whereas the second was the mass of, for example, the SN 1987A supernova. Energy is carried by the condensates of the Einstein-spacetime components which are the black holes in respect of the weak interactions or is carried by energetic neutrinos. The condensates with a mass 52.828 MeV are produced in centres of muons, with a mass 424.124 MeV are produced in centres of baryons, whereas energy of the neutrinos is the one fourth of the mass of neutral pion (33.743 MeV). Their number densities increase rapidly for the threshold masses of stars. Here, as well, are calculated the lower (0.000768 s) and upper (4,228 s) limits for spin periods of pulsars i.e. for stars with neutron core and iron crust. Presented here model is very simple and leads to observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[582] **viXra:1501.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-24 19:57:22*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Classical or quantum impedances, geometric or topological, scale invariant or scale dependent, fermionic or bosonic, mechanical or electromagnetic or gravitational - impedance matching governs the flow of energy. This is a universal principle. As such, it is not surprising to find that quantized impedances provide an interesting sensibility when taken as a template for the Big Bang, presenting a detailed perspective on the first few zeptoseconds.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[581] **viXra:1501.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-26 02:57:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST), I present a recapitulation concerning evolution of our Cosmos. In details I described evolution of the quasars and pointed the main differences between the new cosmology and the mainstream cosmology. I described the origin of dark energy and dark matter. They both are associated with flows in the Einstein spacetime. The matter-antimatter asymmetry results from internal helicity of the vortices which, due to fluctuations, appear in the Einstein spacetime. The asymmetry has nothing with an asymmetry in behaviour of matter and antimatter. Due to the duality of relativity, the Universe is about 21.6 Gyr old (Ludwig et al. (2009) derived solar ages up to 22.3 Gyr) but we cannot see the initial period about 7.75 Gyr of evolution of the quasars. It is not true that the neutrons in neutron stars behave as a Fermi gas. There are at least three Chandrasekhar limits which leads to supernova explosions without neutron-star remnant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory