**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(3) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(8) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(5) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(6) - 1111(9) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(7) - 1202(10) - 1203(11) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(8) - 1212(2)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(16) - 1305(12) - 1306(6) - 1307(11) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(5) - 1311(14) - 1312(11)

2014 - 1401(15) - 1402(12) - 1403(13) - 1404(6) - 1405(12) - 1406(10) - 1407(16) - 1408(10) - 1409(18) - 1410(16) - 1411(19) - 1412(14)

2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(14) - 1503(15) - 1504(9) - 1505(13) - 1506(15) - 1507(19) - 1508(15) - 1509(21) - 1510(28) - 1511(22) - 1512(19)

2016 - 1601(12) - 1602(30) - 1603(21) - 1604(18) - 1605(22) - 1606(19) - 1607(21) - 1608(24) - 1609(16) - 1610(17) - 1611(25) - 1612(18)

2017 - 1701(26) - 1702(24) - 1703(16) - 1704(10) - 1705(13) - 1706(13) - 1707(14) - 1708(14) - 1709(14)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1218] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 04:11:52*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1217] **viXra:1709.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:26:18*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** Pages.

The current notion of spacetime is marked by three assumptions which are in contradiction to special relativity and to the Schwarzschild metric, and this is the reason why the quantization of spacetime cannot work. Instead, the key to quantum gravity is the limitation of the notion of spacetime to its actual role, by the means of three insights:
1. Spacetime is not continuous, in particular not in spacelike direction, and thus it cannot be quantized.
2. For the solution of fundamental problems of physics about time, we must consider the notion of proper time instead of the coordinate time of spacetime.
3. Gravitation may be represented by Schwarzschild metric not only as the curved spacetime, but alternatively also as gravitational time dilation in absolute, uncurved space.
From these three insights are following the characteristics of quantum gravity. The result: Gravity appears within quantum mechanics in the form of gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1216] **viXra:1709.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:32:12*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** Pages.

La notion actuelle de l'espace-temps est marquée par trois présomptions qui ne sont pas compatibles avec les principes de la relativité restreinte et de la métrique de Schwarzschild, et c'est la raison pourquoi la quantification de l'espace-temps ne peut pas fonctionner. Pour arriver au but, il est important de limiter l'espace-temps à son véritable rôle, fondé sur trois conclusions :
1. L'espace-temps n'est pas continu, il n'y a notamment pas de continuité dans la direction genre espace, et pour cette raison toute tentative de sa quantification doit échouer.
2. Pour les problèmes fondamentaux de la physique par rapport au temps, il faut se baser sur la notion fondamentale du temps propre au lieu de la notion du temps coordonné de l'espace-temps.
3. La gravitation peut être représentée par la métrique de Schwarzschild non seulement sous forme d'espace-temps courbe, mais aussi sous la forme de la dilatation de temps gravitationnelle dans l'espace absolu, non courbé.
A partir de ces trois conclusions il est possible de déduire les caractéristiques de la gravité quantique. Le résultat : La gravité agit dans la mécanique quantique en tant que dilatation de temps gravitationnelle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1215] **viXra:1709.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:35:01*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** Pages.

Der heutige Raumzeitbegriff wird von drei Annahmen geprägt, die im Widerspruch zur speziellen Relativitätstheorie und zur Schwarzschildmetrik stehen, und dies ist der Grund, warum eine Quantisierung der Raumzeit nicht funktionieren kann. Zum Ziel führt stattdessen die Beschränkung der Raumzeit auf ihre eigentliche Rolle, anhand von drei Erkenntnissen:
1. Die Raumzeit ist nicht stetig, insbesondere nicht in raumartiger Richtung, und daher nicht quantifizierbar.
2. Für fundamentale Probleme der Physik zum Thema Zeit muss man auf den fundamentaleren Begriff der Eigenzeit abstellen, nicht jedoch auf die Koordinatenzeit der Raumzeit.
3. Gravitation lässt sich von der Schwarzschildmetrik nicht nur in der gekrümmten Raumzeit darstellen, sondern auch als gravitative Zeitdilatation im absoluten, ungekrümmten Raum.
Aus diesen drei Erkenntnissen ergeben sich die Merkmale der Quantengravitation. Das Ergebnis: Gravitation wirkt im absoluten Raum der Quantenmechanik als gravitative Zeitdilatation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1214] **viXra:1709.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 18:47:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so we also invoke the geometry of Octonionic non-commutative structure and when it breaks down. Doing so is also equivalent to a speculation given earlier by the author as to the kinetic energy of Pre Planckian space-time being significantly larger than the Potential energy, which is the opposite of what happens after the onset of Inflation, with the assumption as to how this is justified given in a (Pre Planckian) Hubble Parameter set as of Eq. (16), and we close with a comparison of this proposal with string cosmology, as represented in the 2nd reference in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1213] **viXra:1709.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 03:36:35*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 2 Pages. You may rearrange the paper for better presentation.

Our observable universe is tiny compared to whole and Newtonian gravity is an emergent push force on matter by 750 proton mass fermion gravitons which is flowing , swirling and whirling along with gravitoetherton super fluid we call dark matter and dark energy .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1212] **viXra:1709.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 19:36:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The idea is to identify via ephemeris time as given by Barbour and an inflaton field as given by Padmanabhan, for scale factor proportional to time to the alpha power and a velocity given by Will for massive gravitons, an initial energy for a massive graviton in space-time. The spatial values for the graviton production could be from the Planckian to Electro weak regime, with a nod to using a worm hole from a prior to a present universe as a delivery font for gravitational energy, as an information carrying bridge from prior universe 'information settings' to the present space-time. The number of Gravitons will be set as N, and the initial time, as a tie in with Barbour's ephemeris time, a constant times Planck time. In setting up the positions, as input into the positions and distributions of gravitons in our model, we will compare results as could be generated by Racetrack inflation, for presumed position of relic gravitons when just produced in the universe, as compared with results given by an adaptation of an argument presented by Crowell, in a modification of the Wheeler de Witt equation he gave germane to worm hole physics. In addition, with this presentation we will discuss entropy generation via graviton production. And compare that with semi classical arguments, as well as Brane – anti brane combinations. The idea will be to in all of this to re set the particulars of massive gravity in such a way as to revisit the outstanding problem of massive gravity: Its predictions do not match those of general relativity in the limit when a massive graviton mass approaches zero. In particular, while at small scales, Newton's gravitational law is recovered, the bending of light is only three quarters of the result Albert Einstein obtained in general relativity
PACS 96.50.Ry, 98.80.-k, 98.80.Cq, 98.80.Bp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1211] **viXra:1709.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 08:31:55*

**Authors:** T. Christolyubov, M. Christolyubova

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

To construct quantum gravity we introduce the quantum gravity state as function of particle coordinates and functional of fields,
We add metric as the new argument of state:
$$
\Psi=\Psi(t,x_{1},...x_{n},\lbrace A^{\gamma}(x)\rbrace, \lbrace g_{\mu\nu}(x) \rbrace)
$$
we calculate the cosmological constant assuming that the quantum state is a function of time and radius of universe (mini-superspace)
$$
\Psi=\Psi(t,a)
$$
To avoid infinities in the solutions, we substitute
the usual equation for propagotor
with initial value Cauchy problem, which has
finite and unique solution, for example
we substitute the equation for Dirac
electron propagator
$$
(\gamma^\mu p_\mu - mc)K(t,x,t_0,x_0)=
\delta(\vec{x} - \vec{x_0})\delta(t-t_0)
$$
which already has infinity at the start
$t = t_0 $, with the initial
value Cauchy problem
$$
\begin{cases}
(H - i \hbar\partial / \partial t)K(t,x,t_0,x_0)=0,\\
K(t,x,t_0,x_0) = \delta(\vec{x} - \vec{x_0}),\quad t=t_0,
\end{cases}
$$
which has finite and unique solution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1210] **viXra:1709.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-03 13:52:23*

**Authors:** Vincent Tagliamonti, Brian Kaufman, Arthur Zhao, Tamás Rozgonyi, Philipp Marquetand, Thomas Weinacht

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We time-resolve coupled electronic and nuclear dynamics during strong-field molecular ionization by
measuring the momentum-resolved photoelectron yield as a function of pump-probe delay for a pair of strong-field
laser pulses. The sub-10-fs pulses are generated using a specially designed ultrafast optical pulse shaper and
the electrons are measured using velocity map imaging. Our measurements, in conjunction with calculations
that solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, allow us to time-resolve resonance-enhanced strong-field
ionization and break it down into three basic steps: (1) Stark-shifted resonant excitation of a high-lying neutral
state of the molecule, (2) nonadiabatic dynamics (internal conversion) in which multiple electronic states are
coupled, and (3) coupling to the continuum (ionization) http://learnrnd.com/detail.php?id=Biowarfare_and_Germwarfare

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1209] **viXra:1709.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-03 14:46:25*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Neutrino mixing in a spectral model for QFT employs the Bogoliubov transformation, which is a quantum Fourier transform. We look at the Hopf algebras in this setting, from a more motivic perspective. Experimental results for mixing are considered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1208] **viXra:1709.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-03 05:26:57*

**Authors:** J. Foukzon, A. A. Potapov, E. R. Men’kova

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

The vacuum energy density of free scalar quantum field Φ in a Rindler
distributional spacetime with distributional Levi-Cività connection is considered.It has
been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of
acceleration on quantum fields should amount to just small, sub-dominant
contributions. Here we argue that this belief is wrong by showing that in a Rindler
distributional background spacetime with distributional Levi-Cività connection the
vacuum energy of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background
distributional spacetime such a Rindler distributional background spacetime, to
become dominant over any classical energy density component. This semiclassical
gravity effect finds its roots in the singular behavior of quantum fields on a Rindler
distributional spacetimes with distributional Levi-Cività connection. In particular we
obtain that the vacuum fluctuations 〈2 has a singular behavior at a Rindler horizon
0 : 〈2~−4, ≈ c2/a,a → . Therefore sufficiently strongly accelerated
observer burns up near the Rindler horizon. Thus Polchinski’s account doesn’t
violation of the Einstein equivalence principle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1207] **viXra:1709.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-02 13:05:45*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In modern physics, understanding of gravity is perfectly understood by the general theory of relativity.
By the general relativity and its gravitational equations, gravity is understood to be a distortion of the space around mass forming.
The state of distortion in the space is perfectly explained by solving the gravitational equation.
However, neither Newton nor Einstein's general relativity explains the cause that the space around the mass distorts, and the space is distorted by what kind of mechanism.
The model of my hypothesis "particle pulsation principle" can explain the mechanism of the generation of gravity (distortion of space) in the figure.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1206] **viXra:1709.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 21:47:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Now sixteen pages, new appendix A, 5 pages, plus bridge eq (25) put in, page 7. In review for possible acceptance for JHEPGC< with Corda as lead editor>

This paper uses the “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability. The point is that it does not apply in the vicinity of the big bang. We apply this theorem to what is called by T. Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which becomes would be unstable if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism has to be appealed to. In the case of vacuum nucleation, we argue that conditions exist for the nucleation of particles as of the electroweak regime. Due to injecting material from a node point, in spacetime. This regime of early universe creation, coexits with the failure of applications of “Fjortoft” theorem in such a way as to give necessary and sufficient conditons for matter creation, in a way similar to the Higgs Boson
.
.Key words: Fjortoft theorem, thermodynamic potential, matter creation, Higgs Boson.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1205] **viXra:1709.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 00:17:59*

**Authors:** Dezso Sarkadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Today, in the areas of theoretical foundation and experimental verification, there is great interest in the properties of a future Quantum Gravity. The ultimate goal of the present research is to contribute to the creation of a definitive, universally acceptable, theory of Quantum Gravity. In the present paper, the two hundred and fifty years of history of the empirical Titius-Bode rule is investigated, under the assumption that this rule is key evidence for a quantum feature in the already long-known classical gravity.
Keywords: Titius-Bode rule, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, de Broglie matter wave, Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1204] **viXra:1708.0474 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 16:42:54*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 22 Pages. accepted by jhepgc, and Christian Corda for publication

The invariance of physical law between a prior to a present universe is brought up, as a continuation of analyzing entropy in today’s universe, and the relationship of entropy to information content in a prior universe. If or not there is enough information to preserve the amount of physical law also may play a role as to if or not additional dimensions for cosmological dynamics is necessary.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1203] **viXra:1708.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 07:14:02*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 pages, including 13 figures

Subatomic mass scales derived from the radii of the planets of the solar system, by way of the ‘quantum/classical connection’, lie on the mass/energy levels of the Planck Model. The geometric mean of the eight planetary radii maps onto the Higgs field vacuum expectation value (246 GeV), while the radius of Jupiter maps onto the mass of the Higgs boson (125 GeV). While Higgs field coupling constants derived from a ten-dimensional geometry relate particle masses to the expectation value of the field, coupling constants derived from the ten-dimensional geometry relate the planetary radii to the (geometric) mean planetary radius.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1202] **viXra:1708.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-26 21:18:14*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

There are four kinds of force in the natural world, which are electromagnetic force, weak force, strong force and gravity. To unify them, the “Theory of Everything” is looked for. More, there are also “Dark Matter” and “Dark Energy” which are still mysterious. But, “Energy Body Theory” will unify them on the base of one axiom including dark matter and dark energy. It describes that the whole universe including elementary particles is made of just only energy body. As a result, the conclusion that all interactions are caused by the difference of energy level of energy body is drawn.
Energy body theory also contrives an elementary particle model according to the axiom. The model draws the shape like that energy body is revolving as a wave motion focusing on a self-axis, and attenuates from the center part in high energy state to the foot area of the expanse part in low energy state, and becomes one with space. The spherical part of the center shows the character of a particle and the foot area part shows the character of field. A rise or a descent of energy is caused by the direction of a mutual wave motion, and repulsive force or attractive force is caused. Then, it is conceivable that light and electromagnetic waves are the transcriptions which are made when electronic posture changes and is transcript into static energy body (space).
I inspected if this idea is right applying to the basic physical phenomena which are electromagnetism, an elementary particle, gravity, dark energy and the structure of the universe, etc. And I am successful in all cases that I inspected up to now. More, basic physical phenomena which are not shown the reasons now by the present physics was explained.
For example, they are the reasons that an elementary particle has a character of electrical charge, that an electrical charge is plus or minus, that magnetic field occurs around electrical current, that an elementary particle and light have the character of duality of particle and wave, that light velocity is invariable, that Bose and Einstein condensation occurs, and what is a spin of an elementary particle.
More, the universe expansion is also too.
Energy body theory explains what gravity and the dark energy are, and even advocates the structure of the universe that the universe circulation system functions instead of big-bang theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1201] **viXra:1708.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-26 11:05:58*

**Authors:** Malik Matwi

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

We derive the canonical momentum of the gravity field. Then we use it to derive the path integral of the gravity field. The canonical momentum is represented in Lorentz group. We derive it from the holonomy U(A) of the connection A of the Lorentz group. We derive the path integral of the gravity field as known in the quantum fields theory and discuss the situation of the free gravity field(like the electromagnetic field). We find that situation is only in the background spacetime, the weak gravity situation. We search for a theory in which the gravity field is a dynamical at any energy in arbitrary curved spacetime. For that, we suggest the duality gravity-area. That duality lets to the possibility to study the both fields in arbitrary curved spacetime.
We find that the area field exists in the space-like and the gravity field exists in the time-like. We find that the tensor product of the gravity and area fields, in selfdual representation, satisfies the reality condition. We derive the static potential of exchanging gravitons in scalar and spinor
fields, the Newtonian gravitational potential.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1200] **viXra:1708.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-23 16:42:37*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 80 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I discovered that the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth!
“Gravitational force is mediated by gravitons faster than the speed of light, with negative momentum”
Adrian Ferent
“Think more and Study less”
Adrian Ferent
“Newton's third law is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from your professors and your books:
Newton's third Law of Motion: the law of Action and Reaction, if the Earth exerts a force on the Moon, the Moon must exert an equal and opposite force on the Earth.
“The flux density of gravitons emitted by the Earth is bigger than the flux density of gravitons emitted by the Moon.”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
“The Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth”

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1199] **viXra:1708.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-21 14:47:37*

**Authors:** Sundar Narayan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

ABSTRACT: Gravitons are the as-yet undiscovered particles that convey gravity. “Massive gravity” – the idea that gravitons may have a tiny positive mass mg - has recently been revived. The equations of massive gravity contain the quantity mg2 but not mg itself. Yet, the possibility that mg could be negative has never been explored. This paper shows that negative mass gravitons can 1) explain the actual mechanism of gravity in terms of Newtonian mechanics, 2) be used to derive Milgrom’s constant in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), a theory that obviates the need for Dark Matter, 3) identify Dark Energy as being equivalent to the momentum flux of negative mass gravitons, 4) suggest why a vacuum has a far lower density than what quantum field theory predicts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1198] **viXra:1708.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 12:48:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described a quantum phenomenon that forces a rapid additional increase in the coefficient k which defines the Mossbauer rotor experiment (k increases from 0.5 predicted within the General Theory of Relativity to 0.714). The extra energy shift follows from the interactions of photons with virtual charged pairs produced at the cost of the relativistic mass. Production of such pairs results from the atom-like structure of baryons described within SST. We as well answered following question: Why are there so many different theories of gravity?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1197] **viXra:1708.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 11:30:26*

**Authors:** M.P. Benowitz

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Submitted to Foundations of Physics

Through the introduction of a new principle of physics, we extend quantum mechanics by proposing three additional postulates. With them we construct a quantum theory where gravitation emerges from the thermodynamics of an entangled vacuum. This new quantum theory reproduces the observations of the $\Lambda$CDM model of cosmology, predicting the existence of massive vacua $ M_{\text{on}} = \sqrt{\dfrac{\hbar c}{G}}$ and $M_{\text{off}} = \sqrt{\dfrac{ \Lambda^{2} \hbar^{3}G}{c^{5}}}$. Finally, we propose an experiment for the formers direct detection.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1196] **viXra:1708.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 06:01:40*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

What is the source of the gravity? Why the zero point energy didn't lead the curvature of space-time to infinite? How to describe the gravity in a very short length? Why the proton almost can't decay? Who is the first cause? To answer those questions, I wrote this paper and I hope my ideas can give us a right answer.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1195] **viXra:1708.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-14 16:32:10*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We review, using our prior work the Weyl tensor as an aid to reviewing the Penrose Weyl Tensor Conjecture near start of Inflation. Our supposition is that this Weyl tensor will not vanish, and this is in tandem with a non- zero initial entropy. In doing so, we make use of two representations of the scale factor, one with , and another in terms of , with the time, scaled as . The second representation of the derivative of will yield a not equal to zero due to initial time step not being zero, i.e. a quantization of time, whereas the first representation of depends upon the initial value assumed and picked. We then afterwards, say something as to Malek’s doctoral thesis rendition of , for n general dimensions as a way to buttress our conclusion, that indeed is non-zero at start of inflation provided certain assumptions are made. Which in turn affects entropy production at the start of the universe. Note . in the case of a Pre Planckian imaginary time , i.e. to have real valued, but nonzero, we have to restrict = 1, as a way of making sense of what happens if we do use purely imaginary time. If not, then the Weyl tensor could be complex valued. If we have real time for , we have far less restrictive conditions, as is given in our document. i.e. This idea of use of a much larger initial value of the cosmological constant in line with [16] leads to a closed form solution for the if we have real time for . We conclude with our buildup to the future works section by the end of our conclusion, which has that a Pre Planckian may be linked to the inverse of the Planckian value of the initial Hubble parameter. With future input from reference [13] of our paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1194] **viXra:1708.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 05:28:05*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 76 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained Gravitational time dilation!
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time”
Adrian Ferent
Einstein’s geometric gravity is not a force like in Newton’s theory, but a consequence of the distortion of space and time.
“Gravitational field strength is smaller at higher altitude, because the flux of gravitons to the same surface is smaller at higher altitude, this means fewer interactions.”
Adrian Ferent
“Interactions in my Gravitation theory, curvature in Einstein Gravitation theory”
Adrian Ferent
Because of fewer interactions with gravitons, clocks that are far from massive bodies run more quickly and clocks close to massive bodies run more slowly.
“Scientists are more rigorous to indoctrinate people, than clerics.
Clerics need a thousand years to indoctrinate population with a new religion, scientists needed one hundred years to indoctrinate the whole world with Einstein's Gravitation theory, a wrong theory.”
Adrian Ferent
All Gravitation theories based on Einstein gravitation theory are wrong, from example the String theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1193] **viXra:1708.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 18:01:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Asks if imaginary time is derigor in the Pre Plankian universe

We start where we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor min ~ a a t
. In doing so, using the approximations brought up in the case of an early universe generation of a magnetic field, we come up with the stunning datum of a Pre Planckian space-time with purely imaginary time. The consequences of such are brought up in our document. We use what is brought up in a prior article as to Pre Planckian to Planckian generation of Magnetic fields to make our point. Here, we assume, in the Pre Planckian spacetime, a singular injection of space-time. Which we argue, if there is no spatial variation of the Inflaton field, so used, and we just have ONE Pre Planckian time instant, that this will be imaginary valued time, hence leading to pure Tunneling behavior. To whatever we are channeling from say a Penrose cosmology style CCC universe recycling, in terms of energy, is transferred to Planckian space-time

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1192] **viXra:1708.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 20:21:10*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

IN THIS PAPER I LAY DOWN THE THEORY OF QUANTUM RELATIVITY

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1191] **viXra:1708.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 05:21:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Evidence for the extra space-like dimensions predicted by string theory could be found within Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) – according to Sergio Gutiérrez, Abel Camacho and Héctor Hernández of Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa in Mexico City. [11]
University of Cincinnati theoretical physicists are about to report on a controversial discovery that they say contradicts the work of researchers over the decades. [10]
As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK’s national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1190] **viXra:1707.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 16:13:46*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

From the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), supported by cosmic data (without fitting), a new quantum scaling is derived. This scaling indicates a mechanism of formation new particles from the background matter. Based on this scaling, mass of neutrino is estimated in agreement with experimental bounds. The neutrino oscillations are explained in terms of interaction with the background quantum condensate of gravitons. Subjective experiences (qualia) and functioning of living cell are also connected with the background condensate.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1189] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-30 12:37:37*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Comments welcome

Gravity-matter duality is suggested as the first step toward quantum gravity, ensuing from the idea that the phenomenon dubbed 'gravitational field' is a new form of reality, known as Res potentia -- "just in the middle between possibility and reality" (Heisenberg, Slide 7). The essential similarities and differences between gravity-matter duality and wave-particle duality are briefly examined, with emphasis on the proposed joint solution to exact localizations of gravity and "quantum waves" at spacetime points. The latter are endowed with brand new structure and topology due to the fundamental flow of events suggested by Heraclitus and Plato.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1188] **viXra:1707.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-29 04:35:22*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 72 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I discovered how Elementary particles emit and receive Gravitons!
“I discovered how to understand Gravity in the frame of quantum mechanics!”
Adrian Ferent
“Elementary particles emit and receive gravitons because Gravity emerged at Ferent wall before the Planck wall; because elementary particles interact via the force of gravity.”
Adrian Ferent
“When a graviton is generated, it is generated the same energy and momentum, but with opposite sign which is received by the elementary particle”
Adrian Ferent
“The photon has Electric field, Magnetic field and Gravitational field components. Similarly Elementary particles have Gravitational field component.”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1187] **viXra:1707.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-28 08:01:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes that the Atlas Higgs-Like fluctuation at 240 GeV, with 3.6 sigma probability, may be possible evidence for Sphere Theory’s Cuboctahedron Structure of Hubble Sphere Universe.
Philip Gibbs highlights a prediction of Tony Smith’s prediction for a mass at 240 GeV. Tommaso Dorigo, writes an article about it on Science 2.0 and offers a possible wager.
Due to the propagation of light, gravity, charge, magnetism etc., and their quantized values, it has been hypothesized that, the universe should be filled with some type of almost homogeneous structure. It was shown in “Evidence for Granular Spacetime”( 1) that charge and gravity could be modeled by a sphere with a Compton wavelength radius of the neutron. If the neutron Compton wavelength is important to the propagation of charge and gravity then it is proposed that it also must be connected to some structure of the volume in which these forces are transmitted. “Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe” establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between underlying packing of Planck Spinning Spheres structure of the Hubble Universe correlation with higgs mass, W boson, Z boson, bottom Quark and top Quark and a cuboctahedron –Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron and the combining of the layers of a cuboctahedron packing of spheres.
The layers of a cuboctahedron follow a consistent progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer. The masses of the w boson, z boson, bottom quark, top quark and the Higgs can be directly correlated to the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure, and in a mirror manner described in this paper. This paper now shows that the Higgs-Like fluctuation at 240 GeV also follows the cuboctahedron progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1186] **viXra:1707.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-27 04:49:39*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this development upon three previous papers [1][2][3], we shall explain how photonic crystal constructs emerge from the elementary particle level in being associated to electron shells, and how they then fractally develop to a macro-world scale per a golden ratio sequence of atomic association. We will couple this with chemical-bond modelling between atoms, while then moving on to an explanation for the Avogadro number. The emphasis of this paper is to highlight the continued utility of the golden ratio modelling for time as a fixed standard for time, the great implication being the need to understand “spatial contraction” (not “time-dilation”) to satisfy ideas of relativity forwarded by Einstein a century ago. We shall highlight how this is possible by examining the phi-quantum wave-function scale as a new wave-function template for electromagnetism, as initially developed in paper-2, Golden Ratio Axioms for Time and Space [2], now carried and further developed here to explain spatial contraction and associated elementary particle dynamics (including particle spin and anti-matter/particles dynamics). Considering this phi-quantum wave-function scale, we will then finally uncover the problematic process of the Cartesian coordinate system of mathematical execution for space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1185] **viXra:1707.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-25 12:16:32*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Sphere Theory, is a theory that the universe is made of spheres, that, are made of spheres. In fact ,it is a theory of spheres all the way down. Part of the theory is that there is radiation that creates stable resonances that is similar to Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov radiation. In this paper it is shown that this same structure that is used to predict mass ratios for the proton, electron, muon, and tau to the neutron, and predictions for the Sommerfeld fine structure constant, and the von Klitzing constant, can also be used to predict a more accurate value for the Gravitational constant, with the accuracy of the Planck constant and neutron mass being the limiting factor. The value predicted for the Gravitational constant is as follows. 6.6738480×10^-11 m^3/kgs^2. We see that gravity may also have orbitals, and thus there may be some different wavelengths to gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1184] **viXra:1707.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-20 09:32:10*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Sphere Theory, is a theory that the universe is made of spheres, that, are made of spheres. In fact ,it is a theory of spheres all the way down. Part of the theory is that there is radiation that creates stable resonances that is similar to Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov radiation. In this paper it is shown that this same structure that is used to predict mass ratios for the proton, electron, muon, and tau to the neutron, and predictions for the Sommerfeld fine structure constant, and the von Klitzing constant, can also be used to predict a more accurate value for the Gravitational constant, with the accuracy of the Planck constant and neutron mass being the limiting factor. The value predicted for the Gravitational constant is as follows. 6.6738480×10^-11 m^3/kgs^2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1183] **viXra:1707.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-18 12:18:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** follow up of previous document. As cited in the first 2 pages of this new document.

Using Noethers theorem, with caveats, in order to form a magnetic field current, at the start of cosmological evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1182] **viXra:1707.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-16 09:21:39*

**Authors:** Clemens Heuson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In deformed special relativity with commuting coordinates transforming according special relativity and deformed plane waves the field equations and interactions in coordinate space remain unchanged. However in momentum space Lorentz transformations of spinors, the Dirac equation and helicity spinors are modified. The calculation of some simple tree level scattering amplitudes is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1181] **viXra:1707.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 04:12:49*

**Authors:** David A. Edwards

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The singularities of ordinary General Relativity can be avoided by considering the (mathematically well-defined) Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac-Higgs system which is (heuristically) the super-classical limit of the (not mathematically well-defined) Standard Model. This system has complete solutions without singularities, solitons, and a Cyclic Universe solution. (The system has negative energy density; hence doesn't satisfy the positivity conditions in the Penrose-Hawking Singularity Theorems.) One would like to be able to apply deformation quantization to this system to get a mathematically rigorous Standard Model in a Curved Noncommutative Spacetime. This would obviate any necessity of going further to a full quantum gravity theory. The deformation parameter would be Planck’s constant and the associated Planck Length would be the scale at which the manifold structure of spacetime gives way to a rougher structure of a noncommutative geometry. The Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac-Higgs Equations provide an alternative approach to a Cyclic Universe which Penrose has recently been advocating. They also imply that the massive compact objects now classified as Black Holes are actually Quark Stars, possibly with event horizons, but without singularities.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1180] **viXra:1707.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-04 14:18:04*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of granular spacetime. In Sphere theory the mass ratios of the electron to the neutron, the proton to the neutron, and the fine structure can be directly estimated using Sphere Theory’s unification of gravity and charge, and using a resonance of radiation similar to Bremsstrahlung Cherenkov Radiation. The values of the ratios calculated by these methods are as follows. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, Me/Mn = 5.438673444242 *10^-4. The mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, Mp/Mn=0.9986234786761 and the Sommerfeld fine structure constant Alpha=137.035999097020 (1). In this paper we use the values of Me/Mn (2), Mp/Mn (3), and Alpha, Sommerfeld fine structure constant, (4) determined from Sphere Theory to calculate the Planck Constant from each CODATA publication year, and compare it to the CODATA value of the Planck constant. These calculations may show that Sphere Theory is useful for making sense of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1179] **viXra:1707.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-04 06:53:33*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The idea of consciousness emerging from chaos is not a new idea. In fact, it is one of the oldest ideas of philosophy. What makes it an important idea to herald here (in the context of quantum gravity and a new type of string theory incorporating the Golden Ratio) is how the idea has been derived, namely from “chaos theory” sprung from two key preliminary papers [1][2]. This third paper shall take up from where the second paper [2] left off. Here, we shall explain the Schrodinger equation for light, and then present an improved equation for the energy of a photon, then confirm the emergence of light from the atomic level represents a well-known equation for chaos theory, the “logistic map equation”. From there we shall present the idea of consciousness as a need for this system of time and space to resolve the disparity between light and particle location, together with the need to reach an exact value for “π” (as was the basis for the axioms of time upon space in the development of the atom in the second paper). A list of features of this proposal of consciousness as an emergent entity will be presented that describes well-known features of the idea of our own ability to reason and be aware.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1178] **viXra:1707.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-03 08:31:25*

**Authors:** Yihan Lin

**Comments:** 2 Pages. no!

a brand new chinese version of string method which is arouse by a freshman from Peking university
it is so revolutionary that may win the 2018 Nobel Prize! so please read it carefully!

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1177] **viXra:1707.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-01 15:26:08*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 69 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained that inside a black hole, Gravitation is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, Gravitons are stronger than Gluons!
The energy of the gravitons inside a black hole is higher than: 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV
“The energy of the gravitons inside a black hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons”
Adrian Ferent
This means, this is the proof that:
“Inside the black holes, Gravitation is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force”
Adrian Ferent
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right.
“Ferent Gravitation theory explains the Universe at Galaxies level and at the Quantum level, explains black holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1176] **viXra:1706.0549 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 12:58:28*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is hypothesised that the Universe is not only expanding in space, but also in time (i.e. time slows down as the Universe ages). A new universal unit of time, acting as a scaling factor for the Universe, is proposed. An equation to calculate the age of the Universe and an equation to calculate the exact value of the gravitational constant G from the other fundamental constants are introduced. This hypothesis opens the way to the development of a new cosmological model and the unification of quantum mechanics with general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1175] **viXra:1706.0488 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-26 08:39:53*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This sequel to “Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics” will more closely examine the process of time as the Golden Ratio equation when applied to space, more than developing electrodynamic wavefunction equations, but setting an axiomatic base for the Golden Ratio as time when applied to space. Through this process we shall derive π, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light, while also confirming through these independent equations the idea of the Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Entanglement. More specifically, three fundamental things to be demonstrated here using the Golden Ratio algorithm of time will be deriving the dipole of magnetism, the electrical monopole field, and their relation to the Golden Ratio in creating the basis for the Fine Structure Constant, charge of the electron, the speed of light, and the subatomic multi-traits of the elementary particles. In confirming the need to explain the reason for the upgraded axioms for time and space, a general criticism of contemporary physics’ current use of space and time and its limitation given the entirely hypothetical nature of the resultant cosmic modelling theory regarding a multiverse and its endless possibilities is presented. The solution to this problem is explained using a more solid definition for time as the Golden Ratio, more thoroughly presented here in the context of the initial paper “Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics” [1]; the first paper was a general overview of the new a-priori for time, while this second paper examines all the generalisations and assumptions presented in the first paper, reaching ultimate theoretical axioms for time in the context of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1174] **viXra:1706.0482 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-26 06:11:49*

**Authors:** Tufail Abbas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Starting with the basic assumptions that all physical parameters are properties of a background Cubic Lattice Frame as introduced in paper , “Cubic Lattice Structure of the Universe” this paper discusses the implication of C4 Cubit (or Mass Cubits) on Gravitation Constant. After discussing related concepts of Cubic Lattice Universe, Value of G have been derived as G = H0cRu^2/Mu = 6.674078 x10-11 m3 kg-1 s-1 and G=H0(3/2πcco)(h^2/mo^3) = 6.699946 x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-1, later being not a precise values but very close to accepted value of G which is 6.67408 x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-1. Motivated by this result, the derivation is followed by a subjective narration describing Gravitation as a local anisotropic reactionary force caused due to Hubble Expansion itself. Contrary to current understanding about Hubble Expansion being caused by so called Dark Energy, it is proposed that expansion of Universe is caused by locally anisotropic emission of space by fundamental mass ( i.e.say electron) which travels through the Cubic Lattice to interact and cause isotropic expansion of the Universe, of which Gravitation is a local anisotropic effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1173] **viXra:1706.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-22 06:27:34*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov, Adelya S. Narkevich, Polina S. Shenets

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The numerical modeling of a non-relativistic modification of
dynamics due to forehead collisions of bodies with gravitons in
the model of low-energy quantum gravity is performed. We have
found too big instability of trajectories in the central field by
the anomalous deceleration $w \simeq - H_{0}c$. Perhaps, the most
probable source of that may be backhead collisions of bodies with
gravitons, not taken into account in this model up to now.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1172] **viXra:1706.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 19:53:32*

**Authors:** Andrew Cox, Mba, Jd, Llm, Sjd

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Quantum Relativity logically extends Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by incorporating quantum mechanics. It is effectively the “Theory of Everything,” which solves quantum gravity, black hole mechanics, dark matter, dark energy, and the Big Bang -- by showing that the fourth spatial dimension (hyperspace) operates as one stand-alone spatial dimension with no dimension for time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1171] **viXra:1706.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-17 10:37:06*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 66 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Ferent matter is matter with density higher than Planck density”
Adrian Ferent
Graviton momentum > Photon momentum
“Because the electromagnetic waves, the photons, can not escape from a black hole, this means the gravitons momentum emitted by the black hole is higher than the momentum of the photons”
Adrian Ferent
The gravitational force exerted by a black hole on a planet is much higher than the gravitational force exerted by a planet on a black hole.
Newton’s third law is wrong:
The energy of the gravitons emitted by a black hole, the frequency of the gravitons emitted by a black hole ν > 4.176 ×10^71 Hz, is much higher than the energy of the gravitons emitted by a planet, than the frequency of the gravitons emitted by a planet ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz.
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1170] **viXra:1706.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-15 17:15:55*

**Authors:** Norberto Meyer Roberto Morales

**Comments:** 4 Pages. "COMPLEMENTA EL ARTÍCLO "ACERCA DE LA GRAVEDAD"

Writing “G” with the help of “m1”, we find that gravity is function of the negative setting energy of a mass.
With the hydrogen atom we found that he negative rest-energy can be the (negative) binding energy of a
mass

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1169] **viXra:1706.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-11 07:17:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Mathematician and physicist Albert Einstein described the principle last century and it became known as 'Einstein's equivalence principle' for atoms whose mass is in a quantum superposition state. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1168] **viXra:1706.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-11 04:17:02*

**Authors:** Yuan Kai

**Comments:** 9 pages. Both English and chinese version encluded.

Super distance communication with quantum packet selection and grouping plus interval correction.
The first step is to group the light quantum, 2 pairs of entangled quantum constitute a group,so the group include 4 light quantum.
The second step will be compiled for each of the 3 groups of quantum,we call the 3 groups as a round.
By observe a round(6 light quantems) we determine valid round and invalid round.By valid round and interval we could send or receive message.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1167] **viXra:1706.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-09 13:42:43*

**Authors:** Santiago Lopez Ugarte

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The proposal assumes that the distortion of space-time due to relative velocity (Special Relativity), and the distortion of space-time produced by gravitational fields (General Relativity) are linked to changes of state that affect to mass-energy.
The hypothesis proposes the existence of a process linked to gravity, this phenomenon would affect mass-energy. It would be required to add an additional condition (being a more restrictive scenario) keeping the field equations that define space-time curvature, but by adding the condition linked to the proposed phenomenon, the trajectory that would follow mass-energy in that curved space-time, changes with respect to the established by the officially accepted model. The effect is negligible if the distortion of space-time caused by a gravitational field does not have a significant value. The hypothesis proposed allows to calculate mathematically the discrepancy that would exist with respect to the current model. In case of being correct, the proposal would have important implications in diverse areas of science and its effect would be determinant in the study of black holes or questions related to Cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1166] **viXra:1706.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-07 20:55:57*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Thought experiment as to the essence of particle production if a ball of early universe spacetime exists instead of a naked singularity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1165] **viXra:1706.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-05 10:08:54*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 power law (Fürth, 1929; Eddington, 1938; Teller, 1948; Salam, 1970; Bastin, 1971; Sirag, 1980, 1983; Sanchez, Kotov and Bizouard, 2009, 2011, 2012; Kritov, 2013). This paper brings to attention a plausible triple electro-gravito-informational significance of the fine structure constant, with its implications in the four fields unification and the existence of life forms in our universe: this triple significance is based on the existence of a unifying global scaling factor of nature which appears in a hypothetical fine tuning of all the non-zero rest masses of the all the elementary particles in the Standard Model. Furthermore, this paper also proposes dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH) stating that the 3D appearance of space (or the 4D nature of spacetime) may be actually explained by the relative magnitude of the photon momentum quanta (and the hypothetical graviton momentum quanta respectively) and this global scaling factor (GSF): DRH also includes a generalized electrograviton model (EGM) for any hypothetical graviton. This paper also proposes a set of strong (and very strong) gravity constants and a gravitational field varying with the energy (and length) scale, all with potential importance in the unification of the four fundamental fields. Keywords: fine structure constant with triple electro-gravito-informational significance; unifying global scaling factor of nature; the four fields unification; the Standard Model of particle physics; dimensional relativity hypothesis; electrograviton model; life forms

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1164] **viXra:1706.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-03 09:09:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we illustrate and describe briefly the emergence of fundamental forces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1163] **viXra:1705.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-26 05:47:14*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 62 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained why Newton’s third law is wrong!
In the last 300 years you learned from your professors that Newton’s third law is right.
“Newton and Einstein did not understand Gravitation, they calculated Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
1. Why Newton’s third law is wrong?
For example the interaction between a black whole and a planet, or a star:
“The gravitational force exerted by the black hole on the planet is much higher than the gravitational force exerted by the planet on the black hole. Because the energy of the gravitons emitted by the black hole is much higher than the energy of the gravitons emitted by the planet”
Adrian Ferent
This means Newton’s third law is wrong:
F12 ≠ −F21
2. Why Newton’s third law is wrong?
Because the reaction is not simultaneously, because the gravitons which mediate the gravitational force, have a finite speed, not an infinite speed.
“The majority of Dark matter is the core of the supermassive black holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1162] **viXra:1705.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 08:47:15*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2016, 7, 1210-1227

This paper posits that we are living in a computer simulation to simulate physical reality which has the same computer simulation process as virtual reality (computer-simulated reality). The computer simulation process involves the digital representation of data, the mathematical computation of the digitized data in geometric formation and transformation in space-time, and the selective retention of events in a narrative. Conventional physics cannot explain physical reality clearly, while computer-simulated physics can explain physical reality clearly by using the computer simulation process consisting of the digital representation component, the mathematical computation component, and the selective retention component. For the digital representation component, the three intrinsic data (properties) are rest mass-kinetic energy, electric charge, and spin which are represented by the digital space structure, the digital spin, and the digital electric charge, respectively. The digital representations of rest mass and kinetic energy are 1 as attachment space for the space of matter and 0 as detachment space for the zero-space of matter, respectively, to explain the Higgs field, the reverse Higgs field, quantum mechanics, special relativity, force fields, dark matter, and baryonic matter. The digital representations of the exclusive and the inclusive occupations of positions are ½ spin fermion and integer spin boson, respectively, to explain spatial translation by supersymmetry transformation and dark energy. The digital representations of the allowance and the disallowance of irreversible kinetic energy are integral electric charges and fractional electric charges, respectively, to explain the confinements of quarks and quasiparticles. For the mathematical computation component, the mathematical computation involves the reversible multiverse and oscillating M-theory as oscillating membrane-string-particle whose space-time dimension (D) number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D to explain cosmology. For the selective retention component, gravity, the strong force, electromagnetism, and the weak force are the retained events during the reversible four-stage evolution of our universe, and are unified by the common narrative of the evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1161] **viXra:1705.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 08:58:46*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and yinyang physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional yinyang physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of opposite physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1160] **viXra:1705.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 19:45:25*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

First we review what was done by Klauber, in his quantum field theory calculation of the Vacuum energy density, and in doing so, use, instead of Planck Mass, which has 10^19 GeV, which leads to an answer 10 ^ 122 times too large, a cut off value of instead, a number, N, of gravitons , times graviton mass (assumed to be about 10^-43 GeV) to get a number, N, count of about 10^31 if the vacuum energy is to avoid an overshoot of 10^122, and instead have a vacuum energy 10^-47GeV^4. Afterwards, we use the results of Mueller and Lousto, to compare the number N, of 10^31, assumed to be entropy using Ng’ infinite quantum statistics , to the ratio of the square of (the Hubble (observational ) radius over a calculated grid size which we call a) . Here, a ~ a minimum time step we call delta t, times the speed of light. Now in doing so we use a root finder procedure to obtain were we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1159] **viXra:1705.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-20 07:42:57*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract:From Einstein,we knowed the relation between gravity and time.We know time and entropy have a relation from thermodynamics.So gravity must have a relation with entropy.In fact,some experments have proved it.So I write this paper to describe this relation between gravity and entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1158] **viXra:1705.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-20 08:16:29*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan, August T. Jaccaci

**Comments:** 1 Page. model revised May 2017

A model of a "Theory of Everything" as a tetrahedron of relationship is presented with short explanatory text.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1157] **viXra:1705.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-13 20:50:38*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Analyzing a potential violation of a Penrose singularity theorem, via root finders, and other means.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1156] **viXra:1705.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-13 07:08:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, new research in the American Physical Society's journal Physical Review Letters brings aspects of the two together in an experiment that shows, for the first time, that gravity stretches and squeezes quantum objects through tidal forces. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1155] **viXra:1705.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-12 16:11:03*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1154] **viXra:1705.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 00:50:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Can we guess the initial conditions for the Theory of Everything (ToE)? We understand such initial conditions as a set of all parameters, initial symmetries, and initial equations. Initial symmetries and initial equations can point possible phase transitions which can lead to additional symmetries and additional equations called here the additional conditions. Such additional conditions result from initial conditions so they do not decrease consistency of theory. On the other hand, appearing anomalies in a theory that cannot be explained within initial and additional conditions, always lead to new/free parameters. Free parameters need ad hoc hypotheses (i.e. some corrections that do not result from initial and additional conditions) which always weaken the theories. Elimination of ad-hoc/free parameters by increasing number of initial conditions causes Occam’s razor to be a determinant of the consistency of theories describing the same phenomena. The Occam’s razor is defined as follows: “Among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected” [1]. It means that consistency of a theory can be defined as the inverse of the number which is the sum of all parameters, initial symmetries and initial equations (the sum of elements of the three different groups of initial conditions). New symmetries and new equations, which in a natural way appear on higher levels of ToE (the Standard Model (SM) and General Relativity (GR) are the higher levels of ToE), if we know the lowest levels of ToE, do not decrease the consistency of the theory. Authors of theories add the ad hoc hypotheses to prevent them from being falsified. Such non-scientific method causes that theories become more and more complex so their consistency is lower and lower. In physics, naturalness means that the dimensionless ratios between parameters take values of order 1. Parameters varying by many orders of magnitude need so called fine-tuning symmetries. It suggests that fine-tuned theories should be more complex i.e. their consistency should be lower. But Nature shows that it is the vice versa. It leads to conclusion that fine-tuned theories are closer to ToE. Here we guessed the initial conditions for ToE, we explained why consistency of presented here ToE is highest and why it is the fine-tuned theory. The consistency factor of presented here ToE is 1/(7+5+4)=0.0625 and it is the highest possible value for ToE-like theories. Consistency factor of SM is much lower so it is the incomplete theory sometimes leading to incorrect results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1153] **viXra:1705.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-09 11:33:22*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract
The law that states:
‘’Matter can be converted to Energy and vice versa’’
Needs also incorporate that:
‘’Anti-Matter can be converted to Anti-Energy and vice versa’’
With this assumption, the Universe can be modelled with precisely equal amount of Energy and Anti-Energy prior to the Big-Bang which can cause the formation of a single particle that would be the building block of the entire Universe from matter to forces of nature in different manifestation.
Hence could be calculated and identified as the quantum gravity.
This particle has the values of Planck [1] mass, time frequency and distance.
In this paper the calculation and the different manifestation of this particle has shown to be precisely in agreement with theory of the Hot Big-Bang and in accordance with the observations in particle physics, cosmology and the laws of nature.
The quantum gravity particle is the force behind the expansion of the universe [2], the unification of the forces of nature [3] and Wave, Particle and Luminiferous aether trinity of the light [4].
This particle is made of energy encapsulating precisely equal amount of anti-energy in the form of perfect sphere or the most symmetrical shape in the Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1152] **viXra:1705.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-06 14:40:55*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We study the geometry of a simplicial complexes from an algebraic point of view and devise general quantization rules; the rules emerging in spin foam theory are shown to comprise a particular subcase.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1151] **viXra:1705.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-02 08:45:41*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages and 12 references

The Holographic Principle is applied in 3-D and 2-D universes described by volume and surface of a sphere having a radius in the scale of the cosmological constant. Making the equality between the degrees of freedom furnished by the holographic description of them, we find the radius of the observable universe. While doing this, weak interaction coupling and quantum gravity play their role.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1150] **viXra:1704.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 07:04:12*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The gravity that the photon group of the sun's light carries changes orbit of the space probe.
According to the particle pulsation principle model,
The photon of the wave process acts the electromagnetic power,
The photon of the negative particle process forces gravity.
The probe is being pulled by the gravity of the photon group of the solar Light which illuminates the space probe pioneer and is changing orbit.
This is considered to be a verification experiment for the unification of nuclear, gravity and electromagnetic forces led by the principle of particle pulsation.
"Anomalous events of the space probe pioneer"
"Fundamental particle pulsation (dark energy pulsation model) solves the mystery"
In quantum electromagnetic power, electromagnetic energy is understood as the exchange effect of photons.
According to the pulsating hypothesis, photons transmit electromagnetic power, and the spatial distortion (empty late space) by the photon of the negative stroke is gravity quantum, conveying gravity.
It is thought that the solar light (photon group) which reaches the space probe pioneer is operating gravity in the direction of the sun.
It can be understood that the gravity of the sun is zurase 12,800 kilometers from the scheduled orbit during one year.
The light of the Sun (Photon Group) is pulling in the direction of the sun by operating the gravity of the sun on the space probe.
Excerpts below.
A mystery of thirteen that still cannot be solved by science... by Nick Harvard.
・・・・・・・・・・・
"Anomalous events of the space probe pioneer"
The pioneer of the space probe advances the trajectory which does not fit the calculation. Pioneer 10, No. 11, is seen as being pulled in the direction of the sun. Both are shifted by 12,800 kilometers each year from the planned orbit. The two probes will sail for 150 million kilometers a year. The force that is causing the displacement of the orbit is only about one-hundredth of the size of the Earth's gravitation. Even so, it came to suggest the possibility that there was a mistake in the law of the universal gravitation, and there might be an error in the application to the orbit calculation. After that, we have explored and verified all the causes, but we have not yet been able to solve them even after 30 years. It is similar to the situation where the coming point movement problem of mercury was not solved by general relativity until the solution to which the object with a huge mass like the sun bends the surrounding space was presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1149] **viXra:1704.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-26 10:13:48*

**Authors:** James Bonnar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The de Broglie wavelength of an object is inversely proportional to the object’s mass and relative velocity multiplied by Planck’s constant. A composite object, such as an atom composed of a proton and electron, possesses a total mass and therefore a composite de Broglie wavelength. Mass is simply additive, although the relation for combining de Broglie wavelengths has
never been stated. In this paper, we derive the relation for combining the de Broglie wavelengths of an object’s component parts into the composite de Broglie wavelength of the object as a whole.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1148] **viXra:1704.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-16 16:11:58*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This paper proposes a cyclic toy model of the universe predesigned for life, based on preonic quantized 1-branes (strings), quantized 2-branes (supermembranes/2D surfaces) and the holographic principle. This toy model is based on a few simple hypothesis/assumptions, including the existence of a universal brane quanta (conceived as a basic quantum clock) for any n-brane and a unified primordial field (UPF) defined as equivalent to a very strong 2D gravitational field acting on hypothetical quark/leptonic/bosonic 2-branes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1147] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-13 06:05:50*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principal of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetrybreaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1146] **viXra:1704.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 13:32:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Researchers in the US say they've created a fluid with negative mass in the lab... which is exactly as mind-bending as it sounds. What it means is that, unlike pretty much every other known physical object, when you push this fluid, it accelerates backwards instead of moving forwards. Such an oddity could tell scientists about some of the strange behaviour that happens within black holes and neutron stars. [5] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1145] **viXra:1704.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 11:30:41*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With recent detection of gravitational waves, the possibility exists that orientation-dependent detector responses might permit distinguishing between general relativity and gauge theory gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1144] **viXra:1704.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 06:55:23*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

A radical deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter is proposed. In this theory
it is assumed that spacetime and matter are the emergent properties of a more fundamental entity. It is
shown what properties such a fundamental entity should possess. An approach is proposed to find
emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties in such an entity. It is shown how the nondeterministic
laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields appear in the deterministic model of a more
fundamental entity. The proposed theory of emergent spacetime and matter (further ESTM theory), as
shown in this article, is compatible with special and general theories of relativity, as well as with
quantum mechanics and cosmology. Quantum mechanics was reformulated into backgroundindependent
one. The derivation of Schrödinger equation for quantum mechanics is given. It is shown
how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle appears from the determinism of a more fundamental entity.
Changes in the locality principle are proposed. Equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass is
substantiated. The corrections to equations of the general theory of relativity, as well as the change in
the conceptual model of gravitation, are proposed. The ESTM theory predicts the absence of a quantum
of gravity. The ESTM theory unites all the fundamental forces, including gravity. All fundamental forces
are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1143] **viXra:1704.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-07 20:18:06*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we show one theoretical possibility for cosmic rotation. We would like to appeal that: 1) A globally rotating universe is consistent with general relativity and quantum gravity. 2) As currently believed dark energy is having no observational evidence, it is better to search for cosmic rotational effects. In this context, one can see the main stream journal articles on cosmic axis of rotation and observational effects of cosmic rotation. Based on Mach's principle and quantum gravity, we imagine our universe as the best quantum gravity sphere and assume that, at any stage of cosmic evolution: 1) Planck scale Hubble parameter plays a crucial role. 2) Space-time curvature follows, ${GM_t}\cong{R_tc^2}$ where $M_t$ and $R_t$ represent the ordinary cosmic mass and radius respectively. 3) Cosmic thermal wavelength is inversely proportional to the ordinary matter density. 4) Magnitude of angular velocity is equal to the magnitude of Hubble parameter. Based on these assumptions, at $H_0\cong 70 \textrm{\,km/sec/Mpc\,},$ estimated current matter density is 0.04341$\left(\frac{3H_0^2}{8 \pi G}\right)$ and corresponding radius is 29 Gpc. Current cosmic rotational kinetic energy density is 0.667$\left(\frac{3H_0^2c^2}{8 \pi G}\right)$. We would like to emphasize that: 1) Currently believed mysterious dark energy can be identified with current cosmic rotational kinetic energy. 2) Currently believed `inflation' concept can be relinquished. With advanced science, engineering and technology and by considering the most recent observations on `cosmic axis of evil' and `axial alignment' of distance astronomical bodies, a unified model of quantum cosmology can be developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1142] **viXra:1704.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-05 06:00:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem is a serious problem in particle physics and cosmology so a solution to this problem should lead to new physics. The value of cosmological constant is about 120 orders of magnitude too low than it should be. Here we showed that today the vacuum energy is about 119 orders of magnitude lower than it should be (in the Planck units or as a dimensionless quantity) because the superluminal pure inertial energy (it means that the gravitational energy is equal to zero) is frozen inside the stable-neutrinos/gravitational-charges and is about 119 orders of magnitude higher than the indirectly observed gravitational energy. We showed here that geometric mean of the Planck mass of neutrinos and the very low particle mass of neutrinos leads to the CMB/cosmological mass of neutrinos observed in experiments. The vice versa should be correct as well so the Planck mass and the sum of the experimental CMB/cosmological masses of different neutrinos lead to the very low particle mass of neutrinos so it leads to new physics as well. The Planck mass of neutrinos, which is associated with maximum rotation of their spin, solves the hierarchy problem as well. Quasars (a torus with a central condensate), which are the objects with high gravitational-mass density, can be the big cousins of the gravitational charge but of the weak and electromagnetic charges also. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), such a structure is characteristic for bare fermions – such a structure radically simplifies theories in particle physics and cosmology. The similarity of different scales leads to new physics also. There are two stable vacua (Higgs field and Einstein spacetime) so the physical constants are invariant. Pure energies, i.e. without inertial mass or inertial and gravitational masses, are not in existence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1141] **viXra:1704.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-05 03:32:26*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In an analysis motivated by the AdS/CFT correspondence, the radii of nearby stars, including the sun, are shown to be correlated with values of mass equal to those of stable atomic nuclei.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1140] **viXra:1704.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-04 06:13:18*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A previous preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is complemented to provide a model of black holes. Gravity theory with torsion is applied to preons producing an axial-vector field coupled to preons. The mass of the axial-vector particle is estimated to be near the GUT scale. The boson can materialize above this scale and gain further mass to become the center of a black hole at Planck energy while massless preons form the horizon. A particle-black hole duality is defined.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1033] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-19 07:31:21*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1032] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-17 12:26:18*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1031] **viXra:1709.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-17 09:40:35*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1030] **viXra:1709.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-10 04:32:33*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 2 Pages. replace

Our matter universe and surrounding antimatter universe and emergent gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1029] **viXra:1709.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-02 05:59:18*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Identical to last version. Changed my name, to Andrew Beckwith, so it is easier to find

This paper uses the “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability. The point is that it does not apply in the vicinity of the big bang. We apply this theorem to what is called by T. Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which becomes would be unstable if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism has to be appealed to. In the case of vacuum nucleation, we argue that conditions exist for the nucleation of particles as of the electroweak regime. Due to injecting material from a node point, in spacetime. This regime of early universe creation, coexits with the failure of applications of “Fjortoft” theorem in such a way as to give necessary and sufficient conditons for matter creation, in a way similar to the Higgs Boson. Key words: Fjortoft theorem, thermodynamic potential, matter creation, Higgs Boson.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1028] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-09 17:13:50*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Typos and grammar errors corrected. Comments welcome.

Gravity-matter duality is suggested as the first step toward quantum gravity, ensuing from the idea that the phenomenon dubbed 'gravitational field' is a new form of reality, known as Res potentia -- "just in the middle between possibility and reality" (Heisenberg, Slide 7). The essential similarities and differences between gravity-matter duality and wave-particle duality are briefly examined, with emphasis on the proposed joint solution to exact localization of gravity and "quantum waves" at spacetime points. The latter are endowed with brand new structure and topology due to the fundamental flow of events suggested by Heraclitus -- Panta rei conditio sine qua non est.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1027] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-08 08:08:16*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Text expanded and three references added.

Gravity-matter duality is suggested as the first step toward quantum gravity, ensuing from the idea that the phenomenon dubbed 'gravitational field' is a new form of reality, known as Res potentia -- "just in the middle between possibility and reality" (Heisenberg, Slide 7). The essential similarities and differences between gravity-matter duality and wave-particle duality are briefly examined, with emphasis on the proposed joint solution to exact localization of gravity and "quantum waves" at spacetime points. The latter are endowed with brand new structure and topology due to the fundamental flow of events suggested by Heraclitus -- Panta rei conditio sine qua non est.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1026] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-01 06:25:24*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Comments welcome.

Gravity-matter duality is suggested as the first step toward quantum gravity, ensuing from the idea that the phenomenon dubbed 'gravitational field' is a new form of reality, known as Res potentia -- "just in the middle between possibility and reality" (Heisenberg, Slide 7). The essential similarities and differences between gravity-matter duality and wave-particle duality are briefly examined, with emphasis on the proposed joint solution to exact localization of gravity and "quantum waves" at spacetime points. The latter are endowed with brand new structure and topology due to the fundamental flow of events suggested by Heraclitus -- Panta rei conditio sine qua non est.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1025] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-29 08:08:19*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Text expanded and one reference added.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1024] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-23 12:38:11*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. One typo corrected.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1023] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-18 07:21:01*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Abstract changed and text expanded.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1022] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 11:07:35*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

Gravity-matter duality is suggested as the first step toward quantum gravity, ensuing from the idea that the phenomenon dubbed 'gravitational field' is a new form of reality, known as Res potentia -- "just in the middle between possibility and reality" (Heisenberg, Slide 7). The essential similarities and differences between gravity-matter duality and wave-particle duality are briefly examined, with emphasis on the proposed joint solution to exact localizations of gravity and "quantum waves" at spacetime points. The latter are endowed with brand new structure and topology due to the fundamental flow of events suggested by Heraclitus and Plato.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1021] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-12 14:32:33*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Text expanded and references added.

Gravity-matter duality is suggested as the first step toward quantum gravity, ensuing from the idea that the phenomenon dubbed 'gravitational field' is a new form of reality, known as Res potentia -- "just in the middle between possibility and reality" (Heisenberg, Slide 7). The essential similarities and differences between gravity-matter duality and wave-particle duality are briefly examined, with emphasis on the proposed joint solution to exact localizations of gravity and "quantum waves" at spacetime points. The latter are endowed with brand new structure and topology due to the fundamental flow of events suggested by Heraclitus and Plato.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1020] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-07 06:59:33*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Comments welcome

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1019] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-05 10:45:05*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Text expanded and references added. Final version.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1018] **viXra:1707.0400 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-03 09:18:26*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Typos corrected and text expanded.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1017] **viXra:1707.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 04:37:06*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this development upon three previous papers [1][2][3], we shall explain how Phi-Quantum Wave-Function crystal constructs emerge from the elementary particle level, in being associated to electron shells, and how they then through a fractal progression develop to a macro-world scale per a golden ratio sequence of atomic association. We will couple this with chemical-bond modelling between atoms while establishing an equation for the Avogadro number. The emphasis of this paper is to highlight the continued utility of the golden ratio modelling for time, the great implication being the need to understand “spatial contraction” (not “time-dilation”) to satisfy ideas of relativity forwarded by Einstein a century ago. We shall highlight how this is possible by examining the phi-quantum wave-function scale as a new wave-function template for electromagnetism, as initially developed in Golden Ratio Axioms for Time and Space [2], now carried and further developed here to explain spatial contraction and associated elementary particle dynamics (including particle spin and anti-matter/particles dynamics). In considering this phi-quantum wave-function scale, we will then finally uncover the problematic process of the Cartesian coordinate system of mathematical execution for space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1016] **viXra:1707.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-07 07:11:25*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this development upon three previous papers [1][2][3], we shall explain how photonic crystal constructs emerge from the elementary particle level in being associated to electron shells and how they then fractally develop to a macro-world scale per a golden ratio sequence of atomic association. We will couple this with chemical-bond modelling between atoms, while then moving on to an explanation for the Avogadro number. The emphasis of this paper is to highlight the continued utility of the golden ratio modelling for time as a fixed standard for time, the great implication being the need to understand “spatial contraction” (not “time-dilation”) to satisfy ideas of relativity forwarded by Einstein a century ago. We shall highlight how this is possible by examining the phi-quantum wave-function scale as a new wave-function template for electromagnetism, as initially developed in paper-2, Golden Ratio Axioms for Time and Space [2], now carried and further developed here to explain spatial contraction and associated elementary particle dynamics (including particle spin and anti-matter/particles dynamics). Considering this phi-quantum wave-function scale, we will then finally uncover the problematic process of the Cartesian coordinate system of mathematical execution for space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1015] **viXra:1707.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-01 08:52:10*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this development upon three previous papers [1][2][3], we shall explain how photonic crystal constructs emerge from the elementary particle level in being associated to electron shells and how they then fractally develop to a macro-world scale per a golden ratio sequence of atomic association. We will couple this with chemical-bond modelling between atoms, while then moving on to an explanation for the Avogadro number. The emphasis of this paper is to highlight the continued utility of the golden ratio modelling for time as a fixed standard for time, the great implication being the need to understand “spatial contraction” (not “time-dilation”) to satisfy ideas of relativity forwarded by Einstein a century ago. We shall highlight how this is possible by examining the phi-quantum wave-function scale as a new wave-function template for electromagnetism, as initially developed in paper-2, Golden Ratio Axioms for Time and Space [2], now carried and further developed here to explain spatial contraction and associated elementary particle dynamics (including particle spin and anti-matter/particles dynamics). Considering this phi-quantum wave-function scale, we will then finally uncover the problematic process of the Cartesian coordinate system of mathematical execution for space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1014] **viXra:1707.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-31 05:56:08*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this development upon three previous papers [1][2][3], we shall explain how photonic crystal constructs emerge from the elementary particle level in being associated to electron shells and how they then fractally develop to a macro-world scale per a golden ratio sequence of atomic association. We will couple this with chemical-bond modelling between atoms, while then moving on to an explanation for the Avogadro number. The emphasis of this paper is to highlight the continued utility of the golden ratio modelling for time as a fixed standard for time, the great implication being the need to understand “spatial contraction” (not “time-dilation”) to satisfy ideas of relativity forwarded by Einstein a century ago. We shall highlight how this is possible by examining the phi-quantum wave-function scale as a new wave-function template for electromagnetism, as initially developed in paper-2, Golden Ratio Axioms for Time and Space [2], now carried and further developed here to explain spatial contraction and associated elementary particle dynamics (including particle spin and anti-matter/particles dynamics). Considering this phi-quantum wave-function scale, we will then finally uncover the problematic process of the Cartesian coordinate system of mathematical execution for space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1013] **viXra:1707.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-31 05:57:56*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Added 6 pages as to a fifth force calculation of E and B fields, as an appendix entry, with a comment as to how it links to the inflaton genreated B field(comparing the two methods)

Formation of a magnetic field due to a current calculation based upon the inflaton, and also the addition of material as to how Pre Plackian to Planckian Gravi Magnetic field construction may relate to Maxwell's equations. The linkage as to Squeezed GW states alluded to, plus deformation mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1012] **viXra:1707.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-30 14:33:23*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Added material as to Deformation mechanics, and squeezing of GW, as a reference.

Formation of a magnetic field due to a current calculation based upon the inflaton, and also the addition of material as to how Pre Plackian to Planckian Gravi Magnetic field construction may relate to Maxwell's equations. The linkage as to Squeezed GW states alluded to, plus deformation mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1011] **viXra:1707.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-27 19:11:17*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Great expansion of the paper, due to answering questions given to me by Referee evaluating it for JHEPGC

B field derived from first principles, from Inflaton field, with attendant descriptions as to how LIGO interferometric calculations of Signal over Noise ratios may suffer, due to problems of filtering in the early universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1010] **viXra:1707.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-18 17:53:05*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Uploaded the wrong document. The abstract succintly outlines what is new and intended in this document too

This corrected version is primarily an analysis of how to use Noether's current, as a current generator, from exponential of the ( imaginary number, times frequency, times time) times an inflaton to obtain a real valued current, which in turn, leads to an effective magnetic field, at Pre Planckian to Planckian physics regime of space-time. And that combined with a query if we have quintessence or an invariant cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1009] **viXra:1707.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-10 05:53:15*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The idea of consciousness emerging from chaos is not a new idea. In fact, it is one of the oldest ideas of philosophy. What makes it an important idea to herald here (in the context of quantum gravity and a new type of string theory incorporating the Golden Ratio) is how the idea has been derived, namely from “chaos theory” sprung from two key preliminary papers [1][2]. This third paper shall take up from where the second paper [2] left off. Here, we shall explain the Schrodinger equation for light, and then present an improved equation for the energy of a photon, then confirm the emergence of light from the atomic level represents a well-known equation for chaos theory, the “logistic map equation”. From there we shall present the idea of consciousness as a need for this system of time and space to resolve the disparity between light and particle location, together with the need to reach an exact value for “π” (as was the basis for the axioms of time upon space in the development of the atom in the second paper). A list of features of this proposal of consciousness as an emergent entity will be presented that describes well-known features of the idea of our own ability to reason and be aware.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1008] **viXra:1706.0488 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-27 07:52:04*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This sequel to “Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics” will more closely examine the process of time as the Golden Ratio equation when applied to space, more than developing electrodynamic wavefunction equations, but setting an axiomatic base for the Golden Ratio as time when applied to space. Through this process we shall derive π, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light, while also confirming through these independent equations the idea of the Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Entanglement. More specifically, three fundamental things to be demonstrated here using the Golden Ratio algorithm of time will be deriving the dipole of magnetism, the electrical monopole field, and their relation to the Golden Ratio in creating the basis for the Fine Structure Constant, charge of the electron, the speed of light, and the subatomic multi-traits of the elementary particles. In confirming the need to explain the reason for the upgraded axioms for time and space, a general criticism of contemporary physics’ current use of space and time and its limitation given the entirely hypothetical nature of the resultant cosmic modelling theory regarding a multiverse and its endless possibilities is presented. The solution to this problem is explained using a more solid definition for time as the Golden Ratio, more thoroughly presented here in the context of the initial paper “Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics” [1]; the first paper was a general overview of the new a-priori for time, while this second paper examines all the generalisations and assumptions presented in the first paper, reaching ultimate theoretical axioms for time in the context of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1007] **viXra:1706.0488 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-04 07:36:20*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This sequel to “Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics” will more closely examine the process of time as the Golden Ratio equation when applied to space, more than developing electrodynamic wavefunction equations, but setting an axiomatic base for the Golden Ratio as time when applied to space. Through this process we shall derive π, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light, while also confirming through these independent equations the idea of the Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Entanglement. More specifically, three fundamental things to be demonstrated here using the Golden Ratio algorithm of time will be deriving the dipole of magnetism, the electrical monopole field, and their relation to the Golden Ratio in creating the basis for the Fine Structure Constant, charge of the electron, the speed of light, and the subatomic multi-traits of the elementary particles. In confirming the need to explain the reason for the upgraded axioms for time and space, a general criticism of contemporary physics’ current use of space and time and its limitation given the entirely hypothetical nature of the resultant cosmic modelling theory regarding a multiverse and its endless possibilities is presented. The solution to this problem is explained using a more solid definition for time as the Golden Ratio, more thoroughly presented here in the context of the initial paper “Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics” [1]; the first paper was a general overview of the new a-priori for time, while this second paper examines all the generalisations and assumptions presented in the first paper, reaching ultimate theoretical axioms for time in the context of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1006] **viXra:1706.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-07 12:06:51*

**Authors:** Santiago Lopez Ugarte

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The proposal assumes that the distortion of space-time due to relative velocity (Special Relativity), and the distortion of space-time produced by gravitational fields (General Relativity) are linked to changes of state that affect to mass-energy.
The hypothesis proposes the existence of a process linked to gravity, this phenomenon would affect mass-energy. It would be required to add an additional condition (being a more restrictive scenario) keeping the field equations that define space-time curvature, but by adding the condition linked to the proposed phenomenon, the trajectory that would follow mass-energy in that curved space-time, changes with respect to the established by the officially accepted model. The effect is negligible if the distortion of space-time caused by a gravitational field does not have a significant value. The hypothesis proposed allows to calculate mathematically the discrepancy that would exist with respect to the current model. In case of being correct, the proposal would have important implications in diverse areas of science and its effect would be determinant in the study of black holes or questions related to Cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1005] **viXra:1706.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-23 13:04:43*

**Authors:** Santiago Lopez Ugarte

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The proposal assumes that the distortion of space-time due to relative velocity (Special Relativity), and the distortion of space-time produced by gravitational fields (General Relativity) are linked to changes of state that affect to mass-energy.
The hypothesis proposes the existence of a process linked to gravity, this phenomenon would affect mass-energy. It would be required to add an additional condition (being a more restrictive scenario) keeping the field equations that define space-time curvature, but by adding the condition linked to the proposed phenomenon, the trajectory that would follow mass-energy in that curved space-time, changes with respect to the established by the officially accepted model. The effect is negligible if the distortion of space-time caused by a gravitational field does not have a significant value. The hypothesis proposed allows to calculate mathematically the discrepancy that would exist with respect to the current model. In case of being correct, the proposal would have important implications in diverse areas of science and its effect would be determinant in the study of black holes or questions related to Cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1004] **viXra:1706.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-19 12:54:35*

**Authors:** Santiago Lopez Ugarte

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1003] **viXra:1706.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-07 13:19:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Accepted for JHEPGC, by Christian Corda(this version) plus its rendition in a September Meeting in Kiev,

Detailed supposition setting up for a future Weyl Tensor vetting of the Penrose supposition of its vanishing in the site of a singularity. Paper lays out precursors to a detailed future calculation, on this, in four dimensions, and lays open what may be investigated in higher dimensions, as a window into early universe gravitational wave production.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1002] **viXra:1706.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-27 20:45:11*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Includes causal boundary, Machs principle, and a review section on a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle, with 19 pages added in for the purpose of setting up a general Weyl Tensor calculation, and to see if it could vanish, near a singularity

This is our final future works project which we will attempt to confirm or to analyze via future data sets, and we will do it while asserting that is tied into a solution to Eq. (12)
All these suppositions, plus the idea of when we go from Quantum to quasi-classical will be extended from Appendix D, and will be hopefully made congruence with respect to Appendix B, as far as the Weyl conjecture by Penrose, as well as also giving more explicit content to Appendix C, as far as the transition from one inflaton field, to perhaps many inflaton fields. With the initial inflaton field being approximately 41% of being one of the many past the causal boundary multiple inflaton fields. I.e. this transformation, as alluded to in Eq. (4) will be in its end product the graviton / gravitational wave generation of our model, and deserves further future elaboration.
In doing so, the author wishes to add another experimental bench mark to review, namely that one has a mass of the graviton , at near light speed being greater than the presumed rest mass of the “massive” graviton, which would be a staggering increase in the effective mass of gravitons, traveling near the speed of light, right after the H= 0 causal boundary surface.
The further explanation of this business is in Appendix D, and would be important in itself as far as to ascertain the fidelity of GW data sets, with the predictions of [19,20,21].
In itself this would be lending toward trying to ascertain experimental data set confirmation if this is viable and a reasonable datum to consider in this situation. As a datum which may explain the black hole situation where the mass of a graviton, should it exist, have a Compton wavelength greater than the GW wave fronts ascertained in the LIGO measurements, as well as other issues, in [19,20, 21]
In doing all of this, we urge the readers to keep in mind earlier work done by the author as to a Modified Heinsenberg Uncertainty principle, which is summarized in Appendix E. All of what we have here should be summarized and compared to a result which is to be held in sync with the physics of Pre Planckian to Planckian physics as outlined below. It goes without saying that a major task of our future work should be comparing the results of Eq. (1) to Eq. (4) of our main document with the modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle, in Appendix E. Also, and not least will be in doing further computational matching of our presumed Causal boundary, as given of about Planck Length in radii, as the pre Planckian to Planckian physics, boundary with the requirements of the Mach’s principle, as given in Appendix C, and Appendix D..

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1001] **viXra:1706.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-26 20:06:58*

**Authors:** Andrew beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Added in addition an explanation as to how to reconcile the difference in the PGW from black holes, as in LIGO and the massive graviton Compton wavelength for a massive graviton. i.e. hint, it involves using Special relativity in Appendix D

Incorporation of having H=0 define a new causal boundary, for the beginning of the universe, with an explicit construction of interior, and exterior regions of space-time next to the causal boundary. Plus implications as far as a review and a possible reworking of the Penrose Weyl Curvature tensor suggestion, as was put in the following reference: [5] Penrose, Roger, “Singularities and Time-Asymmetry”, pp 581-638, of “General Relativity, An Einstein Centenary Survey”, Edited by Hawkings, S., and Israel, W., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1979, and also the boundary of the non-singular bubble of initial space-time is now defined via Mach's principle. Added in addition an explanation as to how to reconcile the difference in the PGW from black holes, as in LIGO and the massive graviton Compton wavelength for a massive graviton. i.e. hint, it involves using Special relativity in Appendix D

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1000] **viXra:1706.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-24 23:27:07*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Added Three new appendix entries, with the lastest being on Mach's principle, as applied to this problem

Incorporation of having H=0 define a new causal boundary, for the beginning of the universe, with an explicit construction of interior, and exterior regions of space-time next to the causal boundary. Plus implications as far as a review and a possible reworking of the Penrose Weyl Curvature tensor suggestion, as was put in the following reference: [5] Penrose, Roger, “Singularities and Time-Asymmetry”, pp 581-638, of “General Relativity, An Einstein Centenary Survey”, Edited by Hawkings, S., and Israel, W., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1979, and also the boundary of the non singular bubble of initial space-time is now defined via Mach's princple

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[999] **viXra:1706.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-18 18:24:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 Pages. conceptually firms the document up and ties the disparate parts of the document in an added revidew of [5] Penrose, Roger, “Singularities and Time-Asymmetry”, pp 581-638, of “General Relativity, An Einstein Centenary Survey

Incorporation of having H=0 define a new causal boundary, for the beginning of the universe, with an explicit construction of interior, and exterior regions of space-time next to the causal boundary. Plus implications as far as a review and a possible reworking of the Penrose Weyl Curvature tensor suggestion, as was put in the following reference:
[5] Penrose, Roger, “Singularities and Time-Asymmetry”, pp 581-638, of “General Relativity, An Einstein Centenary Survey”, Edited by Hawkings, S., and Israel, W., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1979

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[998] **viXra:1706.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-04 00:36:15*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we illustrate and describe briefly the emergence of fundamental forces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[997] **viXra:1705.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-01 22:42:05*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan, August T. Jaccaci

**Comments:** 1 Page. revising designation of two relationship lines

A semiotic model in the form of a tetrahedron is employed to illustrate essential relationships between conservation laws and physical principles in a simple "Theory of Everything".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[996] **viXra:1705.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-22 20:56:40*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan, August T. Jaccaci

**Comments:** 1 Page. revision of some text in diagram

A semiotic model of a "Theory of Everything" in the general form of a tetrahedron is presented, with a short explanatory text.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[995] **viXra:1705.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-29 09:54:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Can we guess the initial conditions for the Theory of Everything (ToE)? We understand such initial conditions as a set of all parameters, initial symmetries, and initial equations. Initial symmetries and initial equations can point possible phase transitions which can lead to additional symmetries and additional equations called here the additional conditions. Such additional conditions result from initial conditions so they do not decrease consistency of theory. On the other hand, appearing anomalies in a theory that cannot be explained within initial and additional conditions, always lead to new/free parameters. Free parameters need ad hoc hypotheses (i.e. some corrections that do not result from initial and additional conditions) which always weaken the theories. Elimination of ad-hoc/free parameters by increasing number of initial conditions causes Occam’s razor to be a determinant of the consistency of theories describing the same phenomena. The Occam’s razor is defined as follows: “Among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected” [1]. It means that consistency of a theory can be defined as the inverse of the number which is the sum of all parameters, initial symmetries and initial equations (the sum of elements of the three different groups of initial conditions). New symmetries and new equations, which in a natural way appear on higher levels of ToE (the Standard Model (SM) and General Relativity (GR) are the higher levels of ToE), if we know the lowest levels of ToE, do not decrease the consistency of the theory. Authors of theories add the ad hoc hypotheses to prevent them from being falsified. Such non-scientific method causes that theories become more and more complex so their consistency is lower and lower. In physics, naturalness means that the dimensionless ratios between parameters take values of order 1. Parameters varying by many orders of magnitude need so called fine-tuning symmetries. It suggests that fine-tuned theories should be more complex i.e. their consistency should be lower. But Nature shows that it is the vice versa. It leads to conclusion that fine-tuned theories are closer to ToE. Here we guessed the initial conditions for ToE, we explained why consistency of presented here ToE is highest and why it is the fine-tuned theory. The consistency factor of presented here ToE is 1/(7+5+4)=0.0625 and it is the highest possible value for ToE-like theories. Consistency factor of SM is much lower so it is the incomplete theory sometimes leading to incorrect results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[994] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-26 11:37:20*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress, ultimately as the development of electron shell modelling precisely to the Rydberg formula and associated ideas of quantum entanglement, finally explaining the idea of “inflation theory” as a feature of the golden ratio equation for time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[993] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-03 09:25:54*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 20 Pages. 5th ed (engl); requested equations format and font revised, nil change to theory.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress, ultimately as the development of electron shell modelling precisely to the Rydberg formula and associated ideas of quantum entanglement, finally explaining the idea of “inflation theory” as a feature of the Golden ratio equation for time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[992] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:45:41*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress, ultimately as the development of electron shell modelling precisely to the Rydberg formula and associated ideas of quantum entanglement, finally explaining the idea of “inflation theory” as a feature of the Golden ratio equation for time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[991] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 04:50:07*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 18 Pages. This third edition includes light cone, electron shell, and quantum entanglement modelling, completing what was initially intended to be two separate papers.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress, ultimately as the development of electron shell modelling precisely to the Rydberg formula and associated ideas of quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[990] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-15 08:38:12*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[989] **viXra:1704.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-20 10:13:40*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With recent detection of gravitational waves, the possibility exists that orientation-dependent detector responses might permit distinguishing between general relativity and gauge theory gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[988] **viXra:1704.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-29 17:47:38*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With recent detection of gravitational waves, the possibility exists that orientation-dependent detector responses might permit distinguishing between general relativity and gauge theory gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[987] **viXra:1704.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-28 15:19:51*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[986] **viXra:1704.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-02 13:52:47*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

A radical deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter is proposed. In this theory it is assumed that spacetime and matter are the emergent properties of a more fundamental entity. It is shown what properties such a fundamental entity should possess. An approach is proposed to find emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties in such an entity. It is shown how the nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields appear in the deterministic model of a more fundamental entity. The proposed theory of emergent spacetime and matter (further ESTM theory), as shown in this article, is compatible with special and general theories of relativity, as well as with quantum mechanics and cosmology. Quantum mechanics was reformulated into backgroundindependent one. The derivation of Schrödinger equation for quantum mechanics is given. It is shown how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle appears from the determinism of a more fundamental entity. Changes in the locality principle are proposed. Equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass is substantiated. The corrections to equations of the general theory of relativity, as well as the change in the conceptual model of gravitation, are proposed. The ESTM theory predicts the absence of a quantum of gravity. The ESTM theory unites all the fundamental forces, including gravity. All fundamental forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[985] **viXra:1704.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-07 06:07:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem is a serious problem in particle physics and cosmology so a solution to this problem should lead to new physics. The value of cosmological constant is about 120 orders of magnitude too low than it should be. Here we showed that today the vacuum energy is about 119 orders of magnitude lower than it should be (in the Planck units or as a dimensionless quantity) because the superluminal pure inertial energy (it means that the gravitational energy is equal to zero) is frozen inside the stable-neutrinos/gravitational-charges and is about 119 orders of magnitude higher than the indirectly observed gravitational energy. We showed here that geometric mean of the Planck mass of neutrinos and the very low particle mass of neutrinos leads to the CMB/cosmological mass of neutrinos observed in experiments. The vice versa should be correct as well so the Planck mass and the sum of the experimental CMB/cosmological masses of different neutrinos lead to the very low particle mass of neutrinos so it leads to new physics as well. The Planck mass of neutrinos, which is associated with maximum rotation of their spin, solves the hierarchy problem as well. Quasars (a torus with a central condensate), which are the objects with high gravitational-mass density, can be the big cousins of the gravitational charge but of the weak and electromagnetic charges also. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), such a structure is characteristic for bare fermions – such a structure radically simplifies theories in particle physics and cosmology. The similarity of different scales leads to new physics also. There are two stable vacua (Higgs field and Einstein spacetime) so the physical constants are invariant. Pure energies, i.e. without inertial mass or inertial and gravitational masses, are not in existence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[984] **viXra:1704.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-06 06:32:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem is a serious problem in particle physics and cosmology so a solution to this problem should lead to new physics. The value of cosmological constant is about 120 orders of magnitude too low than it should be. Here we showed that today the vacuum energy is about 119 orders of magnitude lower than it should be (in the Planck units or as a dimensionless quantity) because the superluminal pure inertial energy (it means that the gravitational energy is equal to zero) is frozen inside the stable-neutrinos/gravitational-charges and is about 119 orders of magnitude higher than the indirectly observed gravitational energy. We showed here that geometric mean of the Planck mass of neutrinos and the very low particle mass of neutrinos leads to the CMB/cosmological mass of neutrinos observed in experiments. The vice versa should be correct as well so the Planck mass and the sum of the experimental CMB/cosmological masses of different neutrinos lead to the very low particle mass of neutrinos so it leads to new physics as well. The Planck mass of neutrinos, which is associated with maximum rotation of their spin, solves the hierarchy problem as well. Quasars (a torus with a central condensate), which are the objects with high gravitational-mass density, can be the big cousins of the gravitational charge but of the weak and electromagnetic charges also. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), such a structure is characteristic for bare fermions – such a structure radically simplifies theories in particle physics and cosmology. The similarity of different scales leads to new physics also. There are two stable vacua (Higgs field and Einstein spacetime) so the physical constants are invariant. Pure energies, i.e. without inertial mass or inertial and gravitational masses, are not in existence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory