Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1078] viXra:1612.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 02:14:53

Muon-Neutron and Tauon-Neutron Mass ratio Prediction

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

What determines the mass of particles like the muon and tauon? No, reasonable, mainstream model, has been predictive the mass of particles. Michael John Sarnowski’s empirical equations for the proton and electron use an equation that shows that a resonant frequency created by a resonance between bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov like radiation and the ratio of orbital energy ratios.(1) In those two papers the masses of the electron and proton are due one of the solutions the resonances. In addition a small fraction of the proton mass is due to relativistic effects of most of the electron, a small fraction of the electron is due to relativistic effects of the second solution to the mass equation of the proton. In “Evidence for Granular Granulated Spacetime it is shown that charge is directly dependent on the mass ratio of the electron to neutron and the proton to the neutron(2). These empirical equations are accurate to the CODATA values for the mass ratios of the electron to the neutron and the proton to the neutron. Also this equations are also predictive for the value for elementary charge. The following paper shows that the mass ratios of the muon to the neutron and the tauon to the neutron can be calculated from both solutions to resonant equation of a Cherenkov like radiation and Bremsstrahlung type radiation. These mass ratios are also accurate to the CODATA values for these two particles and are likely predictive of more accurate measurements of these particles in the future. What is unique for the muon-neutron and tauon-neutron is that the mass ratios of the use the same resonance and use one of the solutions for the resonance of the proton to the neutron mass ratio. The consistent use of resonances, consistent use of mass ratios to the neutron, and consistent interdependence of the mass ratios of particles indicates that the developing model is consistent and hints at underlying structure to space-time. When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of both the muon and tauon to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(4), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1077] viXra:1612.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 17:31:41

An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1076] viXra:1612.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:49:11

The Derivation of Quantum Gravity

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: 7 Pages.

The well-proven principles of general relativity are permitting the derivation of the answer to the eighty-year-old question how general relativity may harmonize with quantum mechanics. The key to the solution is a retrieval of the twofold nature of time, that is an absolute time concept on the one hand which is underlying the relative, observer-dependent concept of spacetime on the other hand. The attempts to quantize spacetime revealed to imply big difficulties. We will show that the reason for these problems is the structure of space and time, and that quantum gravity must happen on particle level.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1075] viXra:1612.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 09:56:16

Enormously Large Velocity and Insignificant Mass;

Authors: Grisha Filippov
Comments: Pages.

The non-relativistic regime of quantum gravity, as shown in this paper, can be found in the assumption of the existence of Fundamental length L. See Page 14 IN THIS PAPER.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1074] viXra:1612.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 06:48:44

The Main Absurd Ideas That Destroy Theoretical Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

I assume that the readers of this article have read the Wikipedia article entitled “Aether theories”: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aether¬_theories. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the speed of light in “vacuum” c and speed of quantum entanglement from the beginning (ab initio). The derivation shows that the mainstream interpretation of the invariant c is incomplete and that the Michelson-Morley experiment cannot be considered to be the first strong evidence against the aether theory. We still cannot calculate the half-integral spin of proton within the 3-valence-quarks model - it is the “proton spin crisis”. Experiments suggest that the total proton spin carried by quarks can be consistent with almost zero. Is the quark model of proton partially incorrect? Here we show the origin of the spin asymmetry in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering that leads to the proton spin crisis. SST shows that inside baryons there are produced the quark-antiquark pairs but there are not single valence quarks because contrary to the electric charges of proton and electron, the electric charges of quarks are highly unstable. SST shows that spin of proton is carried by orbital angular momentums of the carriers of gluons. The third main absurd idea is that pure/massless energy (for example vibrations) can propagate without some aether composed of physical/non-zero-volume particles. In reality, elementary energies are carried by the components of the Planck scale and by the components of the two scales below it.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1073] viXra:1612.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 03:46:44

Generalizations of Schwarzschild and (Anti) de Sitter Metrics in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1072] viXra:1611.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 12:57:34

Gravitation Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 48 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“To oscillate photons need energy, that is why they emit Gravitons with negative energy and negative impulse.” Adrian Ferent From Newton, Maxwell, Einstein…you learned that light, photons are perpetual motion machines, are in perpetual motion. “My Nobel Prize - Discovery: the Photon – Graviton pair (coupled) has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy, is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν “ Adrian Ferent The most important properties in my view of the Gravitons: 1.Gravitons help photons (and all the particles) to oscillate. 2.Gravitons collapse matter, bring everything together. 3.Gravitons transfer energy, transfer mass. The Higgs boson is not involved. Because of these properties the Graviton is the most important particle, is the God particle; not the Higgs boson.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1071] viXra:1611.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:04:27

So Feynman Was Right

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 4 Pages.

The curious relationship between the Planck Length and the Bohr Radius enables one to write down the mass of the electron in terms of the Planck Mass, the fine structure constant and pi. Building on the relationship between the GUT scale and the mass of the electron, the fine structure constant is shown to be related to both pi and e, as Richard Feynman surmised.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1070] viXra:1611.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 20:36:11

Gravitational Redshift Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 46 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift” Adrian Ferent I discovered the equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν All physicists were not capable to explain Gravitational time dilation, gravitational redshift. Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy. “Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1069] viXra:1611.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 22:59:01

A Conformal Preon Model

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 7 Pages.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on massless constituents having spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the three preon states. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1068] viXra:1611.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 01:48:10

Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant and Mass Ratio of Electron and Proton to Neutron

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant, of 137.035999117, and the mass ratios of the Electron and Proton to the Neutron. In the following papers by Michael John Sarnowski , “Serendipitous Hints at Shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1508.0027v4.pdf and “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1601.0234v2.pdf and “An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Proton to Neutron” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1611.0183v1.pdf . He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the neutron and proposes a value for the fine structure constant that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1067] viXra:1611.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 22:32:55

Continuous Production of Matter Instead of Big Bang

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context of an alternative to the Big Bang theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1066] viXra:1611.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 06:39:15

Examination of Initial Time Step in the Neighborhood of a Planckian to Pre Planckian Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages.

Using the early universe Heisenberg Uncertainty principle derived by the author, the HUP and also dE/dt = ( function of force, acceleration) are utilized , where E is the energy, F is a force equation, and m is mass and a acceleration. From here, we will be utilizing all of the above to derive a minimum time step . Which is pertinent to the Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time regime.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1065] viXra:1611.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 09:52:54

Spacetime and Matter as Emergent Phenomena, Theory of Everything (in Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 46 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ESTM-theory and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ESTM-theory. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ESTM-theory and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ESTM-theory. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1064] viXra:1611.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 11:26:44

Fourier's Law, Unruh Vacuum

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper presents a quantum Fourier's law of heat for Unruh vacuum
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1063] viXra:1611.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 08:31:26

Dirac Large-Numbers Hypothesis in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Contrary to the mainstream theories, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the dimensionless physical-constants/numbers are calculated. Here we show that two large physical-constants/numbers are very important. First of the two large numbers relates ratio of the fine-structure constant and the coupling constant of gravitational interaction of the components of the electron-positron pairs to ratio of densities of the gravitating Einstein spacetime and the non-gravitating Higgs field (HF) which has inertial mass only - it is some 42 powers of ten. The second one relates the mass/size cosmological scales and proton scales - it is some 40 powers of ten. SST shows that since the end of the inflation the gravitational constant is invariant. Gravity and quantum entanglement emerged during the inflation as a result of phase transitions of large part of the Higgs field. Due to the properties of the quantum entanglement, controlling or removing quantum decoherence is impossible. SST shows that we cannot explain correctly both gravity and quantum entanglement neglecting the two size scales below the Planck scale i.e. the HF scale and the quantum-entanglement scale.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1062] viXra:1611.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 09:56:40

Derivation of Potentially Important Masses for Physics and Astrophysics by Dimensional Analysis

Authors: Dimitar Valev
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Hubble constant has been added in addition to the three fundamental constants (speed of light, gravitational constant and Planck constant) used by Max Planck, for derivation of the Planck mass by dimensional analysis. As a result, a general solution is found for the mass dimension expression m = γ^p•mP, where mP is the Planck mass, γ ≈ 1.23×10^(-61) is a small dimensionless quantity and p is an arbitrary parameter in the interval [–1, 1]. The Planck mass m1 ≡ mP = 2.17×10^(-8) kg, mass of the Hubble sphere m2 ~ 10^53 kg, minimum quantum of mass/energy m3 = 2.68×10^(-69) kg, Weinberg mass m5 = 1.08×10^(-28) kg, Eddington mass limit of stars M3 = 6.6×10^32 kg, mass of hypothetical quantum gravity atom M2 = 3.8×10^12 kg and some more masses potentially important for the physics and astrophysics represent particular solutions for values of p, expressed as fractions with small numerators and nominators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1061] viXra:1611.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 00:53:18

Dark Energy Does not Exist

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 36 Pages. I discovered a new gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale.

Dark energy does not exist! I discovered Big Bang and Big Crunch oscillation from Ferent wall. The majority of Dark matter is the core of supermassive black holes. Our Milky Way galaxy will be absorbed by a supermassive black hole from Ferent universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1060] viXra:1611.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 13:39:46

Atomic Beltway and Cosmic Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

A new theoretical paper from scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland suggests that intentionally creating just such a traffic jam out of a ring of several thousand ultracold atoms could enable precise measurements of motion. If implemented with the right experimental setup, the atoms could provide a measurement of gravity, possibly even at distances as short as 10 micrometers-about a tenth of a human hair's width. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1059] viXra:1611.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 21:58:23

Protons to Neutron Mass Ratio Nucleon Orbitals, Cherenkov Radiation and Bremsstrahlung

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the nucleons. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1058] viXra:1611.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 09:30:49

On the Time Evolution of Dual Orthogonal Group-Systems

Authors: Jakob Fleischpeitsch, Ralf Immerhart
Comments: 4 Pages.

As it has been conjectured for a long time, dual orthogonal group-systems (DOGs) exhibit a non-static behaviour in the low temperature-limit. This article aims to explore the unitary transformations corresponding to the time-evolution of such systems in the limit of $\beta\rightarrow \infty$.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1057] viXra:1611.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 13:39:12

Will It Be Possible to Copy Minds?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is assumed that mind copying is the process of scanning mental state of a brain substrate and copying it to a computational device i.e. it is assumed that mind is a state of some brain components. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that mind is an independent structure that can act with brain via leptons because of advection. SST shows that there are two different states of groups of the entangled non-rotating-spin-1 Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the very stable neutrino-antineutrino pairs): the spins can be perpendicular to a surface defined by the ES components (such configuration is characteristic for tori that we can find in fermions) or the spins can be aligned in circles (such configuration is characteristic for the dark-matter (DM) circles). The DM solitons are the sets of the entangled DM circles. According to SST, minds are collections of the interacting DM solitons produced due to the brain activity. New DM solitons can be produced only due to the brain-mind interactions. Here we consider the conditions that have to be met to allow copying of the minds composed of the dark-matter structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1056] viXra:1611.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 05:38:42

Elegant and Accurate Quark Mass Equations - Evidence for Quantum Gravity

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 5 Pages.

The masses of the electron and the up-type quarks may be written elegantly in terms of the Planck Mass, the natural scale of quantum gravity. Since the quarks of each generation are evidently arranged symmetrically about mass levels that descend in geometric sequence from the Planck Mass, the masses of the down-type quarks may also be written in terms of the Planck Mass. The new (2016) central values of Particle Data Group quark mass evaluation lie very close to the values, divulged in 2013, of the Planck Model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1055] viXra:1611.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 15:56:38

Theory of the Sphere Grid Aether

Authors: Matthias Kemeny
Comments: 55 Pages.

Much Time has passed since the Aether has been rejected as a possibility. Now I believe we have to go back to this way of thinking. This theory proposes an Aether that behaves like a liquid and is made of femtometer-sized units. The goal is to find similarities between an Aether and the behaviour of liquids so those principles can be combined. The description will include the most basic observations in Quantum Physics and try to integrate them into a model of a liquid aether. It can therefore be called a „Theory of Everything“. All the experimenta cruces will be considered. It will also combine the fundamental interactions into one origin. This model can be tested, and simulated.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1054] viXra:1611.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 03:48:35

The Differences Between the Bright Matter, Dark Matter, a Virtual Energy, Energy and Dark Energy

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), there is the two-component spacetime composed of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the very stable non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs (NAPs) moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c. NAPs in ES do not rotate. The main feature of the bright matter (BM) is that it contains parts with mean distances between the NAPs smaller than the mean distance between the ES components because of the short-distance quantum entanglement or confinement - BM is not a part of ES. The main feature of the dark matter (DM) is that mean distances between the NAPs are equal or greater than the mean distance between the ES components because of the long-distance entanglement - DM is not a part of ES and NAPs do not rotate. Virtual energy (VE) appears due to creation of the virtual pairs (it has positive mass) from the local ES components so there appears as well a local virtual hole in ES (it has negative mass). Mean mass of such virtual structure is equal to zero. But due to the annihilations of the virtual pairs to real photons (they are the rotational energies of the ES components) that escape from surrounding of a real particle (BM), virtual processes decrease density of the ES. Virtual pairs, virtual holes and real photons (real photons carry real energy (E)), are not parts of ES. Interactions of virtual particles create BM that is the anomalous mass of a real bare particle. A decay of real object (BM) to DM (it happened about 100 million years before the beginning of the expansion of the Universe) causes that virtual processes disappear. Since mass density of the ES around the object was negative so there is an inflow of ES into the region with lowered density of ES. The inflowing ES is the dark energy (DE). DE is needed to accelerate expansion of the Universe at the beginning and next to maintain a constant expansion rate. DE is a part of ES.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1053] viXra:1611.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 06:00:29

Dark-Matter Structures: Mass, Sizes and Detection

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with invariant mass about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles. Lower limit for their radius is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc. Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size). Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1052] viXra:1611.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 14:30:57

The Quantum Limit of Newton's Principle of Inertia

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we study Newton's principle of inertia within semiclassical quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1051] viXra:1611.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 07:58:56

Escape Velocity at the Subatomic Level Leads to Escape Probability

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we look at the escape velocity for subatomic particles. We suggest a new and simple interpretation of what exactly the escape velocity represents at the quantum level. At the quantum level, the escape velocity leads to an escape probability that is likely to be more useful at the subatomic scale than the escape velocity itself. The escape velocity seems to make simple logical sense when studied in light of atomism. Haug [1] has already shown that atomism gives us the same mathematical end results as Einstein's special relativity. Viewed in terms of general relativity and Newtonian mechanics, the escape velocity seems to be simple to understand. It also seems to explain phenomena at the quantum scale if one maintains an atomist's point of view. This strengthens our hypothesis that everything consists of indivisible particles and void (empty space). From an atomistic interpretation, our main conclusion is that the standard escape velocity formula likely is the most accurate formula we can generate and it appears to hold all the way down to the Planck scale. An escape velocity of $v_e>c$ simply indicates that an indivisible particle cannot escape from a fundamental particle (for example an electron) without colliding with the indivisible particles making up the fundamental particle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1050] viXra:1611.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 10:00:38

Space is Substance, Matter is Vacancy

Authors: Yin Kamoto, Uri Adams
Comments: 1 Page.

We used to believe the geocentric model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1049] viXra:1611.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:37:15

Cosmic-Ray Showers and Muon Problem

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Pierre Auger Observatory has detected more muons from cosmic-ray showers (about 30% to 60% for centre-of-mass energies 110 TeV to 170 TeV) than predicted within the LHC models for the centre-of-mass energies about 10 times lower (i.e. below 13 TeV). It suggests that at the energies beyond LHC, there can dominate a phenomenon that is neglected at the LHC energies. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the observed excess of muons concerns energies above the threshold energy about 18 TeV for the nucleons. At such energies, in proton-proton collisions, production of the spin-1 proton-antiproton pairs or narrow resonances dominates. This leads to the 50% positive excess of muons in comparison with the LHC-models prediction that should be observed in the cosmic-ray showers. It is consistent with the Auger data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1048] viXra:1611.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:42:02

General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics as the Theories Dependent on the Observer/Detector

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) are the theories dependent on the observer/detector so they are not the theories of the independent from observer Nature. In GR it follows from the fact that each act of observation (the photon-detector interaction via exchanges of the invisible superluminal particles responsible for quantum entanglement i.e. there are exchanged the spin-1 entanglons) sets the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to the detector (the speed c is in relation to the emitter or a last-interaction object - sometimes it is a detector). In QM it results from the fact that we cannot observe the entanglons directly and because time of observation lasts much longer than the time of exchanges of the invisible superluminal entanglons so there appear wavefunctions, superposition of states, and probabilities to find a particle in different states. Simultaneity of different states of the same particle is an illusion that appears only in the theories dependent on the observer. There must be in existence a more fundamental theory, which should be a theory of Nature independent on the observer - it is the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST leads to the initial conditions applied in GR and QM and shows that these theories are dependent on the observer. Moreover, SST shows that we cannot unify GR and QM within the same methods. SST shows that Nature behaves classically in a deterministic way but it does not mean that the free will is not in existence.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1047] viXra:1611.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 21:24:33

Strange Results Pertaining to Fermi’s Weak Coupling Constant, Strong Coupling Constant and Newtonian Gravitational Constant

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 2 Pages. Ref: ijmph.kaznu.kz/index.php/kaznu/article/.../pdf_10

Assuming that Planck scale plays a crucial role in Strong and Electroweak interactions, we made an attempt to inter-relate the Newtonian gravitational constant, Fermi’s weak coupling constant and Strong coupling constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1046] viXra:1610.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 18:39:10

Examination of H(x) Real Field of Higgs Boson as Originating in Pre Planckian Space-Time Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages. highly speculative paper. I have no idea of what people will make of it.

We initiate working with Peskin and Schroder’s quantum field theory (1995) write up of the Higgs boson, which has a scalar field write up for Phi , with’lower part’ of the spinor having h(x) as a real field, with =0 in spatial averaging. Our treatment is to look at the time component of this h(x) as a real field in Pre Planckian space-time to Planckian Space-time evolution, in a unitarity gauge specified potential V= c1 h(x)^2 + C2 h(x)^3 + C3 h(x)^4, using a fluctuation evolution equation of the form (d (delta h)/dt)^2 + V(delta h)= Delta E, which is in turn using (Delta E) times (Delta t) ~ h(bar)/ g(t,t), with this being a modified form of the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle in Pre-Planckian space-time. From here, we can identify the formation of delta h(x) in the Planckian space-time regime. Furthermore, it gets a special dependence upon the change in the metric tensor g(t,t)~(a(t))^2 times (inflaton). The inflaton is based upon Padmanabhan’s treatment of early universe models, in the case that the scale factor, a(t) ~ a(initial) times t ^ (beta), with beta a numerical value, and t a time factor. The a(initial) is supposed to represent a quantum bounce, along the lines of Camara, de Garcia Maia, Carvalho, and Lima, (2004) as a non zero initial starting point for expansion of the universe, using the ideas of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED). And from there isolating delta h(x)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1045] viXra:1610.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 16:02:55

Wave Dynamics of Quantum Gravity-Space

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 11 Pages.

Gravity-Space phenomenon is observed as unique, wavy, nonlinear and even a-temporal by its nature. A wave function describing the state of space encircling a gravitodynamic vortex is suggested. Linear vector gravity would be a realistic linear approximation. In the “strong field” limits, a quantization of orbits should be quite natural and fully observable. That phenomenon is named gravitonium. Quantum gravitomagnetic resonance with de Broglie’s wave arises most naturally from this. It could possible be the mechanism of mass creation, but of gravitation as well. Questions of Lorentz symmetry, gravyphoton mass and “relativity limits” are considered in detail. The whole concept leads to change from 20th century field-geometry paradigm towards real wave-dynamic description of Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1044] viXra:1610.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 16:27:14

Two More the Type QVRs Groups

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described a method that leads to the groups containing a quantum, vector boson, and two high-mass narrow composite resonances with low standard deviation both with J = 0 and J = 2 (the Type QVRs groups). Previously we described four such groups whereas in this paper we present two more such groups. Among the SST 12 resonances, there are three resonances with masses close to the mass of resonance with a higher width that appears in the LHC data (its mass is about 2.250 TeV). Their masses are 1.951 TeV, 2.242 TeV, and 2.566 TeV - the arithmetic mean of expected values is 2.253 TeV but signal should be broadened more than for the other narrow resonances. Moreover, 4 other resonances appear in the combined LHC data. We predict existence of 5 other resonances - masses of 3 of them are higher than the present-day range of the LHC experiments whereas 2 of them overlap with the bump around about 190 - 300 GeV. But the most important task is to search for the predicted vector bosons - two of the 6 vector bosons that appear in the six SST QVRs groups are the W and Z bosons whereas the predicted 4 vector bosons should have following masses 25.4 GeV, 30.5 GeV (it is the Heister vector boson), 40.1 GeV, and 280.2 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1043] viXra:1610.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 03:43:55

The Internal Structure of Baryons as a Source of the Higgs Boson and the Heister Vector Boson with a Mass of 30 GeV

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), especially within the atom-like structure of baryons, we described a method that leads to groups of particles each composed of 4 particles. Such groups consist of the following particles: a quantum of the electromagnetic field, a vector boson, and two high-mass narrow composite resonances with low standard deviation both with J = 0 and J = 2. Here we show that the Heister vector boson with a mass of 30.4 +- 1.78 GeV is the constituent of such a group. Here as well we reasoned out why the Higgs-boson signal is relatively strong in comparison with other high-mass scalar bosons - just there are two, not one, independent phenomena that lead to the mass of Higgs boson equal to 125.0 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1042] viXra:1610.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 11:47:24

Newton and Einstein's Gravity in a New Perspective for Planck Masses and Smaller Sized Objects

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 13 Pages.

In a recent paper, Haug [1] has rewritten many of Newton's and Einstein's gravitational results, without changing their output, into a quantized Planck form. However, his results only hold down to the scale of Planck mass size objects. Here we derive similar results for any mass less than or equal to a Planck mass. All of the new formulas presented in this paper give the same numerical output as the traditional formulas. However, they have been rewritten in a way that gives a new perspective on the formulas when working with gravity at the level of the subatomic world. To rewrite the well-known formulas in this way could make it easier to understand strength and weakness in Newton and Einstein gravitation formulas at the subatomic scale, potentially opening them up for new interpretations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1041] viXra:1610.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 04:32:29

Topological Phase Transitions as the Cause of Creation of High-Mass Narrow Resonances with Low Standard Deviation

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Topology is the branch of mathematics that attempts to describe the properties changing stepwise as, for example, number of holes in objects or conductivity of thin layers. Topological phase transitions play an important role in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They describe the successive phase transitions of the Higgs field - there appear the spin-1 binary systems of closed strings responsible for the quantum entanglement and loops and tori composed of the spin-1 bosons built of fermions. The single loops or tori are the objects with one global hole whereas their components are the bi-holes. Surfaces of the tori are built of smaller binary systems of tori i.e. one-global-hole objects are built of bi-holes. But in SST, the topological phase transitions concern as well the transition from electromagnetic interactions (there is one Type of photons) to nuclear interactions (there are 8 Types of gluons). Such transition causes that there can appear composite resonances built of 8 or 8x8=64 vector bosons with total angular momentum equal to 0 or 2. The strictly defined numbers of the high-standard-deviation vector bosons (8 or 64) in the composite resonances cause that they must be the high-mass narrow resonances with low standard deviation! It leads to conclusion that we must change the statistical methods applied to the topological composite resonances. Here we described 3 groups of such resonances – the groups are associated with the mass distances between neutral and charged lightest baryons (i.e. nucleons), lightest strange mesons (i.e. kaons) and lightest mesons (i.e. pions). Obtained results are consistent with the LHC data. We predict existence of two low-standard-deviation neutral resonances (5.01 +- 0.13 TeV and 5.78 +- 0.15 TeV). There can be in existence a high-standard-deviation vector boson with a mass of 25.4 +- 0.7 GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1040] viXra:1610.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 12:20:06

The Mystery of Dark Energy

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

An eccentric mystery in the modern cosmology. There is big energy to bring the acceleration expansion of the space in the vacuum space. It has a smaller 120 columns than a calculated energy level. I cannot explain the fact. An idea unlike the existing fruit which can explain existence of the dark energy is demanded eagerly.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1039] viXra:1610.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 13:31:00

Real and Imaginary Time and Evolutions of Thermodynamic Time in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

The modern conception of time is based on the General Theory of Relativity (GR). The GR gravitational time is associated with the escape velocity i.e. concerns the radial motions of masses/energies in gravitational fields. The two-component grainy spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), i.e. the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field (HF) concerning the gravitational fields and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs moving with the speed of light in “vacuum” (which leads to the Standard Model interactions), causes that the SST time for the ES components in ground state (the gravitational interactions only) and for baryonic plasma`(BP) near black holes is neither Einsteinian nor Newtonian. Here we described the SST time in the absence and in the presence of BP. The SST time does not concern the GR time associated with not granular spacetime. But it does not mean that the GR time, which concerns objects that can change their speed, is incorrect. Just GR is the incomplete theory (the speed of the ES components is invariant) so it incorrectly describes dynamics of black holes (BHs). The SST time is characteristic for flows of the ES forced by gravitational fields and for flows of BP forced by flows of the dark-matter (DM) structures, especially near and inside the SST BHs. Here we derived the formulae for the ES and BP gravitational time dilation, we explained what is imaginary time, we described the difference between the HF and ES thermodynamic time, and we present how have changed the thermodynamic units of time during the evolution of the Cosmos. Contrary to the GR BHs, due to the DM structures produced by BP on surfaces of the SST BHs and the invariance of speed of the ES components, particles can escape from the SST BHs via the jets.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1038] viXra:1610.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 04:12:10

(Bidum 3.0 Beta Version 21 Pages) a Toy Model of the Universe Based on a Large Numbers Hypothesis Inspired by Edward Teller – Towards a Toe Centered on Life Phenomenon

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 21 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 power law In this article, I propose a toy model of the universe (TMU) that can offer a couple of potential valid updates for the Standard model (SM) of particle physics: the main binary logarithm Teller hypothesis (mbl-TH) on the large numbers in physics, which is an alternative interpretation of the Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (DLNH); the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH); the electrograviton model (EGM) of the hypothetical graviton based on mbl-TH and DRH; a multiple (quantum) G hypothesis (mGH) based on a quantum G series (Gs_q); a unified scalar function (F_N) for all the (running) coupling constants of the four fundamental fields/forces based on a unifying strong-electroweak-gravitational scaling factor (N_a); a cyclic closed universe hypothesis (CCUH); life as a fundamental (biophysical) field hypothesis (LFFH) based on a new generalized concept of fundamental biophysical field/force (FBF). This TMU was motivated and created from the author's strong conviction that SM cannot evolve and become a " mature " TOE without fully explaining the existence of life forms (LFs).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1037] viXra:1610.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 12:26:43

The Wave Function and the Temperature Vacuum

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we study the connection between the wave function of a quantum particle and thermodynamic vacuum state. There is an analogy of the black hole thermodynamics in quantum world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1036] viXra:1610.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 18:44:10

About The Geometry of Cosmos(revised)

Authors: Dimitris Mastoridis
Comments: 31 Pages.

The current paper presents a new idea that it might lead us to the Grand Unified Theory. A concrete mathematical framework has been provided that could be appro- priate for one to work with. Possible answers were given concerning the problems of dark matter and dark energy as well as the “penetration” to vacuum dominant epoch, combining Quantum Physics with Cosmology through the existence of Higg’s boson. A value for Higg’s mass around 125.179345 Gev/c2 and a value for vacuum density around 4.41348x10−5Gev/cm3 were derived . Via Cartan’s theorem a proof regarding the number of bosons existing in nature (28) has been presented. Additionally, the full Lagrangian of our Cosmos (including Quantum Gravity) was accomplished.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1035] viXra:1610.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 17:42:58

Calculating delta G(t,t) at Boundary of Start of Planckian Physics Due to 1 Million Relic Black Holes

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

We use the ideas of a million black holes, at the boundary of delta g(t,t) contribution to the shift from Pre Planckian to Planckian physics, as a summed up contribution from one million primoridial black holes. I.e. this is assuming a quantum bounce This is an extension of work done by the author as to explain the nature of a transition from delta g(t,t) being tiny to when delta g(t,t) becomes 1 in value.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1034] viXra:1610.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 03:13:03

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 217 Pages.

A book on a background independent quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1033] viXra:1610.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 08:21:04

Modified Pauli Exclusion Principle

Authors: S Hussainsha
Comments: 11 Pages.

The principal objective of this paper is to describe the force of gravity according to the rules of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored. The result of this concept modifies Pauli Exclusion Principle so that it is possible to explain Quantum Entanglement in terms of relativity. The result shows Dark Matter is due to Entanglement, and Expansion of Universe is due to generalized Pauli Exclusion Principle (GPEP).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1032] viXra:1610.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 09:58:10

The Mysterious Star Kic 8462852

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 3 Pages.

If Observed Flux Values from KIC 8462852 are calculated like a Cicada Puzzle or the WOW Signal, the signals are distances from a planet or star to the sun.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1031] viXra:1610.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-02 20:37:10

Proof of No Singularity in Schwarzschild Black Hole and Big Bang

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the center of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and Big Bang being in the minimum entropy equaling to the Boltzmann constant. Then we prove the uncertainty relation (UR) of SBH and Big Bang UR which suggest no singularity in SBH and Big Bang.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1030] viXra:1610.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 09:27:55

The Constancy of the Ratio H(z)/(1 + z) as a Sign of Low-Energy Quantum Gravity

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 5 pages; poster contribution to the Xth International Conference on the Interconnection between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC 2016), 11-15 July 2016, São Paulo, Brazil

The model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author is based on the conjecture on an existence of the graviton background with the average graviton energy of the order of $10^{-3}$ eV. An interaction of photons and moving bodies with this background leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological consequences. Here, redshifts of remote objects and the additional dimming of them may be interpreted without any expansion of the Universe. The theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits the observational Hubble diagrams with high confidence levels (100\% for the SCP Union 2.1, 43\% for JLA compilations, 99.81\% for long GRBs, and 13.73\% for quasars). In the model, the ratio $H(z)/(1+z)$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. This conclusion is confirmed with 99.9999\% C.L. by fitting the compilation of 40 $H(z)$ observations from the paper by Zhang and Xia [arXiv:1606.04398].
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1029] viXra:1609.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 07:28:12

Physical Reality and Conservation of Energy

Authors: W.Berckmans
Comments: Pages.

The Physical Reality (PhR) model recently presented in viXra.org/abs/16040230 is the outcome of an alternative approach to studying cosmic behavior. It implicitly extends the principle of energy conservation to the full cosmos since its creation out of nihil. This article concludes that under this scenario an attempt to produce energy "for free" (e.g. by cold fusion)would not be necessarily doomed to fail.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1028] viXra:1609.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 07:27:38

(Precursor for) Quantum Boundary Conditions for Expanding Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages.

Using Hall and Reginatto’s condition for a Wheeler De Witt Equation for a Friedman – Walker metric coupled to a (Inflaton) scalar field, we delineate the outer boundary of the value of a scale factor a(t) for quantum effects, in an expanding universe. The inflaton field is from Padamanabhan’s reference, “ An Invitation to Astrophysics” which yields a nonstandard Potential U(a,phi) which will lead to an algebraic expression for a(t) for the value of the outer boundary of quantum effects in the universe. Afterwards, using the expression a(t)= a(initial) times [t(time)] ^ alpha, with alpha given different values, we give an estimation as to a time, t(time) which is roughly the boundary of the range of quantum effects. How this is unusual? We use the Wheeler De Witt Equation, as a coupling to a given inflaton field, phi, and from there find a different way as to delineate a time regime for the range of quantum effects in an expanding universe
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1027] viXra:1609.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 22:35:28

Evolution of the Universe v3

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1026] viXra:1609.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 11:21:34

Does GW Generation Has Semi Classical Features?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 15 Pages. In review process for possible acceptance by JHEPGC

Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu Abstract. We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1025] viXra:1609.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 13:34:02

The True End of Theoretical Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1024] viXra:1609.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 02:39:10

Hawking Radiation: Evidence Meets Speculation

Authors: Sarangam Majumdar, Sukla Pal
Comments: 4 Pages.

Scientist predicted the existence of quantum Hawking radiation and now he measures the entanglement of the Hawking pairs in an analogue black hole --- A theory which was almost impossible to verify in actual black hole has recently got its experimental confirmation in analog system.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1023] viXra:1609.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-14 13:27:42

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant G Using Electromagnetic Parameters

Authors: Jesus Sanchez
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G: G=(παq²/me²ε0)⁎exp(-(1/√2)⁎((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408⁎10-11 m3kg-1s-2 As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper. To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1022] viXra:1609.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-13 02:11:49

Paradigm Shift to Cosmic Unification, and Human Creation of Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 19 Pages.

Six months ago, I sent a comment to LIGO (Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory). Today, I received an email from Nathan Johnson-McDaniel who wrote, "Thanks for your comment. Unfortunately, we discovered that a number of queries to LIGO had gotten overlooked, so this is why we are only now replying to you. I am a postdoctoral researcher at the International Centre for Theoretical Sciences in Bangalore, India and one of the members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration who helps answer these questions." The article below – which I feel as though I've been working on forever – seems to answer the points in his email (and a ton of others). A paradigm shift in science is a fundamental change in its concepts and practices. “We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur. This article strives towards that revolution by addressing many topics – including dark energy, dark matter, black holes, radioactive dating, gravity, mathematics, the shape of space-time, and imaginary time. Historically, mathematics often finds practical application in physics. The idea of the quantum was originally developed by Max Planck purely as a mathematical convenience^, but it's been part of our reality for over a century. So imaginary time and the Complex Number Plane might find applications undreamt of today.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1021] viXra:1609.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 06:24:46

The Logical Universe and Ghost Fields

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 50 Pages. the logical universe is the bridge between the mind and physical reality

Here I posit the existence of a logical universe, within and behind the physical universe, the existence of fields that can calculate problems and how these relate to strings.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1020] viXra:1609.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-09 14:05:34

A Simple Toy Universe

Authors: Thomas Neil Neubert
Comments: 6 Pages.

From LEAR in 1980s to AEGIS today, CERN experiments that measure the gravitation interaction between antimatter and matter have all given null results. The CERN AEGIS null experimental results showing that antimatter is neither attracted nor repelled by matter have been ignored in the way that the null Michelson-Morley experimental results were ignored. It is urgent to interpret this precise results while awaiting decades more of ever more precise experiments. In this short paper, I will build a Simple Toy Universe that explains the apparent result that Fgravity = G mmatter mantimatter / (rmatter/antimatter)2 = 0
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1019] viXra:1609.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 23:43:25

From Boundary Thermodynamics Towards a Quantum Gravity Approach

Authors: Pierre A. Mandrin
Comments: 7 pages.

We examine how a thermodynamic model of the boundary of 4d-manifolds can be used for an approach to quantum gravity, to keep the number of assumptions low and the quantum degrees of freedom manageable. We start with a boundary action leading to Einstein's Equations under a restriction due to additional information from the bulk. Optionally, a modified form with torsion can be obtained. From the thermodynamic perspective, the number of possible microscopic states is evaluated for every macroscopic configuration, and this allows to compute the transition probability between quantum states. The formalism does not depend on specific microscopic properties. The smoothness and the topological space condition of the manifold structure are viewed as a preferred representation of a macroscopic space on mathematical grounds. By construction, gravity may be interpreted as thermodynamic model which is forced to be out of equilibrium depending on the restrictions imposed by matter. Instead of an ill-behaved path integral description of gravity, we obtain a non-divergent concept of sums over microstates.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1018] viXra:1609.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 09:58:55

How Can We Heal Physics?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is a review article. There are tens unsolved basic problems in cosmology and particle physics. It suggests that the two main theories, i.e. General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM), are the incomplete theories. To solve the hierarchy problem, we need a theory of size scales, not the postulated supersymmetric particles. There are the three self-similar scales i.e. the Planck scale, nuclear scale and a cosmological scale. A few additional symmetries that follow from properties of the inflation field (i.e. of the initial state of the superluminal Higgs field) lead to the self-similar fractal-like size scales that look as the analogs of quasars i.e. there is torus with central condensate (bigger tori are built of smaller tori). Such structures of basic bare fermions in the three self-similar scales (they are not the mathematical points) eliminate from theories all infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks as the mathematical indeterminate forms, free parameters, and reduce number of initial parameters to 7 only. The local/global duality of time, the non-linearity--linearity duality of phenomena and the non-local phenomena in GR and QP/SM lead to the two-component spacetime with radically different properties of the components - it causes that unification of GR and QP/SM within the same methods is impossible. Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we partially unified GR and QP/SM via the size scales - besides the three gravitating self-similar scales, there appear two non-gravitating superluminal scales that are associated one with gravitational fields and the second with quantum entanglement. The carriers of quantum entanglement, due to their internal helicities, produce only single jet composed of antiparallel half-jets. We need very big number of such carriers to create the volumetric gravitational field - it is realized via neutrinos. How long theoretical cosmology and particle physics will move in a blind alley? Two decades is not enough (the theory of size scales was formulated in 1997)? Who is responsible for this i.e. for the present mess in the two major areas of knowledge? No one can see that Nature cannot be such complicated as the present-day theories suggest (the tens of parameters, many wrong basic results as the spin of proton, infinities, singularities, approximations, tricks)? Is it arrogance?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1017] viXra:1609.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-04 18:01:20

Examination of Minimum Time Step, from Modified Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Inflaton Physics and Black Hole Physics

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 8 Pages.

First, we calculate the minimum length for the creation of a 10^45 Hz relic Gravitational wave. Next, we look Padamababhan’s inflaton physics, and work done by the author for a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle for constraints on a minimum time step. Sciama’s work in “Black hole explosions” (1982) gives us a linkage between a decay rate for black holes, in terms of a life time, and the mass, M of the black hole, which when combined with a simple exposition from Susskind and Hrabovsky (2013) for the most basic evolution the time change in energy E(t), which is how we form a first order treatment of the square of a minimum time step Delta t. We then reference what was done by Ng (2008) as far as infinite quantum statistics, for entropy as a particle count, and from first principle get constraints upon entropy production, as a function of boundaries on minimum time step. We assume massive Gravity, and obtain a peak 10^36 Giga Hertz frequency range (10^45 Hertz) for relic Gravitational waves, and Gravitons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1016] viXra:1609.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-04 05:06:48

The Strong CP Problem and the Transition from Linearity to Non-Linearity

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The internal helicity distinguish particles from antiparticles. Fermions, due to the internal helicity, produce weak jets (they are produced in both the Higgs field composed of non-gravitating tachyons and the luminal Einstein spacetime) that are responsible for the CP (so T as well) violation. Generally, according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the weak interactions are along the jets whereas the nuclear strong interactions are in plane perpendicular to the jets. It causes that the nuclear strong interactions are CP (so T as well) invariant - it solves the strong CP problem. Both interactions, due to the thermal motions, can be volumetric. According to SST, there is the two-component spacetime i.e. the Higgs field associated with gravitational fields and the Einstein spacetime associated with the Standard-Model (SM) interactions. To cancel turbulences, there must be produced virtual or/and real particle-antiparticle pairs. But in the gravitational fields, due to their very low density, pairs cannot be produced - it causes that gravity is non-linear and non-linear are phenomena with dominating gravity i.e. phenomena that follow from dynamic viscosity of the non-gravitating tachyons all objects consist of such as friction or motions of the atmosphere of Earth. On the other hand, the quantum mechanics is linear, i.e. superposition and quantum entanglement are linear because in the luminal Einstein spacetime can be produced fermion-antifermion pairs, especially electron-positron pairs. Range of electrons to move in a superconductive manner is equal to the radius of the Bohr orbit in the hydrogen atom - it leads to the threshold for density of bound and free electrons for superconducting materials (about 1.5 kg per cubic meter).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1015] viXra:1609.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 12:14:39

Towards a Monster Group Encompassing the Universe

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Monster group, the biggest of the sporadic groups, is equipped with the highest known number of dimensions and symmetries. Taking into account variants of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and a novel topological approach cast in a physical fashion that has the potential to be operationalized, the Universe can be conceived as a lower-dimensional manifold encompassed in the Monster group. Our Universe might arise from spontaneous dimension decrease and symmetry breaking that occur inside the very structure of the Monster Module. We elucidate how the energetic loss caused by projection from higher to lower dimensions and by the Monster group’s non-abelian features is correlated with the present-day asymmetry in thermodynamic arrow. By linking the Monster Module to theoretical physical counterparts, we are allowed to calculate its enthalpy and Lie group trajectories. Our approach also reveals how a symmetry break might lead to a Universe based on multi-dimensional string theories and CFT/AdS correspondence.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1014] viXra:1609.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 04:28:38

Entropy and Distribution of Information in the History of the Cosmos

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of entropy and information and their evolution in time in the Cosmos as a whole (the Cosmos has radius about 30 powers of ten of meters i.e. is much greater than the present-day radius of the expanding Universe). On the lowest level of Nature, the global information depends on distribution of rotational and kinetic energies of all free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all objects in the Cosmos consist of. The field composed of the free tachyons is the Higgs field - this field causes that neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. During the inflation, almost whole Higgs field transformed into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime that ground state consists of the non-rotating-spin neutrino-antineutrino pairs interacting gravitationally only. Orientation of spin is not important in gravitational field so all such pairs are in the same energetic state i.e. entropy of the ground state is equal to zero and this state dominates in the Cosmos. Moreover, the tachyonic energy frozen inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (it is the missing energy that results from quantum physics) is about 119 powers of ten times higher than their gravitational energy. The SST and the Kasner solution (which concerns the non-gravitating objects) show that there is a left-handedness of the residual Higgs field. The collapse of the outer shell of the Einstein spacetime at the end of the inflation created the returning shock wave. The shock wave plus the left-handedness of the residual Higgs field produced more matter than antimatter - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The returning energy-matter wave created the Universe in the centre of the Cosmos. Due to the boundary of the Cosmos, the Universe behaves cyclically. We start from the era before the inflation and via the inflation and via the neutron-black-holes state of the early Universe and via the present-day, we finish the description in the distant future. The tachyons cause that information cannot be destroyed by the SST black holes - the same concerns the energies of photons in gravitational fields. Entropy of the initial state of the inflation field and of the SST black holes is equal to zero. We can define time as the succeeding changes in the global information. In an approximation, Information behaves cyclically. In the Cosmos as a whole, entropy per particle is infinitesimal whereas total energy is conserved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1013] viXra:1609.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 04:33:23

The Expanding Universe as a Magnetic Monopole

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The alignment of the angular-momentums/spins of quasars and the perpendicularity of the planes of the main disc of massive spiral galaxies and the disc of a vast polar structure (VPOS) which contains the satellite galaxies, some globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams, suggest that the Universe as a whole and the massive galaxies have a history that cannot be easily explained within the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared in the binary systems of protogalaxies two perpendicular discs each composed of the dark-matter (DM) loops. Dynamics of the binary systems of protogalaxies and the early Universe leads to perpendicularity of the main disc and VPOS. During the highest radial acceleration of the protogalaxies just at the beginning of expansion of the Universe (initially it was cosmic double loop with left-handed internal helicity of each loop), to stabilize the main disc and conserve its angular momentum, the binary systems of protogalaxies made a rotation (i.e. a rotation of their rotation and magnetic axes) of 90 degrees in such a way that initially the angular-momentums/spins (and magnetic axes) were mostly antiparallel to their radial velocities, i.e. initially the expanding Universe looked as a magnetic monopole. But the succeeding inflows of dark energy (locally they could be turbulent and they lasted a few Gyr) that initially caused the explosions of the binary systems of protogalaxies (in such a way appeared the VPOSs), partially destroyed the monopole-like structure of the early Universe. But a statistical analyse should show that described here correlation is preferred. The initial radial polarization of the spins of quasars explains their alignment.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1012] viXra:1608.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 08:47:17

Topological Framework for Brane Cosmology

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 7 Pages.

Our Universe could either lie on a spatial three-dimensional brane embedded in a higher dimensional bulk, or could be flanked by one or more multi-dimensional branes of different possible sizes and shapes. Here we demonstrate, based on novel topological findings, that disconnected strings with matching descriptions moving on a 4-brane (or more) project to a single string on a 3-brane. This means that strings travelling on the bulk or on higher dimensional branes necessarily display a counterpart in our 3D world, and vice versa. Furthermore, based on the concept of homotopy equivalence, we show how it is possible for branes to stitch together to become condensed branes. Our framework allows a topological duality among different brane theories, because it holds for all the types of branes, independent of their hypothetical shape, curvature, size and boundaries. Furthermore, a topological approach allow branes assessment in the general terms of particle trajectories taking place on donut-like manifolds. Indeed, every high-dimensional brane, independent on the subtending cosmological model, can be described in terms of multi-dimensional toruses mapping to branes with lower spatial dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1011] viXra:1608.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 13:02:33

The Origin and the Spectra of the Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin and the spectra of the gamma-ray bursts (the exploding objects/progenitors we will call the GRBs). The GRBs explode due to the inflows of the dark energy into the associations of neutron black holes that are the constituents of the black holes in centres of galaxies. The GRBs should be placed near the Schwarzschild surface in the plane of the accretion discs. The bursts should be correlated with an increase in activity of the central-black-hole jet and accretion disc because it causes more dense flows of the dark energy. Such flows cause that the neutron black holes swell so their associations can transform into iron object. The increase in gravitational energy of the iron object is compensated by the decrease of the gravitational energy of the black holes as a whole, i.e. the central black holes become the more compact objects. A half of radiation energy is absorbed by the central black hole so the escaping energy looks as an analog to the Hawking radiation. The bursts are volumetric, not directional. Calculated here the typical emitted energy is equivalent to 1.9 solar masses. Most important are the fusions of nucleons mostly into iron-56 via helium-4, the beta decays of neutrons, and emission of photons with energy about 188 MeV that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. According to SST, the radius of the observed Universe increased 46.55 times so the spectra of most distant GRBs (SST shows that galaxies with redshift higher than 0.6 all are in time distance about 13 – 13.8 Gyr) should peak near 17 keV, 150 keV, 190 keV, and 4 MeV. The spectra of GBRs placed, for example, in distance 1.2 Gyr should peak near 190 keV, 1.7 MeV, 2.2 MeV, and 46 MeV. But there can be other lower peaks as well. Most important are two results i.e. the released typical energy 1.9 solar masses and the peak for 150 keV or 190 keV for very distant GRBs because number density of photons emitted during the iron production from nucleons via helium-4 should be highest and because abundance of the gamma-ray bursts should be highest for the distant Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1010] viXra:1608.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 15:05:17

The Disappearance of High Mass Photon Pairs

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the disappearance of high mass photon pairs that are the two-stage resonances. Their creation follows from the quantum entanglement. We suggest that the observed decrease in standard deviations results from increase in integral luminosity. Due to the four-object symmetry, instead production of, for example, the Higgs-like bosons with a mass of 750 GeV, due to the increase in the integral luminosity from 3.3 [1/fb] in 2015 to 12.9 [1/fb] in 2016, there are produced the Higgs-like bosons with a mass eight times higher. But such mass (about 6 TeV) lies outside the range of the CMS experiment. Moreover, probability of creation of the two-stage resonances is very, very low.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1009] viXra:1608.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 01:06:47

Examination of Schrodinger Equation in Pre Planckian Space-Time Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 9 Pages.

We look at Viutilli (1999) write up of a generalized schrodinger equation with its Ricci scalar inclusion, in curved space-time. This has a simplified version in Pre Planckian regime, which leads to comparing a resultant admissible wave function with Bohmian reformulations of quantum physics. As was done earlier, we compare this result with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use inflaton physics . The resuting inflaton is then compared to the wavefunctional in the first part of this document. Key words, Ricci tensor, Schrodinger equation, Modified Poisson Equation , massive gravity, inflaton physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1008] viXra:1608.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 00:10:41

Part 2 :Review of Tokamak Physics as a Way to Construct a Device Optimal for Graviton Detection and Generation Within a Confined Small Spatial Volume, as Opposed to Dyson’s “infinite Astrophysical Volume” Calculations

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 Pages.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. In addition we also obtain GW of amplitude as low as five meters above the Tokamak center such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1007] viXra:1608.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 00:13:47

Part 1: Possible Graviton Detection, for Outer Space Treatment of the Gertenshehtein Effect. I.e. Dyson’s Construction/ Analysis Does not Precludes Earth Bound Generation of Gravitons.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 8 Pages.

We are reviewing Freeman Dyson’s paper which alleged that detection of gravitons via LIGO, or by outer space experiments (due to probabilistic calculations which we review in the document), an impossibility. The disagreement we have with Dr. Dyson is that his probability calculations are taking place in almost infinite spatial domains, which renders the detection protocols, using his probability scheme, impossible. After we summarize the Dyson outer space arguments, and how Dyson got them, we will refer the reader to the very strain calculation done in the referenced PRD article, so cited, as to how a nuclear weapon could generate GW, and then afterwards, refer the reader to a 2nd paper, of how Tokamaks could detect GW/ Gravitons, as detectable by the 3DSR effect. Nowhere are we suggesting DETONITION of a nuclear device to generate GW! The reader is referred to another Li et.al. PRD article, 2008, as to 3DSR, as to how detection of GW/Gravitons could occur due to something other than the Gertenshehtein effect, in this paper, i.e. they can look it up, and then in a 2nd follow up paper learn how a Tokamak could be utilized to have a finite sized geometry, for using the 3DSR effect for GW generation. The first paper highlights how if one assumes that only by use of infinite spatial geometry, and by using only the Gertenshehtein effect, that indeed one can convince oneself as to not bothering with the very real prospects of earthbound generation of Gravitons and GW, and that in doing so, GW research will be strictly limited, even with the outstanding results of LIGO, which in no way should be criticized. The entire analysis makes the case that foundational research as to the nature of GRAVITY means moving beyond the mental limitations place on GW/ Graviton research by Dyson’s 2009 paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1006] viXra:1608.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 09:49:04

Tomorrow's Computer Science Builds Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 19 Pages.

Listening to Brian Cox and Dr. Karl talking on triple j (http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/media/s4513719.htm), the thing that most interested me was the subject "the opposite of gravity". By viewing reality as entanglement with the topological extension of a computer-simulated universe, comments can be made about: 1) the nature of gravity, and so-called antigravity being a result of the Complex Number Plane; 2) how this explanation of antigravity could explain dark energy and dark matter; 3) universal expansion being replaced by the closely related, though more precise, extension into space-time of binary digits and Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles; 4) a non-supernatural, humanistic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1005] viXra:1608.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 04:15:59

Preon Model for Matter and Spacetime Unification

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 12 Pages.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on constituents defined by mass, spin and charge. The preons form a finite combinatorial system for the standard model fermions. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the preon bound states. A unified picture for matter and spacetime is proposed by applying the area eigenvalues of loop quantum gravity to black hole preons producing a preon mass spectrum starting from zero. Gravitational baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained. Argument is given for unified field theory be based only on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions of preons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1004] viXra:1608.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 15:02:30

Space Time and Hilbert Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1003] viXra:1608.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 06:34:30

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory: Gravitons.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 9 Pages.

We nalize the project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10] by studying graviton theory in our setting. Given the results in [1, 3, 9, 10], there is not so much left to accomplish and we start by deepening our understanding of some points left open in [1, 10]. Perturbative niteness of the theory follows ad-verbatim from the analysis in [3, 9] and we do not bother here about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a couple of new physical and mathematical insights regarding the genesis of the structure of the quantal graviton theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1002] viXra:1608.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 07:19:51

Theory of Gravity: a Classical Field Approach in Curved Space-Time

Authors: Alexey N. Bulyuk
Comments: 17 Pages.

A new approach to the theory of gravity is proposed. A second-rank tensor field is chosen to be the potential of the gravitational field. The gravitational field is related to the metric tensor of space--time, and all phenomena occur in curved space--time. A variational principle is established, and the gravitational field equations are derived. The energy--momentum density tensor of the gravitational field and its conservation law are obtained. The source of the gravitational field is the energy--momentum density of all kinds of matter, including the gravitational field itself. A Lagrangian of the gravitational field is proposed that correctly describes local observable gravitational phenomena in the second-order approximation. The energy density of the gravitational field is positive. Estimates are obtained for the gravitational energy defect, the difference between the inertial and gravitational masses of a body, and the effect of the external gravitational field on the mass of a body. The new approach to the description of the gravitational field and its energy provides additional incentives search possibilities of experimental verification of the phenomena of gravitation in strong fields.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1001] viXra:1608.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 05:03:02

Theory of Everything Once Again

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here is a brief summary of the issues relating to the formulation of Theory of Everything (ToE). To formulate ToE, we must answer following questions and calculate following quantities from some more fundamental initial conditions applying much less parameters than the tens parameters that appear in the two fundamental theories i.e. in the General Theory of Relativity (GR) and the Standard Model (SM). Are the GR and SM the complete and mathematically coherent theories? Can we unify GR and SM within the same methods? If not, then what is the cause and why gravitational constant is about 42 powers of ten times lower than electromagnetic constant for electron-positron pair (it is not the fine-structure constant)? We must calculate masses of all fundamental fermions (i.e. neutrinos, electron, muon, tauon, quarks, proton and neutron) and mixing angles that appear in the PMNS neutrino-mixing matrix and in the CKM quark-mixing matrix. We must calculate fundamental physical constants and coupling constants. We must define the dark-matter (DM) particle and the dark-energy (DE) particle. There as well should appear a formula that ties masses/energies responsible for all interactions. We must solve many other fundamental problems in particle physics and cosmology unsolved within GR and SM. For example, why hyperons are created due to the nuclear strong interactions whereas they decay due to the electroweak interactions (the answer that it is due to the properties of the strange quark does not solve the problem)? All listed problems are solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), therefore, we believe that SST is missing part of the ToE.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1000] viXra:1608.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 21:43:43

Gravity is a Magnetic Function

Authors: John Faust
Comments: 31 Pages.

Abstract: Mass and the amp meter are equivalent. As a result of this I will demonstrate that gravity is a result of magnetism due to the magnetic fields of the particles associated with matter(protons, neutrons, and electrons). Their magnetic fields, particularly the one of the electron since it is much larger than the other two gives a value when plugged into the proper magnetic field equation that matches the acceleration of gravity at Earth's surface. Objections that magnetism is responsible for gravity are expected. Therefore, I will deal with the two main objections raised that seem to imply that magnetism couldn't be responsible for gravity immediately after the calculated result. The first objection deals with the inverse square law and the second deals with the monopole nature of gravity. After answering the objections, I will demonstrate the meaning of the gravitational constant as it relates to magnetic units and further support that mass and the amp meter are equivalent.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[999] viXra:1608.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-18 01:38:41

Pseudo-Forces Within Non-Local Geometrodynamics Model

Authors: Tomer Shushi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamics model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamics model. We then discuss on the (1+3) forces, the gravity force and an additional three pseudo-forces that are described by force carrier particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[998] viXra:1608.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 12:31:50

Gravitational Motor using the Quantum Controller of Gravity

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a type of motor which converts Gravitational Energy directly into Rotational Kinetic Energy. Its fuel is therefore the Gravitational Energy (no needs gasoline, oil, etc). An example of Gravitational Motor is the turbines of the hydroelectric plants. However, they are not mobile i.e., they cannot be transported from one place to another as the combustion motors or the electric motors. Mobiles Gravitational Motor can be developed starting from the devices of gravity control, such as the Quantum Controller of Gravity (QCG) [1]. The form of the QCG originally proposed is spherical. Here, it is described a Gravitational Motor which uses a QCG with spherical cylindrical form. This Gravitational Motor can have very-high power, and it can be used in order to generate electrical energy at large scale or traction to move cars, ships, tankers, aircraft carrier, trains, etc.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[997] viXra:1608.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 06:40:59

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory: Non-Abelian Gauge Theories.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We further investigate the new project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9] by generalizing non-abelian gauge theory to our setting. Given the results in [3, 9], there is not much left to do and we shall deepen our understanding of some points left open in [1] regarding the nature and presence of ghosts. Perturbative niteness of the theory follows ad-verbatim from the analysis in [3, 9] and we shall not bother here about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a couple of new physical and mathematical insights regarding the genesis of the structure of quantal non-abelian gauge theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[996] viXra:1608.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 09:29:12

Letter to Undivided Looking – Comments on Physics and Theology

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages.

This is what you get when you Google "imaginary time" and stumble across a Christian website by a postdoctoral researcher studying quantum gravity and black hole thermodynamics. The site is called UNDIVIDED LOOKING – COMMENTS ON PHYSICS AND THEOLOGY, and the page I first found is at http://www.wall.org/~aron/blog/did-the-universe-begin-viii-the-no-boundary-proposal/. The website owner's comment policy advises readers "Do not simply copy and paste a large amount of text …" which almost made me decide not to comment. But I finally did. Even though I have copied and pasted parts inbetween parts written today, I think the choosing of the widely separated lines of pasted text makes this what he calls "an individualized response". Anyway, my comment seems to have been eaten by a black hole. Instead of letting half a day of work go to waste, I'll post my thoughts here.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[995] viXra:1608.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-15 14:41:04

The CKM Quark-Mixing Matrix in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[994] viXra:1608.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 07:30:24

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory: Quantum Electrodynamics.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 13 Pages.

We continue our investigation of the new project launched in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8] by generalizing Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of elec- trons and photons, to our setting. At first, we deal with the respective two point functions, define the correct interaction theory as a series of connected Feynman diagrams and finally, we show that for a certain class of spacetime metrics, each diagram is finite and a modified perturbation series is analytic.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[993] viXra:1608.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 11:05:23

The Titius-Bode Law Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

We do not reject the mainstream theory of the creation of the Solar System saying that its formation was due to the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud about 4.6 Gyr ago. Indeed, the Sun and the outer shells of planets appeared due to such processes. But applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that initially there was a modified black hole composed of neutron black holes that due to the inflows of the dark energy, via a supernova (there appeared other stars as well), transformed into the large molecular cloud and next into the Sun and outer shells of planets and dwarf planets. Moreover, we showed that the initial modified black hole created the planetary rings defined by the Titius-Bode Law (TBL) for the gravitational interactions - they transformed into the seeds of planets – this happened in the a few Gyr old Universe. The TBL for the gravitational interactions cannot be discredited due to the fact that it does not predict the Neptune orbit. The complete TBL for the nuclear strong interactions described within SST (SST shows that the core of baryons is a modified black hole in respect of the strong interactions), which is an analog to the TBL for the gravitational interactions, leads to an orbit that corresponds to the orbit of the planet Neptune. Both TBLs follow from the virtual processes near modified black holes of the same strength - it is because involved masses in gravitational TBL are about 61 powers of ten times higher than in nuclear-strong TBL. Deviations from predicted semi-major axes are from -5.6% for Mercury up to +5.3% for Neptune. According to gravitational TBL derived within SST, there are following planets or (dwarf planets): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, (Ceres), Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and (Pluto) (theory of prime numbers leads to 10 planets/dwarf-planets defined by TBL). Because of high probability of destruction of the Titius-Bode orbits during the evolution of the modified black holes, the Solar System is unique in the Universe. Here we calculated the semi-major axes of listed planets/dwarf-planets from the initial conditions (for Earth we obtain 0.971 AU).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[992] viXra:1608.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 03:15:46

Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Covariant Relativistic Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the light of a recent novel definition of a relativistic quantum theory [1, 3, 4], we ask ourselves the question what it would mean to make the gravitational field itself dynamical. This could lead to a couple of different viewpoints upon quantum gravity which we shall explain carefully; this paper expands upon some ideas in [2] and again confirms ones thought that we are still far removed from a (type one) theory of quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[991] viXra:1608.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 01:36:43

Initial Mass in Pre Planckian Space-Timed Defined, and Causal Discontinuity.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages.

This document reviews the Landau – Liftshifts reformulation of General relativity with a representation of the available mass of a graviton. From looking at a conservation law, using the Landau-Liftshifs formulation, we obtain conditions for initial mass, in the Pre Planckian regime of space-time. In doing so, we also indicate a metric tensor and metric pseudo tensor delineation of causal discontinuity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[990] viXra:1608.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 01:48:10

The Mechanism of the Two-Stage Explosions of Type I Superluminous Supernovae

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the two-stage explosions of the hydrogen-poor Type I superluminal supernovae (SLSNe-I). We calculated their quantized masses: 3.14, 6.28, 12.55 and 25.10 solar masses, maximum absolute magnitudes for the initial and main explosions and we solved the ejecta-velocity problem. The derived light curves are consistent with observational data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[989] viXra:1608.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 07:08:07

Generally Covariant Relativistic Quantum Theory :''renormalization''

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 32 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further define the interacting theory and study the behavior of modified particle propagators, leading to a finite theory
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[988] viXra:1607.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 04:56:55

(Variant: 31.07.2016) (Extract Parts 6 and 7) (27 Pages) Bidum Version 1.1 – on a Teller's Large Number Derived-Hypothesis Overlooked by Tipler and Barrow

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 27 Pages. (Variant: 31.07.2016)

„Edward Teller appears to have been the first who speculate that there may exist a logarithmic relation between the fine structure constant (α) and the parameter G∙mN^2/(h∙c)~10^(-39) of the form α~ln[G∙mN^2/(h∙c)] [equation 4.23] (in fact α^(-1)=ln(3.17 x 10^60) and the formula is too insensitive to be of very much use in predicting exact relations)“[Barrow&Tipler, 1986 ]. (mN stands for the neutron/nucleon rest mass). In this BIDUM, I will try to demonstrate that Barrow and Tipler overlooked the possibility that Teller’s “speculation” may be much more inspired than the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (DLNH) and may the basis of a new class of informational (bio-info-digital [BIDUM]) toy-models of the universe (info-universe), a class that can offer important physical explanations and predictions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[987] viXra:1607.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 05:55:05

(Bidum 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 Pages) a Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (Bidum Version 1.1) – a Short Summary of the Essential Equations (Each Briefly Explained)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: (BIDUM 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 pages) A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (BIDUM version 1.1) – a short summary of the essential equations (each briefly explained)

(BIDUM 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 pages) A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (BIDUM version 1.1) – a short summary of the essential equations (each briefly explained)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[986] viXra:1607.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 05:29:46

Searching for Anti-Info, Some Elementary Mathematics

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 28 Pages. An extension of previous papers by this author.

There is a correction to be made, the last few articles describe branches/ strings as planck length/ c squared. They are more likely to be planck length in numeration. ( See previous articles by author). In this paper, due to the large amount of literature to be processed, I have developed a few mathematical arrangements of my own. They relate to conservation of information, the relationship between size of various unsymmetric matrices and the relationship of negative numbers in a concept called reflectional equivalence. Discussed also it the hypothesis (sic) of whether the branches ( loosely meaning strings) can be macroscopic in size. i.e varying from planck length to essentially the size of any known object
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[985] viXra:1607.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 06:46:26

A Hypothesis Reforms a Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis reforms a super string theory. Chapter6. No. 3: revolution in superstring theory. [1]. Advanced "superstring theory" [2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory. [3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space. [4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory. [5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[984] viXra:1607.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 01:08:44

Using a Multiverse Version of Penrose Cyclic Conformal Cosmology to Obtain Ergodic Mixing Averaging of Cosmological Information Transfer to Fix H Bar (PLANCK’S Constant) in Each New Universe Created During Recycling of Universes Due to CCC , Multivers

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

What we are doing is to use a generalization of the Penrose Cyclic conformal cosmology in order to argue for ergodic mixing of cosmological “information”, from cycle to cycle. While there would be a causal discontinuity, as is by example explained, in terms of breaking down of individual “particles” from cycle to cycle, there would be (analogous to a seed setting of pseudo-randomization of Fortran) informational ‘bits’ transferred, as far as mixing of ‘information’ collected from cycle to cycle, from N number of contributing universes via modified CCC, so as to create a uniform value of H bar (Planck’s constant) from cycle to cycle. Moreover this would do away with the “baby universes” Darwinian hypothesis, set up by String theorists whom postulate that up to 10^1000 or so universes would be created, with only say 10^10 or so surviving(most dying off because of “improperly” set variance in the values of H bar ( Planck’s constant). I.e. the laws of physics would not be different from universe to universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[983] viXra:1607.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 07:59:33

The Dual Nature of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 8 Pages.

If the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole is expressed as Bekenstein’s area quantum 8pi multiplied by a power of 2, then exponents of 2 that are multiples of precisely 50 are found for particular black holes of well-defined mass, and for the Hubble sphere. Motivated by T-duality, the analysis is extended to particles. Exponents calculated for the particles of the Standard Model lie in symmetric arrangement about the number 125, which is the exponent found for the lightest tensor mesons. Exponents that are multiples or simple binary (improper) fractions of 25 are favoured.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[982] viXra:1607.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 06:33:28

Axion-Higgs 3-Dimensional Rigid Transformable Strings and the Compound 650 Gev Z-Z Decay Into Quarks/leptoquarks According to the Quantum FFF Model.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages. 24

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black hole nuclei..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[981] viXra:1607.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 11:32:20

Theoretical Concepts for the Certainty of the Determinism in the Abnormal Phenomenon and Certainty of the Arbitrament

Authors: Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir
Comments: 11 Pages.

In quantum mechanics an uncertainty principle asserts that one cannot make certain of the position and velocity of an electron (or any particle) at the same time. That is, increasing the knowledge of particle decreases the knowledge of the velocity or momentum of an electron [1]. Furthermore, a particle can never be at rest, but it is subject to constant fluctuations even when no measurement is taken place, these fluctuations are assumed to have cause. According to new theory, God (independent of space-time) is assumed to be the cause of constant fluctuations in the end quantum state. The main objective of this paper is to derive an equation for abnormal phenomena (miracle) and arbitrament of human’s destiny called Certainty Theory. It has been assumed that not measuring of a particle’s position and momentum simultaneously with equal precision is due to the fact that the end quantum state of particle is imaginary and non-physical so the standard deviation , ħі/(2α^(D-4) ) , must be smaller than the certain value of product of position and momentum.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[980] viXra:1607.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 01:06:11

Photon as a Particle

Authors: Yevgeniy Kutanov
Comments: 8 pages in English and 8 pages in Russian

Proposed structures of photon, electron and positron are the result of logical development of the alternative to GR theory of gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[979] viXra:1607.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 23:47:25

Beautiful Universe Simulation Part 1: Proof of Concept of Energy Transport in a Simple 2-D Array of Nodes

Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Beautiful Universe (BU) model is a universal cellular automata (CA) of rotating dielectric dipolar nodes exchanging angular momentum with neighboring nodes to make radiation, matter, and space itself. In this paper a simplified simulation of non-rotating nodes that nevertheless obey the momentum-exchange 'rules' of (BU) provide a qualitative picture of energy transport in the model and can be considered a preliminary proof of concept on which to build further work
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[978] viXra:1607.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 14:36:38

A Highly Speculative Note on How to Modify Einstein's Field Equation to Hold at the Quantum Scale

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short note, first we will show a few ways to rewrite Einstein's field equation without basically changing it. Then we speculate a bit more broadly on how to change the equation to make it hold at the quantum scale. More precisely, we modify it for bodies with masses less than the Planck mass.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[977] viXra:1607.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 10:43:41

Examination of Sufficient Conditions for Forming Mass of “massive Graviton”, from Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages.

We start with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use the Padmanabhan inter relationship between an inflaton and a an early universe potential system. Then from there, we come up with a quadratic equation for a minimum radius, for producing a “massive graviton’ value. We then close with observations as to what this implies as to gravitational physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[976] viXra:1607.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 05:01:32

Transforming a Quantum Controller of Gravity Into a Gravitational Spacecraft

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

A Quantum Controller of Gravity is transformed into a Gravitational Spacecraft
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[975] viXra:1607.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 05:56:16

The Mathematical Foundations of Psychology and Sociology as a Generalization of (Quantum) Gravity.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 6 Pages.

In a long paper of this author [1], I explained that the ''spiritual'' interaction between living beings would require a gravitational theory on an appropriate space. In this paper, we further develop this idea and construct different types of idealized limits.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[974] viXra:1607.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 15:04:07

Is the Schwarzschild Radius Truly a Radius?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper questions the assumption that the Schwarzschild radius actually represents a radius. It has recently been shown by Haug (2016) that the Schwarzschild radius for any object can simply be written as N2l_p, where N is the number of Planck masses into which we can ``hypothetically" pack an object of interest and l_p is the well known Planck length. The Schwarzschild radius seems to represent the length of the number of Planck mass objects we can ``hypothetically" pack a planet or star into and then we can place them in perfect alignment along a single strand (of single particles) in a straight line.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[973] viXra:1607.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 13:59:19

A Non-Local Geometrodynamics Model Based on General Relativity and the Notion of Quantum Foam

Authors: Tomer Shushi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new type of (3+1) spacetime metric, that is non-local and based on the notion of quantum foam. We investigate it and show how quantum effects can be obtained.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[972] viXra:1607.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 22:57:05

More on the Connection Between Logic and Matter and the Winding Number of Strings

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 58 Pages. The toplogical connection between Axes and strings

The last paper (see "More on logic being the fundamental components of string theory) gave further analysis of the important concept of information producing fields which can then be configured into strings. Here we look at the topological connection between branches an centres (singularities) and some more information on branch structure and also some concepts of how angular momentum can produce calculations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[971] viXra:1607.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 03:13:38

Planck Dimensional Analysis of Big G

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a short note to show how big G can be derived from dimensional analysis by assuming that the Planck length is much more fundamental than Newton's gravitational constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[970] viXra:1607.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 01:41:39

Giving a First Estimate as to Quantum ‘number’ N(quantum) of a Pre Planckian State of Space-Time, Prior to Inflation; Plus Application to Entropy and Graviton Physics, with Neutrinos Thrown In.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 11 Pages.

Using the idea of a quantum ‘number’ N, which is due to , with the walls nixing the space-time import of interior dynamics of a pre Plackian state, using energy And the U ~ potential. Energy expression given by Padmanabhan for an inflaton state when the scale factor , we obtain the term, N, for quantum exited state, prior to the exiting of the Pre Planck state, to inflationary physics. From there we bridge this creation of N, in Pre Planckian space-time, to Semi classical and brane theory versions of entropy, and also its linkage to both graviton and nonstandard beyond the standard model physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[969] viXra:1607.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 11:58:51

Unified Field Theory.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 79 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016.

In the Einstein field equations the geometry or the curvature of space-time defined as depended on the distribution of mass and energy principally resides on the left-hand side is set identical to a nongeometrical tensorial representation of matter on the right-hand side. In one or another form, general relativity accords a direct geometrical significance only to the gravitational field while the other physical fields are not of spacetime, they reside only in spacetime. Less well known, though of comparable importance is Einstein's dissatisfaction with the fundamental asymmetry between gravitational and non-gravitational fields and his contributions to develop a completely relativistic geometrical field theory of all fundamental interactions, a unified field theory. Of special note in this context and equally significant is Einstein’s demand to replace the symmetrical tensor field by a non-symmetrical one and to drop the condition gik = gki for the field components. Historically, many other attempts were made too, to extend the general theory of relativity's geometrization of gravitation to non-gravitational interactions, in particular, to electromagnetism. Still, progress has been very slow. It is the purpose of this publication to provide a unified field theory in which the gravitational field, the electromagnetic field and other fields are only different components or manifestations of the same unified field by mathematizing the relationship between cause and effect under conditions of general theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[968] viXra:1607.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 05:44:31

The Rationality of the Non-random Formation of our Universe

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 3 Pages.

The General Intelligent Design (GID) Model interpretation of the General Grand Unification (GGU) Model verifies the rationality of the Kaku statement that we live in a universe "governed by rules that were created, shaped by a universal intelligence."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[967] viXra:1606.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 00:55:17

Is the Cosmological Constant, a ‘vacuum’ Field? We Explore This by Squeezing Early Universe ‘coherent-Semi Classical States. and Compares This to Energy from the Early Universe Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 Pages. Mistake in initial title corrected

Our question delves into the nature of early universe vacuum fields, and if this initial vacuum field corresponds to a configuration of early universe space-time at the start of inflation.. The answer as to this came out due to wanting to know if a cosmological constant, as given in the Einstein field equations is commensurate with the by product of squeezed states, We compare our answer, with the influx of energy as given by a modified Heinsenberg Uncertainty principle, at the start of the inflationary era. The so called influx of energy is tied into the squeezed state phenomena as written up in the onset of this article. The impetus to writing this document came from Dr. Karim, in an e mail which the author relates to, in the introduction. Our claim is that the smallness of gtt << 1 is what is driving the existence of the Squeezed states
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[966] viXra:1606.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 00:30:11

More on Logic Being the Fundamental Components of String Theory

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 24 Pages. Hypothetical fundamental building blocks of the universes.

After a basic introduction to Anti - information theory in the last paper (See Anti- info, other universes and the connection between logic and matter) I now go into some mathematical details of how the Axes are constituted. This involves the branches being signal receivers, decoders and transmitters, and, also involves the hypothesis that strings are actually composed of singularities connected by the constituent branches.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[965] viXra:1606.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 14:24:23

Examination of Sufficient Conditions for Inflation, e Folds, Density Fluctuations, and a Modified Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages.

First, referring to an article by K. Freeze on “Natural Inflation”, we review e folds data, and also the role of a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle as to what to expect from initial conditions as to satisfying the onset of inflation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[964] viXra:1606.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 19:08:24

2 of 10,721 Expand All Print All in New Window Examination of a Multiple Universe Version of the Partition Function of the Universe, Based Upon Penrose’s Cyclic Conformal Cosmology. Leading to Uniform Values of (Planck’s Constant) , Invariant Physic

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 11 Pages.

We look at, starting with Shankar’s treatment of the partition function, inserting in the data of the modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to give a role of the inflaton in the formation of a partition of the universe. The end result will be, even with the existence of a multiverse, i.e. simultaneous universes, uniform physical laws throughout the Multiple universes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[963] viXra:1606.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 05:02:29

Anti Info , Other Universes and the Connection Between Logic and Matter

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 25 Pages. May be an important basic idea.

The basic building blocks of the universe/multi - verses has been a matter of debate for millennia. It seems progress has been made recently in string theory. This paper is certainly not meant to challenge string theory, but rather, provide a mechanism as to how strings are formed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[962] viXra:1606.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 13:03:11

The Wave Pattern is a String of the Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

Hadron superstring theory.(5) The wave pattern is a string of the super string theory. The mass is zero. It vibrates at velocity of light. It is a resident of the four-dimensional space. It has supersymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[961] viXra:1606.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 12:03:18

Gravitational Waves of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[960] viXra:1606.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 10:55:20

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Baryonic Matter Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[959] viXra:1606.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 09:50:54

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Quantum Equation of Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 15 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, the wave function $\Psi$ with spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$ can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors. Using the Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy vanish in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. The mixed frequency solutions of the QE are not affected by the modified Einstein equation. GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to the energy momentum tensor as the force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter or dark photons, if they exist.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[958] viXra:1606.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 23:47:53

Berry Phase for Initial “Pre Planckian” Space-Time?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so, we look at, using Crowell’s book, a Berry phase, which in our case is proportional to the area integration of 1 over the square of variation of change in energy. Our variation of the change in energy in this case is due to the Pre Planckian space-time HUP (Heisenberg uncertainty principle). The change in the energy, times change in time, is in this case, is in minimization of the HUP, equal to Planck’s constant divided by the square of the minimum scale factor, times 1 over the initial inflaton value. Our result as derived, gives substance to the supposition that a change in pre Planckian space-time is, indeed a phase transition, in line with work the author has done earlier. And does it in line with the inflaton, as given by Padmanabhan.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[925] viXra:1612.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-03 01:36:05

Generalizations of Schwarzschild and (Anti) de Sitter Metrics in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[924] viXra:1611.0205 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 21:25:42

Cosmology and Cancer in the Post-Star-Trek Centuries

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 24 Pages.

This is definitely not a work of science fiction. It's a serious 9,000 words detailing what today's philosophy and science (in areas like physics, computer science, cosmology, biology and mathematics) are likely to evolve into. I've always been totally fascinated by the future – the more distant, the better! So the adventures of the Star Trek movies and TV shows, based in the 23rd and 24th centuries, are a good starting point. They're not documentaries by any stretch but are a tremendous boost to the sense of wonder about the universe. Superman and Doctor Who are also great at making a person wonder about new possibilities in other centuries and other parts of the cosmos. Putting together the marvels of science fiction and the marvels of science results in the following picture of what lies in store for humanity and the cosmos. In the end, this new science and philosophy is my opinion and only time can determine its accuracy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[923] viXra:1611.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-07 08:50:57

Dark-Matter Structures: Mass, Sizes and Detection

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with the invariant 7 quantized masses with the upper limit about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles. Lower limit for radius of DM circle with highest mass is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc. Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size). Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[922] viXra:1611.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-07 06:03:53

Dark-Matter Structures: Mass, Sizes and Detection

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with the invariant 7 quantized masses with the upper limit about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles. Lower limit for radius of DM circle with highest mass is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc. Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size). Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[921] viXra:1610.0328 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-30 15:16:11

Newton and Einstein's Gravity in a New Perspective for Planck Masses and Smaller Sized Objects

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a recent paper, Haug [1] has rewritten many of Newton's and Einstein's gravitational results, without changing their output, into a quantized Planck form. However, his results only hold down to the scale of Planck mass size objects. Here we derive similar results for any mass less than or equal to a Planck mass. All of the new formulas presented in this paper give the same numerical output as the traditional formulas. However, they have been rewritten in a way that gives a new perspective on the formulas when working with gravity at the level of the subatomic world. To rewrite the well-known formulas in this way could make it easier to understand strength and weakness in Newton and Einstein gravitation formulas at the subatomic scale, potentially opening them up for new interpretations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[920] viXra:1610.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 23:48:48

Measurement Quantization Unites Classical and Quantum Physics

Authors: Jody Anthony Geiger
Comments: 25 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the idea of fundamental units and counts of those units, a unifying description is resolved. This description is presented as a set of postulates under which conversion between quantum and classical expressions can be made. Derivations of well-known expressions from different areas of physics (quantum mechanics, quantum physics, gravitation, cosmology, special and general relativity) exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The model offers insight into quantum measurement, quantization and black holes. Solutions are offered that provide insight to dimensionality, dark matter and dark energy. Quantized formulations of cosmological constants are presented. And finally physical predictions are made, both confirmed and to be measured.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[919] viXra:1610.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-14 19:18:57

Proof of No Singularity in Schwarzschild Black Hole and Big Bang

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the center of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and Big Bang being in the minimum entropy equaling to the Boltzmann constant. Then we prove the uncertainty relation (UR) of SBH and Big Bang UR which suggest no singularity in SBH and Big Bang.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[918] viXra:1609.0313 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-21 14:38:18

Does GW Generation Have Semi Classical Features?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 15 Pages. Change to the title with Has changed to Have

Andrew Walcott Beckwith Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu Abstract. We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion. Key words: Infinite quantum statistics, Quantum gas, semi classical approximation, nonsingular cosmology
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[917] viXra:1609.0235 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-21 04:52:50

The True End of Theoretical Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[916] viXra:1609.0235 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-19 16:05:54

The True End of Theoretical Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[915] viXra:1609.0217 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-15 10:20:46

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant G Using Electromagnetic Parameters

Authors: Jesus Sanchez
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G: G=(παq²/me²ε0)*exp(-(1/√2)*((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408E-11 m³/(kg s²) Being α the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, me the mass of the electron, ε0 the permittivity of the free space and π the relation between a circumference and its diameter. As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper. To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[914] viXra:1609.0217 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-14 23:19:12

Calculation of the Gravitational Constant G Using Electromagnetic Parameters

Authors: Jesus Sanchez
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G: G=(παq²/me²ε0)⁎exp(-(1/√2)⁎((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408E-11 m³/(kg s²) Being α the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, me the mass of the electron, ε0 the permittivity of the free space and π the relation between a circumference and its diameter. As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper. To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[913] viXra:1609.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-21 00:18:46

Mechanism for Possible Electronic Creation of the Universe and its Infinity of Time

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 45 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Mechanism for Possible Electronic Creation of the Universe and its Infinity of Time. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3837858.v4 Retrieved: 05 03, Sep 21, 2016 (GMT)

True to the nonlinear nature of time (it's arranged in Einstein's warps and curves), it's also correct that gravity is a product of electromagnetism – in the form of electronic pulses of energy from computers connected to sources of electrical power, and manifesting the pulses as virtual gravitons (the quanta of gravity). This provides a possible, electronic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels. Please read the following, remembering that in a TV program it was reported that "the physicist and writer Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics" (as well as, this author thinks, the electronic energy pulses known as virtual particles) "that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing." [Phillips G (August 29 2013) "Custom Universe – Finetuned For Us?" in Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s "Catalyst" program] A computer simulation of the universe that's made of 1's and 0's might generate infinity because some of the numbers in the simulation could be infinitely long numbers like pi and e. Pi, plus things like the Mobius and Klein, would be built-in to the cosmos (including electrons and quantum phenomena), like it says about pi in "Contact" by Carl Sagan (1986) - Century Publishing, p.430. Admittedly, Dr. Sagan's book is a work of fiction, but its reference to pi could still be included in a simulation. The simulated universe would then incorporate spatial and temporal infinity - and could include immortality if the programmer(s) wanted it to. Comprehending the idea of infinity really is a very hard concept to wrap your head around. If we achieved this, we'd understand the simulation we built (and would, because of the quantum-mechanical rules present in our cosmos and also programmed into this simulated universe, be entangled with it ... and part of it). What would it be like to stand outside this infinite, simulated universe which I called mini-infinity: and outside its extra dimensions, too. Part of my brain is saying this just isn't possible. But another part is fascinated by the idea of stepping outside the infinite. Buddha, founder and leader of the Buddhist religion, believed each person must find peace and freedom from suffering by following what is called the Noble Eightfold Path. Presented here is an Eightfold Path to using a certain type of computer simulation of the Universe to completely understand the real Universe. A line or two about each Universal path is in this subsection. It's up to the reader to decide how noble they are. Admittedly, this Universal Eightfold Path may sound too speculative for some. But there's a place for speculation in cosmology. The universe is too big to put in a lab so experiments can be performed on it. The best we can do is build a simulation of it in that lab which is the result of imagination, intuition and speculation grounded in the laws of science. Hopefully, the programmed model will agree with what is known and offer plausible explanations of the unknown. The above is a fascinating idea! But without backup from science, it can't be considered seriously. That's why the below sections - about physics, cosmology and mathematics – are essential in an article devoted to computer science. Unfortunately, we live in a world that's in love with putting everything in strict categories. That would quickly put an end to this article, if it were not for interdisciplinary science. The emerging understanding that the different branches of science are interconnected and rely on each other is what this article is all about. However, there are signs that science has not yet put into practice what it preaches. These ideas have been universally rejected by science journals for years - either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll submit my ideas to the "International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications", and trust that computer science is more enlightened than other branches.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[912] viXra:1609.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-19 05:49:54

Mechanism for Possible Electronic Creation of the Universe and Its Infinity of Time

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: Pages.

True to the nonlinear nature of time (it's arranged in Einstein's warps and curves), it's also correct that gravity is a product of electromagnetism – in the form of electronic pulses of energy from computers connected to sources of electrical power, and manifesting the pulses as virtual gravitons (the quanta of gravity). This provides a possible, electronic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels. Please read the following, remembering that in a TV program it was reported that "the physicist and writer Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics" (as well as, this author thinks, the electronic energy pulses known as virtual particles) "that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing." [Phillips G (August 29 2013) "Custom Universe – Finetuned For Us?" in Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s "Catalyst" program] A computer simulation of the universe that's made of 1's and 0's might generate infinity because some of the numbers in the simulation could be infinitely long numbers like pi and e. Pi, plus things like the Mobius and Klein, would be built-in to the cosmos (including electrons and quantum phenomena), like it says about pi in "Contact" by Carl Sagan (1986) - Century Publishing, p.430. Admittedly, Dr. Sagan's book is a work of fiction, but its reference to pi could still be included in a simulation. The simulated universe would then incorporate spatial and temporal infinity - and could include immortality if the programmer(s) wanted it to. Comprehending the idea of infinity really is a very hard concept to wrap your head around. If we achieved this, we'd understand the simulation we built (and would, because of the quantum-mechanical rules present in our cosmos and also programmed into this simulated universe, be entangled with it ... and part of it). What would it be like to stand outside this infinite, simulated universe which I called mini-infinity: and outside its extra dimensions, too. Part of my brain is saying this just isn't possible. But another part is fascinated by the idea of stepping outside the infinite. Buddha, founder and leader of the Buddhist religion, believed each person must find peace and freedom from suffering by following what is called the Noble Eightfold Path. Presented here is an Eightfold Path to using a certain type of computer simulation of the Universe to completely understand the real Universe. A line or two about each Universal path is in this subsection. It's up to the reader to decide how noble they are. Admittedly, this Universal Eightfold Path may sound too speculative for some. But there's a place for speculation in cosmology. The universe is too big to put in a lab so experiments can be performed on it. The best we can do is build a simulation of it in that lab which is the result of imagination, intuition and speculation grounded in the laws of science. Hopefully, the programmed model will agree with what is known and offer plausible explanations of the unknown. The above is a fascinating idea! But without backup from science, it can't be considered seriously. That's why the below sections - about physics, cosmology and mathematics – are essential in an article devoted to computer science. Unfortunately, we live in a world that's in love with putting everything in strict categories. That would quickly put an end to this article, if it were not for interdisciplinary science. The emerging understanding that the different branches of science are interconnected and rely on each other is what this article is all about. However, there are signs that science has not yet put into practice what it preaches. These ideas have been universally rejected by science journals for years - either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll submit my ideas to the "International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications", and trust that computer science is more enlightened than other branches.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[911] viXra:1609.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-17 00:30:59

Paradigm Shift to Cosmic Unification, and Human Creation of Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 19 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Paradigm Shift to Cosmic Unification, and Human Creation of Universe.docx. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3837858.v1 Retrieved: 05 26, Sep 17, 2016 (GMT)

These ideas are universally rejected by science journals either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll post my ideas here. A paradigm shift in science is a fundamental change in its concepts and practices. “We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur. This article strives towards that revolution by addressing many topics – including dark energy, dark matter, black holes, radioactive dating, gravity, mathematics, the shape of space-time, and imaginary time. Historically, mathematics often finds practical application in physics. The idea of the quantum was originally developed by Max Planck purely as a mathematical convenience^, but it's been part of our reality for over a century. So imaginary time and the Complex Number Plane might find applications undreamt of today. ^ The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, is a failure of classical physics to predict observed phenomena: it can be shown that a blackbody - a hypothetical perfect absorber and radiator of energy - would release an infinite amount of energy, contradicting the principles of conservation of energy and indicating that a new model for the behaviour of blackbodies was needed. At the start of the 20th century, physicist Max Planck derived the correct solution by making some strange (for the time) assumptions. In particular, Planck assumed that electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete packets, called quanta. Albert Einstein postulated that Planck's quanta were real physical particles (what we now call photons), not just a mathematical fiction. From there, Einstein developed his photoelectric effect (when quanta or photons of light shine on certain metals, electrons are released and can form an electric current). My ideas initially suggested gravitation (G) is the universe's only fundamental force and that electromagnetism (EM), as well as the strong and weak nuclear forces, are products of G. While the latter part has been retained, the fundamental force is now seen as a gravitational-electromagnetic (G-EM) union. This union of the different waveforms could be made possible by rearrangement of gravitons' binary digits (bits) into the bits of the particles constituting the other 3 forces (surrounding space-time's virtual particles and their produced digits are included in this rearrangement, to vary particle mass) [details in TOPOLOGY]. Rearrangement could be achieved by a quantum-scale version of gravitational lensing, which can split the image of an astronomical object into several images. The G-EM union/field is counterintuitive – even ridiculous, absurd, impossible to some people – since gravitation is so weak (EM is 10^36 times as powerful, and the Strong Nuclear Force is a hundred times stronger again ie 10^38 times as powerful). The solution is infinity. Even the weakest force, when infinitely multiplied, has literally no limit to its power. It can produce another universal force that is measured, at distances tiny compared to infinity ie any distance, to be approximately 10^36 times stronger^. Such strangeness may be necessary to fulfil Albert Einstein's dream of uniting G and EM, then unifying all space-time into a single Unified Field. Obeying the Pauli Exclusion Principle that says there is no limit to the number of photons and presently hypothetical gravitons that can be exchanged (those particles are limitless in number), the Unified Field would be the G-EM field. ^ "For instance, at the distance of 3 × 10-18 meters, the electromagnetic α is closer to 1/128 than its long-distance value of about 1/137." [“The Strengths of the Known Forces” by theoretical physicist Matt Strassler [May 31, 2013] - http://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physicsbasics/the-known-forces-of-nature/the-strength-of-the-known-forces/]. The Internet's free encyclopedia, Wikipedia, defines α (the fine-structure constant) this way: In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted α (the Greek letter alpha), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[910] viXra:1609.0008 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-04 02:05:25

Entropy and Distribution of Information in the History of the Cosmos

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of entropy and information and their evolution in time in the Cosmos as a whole (the Cosmos has radius about 30 powers of ten of meters i.e. is much greater than the present-day radius of the expanding Universe). On the lowest level of Nature, the global information depends on distribution of rotational and kinetic energies and orientation of the infinitesimal spins of all free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all objects in the Cosmos consist of. The field composed of the free tachyons is the Higgs field - this field causes that neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. During the inflation, almost whole Higgs field transformed into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime that ground state consists of the non-rotating-spin neutrino-antineutrino pairs interacting gravitationally only. Orientation of spin is not important in gravitational field so all such pairs are in the same energetic state i.e. entropy of the ground state is equal to zero and this state dominates in the Cosmos. Moreover, the tachyonic energy frozen inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (it is the missing energy that results from quantum physics) is about 119 powers of ten times higher than their gravitational energy. The SST and the Kasner solution (which concerns the non-gravitating objects) show that there is a left-handedness of the residual Higgs field. The collapse of the outer shell of the Einstein spacetime at the end of the inflation created the returning shock wave. The shock wave plus the left-handedness of the residual Higgs field produced more matter than antimatter - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The returning energy-matter wave created the Universe in the centre of the Cosmos. Due to the boundary of the Cosmos, the Universe behaves cyclically. We start from the era before the inflation and via the inflation and via the neutron-black-holes state of the early Universe and via the present-day, we finish the description in the distant future. The tachyons cause that information cannot be destroyed by the SST black holes - the same concerns the energies of photons in gravitational fields. Entropy of the initial state of the inflation field and of the SST black holes is equal to zero. We can define time as the succeeding changes in the global information. In an approximation, Information behaves cyclically. In the Cosmos as a whole, entropy per particle is infinitesimal whereas total energy is conserved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[909] viXra:1609.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-04 01:30:38

The Expanding Early Universe as a South Magnetic Monopole

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The alignment of the angular-momentums/spins of quasars and the perpendicularity of the planes of the main disc of massive spiral galaxies and the disc of a vast polar structure (VPOS) which contains the satellite galaxies, some globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams, suggest that the Universe as a whole and the massive galaxies have a history that cannot be easily explained within the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared in the binary systems of protogalaxies two perpendicular discs each composed of the dark-matter (DM) loops. Dynamics of the binary systems of protogalaxies and the early Universe leads to perpendicularity of the main disc and VPOS. During the highest radial acceleration of the protogalaxies just at the beginning of expansion of the Universe (initially it was cosmic double loop with left-handed internal helicity of each loop), to stabilize the main disc and conserve its angular momentum, the binary systems of protogalaxies made a rotation (i.e. a rotation of their rotation and magnetic axes) of 90 degrees in such a way that initially the angular-momentums/spins (and magnetic axes) were mostly antiparallel to their radial velocities, i.e. initially the expanding Universe looked as a magnetic monopole. But the succeeding inflows of dark energy (locally they could be turbulent and they lasted a few Gyr) that initially caused the explosions of the binary systems of protogalaxies (in such a way appeared the VPOSs), partially destroyed the monopole-like structure of the early Universe. But a statistical analyse should show that described here correlation is preferred i.e. in the distant Universe, there should be a little more massive spiral galaxies with counter-clockwise rotation i.e. left-handed. The initial radial polarization of the spins of quasars explains their alignment.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[908] viXra:1608.0241 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-23 04:07:25

Tomorrow's Computer Science Builds Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 20 Pages. CITE: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Tomorrow's Computer Science Makes Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe.docx. figshare. - https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3544994.v2 - Retrieved: 08 36, Aug 23, 2016 (GMT)

uter Science Builds Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe Author – Rodney Bartlett Abstract - Listening to Brian Cox and Dr. Karl talking on triple j (http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/media/s4513719.htm), the thing that most interested me was the subject "the opposite of gravity". By viewing reality as entanglement with the topological extension of a computer-simulated universe, comments can be made about: 1) the nature of gravity, and so-called antigravity being a result of the Complex Number Plane; 2) how this explanation of antigravity could explain dark energy and dark matter; 3) universal expansion being replaced by the closely related, though more precise, extension into space-time of binary digits and Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles; 4) a non-supernatural, humanistic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[907] viXra:1608.0240 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-12 11:24:12

Combinatorial Preon Model for Matter and Unification

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 11 Pages. Minor changes. Published in Open Access Library Journal, 3:e3032.- http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103032

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on constituents defined by mass, spin and charge. The preons form a finite combinatorial system for the standard model fermions. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the preon bound states. By applying the area eigenvalues of loop quantum gravity to black hole preons one gets a preon mass spectrum starting from zero. Gravitational baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained. Argument is given for unified field theory be based only on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions of preons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[906] viXra:1608.0231 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-23 11:04:55

Space Time and Hilbert Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[905] viXra:1608.0231 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-23 09:09:20

Space Time and Hilbert Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[904] viXra:1608.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-07 01:44:01

Pseudo-Forces Within Non-Local Geometrodynamics Model

Authors: Tomer Shushi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamics model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamics model. We then discuss on the (1+3) forces, the gravity force and an additional three pseudo-forces that are described by force carrier particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[903] viXra:1608.0180 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-18 14:28:24

Gravitational Motor using the Quantum Controller of Gravity

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a type of motor which converts Gravitational Energy directly into Rotational Kinetic Energy. Its fuel is therefore the Gravitational Energy (no needs gasoline, oil, etc). An example of Gravitational Motor is the turbines of the hydroelectric plants. However, they are not mobile i.e., they cannot be transported from one place to another as the combustion motors or the electric motors. Mobiles Gravitational Motor can be developed starting from the devices of gravity control, such as the Quantum Controller of Gravity (QCG) [1]. The form of the QCG originally proposed is spherical. Here, it is described a Gravitational Motor which uses a QCG with spherical cylindrical form. This Gravitational Motor can have very-high power, and it can be used in order to generate electrical energy at large scale or traction to move cars, ships, tankers, aircraft carrier, trains, etc.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[902] viXra:1608.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-17 10:07:27

The CKM Quark-Mixing Matrix in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong-weak interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Here we show that the SST interactions of the source of the nuclear strong interactions determine the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[901] viXra:1608.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-16 11:40:40

The CKM Quark-Mixing Matrix in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong-weak interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Here we show that the SST interactions of the source of the nuclear strong interactions determine the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[900] viXra:1608.0145 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 01:55:01

The PMNS Neutrino-Mixing Matrix in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. The ratios of the mixing angles are as 1 : 4 : 5 and they represent respectively one stable flavour (i.e. electron- or muon-neutrino), two entangled flavours (i.e. electron- or muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. four entangled stable neutrinos), and three entangled flavours (i.e. electron- plus muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. five entangled stable neutrinos). We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[899] viXra:1608.0145 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-26 13:48:53

The PMNS Neutrino-Mixing Matrix in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[898] viXra:1608.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-13 09:55:02

Generally Covariant Quantum Theory: Quantum Electrodynamics.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 13 Pages.

We continue our investigation of the new project launched in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8] by generalizing Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of elec- trons and photons, to our setting. At first, we deal with the respective two point functions, define the correct interaction theory as a series of connected Feynman diagrams and finally, we show that for a certain class of spacetime metrics, each diagram is finite and a modified perturbation series is analytic.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[897] viXra:1608.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-04 12:20:35

The Mechanism of the Two-Stage Explosions of Type I Superluminous Supernovae

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the two-stage explosions of the hydrogen-poor Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). We calculated their quantized masses: 3.14, 6.28, 12.55 and 25.10 solar masses, maximum absolute magnitudes for the initial and main explosions and we solved the ejecta-velocity problem. The derived light curves are consistent with observational data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[896] viXra:1608.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-13 09:53:44

Generally Covariant Relativistic Quantum Theory :''renormalization''

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 33 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further define the interacting theory and study the behavior of modified particle propagators, leading to a finite theory
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[895] viXra:1608.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-12 07:27:42

Generally Covariant Relativistic Quantum Theory :''renormalization''

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 33 Pages. minor corrections made

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further define the interacting theory and study the behavior of modified particle propagators, leading to a finite theory
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[894] viXra:1607.0561 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-03 10:32:16

About The Geometry Of Cosmos and Beyond

Authors: D.Mastoridis, K.Kalogirou
Comments: 20 Pages.

The current paper presents an attempt to express the mass problem in a more con- crete mathematical scheme where all the Physical quantities could come naturally. The Standard Model and its extensions where investigated where SU(4) has appeared as a conclusion of this attempt.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[893] viXra:1607.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 02:31:35

Axion-Higgs 3-Dimensional Rigid Transformable Strings and the Compound 650 GeV Z-Z Decay into Quarks/Leptoquarks.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages. 28

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black hole nuclei.. Introduction,
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[892] viXra:1607.0194 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-04 19:57:27

Beautiful Universe Simulation Part 1: Proof of Concept of Energy Transport in a Simple 2-D Array of Nodes

Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Beautiful Universe (BU) model is a universal cellular automata (CA) of rotating dielectric dipolar nodes exchanging angular momentum with neighboring nodes to make radiation, matter, and space itself. In this paper a simplified simulation of non-rotating nodes that nevertheless obey the momentum-exchange 'rules' of (BU) provide a qualitative picture of energy transport in the model and can be considered a preliminary proof of concept on which to build further work
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[891] viXra:1607.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-11 01:43:26

A Speculative Note on How to Modify Einstein's Field Equation to Hold at the Quantum Scale. Gravity at the Quantum Scale = Strong Force?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short note, first we will show a few ways to rewrite Einstein's field equation without basically changing it. Then we speculate a bit more broadly on how to change the equation to make it hold at the quantum scale. More precisely, we modify it for bodies with masses less than the Planck mass.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[890] viXra:1607.0056 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-11 02:34:23

A Non-Local Geometrodynamics Model Based on General Relativity and the Notion of Quantum Foam

Authors: Tomer Shushi
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new type of (3+1) spacetime metric, that is non-local and based on the notion of quantum foam. We investigate it and show how quantum effects can be obtained.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[889] viXra:1607.0025 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 14:49:05

Planck Dimensional Analysis of Big G

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a short note to show how big G can be derived from dimensional analysis by assuming that the Planck length is much more fundamental than Newton's gravitational constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[888] viXra:1607.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-02 21:48:41

Estimate as to Quantum ‘number’ N of Pre Planckian State , Prior to Inflation;w.r.t. Entropy and Graviton Physics, with Neutrinos .And Information for Gravitons

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: put in 2 pages as to referring to gravitons as information carriers, with formula delineating relationship to quantum number N derived earlier

Using the idea of a quantum ‘number’ N, which is due to , with the walls nixing the space-time import of interior dynamics of a pre Plackian state, using energy And the U ~ potential. Energy expression given by Padmanabhan for an inflaton state when the scale factor , we obtain the term, N, for quantum exited state, prior to the exiting of the Pre Planck state, to inflationary physics. From there we bridge this creation of N, in Pre Planckian space-time, to Semi classical and brane theory versions of entropy, and also its linkage to both graviton and nonstandard beyond the standard model physics. We conclude with a speculation in the conclusion for future work which is to make entropy(information) a new synthesis for Graviton physics, just before the start of cosmological expansion as a partial information based replacement for the Higgs boson hypothesis, at least for gravitons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[887] viXra:1607.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 07:52:13

Unified Field Theory.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 77 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2016, 4, 1379-1438. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.48147.

In the Einstein field equations the geometry or the curvature of space-time defined as depended on the distribution of mass and energy principally resides on the left-hand side is set identical to a nongeometrical tensorial representation of matter on the right-hand side. In one or another form, general relativity accords a direct geometrical significance only to the gravitational field while the other physical fields are not of spacetime, they reside only in spacetime. Less well known, though of comparable importance is Einstein's dissatisfaction with the fundamental asymmetry between gravitational and non-gravitational fields and his contributions to develop a completely relativistic geometrical field theory of all fundamental interactions, a unified field theory. Of special note in this context and equally significant is Einstein’s demand to replace the symmetrical tensor field by a non-symmetrical one and to drop the condition gik = gki for the field components. Historically, many other attempts were made too, to extend the general theory of relativity's geometrization of gravitation to non-gravitational interactions, in particular, to electromagnetism. Still, progress has been very slow. It is the purpose of this publication to provide a unified field theory in which the gravitational field, the electromagnetic field and other fields are only different components or manifestations of the same unified field by mathematizing the relationship between cause and effect under conditions of general theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[886] viXra:1607.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-16 06:26:46

Detection of a Dim Sphere Composed of Massive Cold Galaxies (they Consist of Bare Neutron Black Holes) at Mean Redshift 0.6415 will Validate the Scale-Symmetric-Theory Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (their mass is greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim/cold massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. The SST cosmology shows that the distribution of redshift of massive galaxies must be balanced in such a way that the average redshift was 0.6415. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. SST leads to conclusion that we should see a weak redshift quantization for redshift lower than 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct. Here we described the number density of massive galaxies as a function of redshift and, separately, as a function of the SST time distance, we compared the SST, GR and Special-Relativity relative recession velocities (RRV), we described the redshift quantization, and we solved the luminosity problem of quasars.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[885] viXra:1607.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-06 04:46:43

Detection of a Dim Sphere Composed of Massive Cold Galaxies (they Consist of Bare Neutron Black Holes) at Mean Redshift 0.6415 will Validate the Scale-Symmetric-Theory Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (mass greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[884] viXra:1607.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-04 12:41:19

Detection of a Dim Sphere Composed of Massive Cold Galaxies (they Consist of Bare Neutron Black Holes) at Mean Redshift 0.6415 will Validate the Scale-Symmetric-Theory Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (mass greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[883] viXra:1606.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-29 06:53:48

Multidimensional, Wave-Function Superconductivity and Cosmology

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 19 Pages.

The Cooper pair state is responsible for superconductivity, as described in the BCS theory developed by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Schrieffer for which they shared the 1972 Nobel Prize. A Cooper pair or BCS pair is a pair of electrons (or other fermions) bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner first described in 1956 by American physicist Leon Cooper. These have some bosonic properties – properties similar to photons, gravitons and the Higgs boson. Bosons, at sufficiently low temperature, can form a Bose–Einstein condensate which is an example of macroscopic quantum phenomena (quantum behavior at the macroscopic scale, rather than at the atomic scale where quantum effects are prevalent). The best-known examples of macroscopic quantum phenomena are superfluidity and superconductivity. The fact that bosons can form a Bose–Einstein condensate which is related to superconductivity hints at superconductivity being a wave-function phenomenon. Also, the Complex Number Plane of mathematics in conjunction with the so-called Imaginary Time of physics suggests this wave-function might find practical application beyond abstract maths and could be multidimensional having "real", "imaginary" and "complex" types. The explanation of superconductivity by means of Cooper pairs confirms the validity of wave-particle duality. This article also extends the quantum scale and the wave-function to computer science and the cosmic scale - commenting on gravitational superconductivity, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, the Big Bang and cosmological Inflation, Unification, Artificial Intelligence, and black holes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[882] viXra:1606.0284 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-07 01:57:17

Examination of Conditions for Inflation, e Folds, Density Fluctuations, Via Hup, to Obtain HFGW Quantum Gravity Traces from Early Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages. Excellent question by Dr. Li on if HFGW would be able to have traces of quantum gravity,as of July 3rd, lead to inquiry as reflected in this version of the initial e fold document. Many thanks to Dr. Li for his adroit question and his geometrical insight

First, referring to an article by K. Freeze on “Natural Inflation”, we review e folds data, and also the role of a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle as to what to expect from initial conditions as to satisfying the onset of inflation.. .. This leads to , combined with the authors work in delineating a ‘perfect bounce’ a minimum HFGW which may exist due to the early universe, possibly from the influence of a minimum nonsingular universe starting point forming the template of a minimum wave length for starting GW, which may lead to an initial quantum gravity influenced frequency which is subsequently e shifted down by inflation. The initial conditions for the generation of HFGW, may correspond to early universe quantum gravity . I.e. this last part is due to a question asked the author, Dr. Li Fangyu, in the first week of July 2016
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[881] viXra:1606.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 01:06:42

Examination of a Multiple Universe Version of the Partition Function of the Universe, Based Upon Penrose’s Cyclic Conformal Cosmology. Leading to Uniform Values of (Planck’s Constant) , Invariant Physics

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 11 Pages. The word document had many errors which were subsequently fixed. My apologies for the mess

We look at, starting with Shankar’s treatment of the partition function, inserting in the data of the modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to give a role of the inflaton in the formation of a partition of the universe. The end result will be, even with the existence of a multiverse, i.e. simultaneous universes, uniform physical laws throughout the Multiple universes. Comments: 11 Pages.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[880] viXra:1606.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-25 14:39:24

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Baryonic Matter Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 16 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Precise maximum mass for DM loop corresponds to the upper limit for frequency 3338 Hz. Intensity for the frequency about 3.34 kHz should be highest. But emphasize that the DM loops are the perfectly elastic structures. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature. The correct big bang, i.e. the inflation and the “soft” big bang of the Universe, is described within SST.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[879] viXra:1606.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-19 06:31:44

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Baryonic Matter Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Precise maximum mass for DM loop corresponds to the upper limit for frequency 1669 Hz. Intensity for the frequency 1669 Hz should be highest. But emphasize that the DM loops are the perfectly elastic structures. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature. The correct big bang, i.e. the inflation and the “soft” big bang of the Universe, is described within SST.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[878] viXra:1606.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-29 15:33:12

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Quantum Equation of Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 15 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using the Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy vanish in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. The mixed frequency solutions of the QE are not affected by the modified Einstein equation. GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to the energy momentum tensor as the force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter or dark photons, if they exist.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory