Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[996] viXra:1607.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 05:29:46

Searching for Anti-Info, Some Elementary Mathematics

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 28 Pages. An extension of previous papers by this author.

There is a correction to be made, the last few articles describe branches/ strings as planck length/ c squared. They are more likely to be planck length in numeration. ( See previous articles by author). In this paper, due to the large amount of literature to be processed, I have developed a few mathematical arrangements of my own. They relate to conservation of information, the relationship between size of various unsymmetric matrices and the relationship of negative numbers in a concept called reflectional equivalence. Discussed also it the hypothesis (sic) of whether the branches ( loosely meaning strings) can be macroscopic in size. i.e varying from planck length to essentially the size of any known object
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[995] viXra:1607.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 06:46:26

A Hypothesis Reforms a Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis reforms a super string theory. Chapter6. No. 3: revolution in superstring theory. [1]. Advanced "superstring theory" [2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory. [3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space. [4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory. [5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[994] viXra:1607.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 01:08:44

Using a Multiverse Version of Penrose Cyclic Conformal Cosmology to Obtain Ergodic Mixing Averaging of Cosmological Information Transfer to Fix H Bar (PLANCK’S Constant) in Each New Universe Created During Recycling of Universes Due to CCC , Multivers

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

What we are doing is to use a generalization of the Penrose Cyclic conformal cosmology in order to argue for ergodic mixing of cosmological “information”, from cycle to cycle. While there would be a causal discontinuity, as is by example explained, in terms of breaking down of individual “particles” from cycle to cycle, there would be (analogous to a seed setting of pseudo-randomization of Fortran) informational ‘bits’ transferred, as far as mixing of ‘information’ collected from cycle to cycle, from N number of contributing universes via modified CCC, so as to create a uniform value of H bar (Planck’s constant) from cycle to cycle. Moreover this would do away with the “baby universes” Darwinian hypothesis, set up by String theorists whom postulate that up to 10^1000 or so universes would be created, with only say 10^10 or so surviving(most dying off because of “improperly” set variance in the values of H bar ( Planck’s constant). I.e. the laws of physics would not be different from universe to universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[993] viXra:1607.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 07:59:33

The Dual Nature of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 8 Pages.

If the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole is expressed as Bekenstein’s area quantum 8pi multiplied by a power of 2, then exponents of 2 that are multiples of precisely 50 are found for particular black holes of well-defined mass, and for the Hubble sphere. Motivated by T-duality, the analysis is extended to particles. Exponents calculated for the particles of the Standard Model lie in symmetric arrangement about the number 125, which is the exponent found for the lightest tensor mesons. Exponents that are multiples or simple binary (improper) fractions of 25 are favoured.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[992] viXra:1607.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 06:33:28

Axion-Higgs 3-Dimensional Rigid Transformable Strings and the Compound 650 Gev Z-Z Decay Into Quarks/leptoquarks According to the Quantum FFF Model.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages. 24

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black hole nuclei..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[991] viXra:1607.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 11:32:20

Theoretical Concepts for the Certainty of the Determinism in the Abnormal Phenomenon and Certainty of the Arbitrament

Authors: Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir
Comments: 11 Pages.

In quantum mechanics an uncertainty principle asserts that one cannot make certain of the position and velocity of an electron (or any particle) at the same time. That is, increasing the knowledge of particle decreases the knowledge of the velocity or momentum of an electron [1]. Furthermore, a particle can never be at rest, but it is subject to constant fluctuations even when no measurement is taken place, these fluctuations are assumed to have cause. According to new theory, God (independent of space-time) is assumed to be the cause of constant fluctuations in the end quantum state. The main objective of this paper is to derive an equation for abnormal phenomena (miracle) and arbitrament of human’s destiny called Certainty Theory. It has been assumed that not measuring of a particle’s position and momentum simultaneously with equal precision is due to the fact that the end quantum state of particle is imaginary and non-physical so the standard deviation , ħі/(2α^(D-4) ) , must be smaller than the certain value of product of position and momentum.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[990] viXra:1607.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 09:03:56

Holographic Projector

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 10 Pages.

There is an attempt to explain the basic physical principles , based on the idea that our universe has one extra dimension ( no space ) in addition to space and time . That's the basics : the holographic principle , the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity is an isometric view in a universal dimension.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[989] viXra:1607.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 01:06:11

Photon as a Particle

Authors: Yevgeniy Kutanov
Comments: 8 pages in English and 8 pages in Russian

Proposed structures of photon, electron and positron are the result of logical development of the alternative to GR theory of gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[988] viXra:1607.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 23:47:25

Beautiful Universe Simulation Part 1: Proof of Concept of Energy Transport in a Simple 2-D Array of Nodes

Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Beautiful Universe (BU) model is a universal cellular automata (CA) of rotating dielectric dipolar nodes exchanging angular momentum with neighboring nodes to make radiation, matter, and space itself. In this paper a simplified simulation of non-rotating nodes that nevertheless obey the momentum-exchange 'rules' of (BU) provide a qualitative picture of energy transport in the model and can be considered a preliminary proof of concept on which to build further work
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[987] viXra:1607.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 14:36:38

A Highly Speculative Note on How to Modify Einstein's Field Equation to Hold at the Quantum Scale

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short note, first we will show a few ways to rewrite Einstein's field equation without basically changing it. Then we speculate a bit more broadly on how to change the equation to make it hold at the quantum scale. More precisely, we modify it for bodies with masses less than the Planck mass.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[986] viXra:1607.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 10:43:41

Examination of Sufficient Conditions for Forming Mass of “massive Graviton”, from Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages.

We start with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use the Padmanabhan inter relationship between an inflaton and a an early universe potential system. Then from there, we come up with a quadratic equation for a minimum radius, for producing a “massive graviton’ value. We then close with observations as to what this implies as to gravitational physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[985] viXra:1607.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 05:01:32

Transforming a Quantum Controller of Gravity Into a Gravitational Spacecraft

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

A Quantum Controller of Gravity is transformed into a Gravitational Spacecraft
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[984] viXra:1607.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 05:56:16

The Mathematical Foundations of Psychology and Sociology as a Generalization of (Quantum) Gravity.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 6 Pages.

In a long paper of this author [1], I explained that the ''spiritual'' interaction between living beings would require a gravitational theory on an appropriate space. In this paper, we further develop this idea and construct different types of idealized limits.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[983] viXra:1607.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 15:04:07

Is the Schwarzschild Radius Truly a Radius?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper questions the assumption that the Schwarzschild radius actually represents a radius. It has recently been shown by Haug (2016) that the Schwarzschild radius for any object can simply be written as N2l_p, where N is the number of Planck masses into which we can ``hypothetically" pack an object of interest and l_p is the well known Planck length. The Schwarzschild radius seems to represent the length of the number of Planck mass objects we can ``hypothetically" pack a planet or star into and then we can place them in perfect alignment along a single strand (of single particles) in a straight line.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[982] viXra:1607.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 13:59:19

A Non-Local Geometrodynamics Model Based on General Relativity and the Notion of Quantum Foam

Authors: Tomer Shushi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new type of (3+1) spacetime metric, that is non-local and based on the notion of quantum foam. We investigate it and show how quantum effects can be obtained.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[981] viXra:1607.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 22:57:05

More on the Connection Between Logic and Matter and the Winding Number of Strings

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 58 Pages. The toplogical connection between Axes and strings

The last paper (see "More on logic being the fundamental components of string theory) gave further analysis of the important concept of information producing fields which can then be configured into strings. Here we look at the topological connection between branches an centres (singularities) and some more information on branch structure and also some concepts of how angular momentum can produce calculations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[980] viXra:1607.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 03:59:46

A Single Algorithm

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this article, using a single algorithm of the universe obtained the quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[979] viXra:1607.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 03:13:38

Planck Dimensional Analysis of Big G

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a short note to show how big G can be derived from dimensional analysis by assuming that the Planck length is much more fundamental than Newton's gravitational constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[978] viXra:1607.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 01:41:39

Giving a First Estimate as to Quantum ‘number’ N(quantum) of a Pre Planckian State of Space-Time, Prior to Inflation; Plus Application to Entropy and Graviton Physics, with Neutrinos Thrown In.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 11 Pages.

Using the idea of a quantum ‘number’ N, which is due to , with the walls nixing the space-time import of interior dynamics of a pre Plackian state, using energy And the U ~ potential. Energy expression given by Padmanabhan for an inflaton state when the scale factor , we obtain the term, N, for quantum exited state, prior to the exiting of the Pre Planck state, to inflationary physics. From there we bridge this creation of N, in Pre Planckian space-time, to Semi classical and brane theory versions of entropy, and also its linkage to both graviton and nonstandard beyond the standard model physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[977] viXra:1607.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 11:58:51

Unified Field Theory.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 79 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016.

In the Einstein field equations the geometry or the curvature of space-time defined as depended on the distribution of mass and energy principally resides on the left-hand side is set identical to a nongeometrical tensorial representation of matter on the right-hand side. In one or another form, general relativity accords a direct geometrical significance only to the gravitational field while the other physical fields are not of spacetime, they reside only in spacetime. Less well known, though of comparable importance is Einstein's dissatisfaction with the fundamental asymmetry between gravitational and non-gravitational fields and his contributions to develop a completely relativistic geometrical field theory of all fundamental interactions, a unified field theory. Of special note in this context and equally significant is Einstein’s demand to replace the symmetrical tensor field by a non-symmetrical one and to drop the condition gik = gki for the field components. Historically, many other attempts were made too, to extend the general theory of relativity's geometrization of gravitation to non-gravitational interactions, in particular, to electromagnetism. Still, progress has been very slow. It is the purpose of this publication to provide a unified field theory in which the gravitational field, the electromagnetic field and other fields are only different components or manifestations of the same unified field by mathematizing the relationship between cause and effect under conditions of general theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[976] viXra:1607.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 05:44:31

The Rationality of the Non-random Formation of our Universe

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 3 Pages.

The General Intelligent Design (GID) Model interpretation of the General Grand Unification (GGU) Model verifies the rationality of the Kaku statement that we live in a universe "governed by rules that were created, shaped by a universal intelligence."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[975] viXra:1606.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 00:55:17

Is the Cosmological Constant, a ‘vacuum’ Field? We Explore This by Squeezing Early Universe ‘coherent-Semi Classical States. and Compares This to Energy from the Early Universe Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 Pages. Mistake in initial title corrected

Our question delves into the nature of early universe vacuum fields, and if this initial vacuum field corresponds to a configuration of early universe space-time at the start of inflation.. The answer as to this came out due to wanting to know if a cosmological constant, as given in the Einstein field equations is commensurate with the by product of squeezed states, We compare our answer, with the influx of energy as given by a modified Heinsenberg Uncertainty principle, at the start of the inflationary era. The so called influx of energy is tied into the squeezed state phenomena as written up in the onset of this article. The impetus to writing this document came from Dr. Karim, in an e mail which the author relates to, in the introduction. Our claim is that the smallness of gtt << 1 is what is driving the existence of the Squeezed states
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[974] viXra:1606.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 00:30:11

More on Logic Being the Fundamental Components of String Theory

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 24 Pages. Hypothetical fundamental building blocks of the universes.

After a basic introduction to Anti - information theory in the last paper (See Anti- info, other universes and the connection between logic and matter) I now go into some mathematical details of how the Axes are constituted. This involves the branches being signal receivers, decoders and transmitters, and, also involves the hypothesis that strings are actually composed of singularities connected by the constituent branches.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[973] viXra:1606.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 14:24:23

Examination of Sufficient Conditions for Inflation, e Folds, Density Fluctuations, and a Modified Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages.

First, referring to an article by K. Freeze on “Natural Inflation”, we review e folds data, and also the role of a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle as to what to expect from initial conditions as to satisfying the onset of inflation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[972] viXra:1606.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 19:08:24

2 of 10,721 Expand All Print All in New Window Examination of a Multiple Universe Version of the Partition Function of the Universe, Based Upon Penrose’s Cyclic Conformal Cosmology. Leading to Uniform Values of (Planck’s Constant) , Invariant Physic

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 11 Pages.

We look at, starting with Shankar’s treatment of the partition function, inserting in the data of the modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to give a role of the inflaton in the formation of a partition of the universe. The end result will be, even with the existence of a multiverse, i.e. simultaneous universes, uniform physical laws throughout the Multiple universes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[971] viXra:1606.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 18:15:29

Start Matrix Theory

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the parallel nature of the universe based on the holographic principle
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[970] viXra:1606.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 05:02:29

Anti Info , Other Universes and the Connection Between Logic and Matter

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 25 Pages. May be an important basic idea.

The basic building blocks of the universe/multi - verses has been a matter of debate for millennia. It seems progress has been made recently in string theory. This paper is certainly not meant to challenge string theory, but rather, provide a mechanism as to how strings are formed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[969] viXra:1606.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 13:03:11

The Wave Pattern is a String of the Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

Hadron superstring theory.(5) The wave pattern is a string of the super string theory. The mass is zero. It vibrates at velocity of light. It is a resident of the four-dimensional space. It has supersymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[968] viXra:1606.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 12:03:18

Gravitational Waves of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[967] viXra:1606.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 10:55:20

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Baryonic Matter Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[966] viXra:1606.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 09:50:54

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Quantum Equation of Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 15 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, the wave function $\Psi$ with spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$ can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors. Using the Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy vanish in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. The mixed frequency solutions of the QE are not affected by the modified Einstein equation. GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to the energy momentum tensor as the force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter or dark photons, if they exist.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[965] viXra:1606.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 23:47:53

Berry Phase for Initial “Pre Planckian” Space-Time?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so, we look at, using Crowell’s book, a Berry phase, which in our case is proportional to the area integration of 1 over the square of variation of change in energy. Our variation of the change in energy in this case is due to the Pre Planckian space-time HUP (Heisenberg uncertainty principle). The change in the energy, times change in time, is in this case, is in minimization of the HUP, equal to Planck’s constant divided by the square of the minimum scale factor, times 1 over the initial inflaton value. Our result as derived, gives substance to the supposition that a change in pre Planckian space-time is, indeed a phase transition, in line with work the author has done earlier. And does it in line with the inflaton, as given by Padmanabhan.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[964] viXra:1606.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 22:11:14

Sphere Theory and the Hubble Constant, Hubble Sphere, and a Stable Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse and perhaps larger spheres. This however does mean that everything is made of one sphere. Rather it is more likely that it is a hidden force combination that holds certain combinations of spheres together. One of these shapes maybe be a toroid. Perhaps similar to proposed radiationless structure as shown by Dr Miroshnichenko in “New theory to lead to radiationless revolution” First we review the Hubble Constant values. Dr. Miroshnichenko shows that there may be radiationless structures that are made of radiating materials, that are toroid shape. We will review the values of the Hubble constant from WMAP, Planck Mission, Hubble Telescope, other measurements and compares it to Sphere Theory Hubble Constant. This paper shows that our universe may be a combination of spheres in a toroid shape. Each sphere would be the size of the Hubble Sphere, as calculated by Sphere Theory. The toroid shape as acknowledged by other Physcists. The Toroid is a simple calculation that shows that a toroid may explain the size of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[963] viXra:1606.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 21:25:00

Gedankenexperiment for Looking at 5th Force Arguments for Contribution for a Pre Planckian Inflaton. with Consequences.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 12 Pages.

Using work by Fishbach and Talmadge, we use 5th force arguments and the common Virial theorem, plus a modified Wheeler De Witt wave function to set up an energy fluctuation equation. From there, we also use a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to isolate the role of an inflaton in Pre Planckian space – rime. Its consequences are remarked upon with the range of a purported 5th force and scaled as between 10^-1 to 10^-3.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[962] viXra:1606.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 14:12:28

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Stars via Leptons Solve the Rotation Braking

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of the two intervals of the rotation braking and two plateaus in the curve describing rotation velocity of the main-sequence normal stars as a function of the spectral classes. We did it involving the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with the electron and proton vortices in stars. Calculated here the advection velocity of the proton vortex is about 414 km/s, of the electron vortex is about 10 km/s whereas the mean value is about 212 km/s. The threshold rotational velocities follow from the fact that in hottest stars, near equator, there dominate the light ions, next in colder stars there dominate the neutral light atoms, and next in coldest stars there are created heavier neutral atoms so gravity transfers the angular momentum to the cores of stars. We showed as well that the DM structures are perfectly elastic so it is very difficult to detect them. We answered following question: How should we plan an experiment to detect dark matter?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[961] viXra:1606.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 03:11:42

Forces: Explained and Derived by Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 35 pages

Three of the four known forces in physics are unified into one equation with a clear explanation for the different properties of each force. The strong, electromagnetic and gravitational forces are governed by the same force equation, yet they have different characteristics of wave amplitude that modify a particle’s wave and motion. Although it is intentionally not unified into the general equation for force, an explanation is provided for the weak force. All calculations with the newly proposed Force Equation match experimental results and can derive Newton’s laws for gravity and Coulomb’s law for electromagnetism.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[960] viXra:1606.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 03:11:52

Gedankenexperiment for Looking at Fluctuations in the Time Component of the Metric Tensor Gtt for Initial Expansion of the Universe and Influence on Hup Via Inflaton

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 14 Pages.

We examine through the lens of dynamical systems a ‘one dimensional’ time mapping of emergent VEV from Pre Planckian space time conditions. We use Licata’s and Fiscaletti’s Bolmian Quanuum mechanics to obtain an energy E as minus the time derivative of a phase transition, as given by Bohmian Q.M. for curved space time, in the Pre Planckian state, where we then use a modified version of the HUP , to then isolate the inflaton. The emergence of the inflaton scalar field, in time evolution is tied into physics of the first order phase transition to QM, and the regular HUP, used by Heisenberg. I.e. a first order generation of initial entropy via Bohmian QM applied in Pre Planckian space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[959] viXra:1606.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-10 12:42:00

A Light, Neutral Boson with a Mass of 18.4 MeV as the Binder of the Second Composite Higgs Boson with a Mass of 742 GeV or/and 750 GeV and the Tetraneutron

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), which describes the phase transitions of the inflation/Higgs field, we show that a light, neutral boson with a mass of 18.4 MeV that consists of four entangled parts (theory of neutrinos described within SST shows that there is valid the four-object symmetry), is the binder/precursor of the second Higgs boson with a mass of 742 GeV or/and 750 GeV. The ATOMKI group has adequate equipment to detect the light, neutral boson with a mass of about 18.4 MeV whereas the LHC experiments can show which one of the two possible mass states of the second composite Higgs boson dominates. The four-object symmetry and the atom-like structure of baryons lead to the resonant tetraneutron state and to the internal structure of the neutron stars/black-holes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[958] viXra:1606.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 16:13:33

The Origin of the X-Boson with a Mass of 16.70(85) MeV Discovered by the ATOMKI Group

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The ATOMKI group discovered the X-vector-boson with a mass of 16.70(85) MeV in the decays of highly excited nuclei. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of such light, neutral boson. We show that the sum of the nuclear weak mass of a pair of Einstein-spacetime condensates produced by nucleons and the mass of electron-positron pair is 16.904 MeV (these two pairs can interact due to the confinement or quantum entanglement described within SST) - this value is consistent with ATOMKI data. We should modify the Standard Model by incorporating the SST.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[957] viXra:1606.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 13:21:34

The Forces of Matter are Memories of Symmetry

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 2 Pages.

The charges and forces of matter are characterized as "memories" of a former primordial state of energetic symmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[956] viXra:1606.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 19:54:10

A Pulsation Hypothesis Leads a Standard Model Including the Gravity.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 19 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis leads a standard model including the gravity. (unified field theory) (A string theory of the elementary particle size.) The standard model (unified field theory) of the elementary particle is considered to be the best terminus ad quem of the theoretical physics now. However, it is not an ultimate theory. (1) Gravitational action is not included in this model. Gravity have a deep connection with structure of time, the space. Gravity must be included in an ultimate theory. (2) I cannot extrapolate a theory to a micro-limit as far as I use the prescription of filing. When I am going to raise the resolution of a monitor projecting a physical phenomenon endlessly, a theory fails somewhere. (3) A supposition without some grounds is included in a standard model. It is said that an electron and the electric charge of the quark make the close integer ratio. It is totally unknown why it becomes the integer ratio. (4) The superstring theory hides the possibility that I can solve all these three problems. However, the conclusive evidence that a theory is fair is not yet obtained, and the inspection by the experiment is considered to be impossibility. The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle. The pulsation principle includes all of concepts of the standard theory. I cancel all of above problems. (1) I discovered four-dimensional space. I discovered dark energy and dark matter of mystery in the 4-dimensional space. (2)I express mean density of the dark energy as the horizon of energy zero and describe the horizon as unification ground to include all places. The standard model describes quark ground, lepton ground, Higgs place, a gauge field separately. I express it at one place. (3)The dark energy is thin energy to meet vacuum space of the space. The energy triggers repulsion each other and lets you maintain energy density uniformly. It is equivalent with the concept of the standard model saying that it is the aggregate of a minute spring endlessly. (4)I catch a wave of the dark energy as a material wave described by Schrodinger equation and describe nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism as action of the material wave. I explain the gravity that a standard model was not able to include naturally and include it. I describe differences between gravity and vast po4) (5)The Cal czar Kleine theory standardized gravity and electromagnetic willpower mathematically. Four dimensions of unified field theory of Einstein needs space. However, it was not found. The pulsation principle discovers the four-dimensional space and aims at the unified field theory of Einstein. (6)"The prescription of filing" is unnecessary on the pulsation principle. When "the infinity" calculates an equation of the standard theory, it appears by all means. "The prescription of filing" replaces infinite numerical value with the mass of the particle to handle infinity. It is said that it is a result to treat an elementary particle as a point without the size. (7)"The microdomain theory of Dr. Yukawa" is one case. Means to keep size in an elementary particle, and to evade infinity. It is a longtime problem. (8)The elementary particle pulsation principle solves the problem. (9)The pulsating elementary particle has size intermittently. The elementary particle has mass in "a particle trip and a minus number particle trip". All of mass of the elementary particle converts it into energy (light). "A wave trip." The elementary particle becomes the point that does not have size in the three-dimensional space. It evades infinite contradiction. (10)The pulsating elementary particle continues emitting a material wave as a pulsatile ripple in the neighborhood. The standard theory calculates "modulus" squared of the material wave. It is the existence probability of the particle. It calculates only equilateral energy. The numerical value becomes infinite. The elementary particle pulsation principle, In pulsation of 1 cycle, the total of the energy of the positive and negative becomes zero. The energy grand total includes a symmetry to become zero. Therefore infinity does not occur and does not need prescription of filing.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[955] viXra:1606.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 13:45:33

A Spin and Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 12 Pages.

A spin and elementary particle pulsation principle. * The particle process is equal with a half-integer spin. The minus number particle process is equal with a half-integer spin. The wave process is equal with an integer spin. * An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.  Pulsatile particle trip and a half-integer spin 1/2 are equal to the fermion such as an electron, a proton, a neutron, a positron, the quark. The mass is m>0. * Wave trip and spin 2/2 are the same as BOSE particle. The mass is m=0. The speed is light C. * Difference in pulsatile trip is a difference of the spins (an integer and half-integer). Both are differences of the timings. The action is a large difference.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[954] viXra:1606.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 22:14:13

Relativistic Derivations of Gravity, Dark Matter, the Hubble Shift and Foundational Particle Physics

Authors: Joseph Forrington
Comments: 90 pages

Generally speaking, Einstein’s gravity is a distortion of space/time geometry, expressed in the spatial aspect. Distortions in time, which are apparent different rates of time in different reference frames, manifest apparent curvature of motion in space. In Relativity, gravity disappears in a free fall in open space except for “residual” tidal forces as objects converge on a common gravitational center, i.e., the center of a mass, or an unbalanced force is applied to the mass, accelerating it. This theory postulates that Einstein stopped short and that Relativity describes the geometric effects of gravity, and not gravity itself, which is an actual force in time. According to this theory, the tidal force convergence is caused by a focusing of the update in time into a time dilation vortex, and the shift of the update in time through the time dilation gradient creates the drag of gravity. When Advanced LIGO1 detected gravity waves on Sept. 14, 2015, it did so detecting distortions in the time aspect, fluctuations in the rate of time, which this theory is built upon. This theory explains how that distortion is responsible for the gravitational force in time. LIGO’s detection, if verified, proves effects in time generate force on space. Otherwise they could not distort space to produce the detected signal. The effects in time force space to change, distorting it. In the case of LIGO, this was a change in the shape of the antenna, a shortening of the length of a meter by accelerated time. The shortening of a meter creates stress in space, which is cohesive and resistant to change. Both space and time possess inertia. In this paper, first a Gravitational Equivalency Constant for the force in time relative to the force in Newtons is mathematically derived. This is used to mathematically derive the mass/energy “Dark Matter” content of the Andromeda galaxy, and again in the Elementary Particles section to derive the formation of quanta and their entanglement in space/time that forms complex particles, mathematically explaining why the masses of protons and neutrons are so much larger than the sum of the masses of their constituent particles, and how gravity is responsible for the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces. In Relativity, time dilation creates an increase in space to maintain the speed of light, C, as C is constant in any inertial reference frame. This increase in space is usually accounted for by the addition of meters. This is not correct. As C is a constant at so many m/s, the number of meters must remain the same between any two frames of reference when the rate of time increases or decreases between those frames, 299 m/s is not the same as 310 m/s. There must always be the same number of meters. This means it is the length of the meter that changes. If a meter = 1 in your inertial frame, a meter in a faster time frame = <1 standard meter. This is a relative meter. Using this, the Red Shift of Gn-z11, the farthest known galaxy with the highest red shift, is determined, placing it at 13.4 Gly in actual and “lookback” time, contradicting theories of an accelerating expansion of the universe. It explains why the cosmic red shift is not due to cosmic expansion, but relativistic effects. The Andromeda dark matter and red shift derivations eliminate the need for either dark matter or dark energy. We see time dilation as a result of mass, but when we look at the processes in time, we see that mass is the result of time dilation. Space/time is not being stretched and thinned by mass. Space/time is not isotropic to begin with, especially in the time aspect. This theory demonstrates that the fluctuations in rates of time create gravity waves that result in the formation of mass in slow time rate areas and, unlike Relativity, the math works on the galactic scale, as in the Andromeda Dark Matter derivation. This paper is based on the interactions of the true, temporal, direction of time all observers experience in their own inertial reference frames and the relativistic apparent lateral shift of the update of time down-gradient through time dilation fields in external frames; two forward directions of time. Einstein’s geometric curvature in the future evolution of space/time is due to the effects in time this theory explains: reference frames shift forward in space/time in the direction of the lateral update. On the quantum level, temporal time and space curve sharply in the spins of the quanta as temporal time and space follow the lateral shift into a spin, a space/time vortex. Because space is also drawn into the spin, and is limited by the restrictions of Planck units, the quanta can be quantized at the Planck level in space, though not in time, which is dimensionless. This theory does not try to alter the mathematics describing gravity and other effects used in Relativity that work so well on the scale of the solar system, but it explains gravity in different terms that give us gravity waves that can be applied to larger systems, such as galaxies and galactic clusters, where time dilation fields are irregular in shape and where Relativity fails to accurately describe gravity, resulting in theories of dark matter. This is a grand unification theory. The reader will find much correlation between quantum and cosmic events, tying the two scales together.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[953] viXra:1605.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 18:41:02

A Resonance of Orbitals, Cherenkov Radiation, Bremsstrahlung Ratio for Electron Mass

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

What happens deeper than quantum mechanics? Perhaps deeper quantum mechanics with the same laws. The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances with processes that are like the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom could give the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung, Cherenkov type radiation, and an orbital type model at a deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a rough idea for the electron.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[952] viXra:1605.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 03:24:21

Modification of the Reactor Neutrino Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The measured prompt spectra in the RENO experiment show an excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. This observation suggests that we should modify the current reactor neutrino model. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV. We also explain why in the average nuclear fission there is released about 4.5% of energy as the radiation of neutrinos. The calculated within SST excess of the ~ 5 MeV events should constitute about 2.6% of the total observed reactor neutrinos. This result is close to the RENO result ~ 3%.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[951] viXra:1605.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 17:43:45

A Pulsation Hypothesis Leads a Super String and a Quark Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

A string theory of the elementary particle size. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[880] viXra:1607.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 02:31:35

Axion-Higgs 3-Dimensional Rigid Transformable Strings and the Compound 650 GeV Z-Z Decay into Quarks/Leptoquarks.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages. 28

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black hole nuclei.. Introduction,
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[879] viXra:1607.0290 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-24 14:41:43

Holographic Projector

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 14 Pages.

There is an attempt to explain the basic physical principles , based on the idea that our universe has one extra dimension ( no space ) in addition to space and time . That's the basics : the holographic principle , the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity is an isometric view in a universal dimension.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[878] viXra:1607.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-11 01:43:26

A Speculative Note on How to Modify Einstein's Field Equation to Hold at the Quantum Scale. Gravity at the Quantum Scale = Strong Force?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short note, first we will show a few ways to rewrite Einstein's field equation without basically changing it. Then we speculate a bit more broadly on how to change the equation to make it hold at the quantum scale. More precisely, we modify it for bodies with masses less than the Planck mass.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[877] viXra:1607.0025 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 14:49:05

Planck Dimensional Analysis of Big G

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a short note to show how big G can be derived from dimensional analysis by assuming that the Planck length is much more fundamental than Newton's gravitational constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[876] viXra:1607.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-02 21:48:41

Estimate as to Quantum ‘number’ N of Pre Planckian State , Prior to Inflation;w.r.t. Entropy and Graviton Physics, with Neutrinos .And Information for Gravitons

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: put in 2 pages as to referring to gravitons as information carriers, with formula delineating relationship to quantum number N derived earlier

Using the idea of a quantum ‘number’ N, which is due to , with the walls nixing the space-time import of interior dynamics of a pre Plackian state, using energy And the U ~ potential. Energy expression given by Padmanabhan for an inflaton state when the scale factor , we obtain the term, N, for quantum exited state, prior to the exiting of the Pre Planck state, to inflationary physics. From there we bridge this creation of N, in Pre Planckian space-time, to Semi classical and brane theory versions of entropy, and also its linkage to both graviton and nonstandard beyond the standard model physics. We conclude with a speculation in the conclusion for future work which is to make entropy(information) a new synthesis for Graviton physics, just before the start of cosmological expansion as a partial information based replacement for the Higgs boson hypothesis, at least for gravitons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[875] viXra:1607.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 07:52:13

Unified Field Theory.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 77 Pages.

In the Einstein field equations the geometry or the curvature of space-time defined as depended on the distribution of mass and energy principally resides on the left-hand side is set identical to a nongeometrical tensorial representation of matter on the right-hand side. In one or another form, general relativity accords a direct geometrical significance only to the gravitational field while the other physical fields are not of spacetime, they reside only in spacetime. Less well known, though of comparable importance is Einstein's dissatisfaction with the fundamental asymmetry between gravitational and non-gravitational fields and his contributions to develop a completely relativistic geometrical field theory of all fundamental interactions, a unified field theory. Of special note in this context and equally significant is Einstein’s demand to replace the symmetrical tensor field by a non-symmetrical one and to drop the condition gik = gki for the field components. Historically, many other attempts were made too, to extend the general theory of relativity's geometrization of gravitation to non-gravitational interactions, in particular, to electromagnetism. Still, progress has been very slow. It is the purpose of this publication to provide a unified field theory in which the gravitational field, the electromagnetic field and other fields are only different components or manifestations of the same unified field by mathematizing the relationship between cause and effect under conditions of general theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[874] viXra:1607.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-16 06:26:46

Detection of a Dim Sphere Composed of Massive Cold Galaxies (they Consist of Bare Neutron Black Holes) at Mean Redshift 0.6415 will Validate the Scale-Symmetric-Theory Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (their mass is greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim/cold massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. The SST cosmology shows that the distribution of redshift of massive galaxies must be balanced in such a way that the average redshift was 0.6415. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. SST leads to conclusion that we should see a weak redshift quantization for redshift lower than 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct. Here we described the number density of massive galaxies as a function of redshift and, separately, as a function of the SST time distance, we compared the SST, GR and Special-Relativity relative recession velocities (RRV), we described the redshift quantization, and we solved the luminosity problem of quasars.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[873] viXra:1607.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-06 04:46:43

Detection of a Dim Sphere Composed of Massive Cold Galaxies (they Consist of Bare Neutron Black Holes) at Mean Redshift 0.6415 will Validate the Scale-Symmetric-Theory Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (mass greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[872] viXra:1607.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-04 12:41:19

Detection of a Dim Sphere Composed of Massive Cold Galaxies (they Consist of Bare Neutron Black Holes) at Mean Redshift 0.6415 will Validate the Scale-Symmetric-Theory Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (mass greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[871] viXra:1606.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-29 06:53:48

Multidimensional, Wave-Function Superconductivity and Cosmology

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 19 Pages.

The Cooper pair state is responsible for superconductivity, as described in the BCS theory developed by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Schrieffer for which they shared the 1972 Nobel Prize. A Cooper pair or BCS pair is a pair of electrons (or other fermions) bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner first described in 1956 by American physicist Leon Cooper. These have some bosonic properties – properties similar to photons, gravitons and the Higgs boson. Bosons, at sufficiently low temperature, can form a Bose–Einstein condensate which is an example of macroscopic quantum phenomena (quantum behavior at the macroscopic scale, rather than at the atomic scale where quantum effects are prevalent). The best-known examples of macroscopic quantum phenomena are superfluidity and superconductivity. The fact that bosons can form a Bose–Einstein condensate which is related to superconductivity hints at superconductivity being a wave-function phenomenon. Also, the Complex Number Plane of mathematics in conjunction with the so-called Imaginary Time of physics suggests this wave-function might find practical application beyond abstract maths and could be multidimensional having "real", "imaginary" and "complex" types. The explanation of superconductivity by means of Cooper pairs confirms the validity of wave-particle duality. This article also extends the quantum scale and the wave-function to computer science and the cosmic scale - commenting on gravitational superconductivity, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, the Big Bang and cosmological Inflation, Unification, Artificial Intelligence, and black holes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[870] viXra:1606.0284 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-07 01:57:17

Examination of Conditions for Inflation, e Folds, Density Fluctuations, Via Hup, to Obtain HFGW Quantum Gravity Traces from Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages. Excellent question by Dr. Li on if HFGW would be able to have traces of quantum gravity,as of July 3rd, lead to inquiry as reflected in this version of the initial e fold document. Many thanks to Dr. Li for his adroit question and his geometrical insight

First, referring to an article by K. Freeze on “Natural Inflation”, we review e folds data, and also the role of a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle as to what to expect from initial conditions as to satisfying the onset of inflation.. .. This leads to , combined with the authors work in delineating a ‘perfect bounce’ a minimum HFGW which may exist due to the early universe, possibly from the influence of a minimum nonsingular universe starting point forming the template of a minimum wave length for starting GW, which may lead to an initial quantum gravity influenced frequency which is subsequently e shifted down by inflation. The initial conditions for the generation of HFGW, may correspond to early universe quantum gravity . I.e. this last part is due to a question asked the author, Dr. Li Fangyu, in the first week of July 2016
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[869] viXra:1606.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 01:06:42

Examination of a Multiple Universe Version of the Partition Function of the Universe, Based Upon Penrose’s Cyclic Conformal Cosmology. Leading to Uniform Values of (Planck’s Constant) , Invariant Physics

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 11 Pages. The word document had many errors which were subsequently fixed. My apologies for the mess

We look at, starting with Shankar’s treatment of the partition function, inserting in the data of the modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to give a role of the inflaton in the formation of a partition of the universe. The end result will be, even with the existence of a multiverse, i.e. simultaneous universes, uniform physical laws throughout the Multiple universes. Comments: 11 Pages.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[868] viXra:1606.0252 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-23 03:35:08

Start Matrix Theory

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the parallel nature of the universe based on the holographic principle
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[867] viXra:1606.0252 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-06 06:03:28

Start Matrix Theory

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the parallel nature of the universe based on the holographic principle
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[866] viXra:1606.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-19 06:31:44

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Baryonic Matter Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Precise maximum mass for DM loop corresponds to the upper limit for frequency 1669 Hz. Intensity for the frequency 1669 Hz should be highest. But emphasize that the DM loops are the perfectly elastic structures. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature. The correct big bang, i.e. the inflation and the “soft” big bang of the Universe, is described within SST.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[865] viXra:1606.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-29 15:33:12

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Quantum Equation of Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 15 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using the Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy vanish in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. The mixed frequency solutions of the QE are not affected by the modified Einstein equation. GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to the energy momentum tensor as the force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter or dark photons, if they exist.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[864] viXra:1606.0164 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-18 19:23:59

Sphere Theory and the Hubble Constant, Hubble Sphere, and a Stable Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 5 Pages. Added types of universes.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres. This however does mean that everything is made of one sphere. Part of what we call the universe would be a sphere made of tightly packed spheres, mostly packed in a cuboctahedron structure. Some small groups of these spheres could be held together by a large scale universe type force similar to electromagnetic force, but obvious a much grander scale and too uniform at our level to perceive. One of these shapes maybe be a toroid. Perhaps similar to proposed radiationless structure as shown by Dr Miroshnichenko in “New theory to lead to radiationless revolution”(1) Dr. Miroshnichenko shows that there may be radiationless structures that are made of radiating materials, that are toroid shape. First we review the Hubble Constant values. We will review the values of the Hubble constant from WMAP, Planck Mission, Hubble Telescope, other measurements and compares it to Sphere Theory Hubble Constant. Reviewing the observable universe we see a universe that we can see back 13.8 billion light years, but because of expansion must be about 91 billion light years in diameter. This paper shows that our universe may be a combination of spheres in a toroid shape. Each sphere would be the size of the Hubble Sphere, as calculated by Sphere Theory. The toroid shape as acknowledged, as a possibility, by other physicists, like Max Tegmark The toroid, which in this paper, is a 6 sphere structure organized as a hexagon that may explain the size of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory