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Any replacements are listed further down

[669] **viXra:1411.0551 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 06:03:45*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The gauge invariance of equations follows from constancy of charges. There appear arbitrary functions so to obtain quantized values we must apply approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The second messy mathematical method applied in physics follows from the wrong assumption that the bare particles are sizeless and that there are in existence interactions with infinite range (it follows from the massless carriers of interactions). In such method, to obtain theoretical results consistent with experimental data, there must appear the mathematical indeterminate forms so they are incoherent as well. Such messy method cannot be eliminate via vibrating flexible strings, as it is in the M/string theory, because such assumption cannot lead to constancy of physical constants. What we should do to eliminate the arbitrary functions, sizeless bare particles, infinite ranges of forces and flexible strings? And some extension to the General Relativity is the answer.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[668] **viXra:1411.0546 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 09:13:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the origin of the 30 and 18 million-light-year separation of single galaxies and clusters of galaxies in the filamentary cosmic network is presented. It follows from the atom-like structure of the Steinhauer black holes with two horizons described within S-SET. The calculated dominating time-length of the pattern is around 30 million light-years (for h = 0.75). There as well should appear a weaker signal for 18 million light-years and much weaker signals for about 43 and 68 million light-years. The two first results are consistent with the observational facts whereas the two last results are some predictions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[667] **viXra:1411.0534 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 10:49:59*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Some extension of the General Relativity leads to the superluminal nontransparent infinitesimal pieces of space (plenums/tachyons). Due to their dynamic viscosity, in the infinite cosmos can appear pieces of space with different sizes and velocities. Due to collisions of very big pieces of space, there can appear cosmoses with stable boundary. Inside some of them can appear universes. Here, I discuss the possibility that in our Cosmos, our Universe is the one and only. We can calculate the period of the oscillations of our Universe. We as well can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe. It follows from the transitions of the electron-positron pairs into the electron-proton pairs in a vortex with left-handed internal helicity produced in the Einstein spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[666] **viXra:1411.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 13:31:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory, the origin of the two new baryon resonances with a mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV observed in LHCb experiment is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[665] **viXra:1411.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 05:04:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here is a very short recapitulation concerning the basic problems solved within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET) that are not solved or are described incorrectly within the mainstream theories. Incompleteness and partial incorrectness of the internal structure of the modified Higgs field and Einstein spacetime applied in the predominant mainstream theories cause that there appear many wrong interpretations. In the Einstein spacetime, energy is equivalent to mass but direct transformation of mass into pure energy and vice versa is impossible. Due to the quantum entanglement, there is the wrong interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment which leads to the illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe. Why we cannot detect the gravitational waves moving with the luminal speed? Why the Cosmos did not collapse at the beginning of the big bang and where is the antimatter? Why the Universe is flat? The rest mass of the Higgs boson is wrongly interpreted so there appears the hierarchy problem. The assumed origins of dark matter are incorrect. The many-worlds interpretation within the Quantum Physics (QP) is incorrect. The three-valence-quarks model of baryons is incorrect (for a half of century we cannot calculate exact mass, spin and muon radius of proton). QED neglects the weak interactions of electrons but due to the free parameters gives to correct results. The flexibility of the closed strings in M/string theory cannot lead to constancy of the gravitational constant. The origin of DNA must follow from ultimate theory (in the very early Universe there appeared the neutrino precursors of the DNA).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[664] **viXra:1411.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-16 13:31:43*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the limit we obtain grainy mathematical spacetime with grains composed of infinite sets of finite velocities of sizeless points placed in nothingness. On the other hand, we do not lose information about inertial-only mass if in nothingness are moving the physical plenums i.e. some grains as well. It causes that mathematical and physical descriptions are compatible. There are not in existence real numbers composed of infinite number of digits (there are gaps between the centres of the tangent mathematical grains or physical plenums). It leads to the calculus of finite differences. Similarity in behaviour of grains and plenums (the kinematics of fluids) causes that Platonism is partially correct. Such initial conditions lead sometimes to life and mind.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[663] **viXra:1411.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 09:40:57*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Mathematical states of the infinite cosmos should be preferred as the initial conditions. Creation of physical world is impossible without two different ground states. In the limit we obtain grainy mathematical spacetime with grains composed of infinite sets of finite velocities of sizeless points placed in (true) nothingness. Such model is coherent for nontransparent grains. Can the mathematical grains be nontransparent? Probability that we cannot formulate coherent mathematical theory of Nature without plenums moving in nothingness is very high. Existence of the plenums causes that in the limit we do not lose information about inertial mass. Next, due to the inertial mass directly proportional to volume of the grains of velocities, we can replace densities by dimensionless numbers i.e. there is possible the transition from the dynamical quantities to kinematical ones. Can be the infinite physical cosmos built from mathematical objects only? What is the transition from math to physics? What are the moving pieces of space? What is the origin of their inertia? What is the origin of the critical/Planck values? Is there a lower limit for the General Relativity and Quantum Physics? Do we need new physics?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[662] **viXra:1411.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 10:09:33*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** Appendix split off with 22 pages that includes E8 root list, Hasse diagram and a complete particle list.

This paper will present various techniques for visualizing a split real even E8 representation
in 2 and 3 dimensions using an E8 to H4 folding matrix. This matrix is shown to be useful in
providing direct relationships between E8 and the lower dimensional Dynkin and Coxeter-Dynkin
geometries contained within it, geometries that are visualized in the form of real and virtual 3
dimensional objects. A direct linkage between E8, the folding matrix, fundamental physics particles
in an extended Standard model, quaternions, and octonions is introduced, and its importance is
investigated and described.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[661] **viXra:1411.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 04:18:00*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple formula from the 3D Universe Theory giving the value of the Dark Energy Density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[660] **viXra:1411.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-12 09:36:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[659] **viXra:1411.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 12:03:13*

**Authors:** Muhammad Ilyas

**Comments:** 98 Pages.

This review aims to show the Light cone gauge quantization of strings. It is divided up into three parts. The first consists of an introduction to bosonic and superstring theories and a brief discussion of Type II superstring theories. The second part deals with different configurations of D-branes, their charges and tachyon condensation. The third part contains the compactification of an extra dimension, the dual picture of D-branes having electric as well as magnetic field and the different dualities in string theories. In ten dimensions, there exist five consistent string theories and in eleven dimensions there is a unique M-Theory under these dualities, the different superstring theories are the same underlying M-Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[658] **viXra:1411.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 04:37:27*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.2 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.634 * 10^61 where Milgrom’s acceleration constant is approximately 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. What (if anything) is the meaning of such a large number? What is Milgromian string theory? The answer might (or might not) be Wolframian string theory. Wolfram’s mobile automaton allegedly builds each Planck time interval through a huge number of updates by the updating parameter. Energy, spacetime, and string theory are supposedly approximations generated from a network of nonmeasurable Fredkin time, Fredkin distance, and Fredkin digit transition. Wolframian string theory might replace supersymmetry by Wolframian quasi-supersymmetry, which unifies bosons and fermions within Wolfram’s mobile automaton. The point is that Wolframian string theory is testable. According to “The Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 91, a unit measuring rod undergoes a gravitational contraction given by (1 – (κ/(8π)) * (∫ (σ/r) dV)), where κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect implies that the gravitational contraction is (1 – ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * (κ/(8π)) * (∫ (σ/r) dV)), where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant (D-M-C-C) to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[657] **viXra:1411.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-09 01:18:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Based on a plenary talk at the 10-th International Clifford Algebra Conference in Tartu, Estonia, August 2014

Some of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) are presented. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations
which allow for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, while breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. We analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. We finalize with a discussion of
the modified dispersion relations, rainbow metrics and generalized uncertainty relations in $C$-spaces which are extensions of the stringy uncertainty relations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[656] **viXra:1411.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-08 02:15:32*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get the core provisions of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is an entirely new interpretation of gravity through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[655] **viXra:1411.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 10:52:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the
Universe is potentially composed of smaller Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres,
which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is
composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a
basic cuboctahedron structure.
In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was
shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe. In
“New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the
Number of Particles in the Universe” 2 It was shown that the number of particles of
mass in the Hubble Sphere Universe was related to the number of particles of mass in
the Planck Spinning Sphere. This relationship, if extended all the way down through the
layers of the universe yields the basic unit of the universe, which is a unit
cuboctahedron. This paper will go through the math to show how this is possible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[654] **viXra:1411.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 18:07:19*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is shown that the ratio of two c-free formulas for the Hubble radius exhibits overwhelming mathematical properties implying an holographic formula between the muon and tau masses, induced by an Eddington's symmetry argument.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[653] **viXra:1411.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-05 04:06:34*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We recently improved the famous result of Parikh and Wilczek, who found a probability of emission of Hawking radiation which is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum, showing that such a probability of emission is really associated to two non-strictly thermal distributions for
boson and fermions. Here we finalize the model by finding the correct value of the pre-factor of the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission.
In fact, that expression has the ∼ sign instead of the equality. In general, in this kind of leading order tunnelling calculations, the exponent arises indeed from the classical action and the pre-factor is an order Planck constant correction. But in the case of emissions of Hawking quanta, the variation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is order 1 for an emitted particle
having energy of order the Hawking temperature. As a consequence, the exponent in the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission is order unity
and one asks what is the real significance of that scaling if the pre-factor is unknown. Here we solve the problem assuming the unitarity of the black hole (BH) quantum evaporation and considering the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and quasi-normal modes (QNMs) of
excited BHs , in a “Bohr-like model” that we recently discussed in a series of papers. In that papers, QNMs are interpreted as natural BH quantum
levels (the “electron states” in the “Bohr-like model”). Here we find the intriguing result that, although in general it is well approximated by 1,
the pre-factor of the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission depends on the BH quantum level n. We also write down an elegant expression of the probability of emission in terms of the BH quantum levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[652] **viXra:1411.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-04 06:09:12*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I conjecture that string theorists are guaranteed to fail unless they recognize the importance of the work of Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski. Milgrom’s acceleration law is true or appears to be true for some unknown reason. What does Milgrom’s acceleration law have to do with the 3 generations of fermions? I speculate that Milgrom’s acceleration law implies that the law of conservation of gravitational energy is false and that the infinite nature hypothesis is false. Assume that nature is finite and digital. Conjecture (1). The 26-dimensional model of bosonic string theory, together with Lestone’s heuristic string theory, implies that supersymmetry is an approximate symmetry within Wolfram’s automaton. Conjecture (2). There are 3 generations of fermions because Wolfram’s automaton provides a way for 3 copies of 26-dimensional bosonic string theory to map into 64 dimensions of fundamental particles, 2 dimensions of quantum spin, 3 dimensions of linear momentum, 3 dimensions of angular momentum, and 6 dimensions of quantum uncertainty. Wolfram’s automaton provides approximations to quantum field theory and general relativity theory by means of ‘t Hooft’s superdeterminism. Are conjectures (1) and (2) false? Perhaps, but the conjectures are testable. The main predictions are the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, the Space Roar Profile Prediction, and the hypothesis that gravitons, inflatons, and axions are the only fundamental particles that remain to be discovered. According to the “Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 93, a ray of light passing near a large mass M is deflected by an amount α = (κ/(2π)) * (M/Δ), where Δ is the ray’s minimal (hypothetically undeflected in the flat coordinates) distance from the center of mass M, and κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect implies that ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * (κ/(2π)) * (M/Δ), where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant (D-M-C-C) to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[651] **viXra:1411.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 10:33:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I calculated the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays as a function of energy and described positron flux. Obtained results are consistent with the data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station (ISS). These data lead to the internal structure of the core of baryons and to phenomena characteristic for regions in the Universe filled with baryonic plasma described within S-SET. Here, as well within S-SET, I described the origin of new cosmological problems which lead to new cosmology. They are as follows. There are not in existence the B-modes associated with gravitational waves - it leads to conclusion that there was a separation in time of the inflation and the big bang of the Universe. In the very distant Universe there is too small number of dwarf galaxies. In the very distant Universe there are the massive galaxies which do not significantly evolve so a time for their formation was too short. In the very distant Universe there are too many barred galaxies - it is inconsistent with simulations grounded on the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). There is a substantial asymmetry in the CMB signal observed in the two opposite hemispheres of the sky. These new problems suggest that CSM starts from wrong initial conditions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[650] **viXra:1410.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 13:17:08*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is an intuitive but general conviction that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity. Here we show that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture, discussing a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. Our model has important implications on the BH information puzzle and on the non-strictly random character of Hawking radiation. It is also in perfect agreement with existing results in the literature, starting from the famous result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
This paper improves, clarifies and finalizes some recent results that, also together with collaborators, we published in various peer reviewed journals.
Preliminary results on the model in this paper have been recently discussed in an Invited Lecture at the 12th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[649] **viXra:1410.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 00:24:19*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Consider the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is it possible that Milgrom’s acceleration law is wrong? No, because Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski have elaborated too much empirical evidence in its favor. There are only 2 possibilities: (1) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is 100% correct but appears to be significantly wrong for some unknown reason. (2) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory really is slightly wrong. Where did Newton go wrong? Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. To every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction: in other words, the actions of two bodies in relation to each other are always equal and directed in contrary parts. Within the universe to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction. Newton’s Third Law should perhaps be: Within the multiverse to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction provided that the action and the reaction are both confined to one particular universe. In other words, I suggest that Newton and Einstein made the mistake of assuming that gravitational energy is conserved. Start with Kepler’s laws and follow Newton’s reasoning with the removal of the assumption that gravitational energy is conserved. The result is not F = G * m1 * m2 / r^2 but instead F = ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * G * m1 * m2 / r^2 , where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 if gravitational energy is conserved, > 0 if gravitational energy is unexpectedly large, and < 0 if gravitational energy in unexpectedly small. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximated sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[648] **viXra:1410.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 06:17:46*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this article, the formal definition for the participator model is given. This solves the participator requirement for the General Grand Unification Problem. This is the participator aspect for the generation of universes via the GGU-model cosmogony schemes. It is shown to be representable as a finite meet semi-lattice with lower unit.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[647] **viXra:1410.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-25 21:50:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Will be presented in South Africa, in Capetown in Dark Side of the Universe. This is an accepted talk

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step , then generate DM via axions. Through Ngs quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[646] **viXra:1410.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 11:45:36*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What are the tests of string theory? What is Milgromian string theory, and how might Milgromian string theory be tested? If the string theorists are correct about string theory and if Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically valid when gravitational accelerations are low, then what might be the meaning of “Milgromian string theory”? What might be the physical basis of MOND? Consider 3 ideas: (1) Fernández-Rañada and Tiemblo-Ramos suggested that atomic time might be different from astronomical time. (2) Dark matter has zero inertial mass-energy and positive gravitational mass-energy. (3) Dark energy has zero inertial mass-energy and negative gravitational mass-energy. My guess is that the preceding ideas combined with Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) plausibly imply the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect. Replace the –1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s gravitational field equations by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^-5 . Designate this constant by D-M-C-C. In the “Meaning of Relativity” 5th edition page 87, the formula (101) should have – κ/(2π) replaced by (–κ/(4π)) * (1/2 – D-M-C-C)^-1 on the hypothesis of the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[645] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 06:29:06*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to a Special issue of Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the
cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value
and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[644] **viXra:1410.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 01:11:42*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Newton's inverse square law of gravity is very accurate in predicting the mutual gravitational responses of bodies within galaxies. Its predictions fail however in the outskirts of many galaxies and in cosmological scale analyses of the universe. Dark entities can be hypothesized for maintaining the law intact, yet the possibility that something is faulty not with our qualifications to sense dark constituents of the universe but with the law itself, cannot be ruled out. Through algebraic discussion I show that Newton equations can be interpreted in a new way at least as legitimate as their conventional way of interpretation. According to this new interpretation of Newton equations it comes out that the laws of gravity alter when the ratio between the mass of a gravitational source and the distance from it is smaller from a predetermined value. I indicate that gravitational fields may have a cutoff border at some mass dependent distance, i.e. possibly the influence of gravity is restricted in range and galaxies receding from one another according to Hubble law are gravitationally disconnected. My conclusion is that the common use of GR for cosmological scale analysis of the universe is very speculative and lacks any observational support.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[643] **viXra:1410.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 07:29:16*

**Authors:** Piyush Mohan Singhal

**Comments:** 13 Pages. A peer review is requested.

The formation of a trefoil knot in a measurement space with entropy is described. It is shown that for a given prime knot, invariants with the characteristics of Laurent polynomials can be developed in 2+1 dimensional measurement space. These polynomials distinguish chiral property and uniquely address charge, parity and time symmetries.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[642] **viXra:1410.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 21:44:39*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists have long suggested that the four observed fundamental forces of nature are separate manifestations of what was once a single force at times close to the Big Bang. If so, magnitude of the unified force can be assumed to be equal to . Strength of any interaction can be defined as the ratio of the operating force magnitude and the magnitude of . Let the gravitational interaction at black holes be called as ‘Schwarzschild interaction’. If strength of Schwarzschild interaction is unity, then weak interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction and strong interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction. Based on these concepts and considering the Avogadro number as an absolute and discrete number, basics of final unification can be understood.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[641] **viXra:1410.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 04:47:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The scale-symmetric physics (S-SET) leads to the atom-like structure of baryons containing the core, composed of entangled or/and confined Einstein-spacetime components, which is the black hole in respect of strong interactions. The structure of the core leads to conclusion that at high energy proton-proton collisions we should detect 25% more electrons than muons. On the other hand, at the LHC Physics conference in New York City (June 2014) the LHCb collaboration announced that probably there appear 25% more electrons than muons. In the Standard Model the electrons and muons (in the S-SET as well) are the particles of the same type so number of electrons and muons should be the same. This 25 percent excess of electrons follows from the internal structure of the core of baryons described within S-SET whereas within the Standard Model such excess is incomprehensible i.e. suggests existence of new physics. Just S-SET is the lacking part of ultimate theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[640] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 02:35:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in sections entitled “Speculations Concerning Future Humanity” and “Quantum Gravity Personalized”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[639] **viXra:1410.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 09:47:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Steinhauer black hole is an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate containing an analogue black-hole horizon and an inner horizon as in a charged black hole (online it was published on 12 October 2014). Jeff Steinhauer observed the exponential growth of a standing wave between the horizons. On the other hand, the scale-symmetric physics (S-SET) leads to the charged core of baryons which is the charged black hole in respect of strong interactions producing two horizons, i.e., the luminal-spin-speed horizon in distance A = 0.69744 fm and the luminal-radial-speed horizon in distance 2A. On both horizons are produced the virtual bosons with an energy of 282.9 MeV for which the characteristic length is equal to A. Such virtual bosons appear in the liquid-like-plasma theory, in the cosmic-neutrino-background theory and in the theory of the spin-1 and spin-3 charmed, strange D resonances with a mass of 2860 MeV. The Steinhauer black hole with two horizons is an analog to the charged core of baryons and an analog to the neutron black holes. The structures of the charged core of baryons and of the neutron black holes, producing two horizons, were described already in 1997 (online it was published on 6 March 2012). This leads to conclusion that the Steinhauer discovery is the indirect evidence for existence of the charged core of baryons described within S-SET.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[638] **viXra:1410.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 13:31:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, the resonant substructure of strange B to charmed D, kaon and pion decays is studied. The study is based on the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET) i.e. the lacking part of ultimate theory that main part leads to the structures of bare objects and to the origin of physical constants. The Kasner solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations lead to the structure of the core of baryons and next to their atom-like structure. Here, within the phenomena characteristic for the core of baryons, we calculated the masses of the spin-1 and spin-3 charmed, strange D resonances with a mass of 2860 MeV. The calculated masses are respectively 2858.5 MeV and 2860.8 MeV (they are very close to the experimental central values (!)) whereas to obtain the exact spins equal to 1 and 3 we need a broadening of masses respectively about -+ 5.3 MeV and 0.9 MeV and it is as well consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[637] **viXra:1410.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 03:04:32*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space refers first to the structure of the isotropic space, based on the electrical and dynamic antithesis (opposition) of positive and negative elementary units. This antithesis emerges as the unique principle of the Cosmos structure, which is the «union of opposites» of Heraclitus that we observe in all natural phenomena, as pairs of opposites.
If the isotropic space were infinite, then the attractive and repulsive forces of space elementary units would be at balance, in the form of a cubic grid of infinite dimensions, as a sole existence.
The physical space (the Universe), though, is not infinite. It has been created by the spherical deformity of the isotropic space, as its first deformation. At space limits, the vacuum (non units-non space) tows (sucks) the space-existence, because of the antithesis (opposition) principle between existence and nonexistence.
Τhis first space deformation creates the cohesive forces, which cause the chaotic (huge) cohesion pressure (see chapter B, paragraph 2). In this vast storehouse of energy (see chapter A, paragraph 4), the unique invisible force is the electrical one between positive and negative elementary units. The five evident Nature forces (1.antigravity, 2.gravity, 3.cortex, 4.nuclear, 5.electrical) are derived by this unique electrical force (see bibliography: Theory of Dynamic Space - The Universal Truth chapter 4, paragraphs 4.5.1. and 4.5.2. and chapter 5).
The first grand Cosmic event is the Genesis of matter, with the creation of the primordial neutron in the Universe center, as a second (local) space deformation (hole-bubble of empty space).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[636] **viXra:1410.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-07 13:48:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), we described the dark-matter mechanism which leads to the equality of spin speeds of stars outside the central stellar bulge of spiral galaxy. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts for the Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy and Triangular Galaxy. The equality of spin speeds of stars for defined spiral galaxy follows from the weak interactions, via leptons, of the baryonic matter with virtual loops in the Einstein spacetime - the loops mimic the motions in fermions. There is as well the cold dark matter (the iron-plus-nickel lumps) between and outside galaxies the clusters of galaxies consist of - it leads to the gravitational lensing. The constancy of spin speeds of stars outside central bulge and the gravitational lensing are the very different phenomena. Moreover, we do not need some exotic matter to explain their origin. Just we need the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) and the iron-plus-nickel lumps as the remnants of the explosions of the Population III supernovae (the first-generation big stars).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[635] **viXra:1410.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-02 14:06:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Kasner metric is a solution to the vacuum Einstein equations and we apply this metric to the modified Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating, non-relativistic, superluminal pieces of space (tachyons). The three additional laws of conservation lead to the scale-symmetric physics. Due to the four succeeding phase transitions, there are in existence the four scales: the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale concerning the Einstein-spacetime components, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Within such theory we can derive the formulae for the physical constants so we can interpret them correctly. The scale-symmetric physics starts from seven parameters only and within this theory we calculated the physical constants and hundreds of results that are consistent or very close to experimental data. For example, within this theory we calculated the exact mass, spin and radii of proton - it is still impossible within the Standard Model. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (SSET), we interpret the formulae for the reduced Planck constant, for the speed of light in “vacuum”, gravitational constant, electric charge of electron, and fine-structure constant. The reduced Planck constant and the speed of light in “vacuum” are the invariants. The gravitational constant can change only infinitesimally. For ordinary conditions (for example, for atomic-nucleus density) the electric charge and the fine-structure constant are the invariants as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[634] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-28 10:40:01*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[633] **viXra:1409.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-27 09:13:21*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitali

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
holographic quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of the principle of
the Heisenberg uncertainty over the measurement information about the state of the quantum object.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[632] **viXra:1409.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:28:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The hierarchy of phases with effective value of Planck constant coming as an integer multiple of the ordinary Planck constant and interpreted as dark matter is crucial in the TGD inspired model of living matter. The challenge is to identify physical mechanisms forcing the increase of effective Planck constant h_{eff} (whether to call it effective or not is to some extent matter of taste). The work with certain potential applications of TGD led to a discovery of a new mechanism possibly achieving this. The method would be simple: apply constant torque to a rotating system. I will leave it for the reader to rediscover how this can be achieved. The importance of the result is that it provides strong mathematical motivations for zero energy ontology (ZEO), causal diamonds (CDs), and hierarchy of (effective) Planck constants . Quite generally, the results apply to systems with external energy feed inducing generalized force acting in some compact degrees of freedom. Living matter represents basic example of this kind of system. Amazingly, ATP synthase enzyme contains generator with a rotating shaft: a possible TGD based interpretation is that the associated torque forces the generation of large h_{eff} phases.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[631] **viXra:1409.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:31:01*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A generalization of twistor Grassmannian approach defines a very promising vision about the construction of generalized Feynman diagrams. Since particles are replaced with 3-D surfaces and since string like objects emerge naturally in TGD framework, one expects that scattering amplitudes define a generalization of twistor Grassmannian amplitudes with a generalized Yangian symmetry. The realization of this approach has been however plagued by long-standing problems. SUSY in some form seems to be strongly supported by theoretical elegance and TGD indeed suggests a good candidate for a broken SUSY realized in terms of covariantly constant right-handed neutrino and not requiring Majorana spinors. Separate conservation of baryon and lepton number imply that super-generators carry quark or lepton number. This has been the main obstacle in attempts to construct stringly amplitudes. In this article it is found that this obstacles can be overcome and that stringy approach is forced both by the TGD view about physical particles and by the cancellation of UV and IR divergences. Also the planarity restriction emerges automatically in stringy approach. Absolutely essential ingredient is that fundamental fermions can be regarded as massless on-shell fermions having non-physical helicity with propagator replaced with its inverse: this representation follows by perfoming the integration over the virtual four-momentum squared using residue calculus.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[630] **viXra:1409.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:33:26*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists M. Tajmar and C. J. Matos and their collaborators working in ESA (European Satellite Agency) have made an amazing claim of having detected strong gravimagnetism with gravimagnetic field having a magnitude which is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by General Relativity.

Tajmar et al have proposed the gravimagnetic effect as an explanation of an anomaly related to the superconductors. The measured value of the mass of the Cooper pair is slightly larger than the sum of masses whereas theory predicts that it should be smaller. The explanation would be that actual Thomson field is larger than it should be because of gravimagnetic contribution to quantization rule used to deduce the value of Thomson field. The required value of gravimagnetic Thomson field is however 28 orders of magnitude larger than General Relativity suggests. TGD inspired proposal is based on the notion of gravitational Planck constant assignable to the flux tubes connecting to massive objects. It turns out that the TGD estimate for the Thomson field has correct order of magnitude. The identification h_{eff} = h_{gr} at particle physics and atomic length scales emerges naturally.

A vision about the fundamental role of quantum gravitation in living matter emerges. The earlier hypothesis that dark EEG photons decay to biophotons with energies in visible and ultraviolet range receives strong quantitative support. Also a mechanism for how magnetic bodies couple bio-chemistry emerges. The vision conforms with Penrose's intuitions about the role of quantum gravity in biology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[629] **viXra:1409.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:35:12*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The earlier attempts to understand the relationship between TGD and GRT have been in terms of solutions of Einstein's equations imbeddable to M^{4} ×CP_{2} instead of introducing GRT space-time as a fictive notion naturally emerging from TGD as asimplified concept replacing many-sheeted space-time. This resolves also the worries related to Equivalence Principle. TGD can be seen as a "microscopic" theory behind TGD and the understanding of the microscopic
elements becomes the main focus of theoretical and hopefully also experimental work some day.

The understanding of Kähler Dirac action has been second long term project. How can one guarantee that em charge is well-defined for the spinor modes when classical W fields are present? How to avoid large parity breaking effects due to classical Z^{0} fields? How to avoid the problems due to the fact that color rotations induce vielbein rotation of weak fields? The common answer to these questions is restriction of the modes of induced spinor field to 2-D string world sheets (and possibly also partonic 2-surfaces) such that the induced weak fields vanish. This makes string picture a part of TGD.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[628] **viXra:1409.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:37:00*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The construction of Kähler geometry of WCW ("world of classical worlds") is fundamental to TGD program. I ended up with the idea about physics as WCW geometry around 1985 and made a breakthrough around 1990, when I realized that Kähler function for WCW could correspond to Kähler action for its preferred extremals defining the analogs of Bohr orbits so that classical theory with Bohr rules would become an exact part of quantum theory and path integral would be replaced with genuine integral over WCW. The motivating construction was that for loop spaces leading to a unique Kähler geometry. The geometry for the space of 3-D objects is even more complex than that for loops and the vision still is that the geometry of WCW is unique from the mere existence of Riemann connection.

This article represents the updated version of the construction providing a solution to the problems of the previous construction. The basic formulas remain as such but the expressions for WCW super-Hamiltonians defining WCW Hamiltonians (and matrix elements of WCW metric) as their anticommutator are replaced with those following from the dynamics of the modified Dirac action.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[627] **viXra:1409.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:58:39*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

An updated view about M^{8}-H duality is discussed. M^{8}-H duality allows to deduce M^{4}× CP_{2} via number theoretical compactification. One important correction is that octonionic spinor structure makes sense only for M^{8} whereas for M^{4}× CP_{2} complefixied quaternions characterized the spinor structure.

Octonions, quaternions, quaternionic space-time surfaces, octonionic spinors and twistors and twistor spaces are highly relevant for quantum TGD. In the following some general observations distilled during years are summarized.

There is a beautiful pattern present suggesting that H=M^{4}× CP_{2} is completely unique on number theoretical grounds. Consider only the following facts. M^{4} and CP_{2} are the unique 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure. Octonionic projective space OP_{2} appears as octonionic twistor space (there are no higher-dimensional octonionic projective spaces). Octotwistors generalise the twistorial construction from M^{4}; to M^{8} and octonionic gamma matrices make sense also for H with quaternionicity condition reducing OP_{2} to to 12-D G_{2}/U(1)× U(1) having same
dimension as the the twistor space CP_{3}× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) of H assignable to complexified quaternionic representation of gamma matrices.

A further fascinating structure related to octo-twistors is the non-associated analog of Lie group defined by automorphisms by octonionic imaginary units: this group is topologically six-sphere. Also the analogy of quaternionicity of preferred extremals in TGD with the Majorana condition central in super string models is very thought provoking. All this suggests that associativity indeed could define basic dynamical principle of TGD.

Number theoretical vision about quantum TGD involves both p-adic number fields and classical number fields and the challenge is to unify these approaches. The challenge is non-trivial since the p-adic variants of quaternions and octonions are not number fields without additional conditions. The key idea is that TGD reduces to the representations of Galois group of algebraic numbers realized in the spaces of octonionic and quaternionic adeles generalizing the ordinary adeles as Cartesian
products of all number fields: this picture relates closely to Langlands program. Associativity would force sub-algebras of the octonionic adeles defining 4-D surfaces in the space of octonionic adeles so that 4-D space-time would emerge naturally. M^{8}-H correspondence in turn would map the space-time surface in M^{8} to M^{4}× CP_{2}.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[626] **viXra:1409.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:00:12*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

This piece of text was written as an attempt to provide a popular summary about TGD. This is of course mission impossible since TGD is something at the top of centuries of evolution which has led from Newton to standard model. This means that there is a background of highly refined conceptual thinking about Universe so that even the best computer graphics and animations fail to help. One can still try to create some inspiring impressions at least. This chapter approaches the challenge by answering the most frequently asked questions. Why TGD? How TGD could help to solve the problems of recent day theoretical physics? What are the basic princples of TGD? What are the basic guidelines in the construction of TGD?

These are examples of this kind of questions which I try to answer in using the only language that I can talk. This language is a dialect of the language used by elementary particle physicists, quantum field theorists, and other people applying modern physics. At the level of practice involves technically heavy mathematics but since it relies on very beautiful and simple basic concepts, one can do with a minimum of formulas, and reader can always to to Wikipedia if it seems that more
details are needed. I hope that reader could catch the basic principles and concepts: technical details are not important. And I almost forgot: problems! TGD itself and almost every new idea in the development of TGD has been inspired by a problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[625] **viXra:1409.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 07:01:53*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

One manner to see TGD is as a solution of the energy problem of General Relativity in terms of sub-manifold gravity. The translations act now as translations of 8-D imbedding space M^{4}×CP_{2} rather than in space-time itself and four-momentum can be identified as Noether charge. The detailed realization of this vision however involves several conceptual delicacies. What does Equivalence Principle mean in this framework: equivalence of gravitational and inertial momenta or just Einstein's equations or their generalization? What is the precise definition of inertial and gravitational four-momenta? What does quantum classical correspondence mean and could Equivalence Principle reduce to it? p-Adic mass calculations and the notion of generalised conformal invariance provide strong constraints on the attempts to answer these questions. This article provides the most recent view about the most plausible looking answer to these questions. Twistor Grassmann approach relies on the Yangian variant of 4-D conformal symmetry generalizing in TGD framework to Yangian variants of huge conformal symmetry algebras due to the effective 2-dimensionality of light-like 3-surfaces. This suggest also a generalization of four-momentum bringing in multilocal contributions analogous to interaction energy and also this is discussed in some detail.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[624] **viXra:1409.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:20:39*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 592 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.

- p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2
^{k}, k integer, in particular prime, define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. - A much deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2
^{k}- and 2-fractality. - Certain anomalous empirical findings inspire in TGD framework the hypothesis about the existence of entire hierarchy of phases of matter identifiable as dark matter. The levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.

- The first part of the book is devoted to the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics.
- In second part is devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.

[623] **viXra:1409.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:23:22*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 729 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants.

- Configuration space spinors indeed define a canonical example about hyper-finite factor of type II
_{1}. The work with TGD inspired model for quantum computation led to the realization that von Neumann algebras, in particular hyper-finite factors of type II_{1}could provide the mathematics needed to develop a more explicit view about the construction of M-matrix. This has turned out to be the case to the extent that a general master formula for M-matrix with interactions described as a deformation of ordinary tensor product to Connes tensor products emerges. - The idea about hierarchy of Planck constants emerged from anomalies of biology and the strange finding that planetary orbits could be regarded as Bohr orbits but with a gigantic value of Planck constant. This lead to the vision that dark matter corresponds to ordinary particles but with non-standard value of Planck constant and to a generalization of the 8-D imbedding space to a book like structure with pages partially characterized by the value of Planck constant. Using the intuition provided by the inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II
_{1}one ends up to a prediction for the spectrum of Planck constants associated with> M^{4}; and CP_{2}degrees of freedom. This inspires the proposal that dark matter could be in quantum Hall like phase localized at light-like 3-surfaces with macroscopic size and behaving in many respects like black hole horizons.

**Comments:** 729 pages

[622] **viXra:1409.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 02:06:29*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Not reviewed in: Classical and Quantum Gravity, Foundations of Physics, Annalen der Physik

I take a very exciting and revival excurse on a hypothesis that has risen in the midst of General Relativity and Quantum field description (in the form of the electromagnetic wave). I do not present new hypotheses but recall known facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[621] **viXra:1409.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 08:02:48*

**Authors:** Moses Turkle Bility

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The main purpose of this article is to elucidate a mechanical interpretation of the gravitation phenomenon. Additionally, this article unifies Newtonian and general relativity theoretical frameworks using the wave equation, which is the mathematical framework of quantum physics. Here I propose a novel theory, “Equilibrium theory” which asserts that the universe is an infinitesimally large and continuous differential energy density structure - a compressible fluid, as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame. Equilibrium theory asserts that the universe is always at equilibrium and is composed of demarcated “compressed fluid” (i.e. matter – planets, objects) and demarcated “stretched fluid” (i.e. photon) of approximately uniform energy density along with demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density (i.e. space); thus it is accurately represented using the wave equation, which describes the nature and dynamics of non-discrete and continuous structures.
Dynamics in weak and strong gravitational field results from the energy exchange within the “compressible fluid”, resulting in the reconfiguration of the differential energy density within the “compressible fluid”, and thus termed motion. Furthermore, dynamics in strong gravitational field (gravitational dynamics) is due to the existence of demarcated surrounding space of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; this differential energy density is induced by the existence of a relatively high energy density structure (i.e matter – planet). Dynamics in weak gravitational field (dynamics in inertial reference frame) is also due to the existence of demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; thus it is equivalent to the gravitation phenomenon, albeit transient due to rapid dissipation during perturbations. Equilibrium theory provides a novel framework for elucidating the nature and dynamics of the universe using a fluid mechanical model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[620] **viXra:1409.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-23 03:25:37*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We consider the relations of the energy density and its entropic density with the temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and holographic dark energy (HDE). On the basis of literature [4], we obtain the energy density of the scalar field being proportional to the square of the Hawking-Unruh temperature near the event horizon, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Hawking-Unruh one. Basing on [6], we find the equation of gravitational energy density inside SBH; derive that the gravitational energy density is proportional to the square of the effective temperature far from the event horizon in SBH interior, whether the gravitational fields of SBH are Coulomb-like or wave-like; and their entropic density is directly proportional to the effective temperature. Basing on [7, 8, 9], we gain the HDE density being proportional to square of the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Gibbons-Hawking one. These equations are similar and have relations with each other. We suggest that these relations are interesting and significant for SBH and HDE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[549] **viXra:1411.0374 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-20 06:42:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory, the origin of the two new baryon resonances with a mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV observed in LHCb experiment is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[548] **viXra:1411.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-07 23:53:01*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure. In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe. In “New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe” 2 It was shown that the number of particles of mass in the Hubble Sphere Universe was related to the number of particles of mass in the Planck Spinning Sphere. This relationship, if extended all the way down through the layers of the universe yields the basic unit of the universe, which is a unit cuboctahedron. This paper will go through the math to show how this is possible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[547] **viXra:1410.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-30 06:33:14*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity, General Relativity and E=mc^2 confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[546] **viXra:1410.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:17:15*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Added more to the conclusion. Fixed error in title, plus typos and added a formula and additional comments / formula to the conclusion

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[545] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-31 21:06:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[544] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-23 22:26:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[543] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-22 00:00:01*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the
universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about E=mc^2, Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding the Unified Field, speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[542] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-06 21:22:03*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[541] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 03:05:35*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[540] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-21 04:52:00*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The final words in a TV program about it (“Virtual Universe” on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s “Catalyst” – Oct. 16, 2014) are
"On the left is the real Hubble image. On the right is the one from the mock Hubble. The two were extraordinarily similar. Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved."
The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in sections entitled “Speculations Concerning Future Humanity” and “Quantum Gravity Personalized”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[539] **viXra:1410.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-08 05:15:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), we described the dark-matter mechanism which leads to the equality of spin speeds of stars outside the central stellar bulge of spiral galaxy. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts for the Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy and Triangular Galaxy. The equality of spin speeds of stars for defined spiral galaxy follows from the weak interactions, via leptons, of the baryonic matter with virtual loops in the Einstein spacetime - the loops mimic the motions in fermions. There is as well the cold dark matter (the iron-plus-nickel lumps) between and outside galaxies the clusters of galaxies consist of - it leads to the gravitational lensing. The constancy of spin speeds of stars outside central bulge and the gravitational lensing are the very different phenomena. Moreover, we do not need some exotic matter to explain their origin. Just we need the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) and the iron-plus-nickel lumps as the remnants of the explosions of the Population III supernovae (the first-generation big stars).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[538] **viXra:1409.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-19 10:45:37*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 26 Pages. I would appreciate comments. genebarbee@msn.com

Black holes are interesting to the scientific community. Observations indicate that remnants of stars that become black holes range from about 4 solar masses through about 20 solar masses. A supermassive black hole with mass 4.2e40 Kg has also been observed. Astronomers use x-ray emission and the bending of light around massive objects to study them and observations to date challenge physicists to extend their knowledge.
A layer by layer model of pressure, temperature, density and fusion power (MeV/sec) of the sun was developed and compared to a supermassive black hole with similar density and fusion kinetics. To simulate smaller black holes, the author developed a method to determine the pressure and density as a function of radius. Conditions at the core of small black holes are extreme enough to cause degenerate (relativistic) behavior of know forces. It was unknown however, whether collapse actually occurs. The author uses a cellular model of gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6]. Quantum gravity indicates that black holes do not involve a singularity. Gravitational kinetic energy resists the pressure at the core of black holes similar to the way electromagnetic kinetic energy controls the thermodynamics of gases.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[537] **viXra:1409.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-06 18:34:00*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 22 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

Black holes are interesting to the scientific community. Observations indicate that remnants of stars that become black holes range from about 4 solar masses through about 20 solar masses. A supermassive black hole with mass 4.2e40 Kg has also been observed. Astronomers use x-ray emission and the bending of light around massive objects to study them and observations to date challenge physicists to extend their knowledge.
A layer by layer model of pressure, temperature, density and fusion power (MeV/sec) of the sun was developed and compared to a supermassive black hole with similar density and fusion kinetics. To simulate smaller black holes, the author developed a method to determine the pressure and density as a function of radius. Conditions at the core of small black holes are extreme enough to cause degenerate (relativistic) behavior of know forces. It was unknown however, whether collapse actually occurs. The author uses a cellular model of gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6]. Quantum gravity indicates that black holes do not involve a singularity. Gravitational kinetic energy resists the pressure at the core of black holes similar to the way electromagnetic kinetic energy controls the thermodynamics of gases.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[536] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 17:26:06*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[535] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 12:58:18*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.
Comments: 6 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[534] **viXra:1409.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-30 15:42:27*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[533] **viXra:1409.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-28 02:02:41*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 592 Pages.

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.

- p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2
^{k}, k integer, in particular prime, define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. - A much deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2
^{k}- and 2-fractality. - Certain anomalous empirical findings inspire in TGD framework the hypothesis about the existence of entire hierarchy of phases of matter identifiable as dark matter. The levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.

- The first part of the book is devoted to the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics.
- In second part is devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.

[532] **viXra:1409.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 14:05:24*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. DE BROGLIE is like self-announced dictator: "on this concept of the duality of waves and corpuscles... all future development of this science will apparently have to be founded."

I take a very exciting and revival excurse on a hypothesis that has risen in the midst of General Relativity and Quantum field description (in the form of the electromagnetic wave). The Emeritus Dr. Cooperstock has derived the absence of energy harvesting from the gravitational waves using wave description of light, however latter MUST be seen as photon gas. Let me show this necessity in the paper. The paper explains the known result of Dr. Cooperstock, hereby defending the previous authors (which the Dr. Cooperstock criticizes). I show, that they do not contradict the Dr. Cooperstock result, but very strongly support it.
Also presented my attempt to generalize the Dr. Cooperstock result to more nonlinear, more higher precision.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[531] **viXra:1409.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-21 01:24:37*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We consider the relations of the energy density and its entropic density with the temperature of Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and holographic dark energy (HDE). On the basis of literature [8], we obtain the energy density of the scalar field of SBH being proportional to the square of the Hawking-Unruh temperature near outside of the event horizon when the distance from the film to the horizon ε and the film thickness δ are constant, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Hawking-Unruh temperature when ε and n are constant. Basing on [16], we find the equation of gravitational energy density inside SBH; derive that the gravitational energy density is proportional to the square of the effective temperature far from the event horizon in SBH interior, whether the gravitational fields of SBH are Coulomb-like or wave-like; and their entropic density is directly proportional to the effective temperature. Basing on [20, 21, 22], we gain the HDE density being proportional to the square of the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, and that its entropic density is directly proportional to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. These equations are similar and have relations with each other. We suggest that these relations are interesting and significant for SBH and HDE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory