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2018 - 1801(20) - 1802(10)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1299] **viXra:1802.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 22:20:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. For possible inclusion into FFP 15, pending acceptance by Jesus Cancier, of Alicante, Spain, and the FFP 15 committee

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1298] **viXra:1802.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 23:24:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. for possible submission to Marcel Grossman 15, as an entry

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a re do of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to ascertain how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1297] **viXra:1802.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 07:35:29*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass, such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as that amount of bending that is predicted by the Newtonian theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force should be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus.
We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field that renders that field always equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and the same as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super massive objects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1296] **viXra:1802.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 19:53:37*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 64 Pages. Feedback is welcome

This paper builds on an earlier paper that built the Standard Model Particles from Infinite Superpositions, borrowing action quanta from a receding horizon. It connects an infinitesimally modified General Relativity at cosmic scale, with an "Invariant Four Action Density for Cosmic Wavelength Gravitons". There are more significant effects near black holes, with a chance that they could change the build rate of Supermassive black holes. Only the last few cycles of mergers would be effected, possibly only showing up as a small increase in their apparent mass. A continuous exponential expansion is predicted, that may relate with the differing Hubble parameters predicted from early universe expansion measurements, and measurements of more recent local expansion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1295] **viXra:1802.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 16:41:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. “Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion).. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation.. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton.
“Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1294] **viXra:1802.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 01:51:43*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The unexploited unification of general relativity and quantum physics is a painstaking issue that prevents physicists to properly understanding the whole of Nature. Here we propose a pure mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. Indeed, we build a cyclic groupoid (a nonemptyset with a binary operation defined on it) that encompasses both the theories as subsets, making it possible to join together two of their most dissimilar experimental results, i.e., the commutativity detectable in our macroscopic relativistic world and the non-commutativity detectable in the quantum, microscopic world. Further, we provide a feasible physical counterpart able to throw a bridge between relativity and quantum mechanics, namely, the gravitational force. The latter stands for an operator able to reduce the countless orthonormal bases required by quantum mechanics to just one, i.e., the relativistic basis of an observer located in a single cosmic area.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1293] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 13:36:16*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1292] **viXra:1802.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 19:34:58*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Quantum gravity, theory of everything

Resolution of the Cosmological Constant Λ must maintain the mathematics of wavefunction, as well as Einsteins field equations. However, a fundamental break from convention is justified, in order to cancel the mathematical discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in General Relativity (GR) and the much greater zero-point energy value, as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT). This article does maintain conventional models. The paradigm shift is from the conventional idea of a constant R 4 spacetime at every scale (from microspace to macrospace). Instead, proposing that dimensions approaching quantum scales increase to a higher dimensional R 5 space, and that dimensions approaching the cosmic event horizon decrease to a lower dimensional R 3 space (R 4 spacetime is just one phase of this transitioning multispace). This is only suppositional, yet it explains so many mysteries of cosmology in the simplest and most parsimonious format (in fact in one single sentence). In wavefunction, superposition can be alternatively interpreted as a transition (or divergence) of R n , as observed from a R 4 spacetime onto a higher dimensional R 5 space at scales approaching QFT. Time, position, energy and momentum become plural, and a range of R 5 space is viewed as a single instant until " collapsed " (mapped) onto our familiar classic R 4 space. In GR, R 4 spacetime transitions (or converges) to a point at the cosmic event horizon, to a diminished R 3 space. This converging affect appears equivalent to acceleration, as units of time in velocity are decreasing with larger scales. Thus, Λ in GR is only illusional and therefore cancelled.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1291] **viXra:1802.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 06:43:03*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Submmited to European Journal of Physics C

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail. Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' surrounding galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1290] **viXra:1802.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-04 06:33:10*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The author shows examples where his opinion about fundamentality is different as opinion of the majority of physicists. He claims that special relativity alone gives that time runs only in rest matter. He claims that absolutely empty spacetime without rest matter cannot exist; one reason is also because time runs only in rest matter. Existence of dimensionless masses of the elementary particles also tells us about coupling between rest matter and spacetime. Dimensionless masses of the elementary particles are obtained when the masses of the elementary particles are combined with the gravitational constant, Planck's constant and the speed of light. The author insists that the principle of equivalence remains also in quantum physics, and that gravitational uncertainty principle is simple. Consciousness is still more fundamental than the elementary particles, but consciousness does not exist outside of elementary particles. The author advocates quantum consciousness, free-will, and suggests how to verify this experimentally.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1289] **viXra:1801.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 15:43:35*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.5

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1288] **viXra:1801.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 20:48:36*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unraveling AQG.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1287] **viXra:1801.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 19:40:52*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Break through

Sphere Theory has shown that Planck Pressure(1) is the gravitational force between two Hubble Universes on Planck Area. This paper shows that the perceived change in acceleration of the universe, at about 5 billion light years, can be explained by the gravity between two universes. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is at 5.27 billion light years from the center of the universe. It is hypothesized here, that if the observed change in the rate of expansion of the universe occurs at exactly 5.27 billion light years from earth, that the earth is near the center of the universe, that there are multiple equal sized universes, and the boundary of the universe is the Hubble sphere at approximately 13.8 billion light years in radius.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1286] **viXra:1801.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 20:25:11*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. break through

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is a sphere made of spheres, made of spheres, etc. (1) It was shown by Sphere Theory that Planck Pressure is a pressure of gravitational force between adjacent Hubble Sphere universes. (2) We can use a simple calculation to show why the Golden Ratio is prevalent in our universe. The Golden Ratio can be shown to be produced by the gravity between two, uniform, and symmetrical spheres. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is found to be related to the Golden Ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1285] **viXra:1801.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 06:57:56*

**Authors:** Dezső Sarkadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Hungarian

In today's physics, there is an increased interest in the supposed properties of a future Quantum Gravity in the fields of theoretical foundation and as well as experimental verification. The ultimate goal of this re-search is the creation of a definitive, universally accepted theory of Quantum Gravity. In the present work, the two hundred and fifty years of history Titius-Bode rule is investigated, under the assumption that this empirical fact is a key evidence of the quantized feature of the already long known classical gravity.
Keywords: Titius-Bode rule, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, de Broglie matter wave, Quantum Gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1284] **viXra:1801.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 08:37:44*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The Dirac equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1283] **viXra:1801.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 00:45:39*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Canadian Journal of Physics

We revisit the solutions to the nonlinear Bohm-Poisson (BP) equation with relevant cosmological applications. In particular, we obtain an exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density and explain the origins of its repulsive gravitational nature. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime; how Bohm's quantum potential in four-dimensions could be re-interpreted as a gravitational potential in five-dimensions, and which explains why the presence of dark energy/dark matter in our 4D spacetime can only be inferred indirectly, but not be detected/observed directly. Solutions to the novel Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy (repulsive gravity). We proceed with a discussion on Asymptotic safety, matter creation from the vacuum, and Finsler relativistic extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation. Finally, we conclude with some comments about the Dirac-Eddington large numbers coincidences.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1282] **viXra:1801.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 03:44:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1281] **viXra:1801.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 08:06:14*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres.
Professor Adam Riess, from John Hopkins University states “A mathematical discrepancy in the expansion rate of the Universe is now "pretty serious", and could point the way to a major discovery in physics.” His newly calculated value is 73.24.(1) Sphere Theory calculates the value to be 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc (2)
If we look at Evidence for Granulated Space, we that the size of the Hubble Sphere is 13.7659 billion light years(2) If we convert this to a constant Hubble Constant it converts to 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc. This compares to the following Hubble constants calculated from the Wikipedia summary table of 71.027. (km/s)/Mpc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1280] **viXra:1801.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 06:32:05*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A gravitational momentum space wavefunction and its inverse spacetime Fourier transformation are constructed from the classical particle Lagrangian. From non-relativistic metric, the momentum space wavefunction gives the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with gravity temperature relation and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Schrodinger equation with a harmonic oscillator potential, leading to the Gauss’s law for gravity with mass density gravity relation. From the special relativity metric, which is shown to set the temperature at about 7.64×10^-12 K and density at about 3.58×10^9 kgm^-3, the momentum space wavefunction gives a relativistic momentum distribution and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Dirac equation with a spacetime potential. Finally, the many identical particles wavefunctions are also constructed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1279] **viXra:1801.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 19:08:17*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physicists like to use more than 3 dimensions but our universe only contains 3 dimensions, they don't seem to understand how it works. String theory requires 11 dimensions and that includes spacetime, but there can only be 3 dimensions in our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1278] **viXra:1801.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 02:13:45*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 100 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Quantized Gravitational Field
“I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from your professors, from your books that the gravitational field g is a vector at each point of space and time, a vector pointing directly towards the particle.
In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function.
Gravitons do not exist in Einstein’s gravitation theory, because General relativity is not a quantum theory.
“In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not a vector at each point of space and time, where there are not gravitons there is not gravitational field”
Adrian Ferent
“In my Gravitation theory the density of flux lines is replaced by graviton flux”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitation field lines are gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Each graviton in the gravitational field has a speed v and a negative momentum p = -mv”
Adrian Ferent
“The graviton flux is defined as the number of gravitons per second per unit area”
Adrian Ferent
“The power density is the graviton flux multiplied by the energy of a single graviton”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1277] **viXra:1801.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 00:58:46*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1][2][3][4][5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description the model of consciousness proposed in paper 3 [3]. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, in explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s finding of consciousness being the logical emergence from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). More to this, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space according to the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space, in which a model of human consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the red-shift effect, carbon dating, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1276] **viXra:1801.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 22:47:02*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Are you and I here because of evolution? Or are we here because there is a humanistic, rational, scientific and entirely natural explanation for what is called God? If there is, we must ask: how does an "entirely natural" process end up being called "supernatural" by some people? The answer seems to lie with the applications in thousands of years from now of quantum mechanics being unified with general relativity - and the seeming SUPERnaturalness of those apps to today's world (they apparently embrace all of space and time).
In years past, the denial of divine beings by science may have been logical. But times sometimes change radically. Such a paradigm shift seems to be upon us now, with the discovery of gravitational waves and the anticipation of quantum gravity. In changing times, scientists must always keep open minds. And if biological evolution explains less than we've come to believe, it is assumed that present theories concerning cosmic evolution might be in some - certainly not total - need of revision. This is explored in topics such as gravitation, infinity, quantum gravity, space-time travel, the universe's binary digits and topology, the reason the Higgs field is actually the gravitational - electromagnetic field, alleged universal expansion, and imaginary time.
Many references are from the scientific literature but I do not apologize for those that come from popular science sources. Authors cannot allow these to be inaccurate if they value their reputation at all. And such references are often excellent at communicating ideas.
I believe this article will obviously be seen by some as too speculative, and irrelevant to the early 21st century. The theoretical physicist John Wheeler once said some of the original papers on quantum mechanics were also considered extremely speculative. Look how far quantum mechanics has come in less than a century! So speculation is not a bad thing.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1275] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 09:39:07*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The electrical constant and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' ln(196883).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1274] **viXra:1801.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 09:29:14*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Equations of the general theory of relativity are derived within the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. A new interpretation of gravitation is given. The absence of quantum gravity is predicted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1273] **viXra:1801.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 05:27:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1272] **viXra:1801.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 06:04:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Mathematics is the Heaven of physics but at the same time can often be a hell that leads astray. Here we present a list of the twelve most illogical ideas in particle physics and cosmology accepted by the scientific community. One of the items on the list is the Higgs mechanism. We show that in fact the Higgs mechanism does not explain the origin of the gravitating masses or gravitational fields. The Higgs mechanism is a mathematical hocus-pocus because it does not refer to physical phenomena. The superluminal quantum entanglement causes that in reality quantum physics is classical and statistical. Observers claim that the Uncertainty Principle is valid because detectors can not see the superluminal exchanges. What’s more, the detectors see a statistical picture of a large number of consecutive states that are often the same states. Speed of photons in “vacuum” is invariant/the-same only in relation to the systems with which the photons are entangled.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1271] **viXra:1801.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 23:37:31*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this variant, the geometry is related to the energy, which is equal to the average langrangian of three-dimensional gravity. The topology of a three-dimensional space generates the energy of a particle

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1270] **viXra:1712.0672 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-30 14:40:48*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3% of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5).
This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size that is rotating on 3 axes where the Dark Energy is 68.2 percent of the universe and is simply the kinetic energy from the matter contained in the universe as the universe rotates on 3 axes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1269] **viXra:1712.0644 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 04:58:57*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 92 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitational field is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is a discrete function”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function.
The momentum of the graviton is negative p = - m × v.
“Gravitons have negative energy E = a × f and the speed higher than the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from your professors, from your books that a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence of a mass into space.
You learned about couple gravitational fields, using PDEs (conditions of continuity and differentiability).
More complicated are the equations, more impressive is the theory for those who do not understand gravitations. Writing wrong and useless equations related to Einstein’s wrong gravitation theory was the job for the scientists in the last 100 years.
In classical mechanics the gravitational field is the negative gradient of the gravitational potential.
Einstein did not understand gravity and reinterpreted gravity not as a force pulling on objects but as a curvature of spacetime; Einstein's field equations.
Quantum theories of gravity like String theory, LQG… try to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics.
Because Einstein gravitation theory is wrong, quantum theories of gravity like String theory, LQG…are wrong theories.
Einstein did not receive the Nobel Prize for his theory, but they received in 2017 the Nobel Prize for detection of gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein’s theory.
LIGO announced the first-ever direct detection of gravitational waves.
“Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
As a consequence of Einstein wrong gravitation theory, the physicists explained how they can travel trough a black hole, trough a wormhole.
“A black hole attracts with greater force a planet, than the planet attracts the black hole”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
“Newton's third law is wrong”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1268] **viXra:1712.0591 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-24 09:42:52*

**Authors:** U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Preprints2017,2017110119

By considering two virtual gravitational constants assumed to be associated with electromagnetic and strong interactions, in a theoretical and verifiable approach, we make an attempt to estimate the Newtonian gravitational constant from microscopic elementary physical constants. With respect to Fermi's weak coupling constant and root mean square radius of proton, estimated value of the Newtonian gravitational constant is 6.67454X10(-11) m3/kg/sec2 and our estimated value is 6.679856X10(-11) m3/kg/sec2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1267] **viXra:1712.0569 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 17:30:34*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Light is quantum which indicates the duality of particles and waves. Therefore, it is not possible to make a model of light to explain two antithetical characters at the same time. But, I succeeded to draw a model of light having simultaneously both characteristics of particles and waves based on “energy body theory”. The reason why light makes interference fringes in Young double slit experiment became clear by this. Particularly, the reason why interference fringes are made, even when photons are emitted one by one, if many photons are emitted, were also made clear. More, this photon model gives the reason to the phenomena such as reflection, refraction and invariable velocity of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1266] **viXra:1712.0546 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 03:05:59*

**Authors:** Antonio Puccini

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

In its natural state the electron is represented by superimposed quantum states. This is the phase of linear unitary evolution, or U Phase, described by Schrodinger equation. Whereas, when we carry out a measurement (M), it took place a reduction of the state vectors(R Process): we have the wave function collapse (WFC) of the measured quantum object (QO). The M, thus, produces a big changes on the physical properties of the observed particle. How do these changes happen?
What is the secret mechanism which creates the WFC? We don’t know.
With this paper we try to introduce a new parameter, induced by the electro-magnetic radiation (EMR), which can help us discern the doubts about the R Process, and try to find a continuity in order to link the U Phase to the R Process, so contrasting at the moment.
The new parameter could be a gravity and quantum effect, when we try to make a M of a subatomic object. What is this effect represented by?
It is a gravitational effect, since it is a mass-effect, a mechanical action induced by quanta of EMR: therefore, it is also a quantum effect. The photon (P) is indispensable to carry out a M. No M can be carried out without using the EMR.
Calculus show that a P of the optic band hits an electron with a dynamic-mass, a radiation pressure, a pushing momentum equal to 1.32510-22[gcm/s]. Thus, we can infer it is a quantum gravitational effect to cause the WFC of the QO undergoing the M.
In short, it could be essentially the mechanical action represented by the gravitational mass effect of light’s quanta to induce the WFC and the Measurement’s Paradox and, likely, make a starting point to a Correct Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1265] **viXra:1712.0529 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 01:03:10*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This relationship shows that the fluctuation in the volume of the geometry of space generates an energy fluctuation, that is, matter. Matter is created from the topology of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1264] **viXra:1712.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 09:53:51*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The many velocity gauge fields interaction Lagrangian density is extended to a continuous spectrum Lagrangian then quantized and normalized. The Euler-Lagrange equation is transformed to the Yang-Mills field, curvature and integral operators. The Yang-Mills field operator quantization gives the equivalent Dirac equation, the integral operator quantization gives perturbation series similar to the path integral formulation of Quantum mechanics and the curvature operator gives the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian. In all quantization cases, the field form operators have mass eigenvalue. Finally, the normalization of the wave function gives the Lagrangian of massive particle Lagrangian with many different representations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1263] **viXra:1712.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 09:10:04*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. would be entry into new FQXI contest

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion.
Key words, Ricci Scalar, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1262] **viXra:1712.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 00:52:04*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 12 Pages. References to be supplied. the author can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com

The author attempts to unify General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. This involves the use of the Cartesian Axes as the building blocks of reality. A certain set is employed and this permeates the content of the article. The author can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1261] **viXra:1712.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 15:45:55*

**Authors:** Ozan Varli

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A Highly Consistent Hypothesis Which Supports All The Observations

Description in the theory of general relativity of the gravity is completely just a misunderstanding. Because curvature of space is caused by gravity. Gravity is a field force that bends space, because it causes acceleration as shown by Newton. And a new theory of gravity which supports our observations is suggested named as neutral field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1260] **viXra:1712.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 21:42:54*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42.
The answer could very well be related to 42. Sphere theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.047987*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.588269 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1259] **viXra:1712.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 13:41:40*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concepts of mass, force and energy in the theory of generated space-time-matter are described.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1258] **viXra:1712.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 07:49:41*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Sunspots and Starspots in general are originated by former Comet nuclei crashed into the sun (or stars) which should be interpreted as new physics black holes.
Those black holes seem to be able repel Fermionic matter but absorb the Axion Higgs field vacuum, which is the origin of a constant nuclear black hole growing ins size, but not in mass effect.
Tabby’s star seems to be a star being preparing for super nova explosion by the over density of starspot black hole populations, just as is observed in super novas such as the Helix nebula, showing rings of point like hotspots interpreted as former starspots, expelled from the nucleus.
As a consequence, in Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) all black holes should deviate strongly from the black holes as proposed by the physics community and could be named “electric dark matter black holes” with an external negative charge without graviton radiation or even real mass- and inertia effects.
The gravity effect observed around black holes is supposed to be originated by the dark energy pressure of the external massless “Oscillating Axion Higgs Rigid String Vacuum Lattice”
The Massless Axion-Higgs Vacuum Rigid String particle, is the transformer into all other particles (Bosons, Fermions) and even concentrated in Micro and Macro Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei.
Q-FFF Theory, is basically a classical theory based on transformable rigid string based building blocks of a raspberry shaped clockwork multiverse, however these building blocks are all instantly guided by long distance entanglement between CP symmetric copy universal bubbles.
As a consequence Quantum FFF Theory should be called a semi classical theory,
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs vacuum and black hole particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic cold big bang black hole nucleus as the creator of only one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1257] **viXra:1712.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 21:21:19*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEc BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper further explores the structural similarities between the elementary quantum-mechanical wavefunction and circularly polarized electromagnetic waves to further tune a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction.
The interpretation that is offered analyzes the real and the imaginary part of the wavefunction as oscillations which each carry half of the total energy of the particle. These oscillations are perpendicular to each other, and the interplay between both may describe how energy propagates through space over time. The model is based on three fundamental premises:
1.The dimension of the matter-wave field vector is force per unit mass (N/kg), as opposed to the force per unit charge (N/C) dimension of the electric field vector. This dimension is an acceleration (m/s2), which is the dimension of the gravitational field.
2.This gravitational disturbance may cause a charged mass to move about some center, combining linear and circular motion. This interpretation may reconcile the wave-particle duality to some extent: fields interfere but if, at the same time, they do drive a pointlike particle, this may explain why, as Feynman puts it, “when you do find the electron some place, the entire charge is there.”
This hybrid hypothesis is supported by an elegant yet simple derivation of the Compton radius of an electron.
3.In light of the direction of the magnetic moment of an electron in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the plane which circumscribes the circulatory motion of the electron should also comprise the direction of its linear motion. Hence, unlike an electromagnetic wave, the plane of the two-dimensional oscillation cannot be perpendicular to the direction of motion of our electron.
Finally, this paper addresses an issue which has hampered other physical interpretations of the wavefunction: amplitude transformations when going from one representation (or reference frame) to another.
Indeed, the author re-visits the original mathematical arguments here and shows that the proposed model, and the related physical interpretation of the wavefunction, are not incompatible with the key results and mainstream logic in this regard.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1256] **viXra:1712.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 11:17:24*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The Massless Axion-Higgs Vacuum Rigid String particle, is the transformer into all other particles and even concentrated in Micro and Macro Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei.
Quantum FFF Theory is basically a classical theory based on transformable rigid string based building blocks of a raspberry shaped clockwork multiverse, however these building blocks are all instantly guided by long distance entanglement between CP symmetric copy universal bubbles.
As a consequence Quantum FFF Theory should be called a semi classical theory,
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs vacuum and black hole particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic cold big bang black hole nucleus as the creator of only one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1255] **viXra:1712.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 14:28:19*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The model put forth in this paper presupposes that spacetime is not a mathematical abstraction but has a basis in physical reality with matter and spacetime being convertible states of the same theoretical quantum particle. This postulated quantum particle is composed of D-branes and Type I strings and the nomenclature for this brane/string complex is the B-string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1254] **viXra:1712.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 06:15:59*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The additional deceleration of massive bodies in the model of low-energy quantum gravity due to forehead and backhead collisions with gravitons is re-calculated in this note. It is shown that
this deceleration $w$ is equal to: $w=-H_{0}c \cdot
4v^{2}/c^{2}\cdot (1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{0.5},$ where $H_{0} $ is the Hubble constant, $c$ is the velocity of light, $v$ is the body's
velocity relative to the background.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1253] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 15:12:37*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages. First draft

Quantum gravity, which necessarily breaks the equivalence principle, is most easily discussed using the hypothesis of non local mass generation. Here we define all the essential elementary algebra needed to understand the new cosmology and its quantitative consequences. There is no dark matter and no dark energy. Mass is quantised much as spin is quantised, and gravity emerges from quantum information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1252] **viXra:1712.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 16:13:54*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature are emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino (as the first massive fermionic particle) is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory, but can be combined with their achievements.
Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1251] **viXra:1712.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 16:29:25*

**Authors:** Yazzed Al-Harbi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Yang-Mills theory, one of the most important questions is to mathematically explain the mass gap, or nonzero mass, in quantum applications of the formulas. By deriving continuous lattice and perturbative formulations in this paper for QCD constitutions representing the mass gap, As a consequence The fourmulations obey general and special relativity, Newton's gravitational law and Klein-Gordon equation as the "Glue-balls".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1250] **viXra:1712.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-02 02:57:02*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A unified Mathematical framework which describes particles interactions both in classical field theory of gravity and quantum field theory is presented, by introducing a velocity gauge field. The velocity gauge field Lagrangian is developed and shown to be equivalent to the Dirac field and related to
the Electromagnetic field. The velocity fields interactions are shown to produce the Einstein-Hilbert action Lagrangian. Similar extension of the Mathematical framework to the Electromagnetic field produces the Quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills fields Lagrangians. Finally, a unified Lagrangian describing both velocity field and Electromagnetic field types is presented and alternative formulation suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1249] **viXra:1711.0457 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 05:53:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “Evidence for Granular Space-time”(1), Sphere Theory was proposed as a hypothesis by the author that the universe is a sphere made of spheres that again are made of smaller spheres. The levels of spheres, that were studied, are as follows; the Hubble sphere, which is of the order of 13.8 billion light years in radius; the Planck Sphere, which is the order of the Comptom wavelength of the neutron; and Kaluza sphere, which has Planck dimensions. The value N=6.57920*10^40 was determined to be the amount of Kaluza spheres on the outside of three Planck spheres. If we assign mass to be equivalent to a number of spheres we can show that Planck Mass is the number of Kaluza spheres in the volume of 3 Planck Spheres and The mass of the Neutron is layer of Kaluza spheres on the surface of 3 Planck Spheres. It was discussed in “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (2), that active part of the Planck Sphere and Hubble Sphere is due to imperfections in the packing of spheres with spheres, that turns out to be almost exactly equivalent to the outer surface of the sphere. Although these imperfections of packing are throughout the sphere, they are equivalent to outer packing surface of the sphere. It is these imperfections that are the only pieces of information in the sphere, the rest is perfectly packed and offer no information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1248] **viXra:1711.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 08:07:58*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and transformation processes of real but different shaped symmetric sub quantum rigid stringy particles.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1247] **viXra:1711.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 11:25:07*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The mirror neutrino hypothesis for quantum gravity has been used to resolve known cosmological problems using quantised inertia. In this note we clarify the theoretical principles, describe the true electroweak vacuum, and explain where conventional holographic scenarios go wrong.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1246] **viXra:1711.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 04:44:38*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The point is to define the limiting continuum field theory. In principle, this might even be done without taking limits. The Hamiltonian, the operator on the quantum Hilbert space which generates time translations, has a square root called the supercharge. Here we use the Moon model and Parfait logic. Furthermore, although one has changed the problem, one still has a fairly close relation to the original problem using the ideology of the renormalization group. We can start with a supersymmetric theory, and add supersymmetry breaking terms to the action which only become important at long distances as many lattice spacings, to obtain a theory with the better renormalization properties of the supersymmetric theory at short distances, but which reduces to conventional Yang-Mills theory at longer distances. Thus, a solution to the problem in a sufficiently general class of supersymmetric theories, would in fact imply the solution of the original problem. We propose a Cacace tetraoxygen universe relative to a Poincaré Dodecahedral Space. This is called an oxozone.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1245] **viXra:1711.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 04:01:16*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this development upon four previous papers [1][2][3][4], we shall finally explain the link between the idea of “time” and “energy”, in bringing the idea of parity between time and energy while explaining why quantum entanglement [5] as a concept is “immediate” (seeming to break the confines of time itself). First, we shall integrate the idea of time as energy into all the references made regarding energy in the four preceding papers, to demonstrate the consistency and greater detail available to the theory via this method of time-energy regard. Then, we shall derive the temperature of the background microwave radiation [6] in expanding upon paper 4, suggesting a “reverse” process to entropy is in play regarding the cosmic background microwave radiation and associated heat/temperature generation. Finally, we will then be able to propose the nature of the appearance of the universe of stars in this new context, through this new filter of time-energy regard.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1244] **viXra:1711.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 18:39:55*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A theory of vacuum quantum gravity is developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1243] **viXra:1711.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 00:11:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. FFP 15 talk, half an hour, November 30, 11-11:30 AM

** NOTE, this is a “30 minute” Communications talk approved by Jesus, of FFP15
For November 30, 2017. Presumably for the conference proceedings**
We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). Two action integrals, one which is connected with quantum gravity is called equivalent to another action integral, and the 2nd action integral has a Lagrangian multiplier in it. Using the idea of a Lagrangian multiplier as a constraint equation, we draw our conclusions in a 1 to 1 and onto assumed equivalence between the two action integrals. The viability of the 1 to 1 and onto linkage between the two action integrals is open to question, but if this procedure is legitimate , the conclusions so assumed are fundamentally important. We also state this procedure should be streamed toward giving substance to the paper entitled “Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant”, by Ning Bao, et.al.2017 , as a way to find conditions for restricting the size of the cosmological constant to be of 10^ - 120 for reasons we discuss as a future works project. We come up with relic GW which are after 65 e folds of inflationary expansion leading to 10 ^ 36 GHz high frequency GW being possible at the site of formation of the 10^-120 sized cosmological constant, for 10 GHz HFGW today. After 65 e folds of inflationary expansion
Key words, Ricci Scalar, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1242] **viXra:1711.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 08:05:05*

**Authors:** Nathan Hamaoui

**Comments:** 9 Pages. an original theory of everything, copyrighted in referenced book by same author

This paper presents a unique ‘Theory of Everything’ that starts from the bottom up – building the universe from almost scratch. It then proceeds to define and map basic physical concepts including time and space. Viewed from this theory’s perspective, many currently axiomatic and paradoxical phenomena make natural sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1241] **viXra:1711.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 13:47:53*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Brannen circulants extend Koide’s rule for the charged leptons to the neutrinos. Assuming Koide’s rule is correct, we look at the deviation from 2/9 in the lepton phase, noting a striking correspondence with the CKM Euler angles. An estimate for the fine structure constant is included.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1240] **viXra:1711.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:12:59*

**Authors:** Jeremiah Johnson

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Examining the relationship between solar neutrino flux and gravity finds they correlate by
$\frac{(2\mathit{GM})}{\varrho _t}=c^2\ell _P t$
where $\varrho _t$ are neutrinos produced per t time, c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and is Planck's length. The correlation finds a match to within 0.74% of modern standard solar models and 0.63% of solar neutrino measured values(well within the margin of error). I also consider how this simplifies the Schwarzschild radius and the ramifications of this model on gravitational time dilation. Lastly, I consider how the relation between neutrinos and gravity may help unravel the positive cosmological constant and Supernova behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1239] **viXra:1711.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 16:44:05*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

We obtain a polynomial based iterative solution for early universe creation of the Higgs boson mass, using a polynomial with the coefficients for derived through integral formulations with the mass of a Higgs boson, and the construction of the coefficients derived as of the using a potential system, for the Higgs, largely similar to the Peskin and Schroeder quantum field theoretic treatment for a Higgs potential. Afterwards, we examine if mass may have complex number and possibly imaginary values, with attendant description of consequences in the electroweak regime of space-time. We end with a description of Imaginary mass becoming Real in Electroweak, with resultant consequences for DM discussed in the last section with explicit construction of space-time bubbles nucleated due to imaginary mass of Higgs becoming real, as a contributing source of GW radiation in Electroweak era

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1238] **viXra:1711.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 17:44:40*

**Authors:** Thomas J. Buckholtz

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper discusses and applies a basis for modeling elementary forces and particles. We show that models based on isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators describe aspects of the four traditional fundamental physics forces and point to some known and possible elementary particles. We summarize results from models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators. Results include predictions for new elementary particles and possible descriptions of dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1237] **viXra:1711.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 03:05:12*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. submitted to Physics Letters B

Recently, solutions to the $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson (BP) equation were found with relevant cosmological applications. We were able to obtain an exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density, and explain the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature. In this work we provide further results which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime; explain how Bohm's quantum potential in four-dimensions could be re-interpreted as a gravitational potential in five-dimensions, and which explains why the presence of dark energy/dark matter in our $4D$ spacetime can only be inferred $indirectly$, but not be detected/observed directly. We conclude with some comments about the Dirac-Eddington large numbers coincidences.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1236] **viXra:1711.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 03:29:57*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The derivation of Lorentz transformations is shown in the theory of emergent space-time-matter. A new interpretation of the Lorentz transformations and special theory of relativity is given.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1235] **viXra:1711.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 14:54:45*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The observationally successful FRW cosmology of Riofrio provides a viable alternative to LCDM. In this context we study neutrinos in quantum gravity using McCulloch’s approach to quantum inertia. There is no dark energy and no dark matter, and mirror states are informationally connected to the CMB. Quantitative consequences include (i) a present day CMB temperature of 2.75K and (ii) an effective sterile neutrino mass of 1.29eV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1234] **viXra:1711.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 08:38:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Recent gravitational wave detections have allowed physicists to confirm with greater and greater precision what Einstein predicted over 100 years ago in the theory of general relativity: that gravity does not act instantaneously as Newton thought, but instead propagates at the speed of light. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1233] **viXra:1710.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 23:11:27*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper, I want to conclude that elementary particles are topological objects of the geometric nature of the three-dimensional gravity of Chern Simons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1232] **viXra:1710.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 11:06:27*

**Authors:** S.A. Larin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Relativistic quantum gravity with the action including tems quadratic in the curvature tensor is analyzed. We derive new expressions for the crresponding Lagrangian and the graviton propagator. We argue that the considered model is a good candidate for the fundamental quantum theory of gravitation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1231] **viXra:1710.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 15:57:17*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Based on Prof. Bekenstein and Prof. Hawking, the black hole maximal entropy , the maximum amount of information that a black hole can absorb, beyond its event horizon is proportional to the area of its event horizon divided by quantized area units, in the scale of Planck area (the square of Planck length).[1]
This quantization in entropy and information in the quantized units of Planck area leads us to the assumption that space is not “smooth” but rather divided into quantized units (“space cells”). Although the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy equation describes a specific case regarding the quantization of the 2D event horizon, this idea can be generalized to the standard 3 dimension (3D) flat space, outside and far away from the black hole’s event horizon. In this general case we assume that these quantized units of space are 3D quantized space “cells” in the scale of Planck length in each of its 3 dimensions.
If this is truly the case and the universe fabric of space is quantized to local 3D space cells in the magnitude size of Planck length scale in each dimension, than we assume that there must be extra non-local space dimensions situated in the non-local bordering’s of these 3D space cells since there must be something dividing space into these quantized space cells.
Our assumption is that these bordering’s are extra non local dimensions which we named as the “GRID” (or grid) extra dimensions, since they look
like a non-local 3D grid bordering of the local 3D space cells. These non-local grid dimensions are responsible for all unexplained non-local phenomena’s like the well-known non-local entanglement or in the phrase of Albert Einstein “spooky action at a distance” [2].So by proving that space-time is quantized we prove the existence of the non-local grid dimension that divides space-time to these quantized 3D Planck scale cells.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1230] **viXra:1710.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 15:37:57*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 83 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“The Gravitational waves have their energy contained in gravitons”
. Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons have negative energy E = a × f and the speed higher than the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitons are the carriers of the gravitational interactions at quantum level in my theory of quantized gravity.
Einstein did not receive the Nobel Prize for his wrong gravitation theory, but they received the Nobel Prize for the gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein’s wrong theory.
Einstein did not understand quantum gravity.
Ferent quantum gravity theory is the right gravitation theory.
For Einstein, Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves with the speed of light.
“Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent
“LIGO is the biggest fraud in science”
Adrian Ferent
“In the last 100 years nobody discovered 1 meter of curved space”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1229] **viXra:1710.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 12:45:01*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

outline of book project

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1228] **viXra:1710.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 15:37:08*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

preliminary version of a book about foundations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1227] **viXra:1710.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 20:53:44*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The wavelength of the bright line spectrum of light from a hydrogen atom is explained by Niels Henrik David Bohr's hydrogen atom model. But, I assumed that "the energy and momentum of a photon " were equal to "electronic kinetic energy", in the unique way from Bohr's hydrogen atom model, and it was confirmed that the wavelengths of the bright line spectrums of light from a hydrogen atom were calculated correctly. This thing means that electronic kinetic energy becomes a photon being separated from an electron. Moreover, it means that the direction and velocity of a traveling photon is different from well-known ones of light which is generally admitted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1226] **viXra:1710.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-24 01:42:13*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages. submitted to Physics Letters B

Recently, solutions to the $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson equation were found [2] with cosmological applications. We were able to obtain a value for the vacuum energy density of the same order of magnitude as the extremely small observed vacuum energy density, and explained the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature. In this work we show how to obtain a value for the vacuum energy density which coincides $exactly$ with the extremely small observed vacuum energy density.
This construction allows also to borrow the results over the past two decades pertaining the study of the Renormalization Group (RG) within the context of Weinberg's
Asymptotic Safety scenario. The RG flow behavior of $ G $ shows that $ G $ $increases$ with distance, so that the magnitude of the repulsive force exemplified by $ - G < 0 $ becomes larger, and larger, as the universe expands. This is what is observed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1225] **viXra:1710.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 04:19:04*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Small KiloNova Merger Black Holes could be the origin of micro lensing Dark Matter Micro QSO Galaxy Halo population and 511 KeV Halo point sources.
Halton Arp was the first astronomer who observed accelerating QSO objects ( Quasi Stellar Objects or Quasars) out of the galaxy into the halo sphere.
Now we suggest (according to Quantum FFF Theory) that dark matter is the same as black holes small or large , which are assumed to accelerate away from local gravity centers just as observed by H.Arp.
At the same time it is assumed that the dark matter structure of the galaxy halo is mainly based on small black holes formed by Neutron star mergers.
Reason to search for so called gravitational micro QSO lensing events in the MW halo also called MACHO, Masco or Salco.
A second Halo postulation, is that the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles. This Big Crunch real particle based nucleus created the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice and numerous chunky nuclei of massive dark matter black holes.
The oscillating vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame of flux tubes, and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time.
The local lattice length is called Planck length, which is assumed to vary dependent on the distance to local vacuum absorbers in the form of black hole nuclei, which grow continuously, in contrast with the so called Hawking evaporation of black holes.
The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons are not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions, however with less impulse than the vacuum dark energy particles.
As a consequence, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1224] **viXra:1710.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 04:43:32*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 5 Pages. submitted to Physics Letters B

After applying the recently proposed Bohm-Poisson equation [1] to the observable Universe as a $whole$,
and by introducing an ultraviolet (Planck) and infrared (Hubble) scale, one can naturally obtain a value for the vacuum energy density of the $same$ $magnitude$ as
the extremely small observed vacuum energy density, and explain the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature. Because Bohm's formulation of QM is by construction non-local, it is this non-locality which casts light into the crucial ultraviolet/infrared entanglement of the Planck/Hubble scales which was required in order to obtain the observed value of the vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1223] **viXra:1710.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 11:28:03*

**Authors:** U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Prespacetime Journal. (2017). 8(6): 777-791.

To have a unified model of nuclear quantum gravity, it seems quite reasonable to consider a large nuclear gravitational constant, $G_s
\cong 3.3\pm 0.03
times 10^{28}$ $m^3/kg/sec^2$. In this context, we show practical applications pertaining to micro physics as well as macro physics. We would like to suggest that: (1) $G_s$ plays a crucial role in understanding quantum theory of light, photoelectric work functions, superconductivity, nuclear binding energy, nuclear root mean square charge radii, neutron-proton mass difference, nuclear stability, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, weak coupling angle, Fermi’s weak coupling constant, proton melting point and total energy of electron in Hydrogen atom etc.; (2) Nuclear binding energy can be understood with a single energy coefficient of magnitude 10 MeV. (3) Newtonian gravitational constant $G_N$ and the proposed $G_s$ play a joint role in understanding neutron star mass generation as well as proton mass generation; and (4) Considering $G_s$ as a characteristic feature of magnetism, celestial bodies ‘mass dependent’ magnetic dipole moments can be estimated.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1222] **viXra:1710.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 13:08:02*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We consider how inertia appears in the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The phenomenon of inertia is explained for the case of the presence of reflection symmetry (parity) in the wave function. This symmetry is broken only in weak interactions. For the case of weak interaction, there is no explanation for inertia, but there is an assumption that the development of a mathematical model based on the construction of universes from the field of the Metauniverse will justify the inertia for such a case.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1221] **viXra:1710.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 05:55:47*

**Authors:** XiaoLin Li

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A new gravity theory. Gravity is a projection force from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The Lorentz symmetry is a projection of particle-wave symmetry from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The gravity is an additional projection force of Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity is an extension to Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity can be seen as some kind of symmetry. Gravity only exists in 4-dimensional space-time. In 5-dimensional space-time, there not have gravity. Equivalence principle is invalid in the new gravitation. In the new gravitation, there does not have gravitational acceleration. In the new gravitation, there only have inertial coordinates, not have non-inertial coordinates. In the new gravitation, the gravity source is only the rest mass, not energy. The particle can’t be the gravity source if the particle not has rest mass. The photon not has gravity. But any particle can be affected by gravity. The photon is affected by gravity also. The gravitational mass is only equivalent to the rest mass. Under approximate weak gravity and approximate circular orbit condition, the new gravitation is equivalent to the General Relativity. The four classic experimental tests, the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of mercury, the red shift of light by the sun, the radar echo delay, are experimental tests to the new gravitation also. But even under approximate weak gravity condition, if the orbit is not approximate circular, if the orbit has higher eccentricity, there exists obvious difference between the General Relativity and the new gravitation. This difference can be a experimental test to distinguish which one is more realistic. The space-time is flat in the new gravitation, not is curved. In the new gravitation, the energy is conserved. The new gravitation is simpler than the General Relativity. In the new gravitation, the photon’s equivalent gravitational acceleration is twice of the acceleration in Newton Gravitation. In the new gravitation, there not exists black hole, but exists empty hole, and not exists space-time singularity and energy singularity. The new gravity has obvious scale effect. The new gravity has the scale factor. In gravity field, the scale factor determines the quantization results of particle’s motion. The new gravity perhaps is a force that inhibits the uncertainty of macroscopic objects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1220] **viXra:1710.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 23:42:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article was rejected by "Physical Review D" because it is "scientifically very far from the current state of knowledge in the field". Why do people (including scientists) avoid anything "scientifically very far from the current state of knowledge in the field"? Being far from the current state does not mean my article is incorrect. Depending on the extent of its accuracy, it offers either large or smaller opportunities for readers to make unanticipated advances in science.
When his paper regarding mathematical formulas creating reality was submitted to a scientific journal and rejected as being too speculative, U.S. cosmologist Max Tegmark showed the rejection letter to his friend John Wheeler (1911-2008), a Princeton theoretical physicist. Wheeler rejected the rejection and said, “Extremely speculative? Bah!” Then he reminded Tegmark that some of the original papers on quantum mechanics were also considered extremely speculative. (p.2 of “Is the Universe Actually Made of Math?” By Adam Frank, Monday, June 16, 2008 -
http://discovermagazine.com/2008/jul/16-is-the-universe-actually-made-of-
math#.UQNDUR2-pFk
Remembering Professor Wheeler ...
This article begins with a well known astronomer and author saying "It now truly appears that the universe is infinite”. But how can the cosmos be infinite when general relativity says an infinite amount of energy would curve the universe to an infinitely small size, which obviously does not happen! The proposed solution refers to a problem physics had 120 years ago - a blackbody could release an infinite amount of energy, causing experiment and theory to diverge radically in the ultraviolet spectrum. Max Planck's solution of dividing electromagnetic radiation into quanta (photons) is called upon, and the universe's infinity is "broken" into discrete units by suggesting it's composed of electronics' binary digits (since General Relativity taught us that time is curved and warped, the fantastic possibility exists that the 1's and 0's come from the far future of humanity).
Whatever their origin, the binary digits are assembled, via references to science and maths, into two-dimensional Möbius strips and then four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles. This topological structure is given mass in parts through the coupling of the long-range gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Their interaction substitutes for the Higgs field, according to M. Tanabashi; M. Harada; K. Yamawaki. Nagoya 2006: "The Origin of Mass and Strong Coupling Gauge Theories". International Workshop on Strongly Coupled Gauge Theories. pp. 227–241). The strong and weak nuclear forces may also ultimately result from gravitational - electromagnetic coupling, making the nuclear forces non-fundamental.
For a moment, let's allow our imaginations to fly ... while we simultaneously remain grounded in science. Suppose the 1's and 0's really do come from the far future of humanity. Could a future computer simulation of the universe that uses mathematics' boundary-less, so-called Imaginary Time cause the simulation to be eternal, infinite, and indistinguishable from this "real" universe? (The lack of boundaries would also avoid Relativity's breaking down at the scale of quantum mechanics, thus introducing the graviton and the theory of Quantum Gravity.) This outcome involving so-called Imaginary Time (I.T. might be a better name) is plausible. Professor Itzhak Bars of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles says, "one whole dimension of time and another of space have until now gone entirely unnoticed by us".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1219] **viXra:1710.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 05:04:24*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, ( Function Follows Form at the quantum scale) Mass is the potency of rigid string based Fermions and Bosons, to produce and radiate Gravitons by the collision process, between mass less but energetic oscillating transformable Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and.. more complex shaped compound Fermions or Bosons (W + Z+Higgs family).
Gravity is assumed to be the statistical result of local dual opposing graviton pressure (instead of attraction) with opposing Axion Higgs field particles on fermions.
A recent example of local vacuum pressure duality is called “Dipole Repeller” gravity by Yehuda Hoffman also suggested partly in line as Emergent Gravity by E. Verlinde.
More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons photons per Planck time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field..
Black holes do not radiate gravitons but “eat” the local vacuum particles leading to a single repeller effect on the growing Black hole nucleus.
The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long as they do not collide with fermions or bosons.
The new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot of Axion Higgs particles, compressed together by the inflow of vacuum particles.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus .
In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth and all atomic fermions is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum.
Rigid string shaped Fermions are assumed to have a real propeller shape able to plow into the direction of motion through the local space time creating vacuum lattice.
Bosons without a propeller shape ( Higgs and Z ) including black hole nuclei, seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1218] **viXra:1710.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 04:41:56*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The theory of dynamic space has been conceived and written by Professor
Physicist Naoum Gosdas, inspired from the principle of antithesis (opposition), because
of which all natural phenomena are created. These phenomena are derived from the
unique absolute dynamic space, which is structured with the fundamental elements,
namely the dimension or distance or length, the elementary electric charges (units)
and the forces, according to the principle of antithesis. However, due to the finite
dimensions of the Universe and the opposition between existence (the Universe) and
nonexistence (non space), a spherical deformity of the space occurred, which has
created the equality of the peripheral and radial cohesive forces (Universal symmetry)
and the Universal antigravity force, whereby the Hubble's Law is proved. The breaking
of the above Universal symmetry, close to the Universe center, causes the Genesis of the
primary form of matter, the first grand Cosmic event of Universe. The gravitational
mass of the particle is defined as a stretching of the dynamic space by the core vacuum
(Higgs boson) of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1217] **viXra:1710.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 17:20:09*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, Stepan Moskaliuk

**Comments:** 56 Pages. 2nd paper submitted as a conference proceedings paper for the Bogoliubov astroparticle and quantum foundations conference, in Kiev, Ukraine, September 2017

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so we also invoke the geometry of Octonionic non commutative structure and when it breaks down as a trigger point for the release of entropy. Following Lloyd, as to entropy production with 1 count of entropy linked to one graviton via Ng Infinite quantum statistics, and we follow up on this modeling of entropy production by examining if we can relate the presumed graviton production with the behavior of Planck sized mini black holes, in the early phases of cosmological expansion. This analysis is in tandem with considerations as to what is essential as to accessing the quantum versus classical nature of the early universe, with the above listed as consequences. We close with the 2nd half of our work which is reviewing relic gravitons, and their role in presumed entanglement from a prior universe construction to the present universe, possibly for the unification of physical law, from cycle to cycle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1216] **viXra:1710.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 06:23:54*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or Emergent Gravity.
More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field..
So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption.
Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..
The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close.
So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus.
At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all.
In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth and all atomic fermions is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum.
Rigid string shaped Fermions are assumed to have a propeller shape able to plow into the direction of motion through the local spacetime creating vacuum lattice.
Conclusion Bosons (Higgs, W and Z particles) seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice. The LHC could perhaps be able to show this anti inertial mass effect created by the solar reference frame or solar LASOF ( Local Oscillating vacuum Frame).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1215] **viXra:1710.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 08:50:43*

**Authors:** Yazzed T.Al-Harbi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we will show the provement of the hadrons existence mechanism. Its duo to the physical consequences of the spinning quarks and the color charge. When we simulate the supposed situation by mathematics we find that it's achieves the perfect understanding of the all physical interactions and all the mysteries of the particle physics with its measurements which proved experimentally.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1214] **viXra:1710.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 11:14:12*

**Authors:** Romeo D. Matshaba

**Comments:** 43 Pages. first published and copyright by: International Journal of Recent Research in Physics and Chemical Sciences (IJRRPCS) Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp: (1-7), Month: April 2017 – September 2017,

About a century ago, Albert Einstein realized how the Theory of Newton's Universal Gravitation was inadequate to describe nature and needed to be revised in order to be neatly incorporated into the relativistic scheme with its undesirable instantaneous force shortcomings. Since then we have come to adopt the relativistic high energy tensor theory of General Relativity, which saw its inception into mainstream physics in the year 1916. General Relativity has stood firm against varied tests, such as: gravitational lensing, perihelion of mercury, gravitational time dilation, PSR1913+16 etc, but with the steady advancement of Quantum Mechanics, and its overwhelming experimental success, we are yet again faced with the same problem that was faced a century ago, but this time, the problem is much worse, and the elephant in the room is General Relativity. The fact that General relativity and Quantum mechanics, share different views in the description of space and time or space-time, with quantum mechanics in favor of the latter and general relativity of the former; does not allow one to have a smooth transition from one representation to the other. This automatically implies that for scenarios where both quantum mechanics and gravity / general relativity are required, then that scenario is unsolvable with our current model of physics (hence either General Relativity or Quantum Mechanics is flawed). It becomes clear from the microscopic realm of quantum mechanics and the cosmological problems associated with General Relativity, such as dark energy, dark matter, the inflation force... perhaps a bit closer to home for general relativity being the singularities inherent in its own equations, and the very nature of General Relativity, allowing mostly approximate solutions (reason why most physicist, even today still cling to Newtonian dynamics), because of this and more a new theory of gravity is required – the much anticipated “Quantum Gravity” – just as it was required those many years ago. In the theory that I propose, we will see how from the most basic concepts of quantum mechanics, a theory of gravity can emerge that has the power to not only be mathematically simpler than General Relativity, explain dark energy, dark matter and inflation without any ad-hoc mechanisms, but also have the power to unify all the forces of nature into a single unified theory of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1213] **viXra:1710.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 04:08:48*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Mass is the potency of Rigid strings, to produce Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons.
More extended loops or "arms" of each particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons per time unit.
Gravity , is the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
However, the ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length.
So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is only few graviton production supposed.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus.
At the same time, the few gravitons are not able to leave the black hole at all.
Thus less pushing graviton production means also less inertial mass effect..
In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum .
Conclusion Bosons (Higgs, W and Z particles) seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice. The LHC could perhaps be able to show this anti inertial mass effect created by the solar reference frame or solar LASOF ( Local Oscillating vacuum Frame).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1212] **viXra:1710.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 05:57:14*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 14 pages, including 12 figures

The quantum/classical connection, found in an analysis of dark energy as vacuum energy, maps the radii of celestial bodies onto specific mass scales in the quantum world. The sun, owing to its location in the middle of the Main Sequence, is associated with a rich phenomenology. While the radius of Jupiter maps onto the mass of the Higgs boson, the radius of the sun maps onto the mass (49.4 GeV) of a particle that is symmetrically opposed to the Higgs boson on the mass levels of the Planck Model and is coupled to the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1211] **viXra:1709.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 01:12:29*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Philosophy part of theory of emergent space-time-matter is discussed. It was shown that anthropic principle is direct consequence of emergent time. It was shown that conscience is epiphenomenon, but it is more fundamental than matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1210] **viXra:1709.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-23 13:11:07*

**Authors:** Jérémy Kerneis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We use 3 equations as postulates: Pem referring to electromagnetism, Pgrav referring to gravity, and Pqm referring to quantum mechanic and defining the wave function.
Combining Pem with "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" corresponds to the original quantum theory of Hydrogen, which produces the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms (Sommerfeld's and Dirac's theories of matter produces the same energy levels, and Schrodinger's theory produces the approximation of those energy levels). Pqm implies that the wave function is solution of both Schrodinger's and Klein-Gordon's equations in the non interacting case while, in the interacting case it implies "Sommerfeld's quantum rules": Pem and Pqm then produce the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms (the same as Dirac's energy levels). We check that the required degeneracy is justified by pure deduction, without any other assumption (Schrodinger's theory only justifies one half of the degeneracy). We observe the connection between Pqm, Quantum Field Theories and tunnel effect.
From Pgrav we deduce an equation of motion very similar to general relativity (with accuracy 10^{-6} at the surface of the Sun), our postulate being explicitly an approximation.
First of all, we discuss classical Kepler problems (Newtonian motion of the Earth around the Sun), explain the link between Kelpler's law of periods (1619) and Plank's law (1900) and observe the links between all historical models of atoms (Bohr, Sommerfeld, Pauli, Schrodinger, Dirac, Fock).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1209] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 04:11:52*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1208] **viXra:1709.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:26:18*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** Pages.

The current notion of spacetime is marked by three assumptions which are in contradiction to special relativity and to the Schwarzschild metric, and this is the reason why the quantization of spacetime cannot work. Instead, the key to quantum gravity is the limitation of the notion of spacetime to its actual role, by the means of three insights:
1. Spacetime is not continuous, in particular not in spacelike direction, and thus it cannot be quantized.
2. For the solution of fundamental problems of physics about time, we must consider the notion of proper time instead of the coordinate time of spacetime.
3. Gravitation may be represented by Schwarzschild metric not only as the curved spacetime, but alternatively also as gravitational time dilation in absolute, uncurved space.
From these three insights are following the characteristics of quantum gravity. The result: Gravity appears within quantum mechanics in the form of gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1207] **viXra:1709.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:32:12*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** Pages.

La notion actuelle de l'espace-temps est marquée par trois présomptions qui ne sont pas compatibles avec les principes de la relativité restreinte et de la métrique de Schwarzschild, et c'est la raison pourquoi la quantification de l'espace-temps ne peut pas fonctionner. Pour arriver au but, il est important de limiter l'espace-temps à son véritable rôle, fondé sur trois conclusions :
1. L'espace-temps n'est pas continu, il n'y a notamment pas de continuité dans la direction genre espace, et pour cette raison toute tentative de sa quantification doit échouer.
2. Pour les problèmes fondamentaux de la physique par rapport au temps, il faut se baser sur la notion fondamentale du temps propre au lieu de la notion du temps coordonné de l'espace-temps.
3. La gravitation peut être représentée par la métrique de Schwarzschild non seulement sous forme d'espace-temps courbe, mais aussi sous la forme de la dilatation de temps gravitationnelle dans l'espace absolu, non courbé.
A partir de ces trois conclusions il est possible de déduire les caractéristiques de la gravité quantique. Le résultat : La gravité agit dans la mécanique quantique en tant que dilatation de temps gravitationnelle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1206] **viXra:1709.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:35:01*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** Pages.

Der heutige Raumzeitbegriff wird von drei Annahmen geprägt, die im Widerspruch zur speziellen Relativitätstheorie und zur Schwarzschildmetrik stehen, und dies ist der Grund, warum eine Quantisierung der Raumzeit nicht funktionieren kann. Zum Ziel führt stattdessen die Beschränkung der Raumzeit auf ihre eigentliche Rolle, anhand von drei Erkenntnissen:
1. Die Raumzeit ist nicht stetig, insbesondere nicht in raumartiger Richtung, und daher nicht quantifizierbar.
2. Für fundamentale Probleme der Physik zum Thema Zeit muss man auf den fundamentaleren Begriff der Eigenzeit abstellen, nicht jedoch auf die Koordinatenzeit der Raumzeit.
3. Gravitation lässt sich von der Schwarzschildmetrik nicht nur in der gekrümmten Raumzeit darstellen, sondern auch als gravitative Zeitdilatation im absoluten, ungekrümmten Raum.
Aus diesen drei Erkenntnissen ergeben sich die Merkmale der Quantengravitation. Das Ergebnis: Gravitation wirkt im absoluten Raum der Quantenmechanik als gravitative Zeitdilatation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1106] **viXra:1802.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-15 17:42:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as the amount that is predicted by Newton's theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force will be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus.
We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field, which renders that field equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and gives the same results as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super-massive objects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1105] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-12 00:40:53*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1104] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-10 10:18:13*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1103] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-07 15:14:26*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1102] **viXra:1802.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-08 22:55:15*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail.
Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' surrounding galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which may generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1101] **viXra:1801.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 12:29:01*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1100] **viXra:1801.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-28 14:07:48*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1099] **viXra:1801.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-03 02:56:29*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

This paper details a “time-relativity” theorem, the golden ratio algorithm effecting a unified theory of time and space, the calculations of which are entirely consistent with all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena, atomic to cosmological, where “time” is presented as the fundamental “quality” of reality through which space, defined as 0-scalar space, is given its characteristics. Six key preceding papers [1-6] are streamed in sections 1-6, following which section 7 presents all the key concepts of the new relativity of time and associated cosmological model into a “one theory” for time and space; flowcharts are forwarded highlighting the idea of time as this new algorithm linking all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena. From this, it is demonstrated that all key concepts of space-time have been addressed, with all relevant equations derived thereof, all central to the new algorithm for time. Finally, three key mechanisms of proof, well within scientific research capability of the near future, are proposed, detailing here how to emerge a gravitational field from electromagnetism in a laboratory setting.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1098] **viXra:1801.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-25 15:11:40*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Sphere Theory has shown that Planck Pressure(1) is the gravitational force between two Hubble Universes on Planck Area. This paper shows that the perceived change in acceleration of the universe, at about 5 billion light years, can be explained by the gravity between two universes. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is at 5.27 billion light years from the center of the universe. It is hypothesized here, that if the observed change in the rate of expansion of the universe occurs at exactly 5.27 billion light years from earth, that the earth is near the center of the universe, that there are multiple equal sized universes, and the boundary of the universe is the Hubble sphere at approximately 13.8 billion light years in radius. Since there will be 12 spheres surrounding the one sphere, there should actually be some spherical shape to the appearance of a rate of expansion with dimples and points. It should be pointed out that there should be other mechanisms that are much larger contributors to the appearance of a rate of expansion to the universe, but as more data is gathered the shape of the change in rate of expansion, from the external universes, should become evident.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1097] **viXra:1801.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-31 04:04:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The Golden Ratio

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is a sphere made of spheres, made of spheres, etc. (1) It was shown by Sphere Theory that Planck Pressure is a pressure of gravitational force between adjacent Hubble Sphere universes. (2) We can use a simple calculation to show why the Golden Ratio is prevalent in our universe. The Golden Ratio can be shown to be produced by the gravity between two, uniform, and symmetrical spheres. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is found to be related to the Golden Ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1096] **viXra:1801.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-17 09:47:25*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A gravitational momentum space wavefunction and its inverse spacetime Fourier transformation are constructed from the classical particle Lagrangian. From non-relativistic metric, the momentum space wavefunction gives the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with gravity temperature relation and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Schrodinger equation with a harmonic oscillator potential, leading to the Gauss’s law for gravity with mass density gravity relation. From the special relativity metric, which is shown to set the temperature at about 7.64×10^-12 K and density at about 3.58×10^9 kgm^-3, the momentum space wavefunction gives a relativistic momentum distribution and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Dirac equation with a spacetime potential. Finally, the many identical particles wavefunctions are also constructed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1095] **viXra:1801.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-20 17:57:17*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Consider how the meridians of gnomonic projected light waves onto vision receptors are similarly distorted. Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4 spacetime is just one phase of this multispace. The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained (Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1094] **viXra:1801.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 13:23:16*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Considered the meridian distortions of gnomonic projection of light waves in vision. Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4 spacetime is just one phase of this multispace. The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained (Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1093] **viXra:1801.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-03 02:24:00*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1-5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description how consciousness emerges (as proposed in paper 3 [3]) from time-space. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, while explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s finding of consciousness being the emergence from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). Additionally, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space per the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space via which a model of “human” consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the wormholes, red-shift effect, carbon dating, gamma radiation, white holes, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy, will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed, proof not yet proposed by contemporary science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1092] **viXra:1801.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-17 00:53:40*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1-5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description how consciousness emerges (as proposed in paper 3 [3]) from time-space. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, while explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s finding of consciousness being the emergence from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). Additionally, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space per the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space via which a model of “human” consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the wormholes, red-shift effect, carbon dating, gamma radiation, white holes, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy, will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed, proof not yet proposed by contemporary science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1091] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-26 03:13:33*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the Witten 'moonshine entropy' lnD, with D = 196883 = 59(59²-12²). The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the controversial tabulated one. The monstrous fifth number in the fractional development of pi is clearly involved. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D, implies the string central number 496, very close to the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses, which are connected by an holographic relation, confirming the Eddington tau-proton symmetry and the symmetrical Koide relation. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass, from its approximation 59²me, so directly tied to D, and compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1090] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-20 04:59:20*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the Witten 'moonshine entropy' lnD, with D = 196883 = 59(59²-12²). The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the controversial tabulated one. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D, implies the string central number 496, very close to the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses, which are connected by an holographic relation, confirming the Eddington tau-proton symmetry. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass, from its approximation 59²me, so directly tied to D, and compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1089] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 00:12:17*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the tabulated one. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, and confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1088] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-15 01:48:42*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), and directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses. This mass correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, and confirming the BIPM value for G, at 4s the tabulated value. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, entering the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1087] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-11 23:47:25*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), and directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, entering the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical Laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1086] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-09 23:54:16*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson). The fith power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, entering the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1085] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-08 23:42:55*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1084] **viXra:1712.0672 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-03 21:59:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3 % of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5).
This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size. That dark energy may be 66.37 % of the total energy/mass of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1083] **viXra:1712.0672 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-01 17:45:58*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Errors in calculation in first submission

Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 66.37 % of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5).
This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1082] **viXra:1712.0477 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 05:14:38*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The many velocity gauge fields interaction Lagrangian density is extended to a continuous spectrum Lagrangian then quantized and normalized. The Euler-Lagrange equation is transformed to the Yang-Mills field, integral and curvature form operators. The Yang-Mills field form operator quantization gives the equivalent Dirac equation, the integral form operator quantization gives perturbation series similar to the path integral formulation of Quantum mechanics and the curvature form operator is used to get the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian density; operators are quantized with mass eigenvalue. Finally, the normalization of the wave function gives a charged massive particle Lagrangian density with six representations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1081] **viXra:1712.0447 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-08 08:29:27*

**Authors:** Mohamed Abdelwhab Husseiny

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Several attempts to develop a quantum theory of gravity based on Einstein's theory of general relativity have been made. This study shows that the quantization of general relativity is impossible if space is sloped. The slope of space creates a new kind of energy that causes objects, such as bodies, particles, and gravitational waves, to slide backward during their forward motion (similar to sliding during hill climbing). This energy causes gravitational waves, bodies, particles, and light to experience slight resistance while spreading or progressing forward in space and time. I find that if absolute space supposed by Newton is sloped space, many phenomena will be created such as time dilation, space & time reversal, emergence of space-time, constancy of speed of light and gravity reversal. The conclusions drawn in this study refer to the “gravity is non quantum if space has slope, where the reversed time between two moving particles is more than or equal to the time interval between these two particles, or the reversed space between two moving particles is more than or equal to the space interval between these two particles.” This work does not aims to prove existence or absence of gravity at the smallest scale; rather it aims to show that there is a new property related to space that if it exists, quantum theory of gravity becomes unnecessary, therefore testing of this property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1080] **viXra:1712.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-15 09:31:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ADDED A SECTION WHICH ANSWERS THE FQXI CONTEST QUESTIONS

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion. Section 6 details my actual answers to the essay’s ideas, in lieu of the creation of this answer to the cosmological constant due to enhanced quantization.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1079] **viXra:1712.0389 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-12 04:53:04*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42.
The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57920 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1078] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 22:34:44*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis : a Cosmic Boson completing the Cartan-Bott series. This time is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the Monster group order. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington Statistical approach, considered as the third pillar of physics, rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The consideration of canonic economic numbers leads to the discovery that the Monster order is very close to the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. A direct connexion is found between the Monster group and the first Mathieu one, which confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but distinct from the tabulated value (4 sigma). The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster order and basic number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis in a matter-antimatter blinking Cosmos. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1077] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-16 03:36:35*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis, corresponding to a Cosmic Boson completing the Cartan-Bott series. This time is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the Monster group order. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington Statistical approach, considered as the third pillar of physics, rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers leads to the discovery that the Monster order is very close to the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster order and basic number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis in a matter-antimatter blinking Cosmos. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1076] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-14 00:16:32*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis, and which is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington approach rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers leads to the Monster order to be the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster and number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis in a matter-antimatter blinking Cosmos. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1075] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-02 00:20:28*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis, and which is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington approach rejoins the
Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers leads to the Monster order to be the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster and number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1074] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 22:41:02*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two mandatory combinations from different triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 1057 s, which is, apart a factor √2, the
Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington approach rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological
Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers implies a connection between the Monster and the
pariah group J3., while the whole “happy family” shows overwhelming properties. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are
also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1073] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 07:57:13*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two mandatory combinations from different triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 1057 s, which is, apart a√2 factor, the
Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington approach rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of asingle electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological
Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers implies a connection between the Monster and the
pariah group J3., while the whole “happy family” shows overwhelming properties. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are
also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1072] **viXra:1712.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 18:37:13*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The model put forth in this paper presupposes that spacetime is not a mathematical abstraction but has a basis in physical reality with matter and spacetime being convertible states of the same theoretical quantum particle. This postulated quantum particle is composed of D-branes and Type I strings and the nomenclature for this brane/string complex is the B-string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1071] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 12:34:59*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The elementary algebra underlying the non local neutrino hypothesis is used to explain discrepancies in the value of Hubble's constant in terms of other physical constants, in the approximation of the R=ct semiclassical cosmology with Mach's principle. It is assumed that quantum gravity breaks the equivalence principle, in conjunction with a quantum Higgs mechanism, and this new view of the electroweak vacuum indicates an absence of dark matter and dark energy. We introduce mass quantisation in the Brannen-Koide scheme in this context.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1070] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 11:44:35*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The elementary algebra underlying the non local neutrino hypothesis is used to explain discrepancies in the value of Hubble's constant in terms of other physical constants, in the approximation of the R=ct semiclassical cosmology with Mach's principle. It is assumed that quantum gravity breaks the equivalence principle, in conjunction with a quantum Higgs mechanism, and this new view of the electroweak vacuum indicates an absence of dark matter and dark energy. We introduce mass quantisation in the Brannen-Koide scheme in this context.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1069] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-14 12:55:16*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The elementary algebra underlying the non local neutrino hypothesis is used to compute the low z value of Hubble's constant in terms of other physical constants, using the R=ct semiclassical cosmology. It is assumed that quantum gravity breaks the equivalence principle, in conjunction with a quantum Higgs mechanism. This new view of the electroweak vacuum indicates an absence of dark matter and dark energy. Mass quantisation uses the Brannen-Koide scheme.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1068] **viXra:1712.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 05:53:38*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A unified Mathematical framework which describes particles interactions both in classical field theory of gravity and quantum field theory is presented, by introducing a velocity gauge field. The velocity gauge field Lagrangian is developed and shown to be equivalent to the Dirac field and related to the Electromagnetic field. The velocity fields interactions are shown to produce the Einstein-Hilbert action Lagrangian. Similar extension of the Mathematical framework to the Electromagnetic field produces the Quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills fields Lagrangians. Finally, a unified Lagrangian describing both velocity field and Electromagnetic field types is presented and alternative formulation suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1067] **viXra:1711.0419 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-01 02:19:49*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this development upon four previous papers [1][2][3][4], we shall finally explain the link between the idea of “time” and “energy”, in bringing the idea of parity between time and energy while explaining why quantum entanglement [5] as a concept is “immediate” (seeming to break the confines of time itself). First, we shall integrate the idea of time as energy into all the references made regarding energy in the four preceding papers, to demonstrate the consistency and greater detail available to the theory via this method of time-energy regard. Then, we shall derive the temperature of the background microwave radiation [6] in expanding upon paper 4, suggesting a “reverse” process to entropy is also in play regarding the cosmic microwave background radiation and associated heat/temperature generation. Finally, we will then be able to propose the nature of the appearance of the universe of stars in this new context, through this new filter of time-energy regard.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1066] **viXra:1711.0419 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-15 21:26:13*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

: In this development upon four previous papers [1][2][3][4], we shall finally explain the link between the idea of “time” and “energy”, in bringing the idea of parity between time and energy while explaining why quantum entanglement [5] as a concept is “immediate” (seeming to break the confines of time itself). First, we shall integrate the idea of time as energy into all the references made regarding energy in the four preceding papers, to demonstrate the consistency and greater detail available to the theory via this method of time-energy regard. Then, we shall derive the temperature of the background microwave radiation [6] in expanding upon paper 4, suggesting a “reverse” process to entropy is also in play regarding the cosmic background microwave radiation and associated heat/temperature generation. Finally, we will then be able to propose the nature of the appearance of the universe of stars in this new context, through this new filter of time-energy regard.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1065] **viXra:1711.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-21 12:45:12*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Brannen neutrino mass triplet extends Koide's rule for the charged leptons, which was used to correctly predict the tau mass. Assuming that Koide's rule is exact, we consider the fundamental 2/9 lepton phase, noting connections to the CKM matrix and arithmetic information. An estimate for the fine structure constant is included.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1064] **viXra:1711.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-19 12:43:47*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Brannen neutrino mass triplet extends Koide's rule for the charged leptons, which was used to correctly predict the Tau mass. Assuming that Koide's rule is exact, we consider the small deviation from the 2/9 lepton phase, noting connections to the CKM matrix and arithmetic information. An estimate for the fine structure constant is included.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1063] **viXra:1711.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-22 20:49:54*

**Authors:** Jeremiah J Johnson

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Examining the relationship between solar neutrino flux and solar gravity finds they correlate by
(Equation provided in PDF)
where are neutrinos produced per t time, c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and is Planck's length. The correlation finds a match to within 0.74% of modern standard solar models and 0.63% of solar neutrino measured values(well within the margin of error). I also consider how this simplifies the Schwarzschild radius and the ramifications of this model on gravitational time dilation. I consider how the relation between neutrinos and gravity may help unravel the positive cosmological constant and Supernova behavior. Furthermore, I find evidence of a direct relationship between quantum angular momentum spin and gravity. Lastly, three testable predictions are provided.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1062] **viXra:1711.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-21 02:22:06*

**Authors:** Jeremiah Johnson

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Several updates made to the draft, removing speculation and cleaning up the equations and units.

Examining the relationship between solar neutrino flux and gravity finds they correlate by...
(equation and variables removed due to Latex not showing, see pdf document). The correlation finds a match to within 0.74% of modern standard solar models and 0.63% of solar neutrino measured values(well within the margin of error). I also consider how this simplifies the Schwarzschild radius and the ramifications of this model on gravitational time dilation. I consider how the relation between neutrinos and gravity may help unravel the positive cosmological constant and Supernova behavior. Furthermore, I find evidence of a direct relationship between quantum angular momentum spin and gravity. Lastly, three testable predictions are provided.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1061] **viXra:1711.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-05 23:12:29*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to Phys. Letts. B

Recently, solutions to the $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson (BP) equation were found with relevant cosmological applications. We were able to obtain an exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density, and explain the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature.
In this work we considerably improve our prior arguments in support of our findings, and provide further results which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime; explain how Bohm's quantum potential in four-dimensions could be re-interpreted as a gravitational potential in five-dimensions, and which explains why the presence of dark energy/dark matter in our $4D$ spacetime can only be inferred $indirectly$, but not be detected/observed directly. We conclude with some comments about the Dirac-Eddington large numbers coincidences.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1060] **viXra:1711.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-26 14:07:39*

**Authors:** G. Dungworth, M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Beginning with the observationally successful FLRW constraint of Riofrio, a classical alternative to LCDM, we introduce a mass gap correction to cosmology, incorporating a few aspects of the $\Lambda$CDM model, wherein both neutrinos and non local mirror neutrinos play a key role. Non local neutrinos are antineutrinos. The equivalence principle is mildly broken using McCulloch's approach to quantum inertia and a new holographic principle. There is no dark matter and no dark energy, and mirror neutrino states are informationally connected to the CMB. Consequences include (i) a present day temperature of 2.73 K arising as a mirror rest mass, (ii) an estimate of the observable mass of the universe and (iii) an effective sterile mass of 1.29 eV, permitted by current oscillation results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1059] **viXra:1711.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-23 14:16:24*

**Authors:** G. Dungworth, M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We study two cosmologies, (i) the observationally successful FLRW constraint of Riofrio, a viable alternative to LCDM, and (ii) an adaption of this to quantum gravity, including aspects of the $\Lambda$CDM model, where neutrinos and mirror neutrinos play a key role. Mirror neutrinos are antineutrinos. The equivalence principle is mildly broken, using McCulloch's approach to quantum inertia and a new holographic principle. There is no dark matter and no dark energy, and mirror neutrino states are informationally connected to the CMB. Consequences include (i) a present day temperature of 2.73K arising as a mirror rest mass, (ii) an estimate of the observable mass of the universe and (iii) an effective sterile mass of 1.29eV, permitted by oscillation results.
\end{abstract}

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1058] **viXra:1711.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-14 15:19:42*

**Authors:** G. Dungworth, M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We study two cosmologies, (i) the observationally successful FRW con- straint of Riofrio, a viable alternative to ΛCDM, and (ii) an adaption of this to quantum gravity including aspects of the ΛCDM model, where neutrinos and mirror neutrinos play a key role. The equivalence prin- ciple is mildly broken, using McCulloch’s approach to quantum inertia and a new holographic principle. There is no local dark matter and no dark energy, and mirror neutrino states are informationally connected to the CMB. Consequences include (i) a present day temperature of 2.73K arising as a mirror rest mass, (ii) an estimate of the observable mass of the universe and (iii) an effective sterile mass of 1.29eV, permitted by oscillation results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1057] **viXra:1711.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-09 13:38:18*

**Authors:** G. Dungworth, M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The observationally successful FRW constraint of Riofrio is a viable alternative to LCDM. We consider neutrinos in this context, using quantum gravity, holography and McCulloch’s quantum inertia. There is no dark energy and no local dark matter. Consequences of the new cosmology include (i) a CMB temperature of 2.73K from a mirror rest mass and (ii) a resolution of the neutrino DE coincidence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1056] **viXra:1711.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-05 13:40:38*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The observationally successful FRW alternative of Riofrio is a viable alternative to LCDM. In this context we study neutrinos in quantum gravity, using McCulloch’s quantum inertia and a new holographic principle. Quantitative consequences include (i) the CMB temperature of 2.73K from a mirror rest mass and (ii) an effective sterile mass of 1.29eV, in line with observation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1055] **viXra:1710.0280 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 12:07:33*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 230 Pages.

preliminary version of a book about foundations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1054] **viXra:1710.0280 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 17:47:58*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 227 Pages.

preliminary version of a book about foundations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1053] **viXra:1710.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-30 06:58:56*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is confirmed that a photon is the kinetic energy detached from an electron, and, the kinetic energy of an electron is undulation created in space, because of the wave length of bright line spectrum of light.
The wavelength of the bright line spectrum of light from a hydrogen atom is explained by Niels Henrik David Bohr's hydrogen atom model. But, I assumed that "the energy and momentum of a photon " were equal to "electronic kinetic energy", in the unique way from Bohr's hydrogen atom model, and it was confirmed that the wavelengths of the bright line spectrums of light from a hydrogen atom were calculated correctly. This thing means that electronic kinetic energy becomes a photon separated from an electron. Moreover, it means that the direction and velocity of a traveling photon is different from well-known ones of light which is generally admitted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1052] **viXra:1710.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-20 00:17:49*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

After applying the recently proposed Bohm-Poisson equation [1] to the observable Universe as a $whole$, and by introducing an ultraviolet (very close to the Planck scale) and an infrared (Hubble radius) scale, one can naturally obtain a value for the vacuum energy density which coincides $exactly$ with the extremely small observed vacuum energy density, and explain the origins of its $repulsive$ gravitational nature. Because Bohm's formulation of QM is by construction non-local, it is this non-locality which casts light into the crucial ultraviolet/infrared entanglement of the Planck/Hubble scales which was required in order to obtain the observed value of the vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1051] **viXra:1710.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-26 07:20:12*

**Authors:** Seshavatharam U.V.S, Lakshminarayana. S

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Dedicated to Dr. Abdus Salam sir

To have a unified model of nuclear quantum gravity, it seems quite reasonable to consider a large nuclear gravitational constant, $G_s \cong \left(3.3\pm 0.03\right) times 10^{28}$ $m^3/kg/sec^2$ . In this context, we show practical applications pertaining to micro physics as well as macro physics. We would like to suggest that: (1) $G_s$ plays a crucial role in understanding quantum theory of light, photoelectric work functions, superconductivity, nuclear binding energy, nuclear root mean square charge radii, root mean square radius of proton, neutron life time, neutron-proton mass difference, nuclear stability, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, weak coupling angle, Fermi’s weak coupling constant, proton melting point and total energy of electron in Hydrogen atom etc.; (2) Nuclear binding energy can be understood with a single energy coefficient of magnitude 10 MeV. (3) Newtonian gravitational constant $G_N$ and the proposed $G_s$ play a joint role in understanding neutron star mass generation as well as proton mass generation; and (4) Considering $G_s$ as a characteristic feature of magnetism, celestial bodies ‘mass dependent’ magnetic dipole moments can be estimated. (5) Magnitude of $G_N$ can certainly be estimated from microscopic elementary physical constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1050] **viXra:1710.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-04 03:37:04*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We consider how inertia appears in the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The phenomenon of inertia is explained for the case of the presence of reflection symmetry in the wave function. For the rest of cases, there is no explanation for inertia, but there is an assumption that the development of a mathematical model based on the construction of universes from the field of the Metauniverse will justify the inertia for such a case.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1049] **viXra:1710.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-19 06:45:03*

**Authors:** XiaoLin Li

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new gravity theory. Gravity is a projection force from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The Lorentz symmetry is a projection of particle-wave symmetry from 5-dimensional space-time into 4-dimensional space-time. The gravity is an additional projection force of Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity is an extension to Lorentz symmetry. The new gravity can be seen as some kind of symmetry. Gravity only exists in 4-dimensional space-time. In 5-dimensional space-time, there not have gravity. Equivalence principle is invalid in the new gravitation. In the new gravitation, there does not have gravitational acceleration. In the new gravitation, there only have inertial coordinates, not have non-inertial coordinates. In the new gravitation, the gravity source is only the rest mass, not energy. The particle can’t be the gravity source if the particle not has rest mass. The photon not has gravity. But any particle can be affected by gravity. The photon is affected by gravity also. The gravitational mass is only equivalent to the rest mass. Under approximate weak gravity and approximate circular orbit condition, the new gravitation is equivalent to the General Relativity. The four classic experimental tests, the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of mercury, the red shift of light by the sun, the radar echo delay, are experimental tests to the new gravitation also. But even under approximate weak gravity condition, if the orbit is not approximate circular, if the orbit has higher eccentricity, there exists obvious difference between the General Relativity and the new gravitation. This difference can be a experimental test to distinguish which one is more realistic. The space-time is flat in the new gravitation, not is curved. In the new gravitation, the energy is conserved. The new gravitation is simpler than the General Relativity. In the new gravitation, the photon’s equivalent gravitational acceleration is twice of the acceleration in Newton Gravitation. In the new gravitation, there not exists black hole, but exists empty hole, and not exists space-time singularity and energy singularity. The new gravity has obvious scale effect. The new gravity has the scale factor. In gravity field, the scale factor determines the quantization results of particle’s motion. The new gravity perhaps is a force that inhibits the uncertainty of macroscopic objects. The new gravitation can derive out the result of the Planck Energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1048] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-22 10:05:04*

**Authors:** Mihir Jha

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1047] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-16 08:31:37*

**Authors:** Mihir Jha

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been
postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that
the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and
since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1046] **viXra:1710.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-05 05:38:09*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Mass is the potency of Rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons.
More extended loops or "arms" of each particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a pressure force.
So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde is one of the results of this assumption, the electric dark matter black hole non inertial effects are the other side of the coin..
The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close.
So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus.
At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all.
In Quantum FFF Theory, the inertial mass effects of the earth and all atomic fermions is supposed to be originated by the real Lorentz polarization of all fermionic mass of the earth mainly pointing into the direction of motion around the sun, as the opposing effort for the resisting vacuum.
Rigid string shaped Fermions are assumed to have a propeller shape able to plow into the direction of motion through the local spacetime creating vacuum lattice.
Conclusion Bosons (Higgs, W and Z particles) seem to be not able to polarize and will present signals to be "stuck" in the local solar centered vacuum lattice. The LHC could perhaps be able to show this anti inertial mass effect created by the solar reference frame or solar LASOF ( Local Oscillating vacuum Frame).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1045] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-21 10:05:49*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1044] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-19 07:31:21*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1043] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-17 12:26:18*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1042] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-17 09:40:35*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory