**Previous months:**

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2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

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2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(14) - 1503(15) - 1504(9) - 1505(14) - 1506(15) - 1507(19) - 1508(15) - 1509(21) - 1510(28) - 1511(22) - 1512(19)

2016 - 1601(13) - 1602(31) - 1603(22) - 1604(19) - 1605(23) - 1606(21) - 1607(23) - 1608(27) - 1609(15)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1033] **viXra:1609.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 22:35:28*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1032] **viXra:1609.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 11:21:34*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In review process for possible acceptance by JHEPGC

Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China
rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu
Abstract.
We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1031] **viXra:1609.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 13:34:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1030] **viXra:1609.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 02:39:10*

**Authors:** Sarangam Majumdar, Sukla Pal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Scientist predicted the existence of quantum Hawking radiation and now he measures the
entanglement of the Hawking pairs in an analogue black hole --- A theory which was almost
impossible to verify in actual black hole has recently got its experimental confirmation in analog
system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1029] **viXra:1609.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 13:27:42*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G:
G=(παq²/me²ε0)⁎exp(-(1/√2)⁎((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408⁎10-11 m3kg-1s-2
As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper.
To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1028] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 02:11:49*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Six months ago, I sent a comment to LIGO (Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory). Today, I received an email from Nathan Johnson-McDaniel who wrote, "Thanks for your comment. Unfortunately, we discovered that a number of queries to LIGO had gotten overlooked, so this is why we are only now replying to you. I am a postdoctoral researcher at the International Centre for Theoretical Sciences in Bangalore, India and one of the members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration who helps answer these questions." The article below – which I feel as though I've been working on forever – seems to answer the points in his email (and a ton of others).
A paradigm shift in science is a fundamental change in its concepts and practices. “We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur. This article strives towards that revolution by addressing many topics – including dark energy, dark matter, black holes, radioactive dating, gravity, mathematics, the shape of space-time, and imaginary time. Historically, mathematics often finds practical application in physics. The idea of the quantum was originally developed by Max Planck purely as a mathematical convenience^, but it's been part of our reality for over a century. So imaginary time and the Complex Number Plane might find applications undreamt of today.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1027] **viXra:1609.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 06:24:46*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 50 Pages. the logical universe is the bridge between the mind and physical reality

Here I posit the existence of a logical universe, within and behind the physical universe, the existence of fields that can calculate problems and how these relate to strings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1026] **viXra:1609.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 14:05:34*

**Authors:** Thomas Neil Neubert

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

From LEAR in 1980s to AEGIS today, CERN experiments that measure the gravitation interaction between antimatter and matter have all given null results. The CERN AEGIS null experimental results showing that antimatter is neither attracted nor repelled by matter have been ignored in the way that the null Michelson-Morley experimental results were ignored. It is urgent to interpret this precise results while awaiting decades more of ever more precise experiments. In this short paper, I will build a Simple Toy Universe that explains the apparent result that
Fgravity = G mmatter mantimatter / (rmatter/antimatter)2 = 0

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1025] **viXra:1609.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 23:43:25*

**Authors:** Pierre A. Mandrin

**Comments:** 7 pages.

We examine how a thermodynamic model of the boundary of 4d-manifolds can be used for an approach to quantum gravity, to keep the number of assumptions low and the quantum degrees of freedom manageable. We start with a boundary action leading to Einstein's Equations under a restriction due to additional information from the bulk. Optionally, a modified form with torsion can be obtained. From the thermodynamic perspective, the number of possible microscopic states is evaluated for every macroscopic configuration, and this allows to compute the transition probability between quantum states. The formalism does not depend on specific microscopic properties. The smoothness and the topological space condition of the manifold structure are viewed as a preferred representation of a macroscopic space on mathematical grounds. By construction, gravity may be interpreted as thermodynamic model which is forced to be out of equilibrium depending on the restrictions imposed by matter. Instead of an ill-behaved path integral description of gravity, we obtain a non-divergent concept of sums over microstates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1024] **viXra:1609.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:58:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a review article. There are tens unsolved basic problems in cosmology and particle physics. It suggests that the two main theories, i.e. General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM), are the incomplete theories. To solve the hierarchy problem, we need a theory of size scales, not the postulated supersymmetric particles. There are the three self-similar scales i.e. the Planck scale, nuclear scale and a cosmological scale. A few additional symmetries that follow from properties of the inflation field (i.e. of the initial state of the superluminal Higgs field) lead to the self-similar fractal-like size scales that look as the analogs of quasars i.e. there is torus with central condensate (bigger tori are built of smaller tori). Such structures of basic bare fermions in the three self-similar scales (they are not the mathematical points) eliminate from theories all infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks as the mathematical indeterminate forms, free parameters, and reduce number of initial parameters to 7 only. The local/global duality of time, the non-linearity--linearity duality of phenomena and the non-local phenomena in GR and QP/SM lead to the two-component spacetime with radically different properties of the components - it causes that unification of GR and QP/SM within the same methods is impossible. Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we partially unified GR and QP/SM via the size scales - besides the three gravitating self-similar scales, there appear two non-gravitating superluminal scales that are associated one with gravitational fields and the second with quantum entanglement. The carriers of quantum entanglement, due to their internal helicities, produce only single jet composed of antiparallel half-jets. We need very big number of such carriers to create the volumetric gravitational field - it is realized via neutrinos. How long theoretical cosmology and particle physics will move in a blind alley? Two decades is not enough (the theory of size scales was formulated in 1997)? Who is responsible for this i.e. for the present mess in the two major areas of knowledge? No one can see that Nature cannot be such complicated as the present-day theories suggest (the tens of parameters, many wrong basic results as the spin of proton, infinities, singularities, approximations, tricks)? Is it arrogance?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1023] **viXra:1609.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 18:01:20*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

First, we calculate the minimum length for the creation of a 10^45 Hz relic Gravitational wave. Next, we look Padamababhan’s inflaton physics, and work done by the author for a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle for constraints on a minimum time step. Sciama’s work in “Black hole explosions” (1982) gives us a linkage between a decay rate for black holes, in terms of a life time, and the mass, M of the black hole, which when combined with a simple exposition from Susskind and Hrabovsky (2013) for the most basic evolution the time change in energy E(t), which is how we form a first order treatment of the square of a minimum time step Delta t. We then reference what was done by Ng (2008) as far as infinite quantum statistics, for entropy as a particle count, and from first principle get constraints upon entropy production, as a function of boundaries on minimum time step. We assume massive Gravity, and obtain a peak 10^36 Giga Hertz frequency range (10^45 Hertz) for relic Gravitational waves, and Gravitons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1022] **viXra:1609.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 05:06:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The internal helicity distinguish particles from antiparticles. Fermions, due to the internal helicity, produce weak jets (they are produced in both the Higgs field composed of non-gravitating tachyons and the luminal Einstein spacetime) that are responsible for the CP (so T as well) violation. Generally, according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the weak interactions are along the jets whereas the nuclear strong interactions are in plane perpendicular to the jets. It causes that the nuclear strong interactions are CP (so T as well) invariant - it solves the strong CP problem. Both interactions, due to the thermal motions, can be volumetric. According to SST, there is the two-component spacetime i.e. the Higgs field associated with gravitational fields and the Einstein spacetime associated with the Standard-Model (SM) interactions. To cancel turbulences, there must be produced virtual or/and real particle-antiparticle pairs. But in the gravitational fields, due to their very low density, pairs cannot be produced - it causes that gravity is non-linear and non-linear are phenomena with dominating gravity i.e. phenomena that follow from dynamic viscosity of the non-gravitating tachyons all objects consist of such as friction or motions of the atmosphere of Earth. On the other hand, the quantum mechanics is linear, i.e. superposition and quantum entanglement are linear because in the luminal Einstein spacetime can be produced fermion-antifermion pairs, especially electron-positron pairs. Range of electrons to move in a superconductive manner is equal to the radius of the Bohr orbit in the hydrogen atom - it leads to the threshold for density of bound and free electrons for superconducting materials (about 1.5 kg per cubic meter).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1021] **viXra:1609.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 12:14:39*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Monster group, the biggest of the sporadic groups, is equipped with the highest known number of dimensions and symmetries. Taking into account variants of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and a novel topological approach cast in a physical fashion that has the potential to be operationalized, the Universe can be conceived as a lower-dimensional manifold encompassed in the Monster group. Our Universe might arise from spontaneous dimension decrease and symmetry breaking that occur inside the very structure of the Monster Module. We elucidate how the energetic loss caused by projection from higher to lower dimensions and by the Monster group’s non-abelian features is correlated with the present-day asymmetry in thermodynamic arrow. By linking the Monster Module to theoretical physical counterparts, we are allowed to calculate its enthalpy and Lie group trajectories. Our approach also reveals how a symmetry break might lead to a Universe based on multi-dimensional string theories and CFT/AdS correspondence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1020] **viXra:1609.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 04:28:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of entropy and information and their evolution in time in the Cosmos as a whole (the Cosmos has radius about 30 powers of ten of meters i.e. is much greater than the present-day radius of the expanding Universe). On the lowest level of Nature, the global information depends on distribution of rotational and kinetic energies of all free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all objects in the Cosmos consist of. The field composed of the free tachyons is the Higgs field - this field causes that neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. During the inflation, almost whole Higgs field transformed into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime that ground state consists of the non-rotating-spin neutrino-antineutrino pairs interacting gravitationally only. Orientation of spin is not important in gravitational field so all such pairs are in the same energetic state i.e. entropy of the ground state is equal to zero and this state dominates in the Cosmos. Moreover, the tachyonic energy frozen inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (it is the missing energy that results from quantum physics) is about 119 powers of ten times higher than their gravitational energy. The SST and the Kasner solution (which concerns the non-gravitating objects) show that there is a left-handedness of the residual Higgs field. The collapse of the outer shell of the Einstein spacetime at the end of the inflation created the returning shock wave. The shock wave plus the left-handedness of the residual Higgs field produced more matter than antimatter - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The returning energy-matter wave created the Universe in the centre of the Cosmos. Due to the boundary of the Cosmos, the Universe behaves cyclically. We start from the era before the inflation and via the inflation and via the neutron-black-holes state of the early Universe and via the present-day, we finish the description in the distant future. The tachyons cause that information cannot be destroyed by the SST black holes - the same concerns the energies of photons in gravitational fields. Entropy of the initial state of the inflation field and of the SST black holes is equal to zero. We can define time as the succeeding changes in the global information. In an approximation, Information behaves cyclically. In the Cosmos as a whole, entropy per particle is infinitesimal whereas total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1019] **viXra:1609.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 04:33:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The alignment of the angular-momentums/spins of quasars and the perpendicularity of the planes of the main disc of massive spiral galaxies and the disc of a vast polar structure (VPOS) which contains the satellite galaxies, some globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams, suggest that the Universe as a whole and the massive galaxies have a history that cannot be easily explained within the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared in the binary systems of protogalaxies two perpendicular discs each composed of the dark-matter (DM) loops. Dynamics of the binary systems of protogalaxies and the early Universe leads to perpendicularity of the main disc and VPOS. During the highest radial acceleration of the protogalaxies just at the beginning of expansion of the Universe (initially it was cosmic double loop with left-handed internal helicity of each loop), to stabilize the main disc and conserve its angular momentum, the binary systems of protogalaxies made a rotation (i.e. a rotation of their rotation and magnetic axes) of 90 degrees in such a way that initially the angular-momentums/spins (and magnetic axes) were mostly antiparallel to their radial velocities, i.e. initially the expanding Universe looked as a magnetic monopole. But the succeeding inflows of dark energy (locally they could be turbulent and they lasted a few Gyr) that initially caused the explosions of the binary systems of protogalaxies (in such a way appeared the VPOSs), partially destroyed the monopole-like structure of the early Universe. But a statistical analyse should show that described here correlation is preferred. The initial radial polarization of the spins of quasars explains their alignment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1018] **viXra:1608.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:32:35*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we obtain quantum mechanics from the concept of non-local geometrodynamics. Using the concept of superoscillations we obtain the metric of the particles which allows to map this metric into the quantum wavefunction representation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1017] **viXra:1608.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-29 08:47:17*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our Universe could either lie on a spatial three-dimensional brane embedded in a higher dimensional bulk, or could be flanked by one or more multi-dimensional branes of different possible sizes and shapes. Here we demonstrate, based on novel topological findings, that disconnected strings with matching descriptions moving on a 4-brane (or more) project to a single string on a 3-brane. This means that strings travelling on the bulk or on higher dimensional branes necessarily display a counterpart in our 3D world, and vice versa. Furthermore, based on the concept of homotopy equivalence, we show how it is possible for branes to stitch together to become condensed branes. Our framework allows a topological duality among different brane theories, because it holds for all the types of branes, independent of their hypothetical shape, curvature, size and boundaries. Furthermore, a topological approach allow branes assessment in the general terms of particle trajectories taking place on donut-like manifolds. Indeed, every high-dimensional brane, independent on the subtending cosmological model, can be described in terms of multi-dimensional toruses mapping to branes with lower spatial dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1016] **viXra:1608.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 13:02:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin and the spectra of the gamma-ray bursts (the exploding objects/progenitors we will call the GRBs). The GRBs explode due to the inflows of the dark energy into the associations of neutron black holes that are the constituents of the black holes in centres of galaxies. The GRBs should be placed near the Schwarzschild surface in the plane of the accretion discs. The bursts should be correlated with an increase in activity of the central-black-hole jet and accretion disc because it causes more dense flows of the dark energy. Such flows cause that the neutron black holes swell so their associations can transform into iron object. The increase in gravitational energy of the iron object is compensated by the decrease of the gravitational energy of the black holes as a whole, i.e. the central black holes become the more compact objects. A half of radiation energy is absorbed by the central black hole so the escaping energy looks as an analog to the Hawking radiation. The bursts are volumetric, not directional. Calculated here the typical emitted energy is equivalent to 1.9 solar masses. Most important are the fusions of nucleons mostly into iron-56 via helium-4, the beta decays of neutrons, and emission of photons with energy about 188 MeV that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. According to SST, the radius of the observed Universe increased 46.55 times so the spectra of most distant GRBs (SST shows that galaxies with redshift higher than 0.6 all are in time distance about 13 – 13.8 Gyr) should peak near 17 keV, 150 keV, 190 keV, and 4 MeV. The spectra of GBRs placed, for example, in distance 1.2 Gyr should peak near 190 keV, 1.7 MeV, 2.2 MeV, and 46 MeV. But there can be other lower peaks as well. Most important are two results i.e. the released typical energy 1.9 solar masses and the peak for 150 keV or 190 keV for very distant GRBs because number density of photons emitted during the iron production from nucleons via helium-4 should be highest and because abundance of the gamma-ray bursts should be highest for the distant Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1015] **viXra:1608.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 15:05:17*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the disappearance of high mass photon pairs that are the two-stage resonances. Their creation follows from the quantum entanglement. We suggest that the observed decrease in standard deviations results from increase in integral luminosity. Due to the four-object symmetry, instead production of, for example, the Higgs-like bosons with a mass of 750 GeV, due to the increase in the integral luminosity from 3.3 [1/fb] in 2015 to 12.9 [1/fb] in 2016, there are produced the Higgs-like bosons with a mass eight times higher. But such mass (about 6 TeV) lies outside the range of the CMS experiment. Moreover, probability of creation of the two-stage resonances is very, very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1014] **viXra:1608.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 01:06:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We look at Viutilli (1999) write up of a generalized schrodinger equation with its Ricci scalar inclusion, in curved space-time. This has a simplified version in Pre Planckian regime, which leads to comparing a resultant admissible wave function with Bohmian reformulations of quantum physics. As was done earlier, we compare this result with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use inflaton physics . The resuting inflaton is then compared to the wavefunctional in the first part of this document.
Key words, Ricci tensor, Schrodinger equation, Modified Poisson Equation , massive gravity, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1013] **viXra:1608.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-25 00:10:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. In addition we also obtain GW of amplitude as low as five meters above the Tokamak center such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1012] **viXra:1608.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-25 00:13:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We are reviewing Freeman Dyson’s paper which alleged that detection of gravitons via LIGO, or by outer space experiments (due to probabilistic calculations which we review in the document), an impossibility. The disagreement we have with Dr. Dyson is that his probability calculations are taking place in almost infinite spatial domains, which renders the detection protocols, using his probability scheme, impossible. After we summarize the Dyson outer space arguments, and how Dyson got them, we will refer the reader to the very strain calculation done in the referenced PRD article, so cited, as to how a nuclear weapon could generate GW, and then afterwards, refer the reader to a 2nd paper, of how Tokamaks could detect GW/ Gravitons, as detectable by the 3DSR effect. Nowhere are we suggesting DETONITION of a nuclear device to generate GW! The reader is referred to another Li et.al. PRD article, 2008, as to 3DSR, as to how detection of GW/Gravitons could occur due to something other than the Gertenshehtein effect, in this paper, i.e. they can look it up, and then in a 2nd follow up paper learn how a Tokamak could be utilized to have a finite sized geometry, for using the 3DSR effect for GW generation. The first paper highlights how if one assumes that only by use of infinite spatial geometry, and by using only the Gertenshehtein effect, that indeed one can convince oneself as to not bothering with the very real prospects of earthbound generation of Gravitons and GW, and that in doing so, GW research will be strictly limited, even with the outstanding results of LIGO, which in no way should be criticized. The entire analysis makes the case that foundational research as to the nature of GRAVITY means moving beyond the mental limitations place on GW/ Graviton research by Dyson’s 2009 paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1011] **viXra:1608.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-22 09:49:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Listening to Brian Cox and Dr. Karl talking on triple j (http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/media/s4513719.htm), the thing that most interested me was the subject "the opposite of gravity". By viewing reality as entanglement with the topological extension of a computer-simulated universe, comments can be made about: 1) the nature of gravity, and so-called antigravity being a result of the Complex Number Plane; 2) how this explanation of antigravity could explain dark energy and dark matter; 3) universal expansion being replaced by the closely related, though more precise, extension into space-time of binary digits and Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles; 4) a non-supernatural, humanistic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1010] **viXra:1608.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-22 04:15:59*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on constituents defined by mass, spin and charge. The preons form a finite combinatorial system for the standard model fermions. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the preon bound states. A unified picture for matter and spacetime is proposed by applying the area eigenvalues of loop quantum gravity to black hole preons producing a preon mass spectrum starting from zero. Gravitational baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained. Argument is given for unified field theory be based only on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions of preons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1009] **viXra:1608.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-21 15:02:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1008] **viXra:1608.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-21 06:34:30*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We nalize the project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10] by studying
graviton theory in our setting. Given the results in [1, 3, 9, 10], there is not
so much left to accomplish and we start by deepening our understanding
of some points left open in [1, 10]. Perturbative niteness of the theory
follows ad-verbatim from the analysis in [3, 9] and we do not bother here
about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a
couple of new physical and mathematical insights regarding the genesis
of the structure of the quantal graviton theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1007] **viXra:1608.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 07:19:51*

**Authors:** Alexey N. Bulyuk

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new approach to the theory of gravity is proposed. A second-rank tensor field is chosen to be the potential of the gravitational field. The gravitational field is related to the metric tensor of space--time, and all phenomena occur in curved space--time. A variational principle is established, and the gravitational field equations are derived. The energy--momentum density tensor of the gravitational field and its conservation law are obtained. The source of the gravitational field is the energy--momentum density of all kinds of matter, including the gravitational field itself. A Lagrangian of the gravitational field is proposed that correctly describes local observable gravitational phenomena in the second-order approximation. The energy density of the gravitational field is positive.
Estimates are obtained for the gravitational energy defect, the difference between the inertial and gravitational masses of a body, and the effect of the external gravitational field on the mass of a body.
The new approach to the description of the gravitational field and its energy provides additional incentives search possibilities of experimental verification of the phenomena of gravitation in strong fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1006] **viXra:1608.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 05:03:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here is a brief summary of the issues relating to the formulation of Theory of Everything (ToE). To formulate ToE, we must answer following questions and calculate following quantities from some more fundamental initial conditions applying much less parameters than the tens parameters that appear in the two fundamental theories i.e. in the General Theory of Relativity (GR) and the Standard Model (SM). Are the GR and SM the complete and mathematically coherent theories? Can we unify GR and SM within the same methods? If not, then what is the cause and why gravitational constant is about 42 powers of ten times lower than electromagnetic constant for electron-positron pair (it is not the fine-structure constant)? We must calculate masses of all fundamental fermions (i.e. neutrinos, electron, muon, tauon, quarks, proton and neutron) and mixing angles that appear in the PMNS neutrino-mixing matrix and in the CKM quark-mixing matrix. We must calculate fundamental physical constants and coupling constants. We must define the dark-matter (DM) particle and the dark-energy (DE) particle. There as well should appear a formula that ties masses/energies responsible for all interactions. We must solve many other fundamental problems in particle physics and cosmology unsolved within GR and SM. For example, why hyperons are created due to the nuclear strong interactions whereas they decay due to the electroweak interactions (the answer that it is due to the properties of the strange quark does not solve the problem)? All listed problems are solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), therefore, we believe that SST is missing part of the ToE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1005] **viXra:1608.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-17 21:43:43*

**Authors:** John Faust

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Abstract:
Mass and the amp meter are equivalent. As a result of this I will demonstrate that gravity is a result of magnetism due to the magnetic fields of the particles associated with matter(protons, neutrons, and electrons). Their magnetic fields, particularly the one of the electron since it is much larger than the other two gives a value when plugged into the proper magnetic field equation that matches the acceleration of gravity at Earth's surface. Objections that magnetism is responsible for gravity are expected. Therefore, I will deal with the two main objections raised that seem to imply that magnetism couldn't be responsible for gravity immediately after the calculated result. The first objection deals with the inverse square law and the second deals with the monopole nature of gravity. After answering the objections, I will demonstrate the meaning of the gravitational constant as it relates to magnetic units and further support that mass and the amp meter are equivalent.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1004] **viXra:1608.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-18 01:38:41*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamics model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamics model. We then discuss on the (1+3) forces, the gravity force and an additional three pseudo-forces that are described by force carrier particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1003] **viXra:1608.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-17 12:31:50*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a type of motor which converts Gravitational Energy directly into Rotational Kinetic Energy. Its fuel is therefore the Gravitational Energy (no needs gasoline, oil, etc). An example of Gravitational Motor is the turbines of the hydroelectric plants. However, they are not mobile i.e., they cannot be transported from one place to another as the combustion motors or the electric motors. Mobiles Gravitational Motor can be developed starting from the devices of gravity control, such as the Quantum Controller of Gravity (QCG) [1]. The form of the QCG originally proposed is spherical. Here, it is described a Gravitational Motor which uses a QCG with spherical cylindrical form. This Gravitational Motor can have very-high power, and it can be used in order to generate electrical energy at large scale or traction to move cars, ships, tankers, aircraft carrier, trains, etc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1002] **viXra:1608.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-17 06:40:59*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We further investigate the new project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9]
by generalizing non-abelian gauge theory to our setting. Given the results
in [3, 9], there is not much left to do and we shall deepen our understanding of some points left open in [1] regarding the nature and presence of
ghosts. Perturbative niteness of the theory follows ad-verbatim from the
analysis in [3, 9] and we shall not bother here about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a couple of new physical and
mathematical insights regarding the genesis of the structure of quantal
non-abelian gauge theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1001] **viXra:1608.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-16 09:29:12*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This is what you get when you Google "imaginary time" and stumble across a Christian website by a postdoctoral researcher studying quantum gravity and black hole thermodynamics. The site is called UNDIVIDED LOOKING – COMMENTS ON PHYSICS AND THEOLOGY, and the page I first found is at http://www.wall.org/~aron/blog/did-the-universe-begin-viii-the-no-boundary-proposal/. The website owner's comment policy advises readers "Do not simply copy and paste a large amount of text …" which almost made me decide not to comment. But I finally did. Even though I have copied and pasted parts inbetween parts written today, I think the choosing of the widely separated lines of pasted text makes this what he calls "an individualized response". Anyway, my comment seems to have been eaten by a black hole. Instead of letting half a day of work go to waste, I'll post my thoughts here.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1000] **viXra:1608.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-15 14:41:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[999] **viXra:1608.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-12 07:30:24*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We continue our investigation of the new project launched in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8] by generalizing Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of elec- trons and photons, to our setting. At ﬁrst, we deal with the respective two point functions, deﬁne the correct interaction theory as a series of connected Feynman diagrams and ﬁnally, we show that for a certain class of spacetime metrics, each diagram is ﬁnite and a modiﬁed perturbation series is analytic.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[998] **viXra:1608.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-06 11:05:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We do not reject the mainstream theory of the creation of the Solar System saying that its formation was due to the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud about 4.6 Gyr ago. Indeed, the Sun and the outer shells of planets appeared due to such processes. But applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that initially there was a modified black hole composed of neutron black holes that due to the inflows of the dark energy, via a supernova (there appeared other stars as well), transformed into the large molecular cloud and next into the Sun and outer shells of planets and dwarf planets. Moreover, we showed that the initial modified black hole created the planetary rings defined by the Titius-Bode Law (TBL) for the gravitational interactions - they transformed into the seeds of planets – this happened in the a few Gyr old Universe. The TBL for the gravitational interactions cannot be discredited due to the fact that it does not predict the Neptune orbit. The complete TBL for the nuclear strong interactions described within SST (SST shows that the core of baryons is a modified black hole in respect of the strong interactions), which is an analog to the TBL for the gravitational interactions, leads to an orbit that corresponds to the orbit of the planet Neptune. Both TBLs follow from the virtual processes near modified black holes of the same strength - it is because involved masses in gravitational TBL are about 61 powers of ten times higher than in nuclear-strong TBL. Deviations from predicted semi-major axes are from -5.6% for Mercury up to +5.3% for Neptune. According to gravitational TBL derived within SST, there are following planets or (dwarf planets): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, (Ceres), Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and (Pluto) (theory of prime numbers leads to 10 planets/dwarf-planets defined by TBL). Because of high probability of destruction of the Titius-Bode orbits during the evolution of the modified black holes, the Solar System is unique in the Universe. Here we calculated the semi-major axes of listed planets/dwarf-planets from the initial conditions (for Earth we obtain 0.971 AU).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[997] **viXra:1608.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-06 03:15:46*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the light of a recent novel deﬁnition of a relativistic quantum theory [1, 3, 4], we ask ourselves the question what it would mean to make the gravitational ﬁeld itself dynamical. This could lead to a couple of diﬀerent viewpoints upon quantum gravity which we shall explain carefully; this paper expands upon some ideas in [2] and again conﬁrms ones thought that we are still far removed from a (type one) theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[996] **viXra:1608.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-05 08:56:33*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the nature of space - time based on the holographic principle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[995] **viXra:1608.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 01:36:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This document reviews the Landau – Liftshifts reformulation of General relativity with a representation of the available mass of a graviton. From looking at a conservation law, using the Landau-Liftshifs formulation, we obtain conditions for initial mass, in the Pre Planckian regime of space-time. In doing so, we also indicate a metric tensor and metric pseudo tensor delineation of causal discontinuity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[994] **viXra:1608.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 01:48:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the two-stage explosions of the hydrogen-poor Type I superluminal supernovae (SLSNe-I). We calculated their quantized masses: 3.14, 6.28, 12.55 and 25.10 solar masses, maximum absolute magnitudes for the initial and main explosions and we solved the ejecta-velocity problem. The derived light curves are consistent with observational data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[993] **viXra:1608.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-03 07:08:07*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further deﬁne the interacting theory and study the behavior of modiﬁed particle propagators, leading to a ﬁnite theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[992] **viXra:1607.0559 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-31 04:56:55*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 27 Pages. (Variant: 31.07.2016)

„Edward Teller appears to have been the first who speculate that there may exist a logarithmic relation between the fine structure constant (α) and the parameter G∙mN^2/(h∙c)~10^(-39) of the form α~ln[G∙mN^2/(h∙c)] [equation 4.23] (in fact α^(-1)=ln(3.17 x 10^60) and the formula is too insensitive to be of very much use in predicting exact relations)“[Barrow&Tipler, 1986 ]. (mN stands for the neutron/nucleon rest mass).
In this BIDUM, I will try to demonstrate that Barrow and Tipler overlooked the possibility that Teller’s “speculation” may be much more inspired than the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (DLNH) and may the basis of a new class of informational (bio-info-digital [BIDUM]) toy-models of the universe (info-universe), a class that can offer important physical explanations and predictions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[991] **viXra:1607.0558 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-31 05:55:05*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** (BIDUM 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 pages) A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (BIDUM version 1.1) – a short summary of the essential equations (each briefly explained)

(BIDUM 1.1 Extract) (Variant: 31.07.2016) (10 pages) A Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (BIDUM version 1.1) – a short summary of the essential equations (each briefly explained)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[990] **viXra:1607.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-25 05:29:46*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 28 Pages. An extension of previous papers by this author.

There is a correction to be made, the last few articles describe branches/ strings as planck length/ c squared. They are more likely to be planck length in numeration. ( See previous articles by author).
In this paper, due to the large amount of literature to be processed, I have developed a few mathematical arrangements of my own.
They relate to conservation of information, the relationship between size of various unsymmetric matrices and the relationship of negative numbers in a concept called reflectional equivalence. Discussed also it the hypothesis (sic) of whether the branches ( loosely meaning strings) can be macroscopic in size. i.e varying from planck length to essentially the size of any known object

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[989] **viXra:1607.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-23 06:46:26*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A hypothesis reforms a super string theory.
Chapter6. No. 3: revolution in superstring theory.
[1]. Advanced "superstring theory"
[2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory.
[3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space.
[4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory.
[5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[988] **viXra:1607.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-21 01:08:44*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

What we are doing is to use a generalization of the Penrose Cyclic conformal cosmology in order to argue for ergodic mixing of cosmological “information”, from cycle to cycle. While there would be a causal discontinuity, as is by example explained, in terms of breaking down of individual “particles” from cycle to cycle, there would be (analogous to a seed setting of pseudo-randomization of Fortran) informational ‘bits’ transferred, as far as mixing of ‘information’ collected from cycle to cycle, from N number of contributing universes via modified CCC, so as to create a uniform value of H bar (Planck’s constant) from cycle to cycle. Moreover this would do away with the “baby universes” Darwinian hypothesis, set up by String theorists whom postulate that up to 10^1000 or so universes would be created, with only say 10^10 or so surviving(most dying off because of “improperly” set variance in the values of H bar ( Planck’s constant). I.e. the laws of physics would not be different from universe to universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[987] **viXra:1607.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-20 07:59:33*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

If the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole is expressed as Bekenstein’s area quantum 8pi multiplied by a power of 2, then exponents of 2 that are multiples of precisely 50 are found for particular black holes of well-defined mass, and for the Hubble sphere. Motivated by T-duality, the analysis is extended to particles. Exponents calculated for the particles of the Standard Model lie in symmetric arrangement about the number 125, which is the exponent found for the lightest tensor mesons. Exponents that are multiples or simple binary (improper) fractions of 25 are favoured.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[986] **viXra:1607.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-20 06:33:28*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 24

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of
elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model.
As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc.
In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface.
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is
coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles.
Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black hole nuclei..

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[985] **viXra:1607.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-18 11:32:20*

**Authors:** Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In quantum mechanics an uncertainty principle asserts that one cannot make certain of the position and velocity of an electron (or any particle) at the same time. That is, increasing the knowledge of particle decreases the knowledge of the velocity or momentum of an electron [1]. Furthermore, a particle can never be at rest, but it is subject to constant fluctuations even when no measurement is taken place, these fluctuations are assumed to have cause. According to new theory, God (independent of space-time) is assumed to be the cause of constant fluctuations in the end quantum state. The main objective of this paper is to derive an equation for abnormal phenomena (miracle) and arbitrament of human’s destiny called Certainty Theory. It has been assumed that not measuring of a particle’s position and momentum simultaneously with equal precision is due to the fact that the end quantum state of particle is imaginary and non-physical so the standard deviation , ħі/(2α^(D-4) ) , must be smaller than the certain value of product of position and momentum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[984] **viXra:1607.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-18 01:06:11*

**Authors:** Yevgeniy Kutanov

**Comments:** 8 pages in English and 8 pages in Russian

Proposed structures of photon, electron and positron are the result of logical development of the alternative to GR theory of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[983] **viXra:1607.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-16 23:47:25*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Beautiful Universe (BU) model is a universal cellular automata (CA) of rotating dielectric dipolar nodes exchanging angular momentum with neighboring nodes to make radiation, matter, and space itself. In this paper a simplified simulation of non-rotating nodes that nevertheless obey the momentum-exchange 'rules' of (BU) provide a qualitative picture of energy transport in the model and can be considered a preliminary proof of concept on which to build further work

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[982] **viXra:1607.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-10 14:36:38*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short note, first we will show a few ways to rewrite Einstein's field equation without basically changing it. Then we speculate a bit more broadly on how to change the equation to make it hold at the quantum scale. More precisely, we modify it for bodies with masses less than the Planck mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[981] **viXra:1607.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-09 10:43:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We start with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use the Padmanabhan inter relationship between an inflaton and a an early universe potential system. Then from there, we come up with a quadratic equation for a minimum radius, for producing a “massive graviton’ value. We then close with observations as to what this implies as to gravitational physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[980] **viXra:1607.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-07 05:01:32*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A Quantum Controller of Gravity is transformed into a Gravitational Spacecraft

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[979] **viXra:1607.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-07 05:56:16*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a long paper of this author [1], I explained that the ''spiritual''
interaction between living beings would require a gravitational theory on
an appropriate space. In this paper, we further develop this idea and
construct different types of idealized limits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[978] **viXra:1607.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-06 15:04:07*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper questions the assumption that the Schwarzschild radius actually represents a radius. It has recently been shown by Haug (2016) that the Schwarzschild radius for any object can simply be written as N2l_p, where N is the number of Planck masses into which we can ``hypothetically" pack an object of interest and l_p is the well known Planck length. The Schwarzschild radius seems to represent the length of the number of Planck mass objects we can ``hypothetically" pack a planet or star into and then we can place them in perfect alignment along a single strand (of single particles) in a straight line.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[977] **viXra:1607.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-05 13:59:19*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new type of (3+1) spacetime metric, that is non-local and based on the notion of quantum foam. We investigate it and show how quantum effects can be obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[976] **viXra:1607.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-03 22:57:05*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 58 Pages. The toplogical connection between Axes and strings

The last paper (see "More on logic being the fundamental components of string theory) gave further analysis of the important concept of information producing fields which can then be configured into strings.
Here we look at the topological connection between branches an centres (singularities) and some more information on branch structure and also some concepts of how angular momentum can produce calculations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[975] **viXra:1607.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-03 03:13:38*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This is a short note to show how big G can be derived from dimensional analysis by assuming that the Planck length is much more fundamental than Newton's gravitational constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[974] **viXra:1607.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-02 01:41:39*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Using the idea of a quantum ‘number’ N, which is due to , with the walls nixing the space-time import of interior dynamics of a pre Plackian state, using energy
And the U ~ potential. Energy expression given by Padmanabhan for an inflaton state when the scale factor , we obtain the term, N, for quantum exited state, prior to the exiting of the Pre Planck state, to inflationary physics. From there we bridge this creation of N, in Pre Planckian space-time, to Semi classical and brane theory versions of entropy, and also its linkage to both graviton and nonstandard beyond the standard model physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[973] **viXra:1607.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-01 11:58:51*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 79 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016.

In the Einstein field equations the geometry or the curvature of space-time defined as depended
on the distribution of mass and energy principally resides on the left-hand side is set identical to a nongeometrical tensorial representation of matter on the right-hand side. In one or another form, general relativity accords a direct geometrical significance only to the gravitational field while the other physical fields are not of spacetime, they reside only in spacetime. Less well known, though of comparable importance is Einstein's dissatisfaction with the fundamental asymmetry between gravitational and non-gravitational fields and his contributions to develop a completely relativistic geometrical field theory of all fundamental interactions, a unified field theory. Of special note in this context and equally significant is Einstein’s demand to replace the symmetrical tensor field
by a non-symmetrical one and to drop the condition gik = gki for the field components. Historically, many other attempts were made too, to extend the general theory of relativity's geometrization of gravitation to non-gravitational interactions, in particular, to electromagnetism. Still, progress has
been very slow. It is the purpose of this publication to provide a unified field theory in which the gravitational field, the electromagnetic field and other fields are only different components or manifestations of the same unified field by mathematizing the relationship between cause and effect under conditions of general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[972] **viXra:1607.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-01 05:44:31*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The General Intelligent Design (GID) Model interpretation of the General Grand Unification (GGU) Model verifies the rationality of the Kaku statement that we live in a universe "governed by rules that were created, shaped by a universal intelligence."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[971] **viXra:1606.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-29 00:55:17*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Mistake in initial title corrected

Our question delves into the nature of early universe vacuum fields, and if this initial vacuum field corresponds to a configuration of early universe space-time at the start of inflation.. The answer as to this came out due to wanting to know if a cosmological constant, as given in the Einstein field equations is commensurate with the by product of squeezed states, We compare our answer, with the influx of energy as given by a modified Heinsenberg Uncertainty principle, at the start of the inflationary era. The so called influx of energy is tied into the squeezed state phenomena as written up in the onset of this article. The impetus to writing this document came from Dr. Karim, in an e mail which the author relates to, in the introduction. Our claim is that the smallness of gtt << 1 is what is driving the existence of the Squeezed states

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[970] **viXra:1606.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 00:30:11*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Hypothetical fundamental building blocks of the universes.

After a basic introduction to Anti - information theory in the last paper (See Anti- info, other universes and the connection between logic and matter) I now go into some mathematical details of how the Axes are constituted. This involves the branches being signal receivers, decoders and transmitters, and, also involves the hypothesis that strings are actually composed of singularities connected by the constituent branches.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[969] **viXra:1606.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-26 14:24:23*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

First, referring to an article by K. Freeze on “Natural Inflation”, we review e folds data, and also the role of a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle as to what to expect from initial conditions as to satisfying the onset of inflation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[968] **viXra:1606.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-25 19:08:24*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We look at, starting with Shankar’s treatment of the partition function, inserting in the data of the modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to give a role of the inflaton in the formation of a partition of the universe. The end result will be, even with the existence of a multiverse, i.e. simultaneous universes, uniform physical laws throughout the Multiple universes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[967] **viXra:1606.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-23 18:15:29*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the parallel nature of the universe based on the holographic principle

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[966] **viXra:1606.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-20 05:02:29*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 25 Pages. May be an important basic idea.

The basic building blocks of the universe/multi - verses has been a matter of debate for millennia. It seems progress has been made recently in string theory. This paper is certainly not meant to challenge string theory, but rather, provide a mechanism as to how strings are formed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[965] **viXra:1606.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 13:03:11*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Hadron superstring theory.(5)
The wave pattern is a string of the super string theory.
The mass is zero.
It vibrates at velocity of light.
It is a resident of the four-dimensional space.
It has supersymmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[964] **viXra:1606.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 12:03:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[963] **viXra:1606.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-18 10:55:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[962] **viXra:1606.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-17 09:50:54*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, the wave function $\Psi$ with spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$ can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors. Using the Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy vanish in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. The mixed frequency solutions of the QE are not affected by the modified Einstein equation. GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to the energy momentum tensor as the force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter or dark photons, if they exist.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[961] **viXra:1606.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-16 23:47:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so, we look at, using Crowell’s book, a Berry phase, which in our case is proportional to the area integration of 1 over the square of variation of change in energy. Our variation of the change in energy in this case is due to the Pre Planckian space-time HUP (Heisenberg uncertainty principle). The change in the energy, times change in time, is in this case, is in minimization of the HUP, equal to Planck’s constant divided by the square of the minimum scale factor, times 1 over the initial inflaton value. Our result as derived, gives substance to the supposition that a change in pre Planckian space-time is, indeed a phase transition, in line with work the author has done earlier. And does it in line with the inflaton, as given by Padmanabhan.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[960] **viXra:1606.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-15 22:11:14*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse and perhaps larger spheres. This however does mean that everything is made of one sphere. Rather it is more likely that it is a hidden force combination that holds certain combinations of spheres together. One of these shapes maybe be a toroid. Perhaps similar to proposed radiationless structure as shown by Dr Miroshnichenko in “New theory to lead to radiationless revolution” First we review the Hubble Constant values. Dr. Miroshnichenko shows that there may be radiationless structures that are made of radiating materials, that are toroid shape. We will review the values of the Hubble constant from WMAP, Planck Mission, Hubble Telescope, other measurements and compares it to Sphere Theory Hubble Constant. This paper shows that our universe may be a combination of spheres in a toroid shape. Each sphere would be the size of the Hubble Sphere, as calculated by Sphere Theory. The toroid shape as acknowledged by other Physcists. The Toroid is a simple calculation that shows that a toroid may explain the size of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[959] **viXra:1606.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 21:25:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Using work by Fishbach and Talmadge, we use 5th force arguments and the common Virial theorem, plus a modified Wheeler De Witt wave function to set up an energy fluctuation equation. From there, we also use a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to isolate the role of an inflaton in Pre Planckian space – rime. Its consequences are remarked upon with the range of a purported 5th force and scaled as between 10^-1 to 10^-3.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[958] **viXra:1606.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 14:12:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of the two intervals of the rotation braking and two plateaus in the curve describing rotation velocity of the main-sequence normal stars as a function of the spectral classes. We did it involving the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with the electron and proton vortices in stars. Calculated here the advection velocity of the proton vortex is about 414 km/s, of the electron vortex is about 10 km/s whereas the mean value is about 212 km/s. The threshold rotational velocities follow from the fact that in hottest stars, near equator, there dominate the light ions, next in colder stars there dominate the neutral light atoms, and next in coldest stars there are created heavier neutral atoms so gravity transfers the angular momentum to the cores of stars. We showed as well that the DM structures are perfectly elastic so it is very difficult to detect them. We answered following question: How should we plan an experiment to detect dark matter?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[957] **viXra:1606.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-12 03:11:42*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 35 pages

Three of the four known forces in physics are unified into one equation with a clear explanation for the different properties of each force. The strong, electromagnetic and gravitational forces are governed by the same force equation, yet they have different characteristics of wave amplitude that modify a particle’s wave and motion. Although it is intentionally not unified into the general equation for force, an explanation is provided for the weak force. All calculations with the newly proposed Force Equation match experimental results and can derive Newton’s laws for gravity and Coulomb’s law for electromagnetism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[956] **viXra:1606.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-11 03:11:52*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We examine through the lens of dynamical systems a ‘one dimensional’ time mapping of emergent VEV from Pre Planckian space time conditions. We use Licata’s and Fiscaletti’s Bolmian Quanuum mechanics to obtain an energy E as minus the time derivative of a phase transition, as given by Bohmian Q.M. for curved space time, in the Pre Planckian state, where we then use a modified version of the HUP , to then isolate the inflaton. The emergence of the inflaton scalar field, in time evolution is tied into physics of the first order phase transition to QM, and the regular HUP, used by Heisenberg. I.e. a first order generation of initial entropy via Bohmian QM applied in Pre Planckian space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[955] **viXra:1606.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-10 12:42:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), which describes the phase transitions of the inflation/Higgs field, we show that a light, neutral boson with a mass of 18.4 MeV that consists of four entangled parts (theory of neutrinos described within SST shows that there is valid the four-object symmetry), is the binder/precursor of the second Higgs boson with a mass of 742 GeV or/and 750 GeV. The ATOMKI group has adequate equipment to detect the light, neutral boson with a mass of about 18.4 MeV whereas the LHC experiments can show which one of the two possible mass states of the second composite Higgs boson dominates. The four-object symmetry and the atom-like structure of baryons lead to the resonant tetraneutron state and to the internal structure of the neutron stars/black-holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[954] **viXra:1606.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 16:13:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The ATOMKI group discovered the X-vector-boson with a mass of 16.70(85) MeV in the decays of highly excited nuclei. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of such light, neutral boson. We show that the sum of the nuclear weak mass of a pair of Einstein-spacetime condensates produced by nucleons and the mass of electron-positron pair is 16.904 MeV (these two pairs can interact due to the confinement or quantum entanglement described within SST) - this value is consistent with ATOMKI data. We should modify the Standard Model by incorporating the SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[953] **viXra:1606.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 13:21:34*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The charges and forces of matter are characterized as "memories" of a former primordial state of energetic symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[952] **viXra:1606.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 19:54:10*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis leads a standard model including the gravity.
(unified field theory)
(A string theory of the elementary particle size.)
The standard model (unified field theory) of the elementary particle is considered to be the best terminus ad quem of the theoretical physics now.
However, it is not an ultimate theory.
(1) Gravitational action is not included in this model.
Gravity have a deep connection with structure of time, the space. Gravity must be included in an ultimate theory.
(2) I cannot extrapolate a theory to a micro-limit as far as I use the prescription of filing.
When I am going to raise the resolution of a monitor projecting a physical phenomenon endlessly, a theory fails somewhere.
(3) A supposition without some grounds is included in a standard model.
It is said that an electron and the electric charge of the quark make the close integer ratio. It is totally unknown why it becomes the integer ratio.
(4) The superstring theory hides the possibility that I can solve all these three problems. However, the conclusive evidence that a theory is fair is not yet obtained, and the inspection by the experiment is considered to be impossibility.
The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
The pulsation principle includes all of concepts of the standard theory.
I cancel all of above problems.
(1) I discovered four-dimensional space.
I discovered dark energy and dark matter of mystery in the 4-dimensional space.
(2)I express mean density of the dark energy as the horizon of energy zero and describe the horizon as unification ground to include all places.
The standard model describes quark ground, lepton ground, Higgs place, a gauge field separately.
I express it at one place.
(3)The dark energy is thin energy to meet vacuum space of the space.
The energy triggers repulsion each other and lets you maintain energy density uniformly.
It is equivalent with the concept of the standard model saying that it is the aggregate of a minute spring endlessly.
(4)I catch a wave of the dark energy as a material wave described by Schrodinger equation and describe nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism as action of the material wave. I explain the gravity that a standard model was not able to include naturally and include it.
I describe differences between gravity and vast po4)
(5)The Cal czar Kleine theory standardized gravity and electromagnetic willpower mathematically.
Four dimensions of unified field theory of Einstein needs space.
However, it was not found.
The pulsation principle discovers the four-dimensional space and aims at the unified field theory of Einstein.
(6)"The prescription of filing" is unnecessary on the pulsation principle.
When "the infinity" calculates an equation of the standard theory, it appears by all means.
"The prescription of filing" replaces infinite numerical value with the mass of the particle to handle infinity.
It is said that it is a result to treat an elementary particle as a point without the size.
(7)"The microdomain theory of Dr. Yukawa" is one case.
Means to keep size in an elementary particle, and to evade infinity.
It is a longtime problem.
(8)The elementary particle pulsation principle solves the problem.
(9)The pulsating elementary particle has size intermittently.
The elementary particle has mass in "a particle trip and a minus number particle trip".
All of mass of the elementary particle converts it into energy (light). "A wave trip."
The elementary particle becomes the point that does not have size in the three-dimensional space.
It evades infinite contradiction.
(10)The pulsating elementary particle continues emitting a material wave as a pulsatile ripple in the neighborhood.
The standard theory calculates "modulus" squared of the material wave.
It is the existence probability of the particle.
It calculates only equilateral energy.
The numerical value becomes infinite.
The elementary particle pulsation principle,
In pulsation of 1 cycle, the total of the energy of the positive and negative becomes zero.
The energy grand total includes a symmetry to become zero.
Therefore infinity does not occur and does not need prescription of filing.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[951] **viXra:1606.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 13:45:33*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A spin and elementary particle pulsation principle.
* The particle process is equal with a half-integer spin.
The minus number particle process is equal with a half-integer spin.
The wave process is equal with an integer spin.
* An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
Pulsatile particle trip and a half-integer spin 1/2 are equal to the fermion such as an electron, a proton, a neutron, a positron, the quark.
The mass is m>0.
* Wave trip and spin 2/2 are the same as BOSE particle.
The mass is m=0.
The speed is light C.
* Difference in pulsatile trip is a difference of the spins (an integer and half-integer).
Both are differences of the timings.
The action is a large difference.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[950] **viXra:1606.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-03 22:14:13*

**Authors:** Joseph Forrington

**Comments:** 90 pages

Generally speaking, Einstein’s gravity is a distortion of space/time geometry, expressed in the spatial aspect. Distortions in time, which are apparent different rates of time in different reference frames, manifest apparent curvature of motion in space. In Relativity, gravity disappears in a free fall in open space except for “residual” tidal forces as objects converge on a common gravitational center, i.e., the center of a mass, or an unbalanced force is applied to the mass, accelerating it. This theory postulates that Einstein stopped short and that Relativity describes the geometric effects of gravity, and not gravity itself, which is an actual force in time.
According to this theory, the tidal force convergence is caused by a focusing of the update in time into a time dilation vortex, and the shift of the update in time through the time dilation gradient creates the drag of gravity.
When Advanced LIGO1 detected gravity waves on Sept. 14, 2015, it did so detecting distortions in the time aspect, fluctuations in the rate of time, which this theory is built upon. This theory explains how that distortion is responsible for the gravitational force in time.
LIGO’s detection, if verified, proves effects in time generate force on space. Otherwise they could not distort space to produce the detected signal. The effects in time force space to change, distorting it. In the case of LIGO, this was a change in the shape of the antenna, a shortening of the length of a meter by accelerated time. The shortening of a meter creates stress in space, which is cohesive and resistant to change. Both space and time possess inertia.
In this paper, first a Gravitational Equivalency Constant for the force in time relative to the force in Newtons is mathematically derived.
This is used to mathematically derive the mass/energy “Dark Matter” content of the Andromeda galaxy, and again in the Elementary Particles section to derive the formation of quanta and their entanglement in space/time that forms complex particles, mathematically explaining why the masses of protons and neutrons are so much larger than the sum of the masses of their constituent particles, and how gravity is responsible for the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces.
In Relativity, time dilation creates an increase in space to maintain the speed of light, C, as C is constant in any inertial reference frame. This increase in space is usually accounted for by the addition of meters. This is not correct. As C is a constant at so many m/s, the number of meters must remain the same between any two frames of reference when the rate of time increases or decreases between those frames, 299 m/s is not the same as 310 m/s. There must always be the same number of meters. This means it is the length of the meter that changes. If a meter = 1 in your inertial frame, a meter in a faster time frame = <1 standard meter. This is a relative meter.
Using this, the Red Shift of Gn-z11, the farthest known galaxy with the highest red shift, is determined, placing it at 13.4 Gly in actual and “lookback” time, contradicting theories of an accelerating expansion of the universe. It explains why the cosmic red shift is not due to cosmic expansion, but relativistic effects.
The Andromeda dark matter and red shift derivations eliminate the need for either dark matter or dark energy.
We see time dilation as a result of mass, but when we look at the processes in time, we see that mass is the result of time dilation. Space/time is not being stretched and thinned by mass. Space/time is not isotropic to begin with, especially in the time aspect. This theory demonstrates that the fluctuations in rates of time create gravity waves that result in the formation of mass in slow time rate areas and, unlike Relativity, the math works on the galactic scale, as in the Andromeda Dark Matter derivation.
This paper is based on the interactions of the true, temporal, direction of time all observers experience in their own inertial reference frames and the relativistic apparent lateral shift of the update of time down-gradient through time dilation fields in external frames; two forward directions of time.
Einstein’s geometric curvature in the future evolution of space/time is due to the effects in time this theory explains: reference frames shift forward in space/time in the direction of the lateral update.
On the quantum level, temporal time and space curve sharply in the spins of the quanta as temporal time and space follow the lateral shift into a spin, a space/time vortex. Because space is also drawn into the spin, and is limited by the restrictions of Planck units, the quanta can be quantized at the Planck level in space, though not in time, which is dimensionless.
This theory does not try to alter the mathematics describing gravity and other effects used in Relativity that work so well on the scale of the solar system, but it explains gravity in different terms that give us gravity waves that can be applied to larger systems, such as galaxies and galactic clusters, where time dilation fields are irregular in shape and where Relativity fails to accurately describe gravity, resulting in theories of dark matter.
This is a grand unification theory. The reader will find much correlation between quantum and cosmic events, tying the two scales together.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[949] **viXra:1605.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-29 18:41:02*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

What happens deeper than quantum mechanics? Perhaps deeper quantum mechanics with the same laws. The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances with processes that are like the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom could give the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation.
An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung, Cherenkov type radiation, and an orbital type model at a deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a rough idea for the electron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[948] **viXra:1605.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 03:24:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The measured prompt spectra in the RENO experiment show an excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. This observation suggests that we should modify the current reactor neutrino model. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV. We also explain why in the average nuclear fission there is released about 4.5% of energy as the radiation of neutrinos. The calculated within SST excess of the ~ 5 MeV events should constitute about 2.6% of the total observed reactor neutrinos. This result is close to the RENO result ~ 3%.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[947] **viXra:1605.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 17:43:45*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A string theory of the elementary particle size. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[946] **viXra:1605.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 02:10:46*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time and a linkage between quantum bits of information along the lines of what was done by Yan – Gang Miao, Ying- Jie Zhao , and compare it with quantum computing and cosmology which was brought up by Ganbini, Porto and Pullin. Namely the purported number of quantum computing operations. If the two are equivalent, there is an implied relationship to determine an optimal radial distance. Afterwards, we use that in conjunction with a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to come up with some fundamental cosmological phenomenology. In particular a first ever guess as to the value of an initial inflaton.
Key words, Quantum Computing , Cosmological constant, Modified HUP, inflaton

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[945] **viXra:1605.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 03:13:30*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I correct a contribution in front, "a figure of gravity and the electromagnetic force".
This is a right figure.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[944] **viXra:1605.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 13:39:47*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The author announced the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis in the Physical Society of Japan of 1980.
To date, I study an elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
This page is the gravity in the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis and an article about the electromagnetic force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[943] **viXra:1605.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 06:17:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Starting off with the Usual Energy Density for Electro-Magnetic fields, we adopt Padmanbhan’s Gravo – Electric and Gravo Magnetic field formulation to come up with an initial frequency, at the start of the universe, and then using work done by the author, take the inverse of this frequency as a way to initiate a practical time step, which will then be related to earlier work the Author did. The miminum time step iteratively relates to a “cosmological constant” initial value, and a range of initial GW frequencies which for a scale factor which would correspond to GW of about 10^36 Hertz, red shifted to 10^4 Hertz in the modern era. If the scale factor were of the order of 10^-55, the GW waves initially would be as high as 10^42 Hertz which would be red shifted to 10^10 Hertz, for relic GW. All this assumes that the graviton rest mass remains invariant about 10^-62 grams in the aftermath of the creation of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[942] **viXra:1605.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 12:59:01*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new type of device for controlling gravity is here proposed. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy at subatomic length scale (10-20m). From the technical point of view this device is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for controlling gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[941] **viXra:1605.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 15:14:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Anderson et al. have found that experimental values for gravitational constant, G, are oscillatory with a period of P = 5.899 +- 0.062 yr and an amplitude of A = (0.001619 +- 0.000103) F, where F is a factor that is the inverse of the 11 powers of ten expressed in SI Base Units. The period P correlates with the 5.9 year periodic signal in length of day (LOD). Previously it was assumed that changes in LOD follow from fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. But the origin of the G/LOD correlation is still not explained. Next, Schlamminger et al. have found that corrections to the G data reported by Anderson et al. significantly weaken the G/LOD correlation. But in Table III there appears the fit sinusoidal function for G with period fixed at 5.93 year. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the periodic changes in LOD and the illusory changes in G and the origin of the experimental amplitude of G that is illusory as well. The calculated period of LOD and illusory period of G are both 5.941 yr whereas illusory amplitude of G is 0.00183 F. Here, the 5.941 year periodic signal in LOD we interpret as due to advection of the virtual cloud, composed of the virtual electron-positron pairs produced by Earth, caused by its interactions with the dark-matter (DM) structures that overlap with the Earth orbit. Such advection follows from the confinement and entanglement of virtual electrons and positrons and DM structures. The advection causes periodic increase in mass of Earth and measuring apparatus. The amplitude of the changes in mass of Earth follows directly from masses of nucleons (we must take into account the nuclear binding energy) and electrons. The changes in mass lead to the illusion of periodic changes in G. The SST results are consistent with experimental data. Moreover, SST shows that the real changes in G can be infinitesimal only.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[940] **viXra:1605.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-19 23:41:15*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modified uncertainty principle Heisenberg defines a minimum scale of the space length.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[939] **viXra:1605.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 10:48:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. quantum gravity, classical gravity and HUP together.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. The strain value of h~10^-25 to 10^-27 are obtained. . Such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology. We conclude with statements as to comparing our basic results with those of Yan-Gang Miao, Ying-Jie Zhao as to their generalized HUP which gives support to the suppositions given in our comparison of the character of gravitons which are initially at the start of inflation versus those of our present era, as measured by the Tokamak

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[938] **viXra:1605.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 12:28:28*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ESTM-theory and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ESTM-theory. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ESTM-theory and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ESTM-theory. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[937] **viXra:1605.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 09:45:05*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This holographic wave function gives a simple interpretation of the space-time geometry of Minkowski on the basis of the rotation group in the complex plane.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[936] **viXra:1605.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 19:50:22*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Every elementary particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts particle or wave to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects.
In this paper, we show that X-particles of dark energy can create the wave appearance of a quantum-scale particle, and argue that the particle is indeed a particle. Our theory is deterministic and local, and is based on classical mechanics. Double-slit experiment and quantum entanglement are explained by the X-particle interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[935] **viXra:1605.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-12 20:59:21*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As an origin of dark energy, an X-particle with repulsive force proportional to energy
density has been proposed [1]. In this paper, we will develop the X-particle theory
further, and postulate how dark energy could form a ubiquitous gravitational field and
inertial reference of frames, and why they might be the reason for the uncertainty
principle. Like photon, an X-particle has only relativistic mass, and acts like a particle
that has a definite position and momentum. It creates spaces between them by forces of
gravitational attraction and repulsion. However, unlike photon that travels in space, an
X-particle only needs to pass signals to its neighboring particles to form the ubiquitous
gravitational field. This model could explain how gravitational signals propagate at
the speed of light, how their values are stored in X-particles, and why the uncertainty
principle could arise from this.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[934] **viXra:1605.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 14:30:22*

**Authors:** J. P. Lestone

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 2 figures, presented at the APS April Meeting Salt Lake City 2016

Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for several QED processes including electrostatics, Compton scattering, and the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. By invoking a far-field L=0 photon-particle interaction cross section of piƛ2, with the inclusion of near-field effects, the model calculated elementary charge is q=1.602177x10^-19 C with a corresponding calculated inverse fine structure constant of alpha^-1=137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[933] **viXra:1605.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 22:52:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In a 2013 paper, Freeman Dyson presented thought experiments challenging the detectability of gravitons via LIGO interferometry and via the Gertsheshtein effect. Dyson assumed a distance of several light years would be required for detection of the interaction between gravitational waves (GWs) and tenuous B fields and photons, making gravitons experimentally undectable. In this paper, we present contrary theoretical evidence for detectability of near-field interaction of gravitons, photons, and a magnetic field. Our first example of 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working is due to a GW generated by a tokamak with a interaction of GW, B field, and photons, in a volume on the order of a few cubic meters. The 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working leads to gravitons interacting with a strong uniform magnetic field, resulting in photons which are detected by appropriate instrumentation. In addition, we will also comment upon another issue, that of relic GW, as may be generated by a new uncertainty principle as elucidated by the author. And how that effects relic considerations as to inflaton physics. I.e. the frequency range of the early universe GW (gravitons?) and those of gravitons (GW) produced by the Tokamak may be one and the same i.e. very pronounced overlap. And we explain why. Key words: Gertenshtein effect, LIGO, Octonionic, Pre Octonionic, Modified HUP( Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[932] **viXra:1605.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 04:06:15*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we study the nature of space - time based on the geometry of the holographic surface .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[931] **viXra:1605.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 05:01:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[930] **viXra:1605.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-06 20:10:49*

**Authors:** Adel Sadeq

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The simulation programs links are in color at the end of each section.

In This essay I shall derive the laws of nature from a simple mathematical system from a postulate that reality is indeed a mathematical structure. The system can be simulated by a computer program to generate many results that agree with Quantum mechanics. Also I will show that the system can be put in regular more familiar mathematical formalism. The postulate lead to assume particles are made of random lines were one end originates in a small region representing the particle and it extends to all other points in space and some ending on other particles. The points are really nothing but random numbers, hence reality is nothing but some relation between random numbers. Moreover, the lines are responsible for the interaction by a process of crossing or not crossing or meeting.The start point and the end point of these lines define space and the length of the line is interpreted as energy, time is just a change of state. The system unifies space, time, matter, energy and interaction, all in one coherent picture, so particles and the laws of nature governing them appear naturally. The simulations generate some basic Quantum Mechanics results and the 1/r law as in quantum field Theory. There are many other results such as the hydrogen 1s level where the universal constants like c, h, e and their relation that lead to Fine Structure constant automatically fall out of the simulation. Two such simulations are carried out; one is Bohr like model and the other Schrodinger like equations solution and show the equivalency. Also, the mass of the electron appear naturally using a simulation which is an extension of the Bohr model which in turn leads to the predicting the size of the proton. The system automatically displays the non-local behavior and explains the EPR in simple terms and shows the origin of spin. Some interesting formulas connecting proton to electron mass ratio, FSC and electron g-factor are produced. While it is shown that coulomb potential is produced by line crossing, Gravity appears when lines meet at a region of Planck's length(gravity needs more investigation).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[929] **viXra:1605.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 02:36:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation due to the time of recombination. The temperature variations on very large angular scales observed by WMAP and Planck are both larger than expected (there appears the CMB axis of evil) and, contrary to smaller-scale fluctuations, aligned with each other. The initial inflation in the big-bang model suggests that both deviations cannot be realized by Nature. The CMB axis of evil, if it exists, leads to the distinguished frame of reference in the Universe and is a sign of new cosmological phenomena. There are many ideas to explain the deviations in CMB. If we neglect the trivial explanation that the applied statistics is incomplete then there are two important ideas: that CMB is a local variation of an infinite universe or some characteristic features of finite/”small” universe. It was shown in 2003 (A. de Oliveira-Costa, M. Tegmark, M. Zaldarriaga, A. Hamilton) that “the simplest small universe model where the universe has toroidal topology with one small dimension of order half the horizon scale, in the direction towards Virgo, could explain three independent anomalies involving the quadrupole and octopole but the applied S-statistic and the circle test on the WMAP data show that we should rule out this model”. Here we present a solution that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Due to the phase transitions of inflation field (i.e. of the Higgs field), the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) was separated in time from the inflation (the big bang). The dark matter had initially toroidal topology with internal helicity and inside such 3-dimensional torus with central condensate there were two very thin (in cosmic scale) baryonic loops (the loops had left-handed internal helicity and antiparallel unitary spins). It leads to the CMB axis of evil. We solved a few other cosmological problems as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[928] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 20:26:21*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[927] **viXra:1604.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 18:56:09*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This is a long summary of the full BIDUM version 1.1

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[926] **viXra:1604.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 23:04:24*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I propose a statistical mechanical model for black holes with the partition function sum taken over punctures of a spin network on a two-surface as given by Loop Quantum Gravity. Searching a unified quantum structure for spacetime and matter, I apply this scenario to matter particles using a composite model for quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[925] **viXra:1604.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 08:55:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Now , consider the relationship between the space-time geometry and its statistical description.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[924] **viXra:1604.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 16:19:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. It will be given a home in the next 2 weeks, ie, a journal

We use the work of de Vega, Sanchez, and Comes (1997), to approximate the ‘particle density’ of a ‘graviton gas’ This ‘particle density’ derivation is compared with Dolgov’s (1997) expression of the Vacuum energy in terms of a phase transition. The idea is to have a quartic potential , and then to utilize the Bogomol’nyi inequality to refine what the phase transition states. We utilize Ng, Infinite quantum information procedures to link our work with initial entropy and other issues and close with a variation in the HUP: in the start of the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[923] **viXra:1604.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 02:56:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to Physical Review D

Modifications of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra $ [ { \bf x}^i, {\bf p}^j ] = i \hbar g^{ij} ( {\bf p } ) $ are proposed where the classical limit $g_{ij} ( p ) $ corresponds to a metric in (curved) momentum spaces. In the simplest scenario, the $ 2D$ de Sitter metric of constant curvature in momentum space furnishes
a hierarchy of modified uncertainty relations leading to a minimum value for the position uncertainty $ \Delta x $. The first uncertainty relation of this hierarchy has the same functional form as the $stringy$ modified uncertainty relation with a Planck scale minimum value for $ \Delta x = L_P $ at $ \Delta p = p_{Planck} $.
We proceed with a discussion of the most general curved phase space scenario (cotangent bundle of spacetime) and provide the noncommuting phase space coordinates algebra in terms of the symmetric $ g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } $ and nonsymmetric $ g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $ metric components of a Hermitian complex metric
$ g_{ \mu \nu} = g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } + i g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $, such $ g_{ \mu \nu} = (g_{ \nu \mu})^*$. Yang's noncommuting phase-space coordinates algebra, combined with the Schrodinger-Robertson inequalities involving angular momentum eigenstates, reveals how a quantized area operator in units of $ L_P^2$ emerges like it occurs in Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). Some final comments are made about Fedosov deformation quantization, Noncommutative and Nonassociative gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[922] **viXra:1604.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-16 02:11:15*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[921] **viXra:1604.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 10:48:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons and structure of bare electrons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.841 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[920] **viXra:1604.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 07:08:08*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article presents a methodology to express the Physical Reality of our cosmos, its content and its evolution, as the outcome of a deductive axiomatic process starting from nihil and taking into consideration a limited set of presuppositions, a single creation event and 6 simple base laws.
The recurrent application of these laws on the subsequent states of the cosmos must lead to a version with a content and a behavior which is, at least at detailed level and in qualitative terms, reconcilable with any observation or confirmed law of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[919] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 16:55:20*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I will show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is exactly the same mathematically as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole, that is to say at the Planck scale. There are, therefore, good reasons to expect that they are ultimately the same force. Still, the gravitational force and the electrostatic force clearly look different when we move away from the density of a Planck mass. To claim that static electricity is not ruled by the same fundamental force as gravity could be similar to claiming that kinetic energy not is related to pure energy simply because a moving mass appears to be so different from moving photons (even mathematically).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[918] **viXra:1604.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 08:52:31*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we are rewriting the gravitational coupling constant in a slightly different form than has been shown before (without changing its value). This makes it simpler to understand what is meant and what is not meant by a “dimensionless gravitational coupling constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[917] **viXra:1604.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 16:03:51*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 10 references

Non-linear Klein-Gordon-Yukawa equations, jointly with time-energy uncertainty relations, are used as a means to estimate the extinction time of a black hole. In a first step we produce the expression originally obtained by Hawking. In a second step we found a massive boson mediating the black hole decay. This boson can also be associated to the size of a vanishingly interacting string. Finally a modification is done in the treatment performed in the first step, going in the direction of Page’s results for the black hole decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[916] **viXra:1604.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 07:29:51*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

As is well known, the standard Kolmogorov deﬁnition of probability may not be adequate for describing the physical world. In this work, we weaken the Kolmogorovian axioms and depart slightly from its measure theoretical context enabling one to describe systems with an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. The resulting framework is more broad and physical than Kolmogorov’s and constitutes the basis for the understanding of Quantum Theory as envisioned by this author.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[915] **viXra:1604.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 16:17:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We use a quantum tunnelling equation as given by V. Balck in the proceedings “Relativity and Gravitation, 100 years after Einstein in Prague” to delineate a relationship between spatial dimensions, and energy. Afterwards, we then scale the energy as related to formation of primordial black holes, in the onset of the big bang, and how they decay, to evaluate graviton production, and by extension graviton ‘particle’ induced entropy. The first section affirms that in principle we may have far fewer dimensions than was deemed necessary in string theory. In doing so, we compare the results with earlier work done where we used an argument by Haggard and Rovelli as far as the introduction of quantum effects, in the early universe. Note that Haggard and Rovelli delineated an outer radius as to the range of quantum effects, which extends past the Schwartzshield radius This is defined as 7/3 times the mass of the initial cosmological system. We also have a range of perturbative effects as delineated by Turok’s article which gives a range of values

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[914] **viXra:1604.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 15:57:25*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 52 Pages. More on BIDUM 1.1 here: https://univermed-cdgm.academia.edu/AndreiLucianDragoi

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system [3,4]; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [5]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [6,7]. In this BIDUM version 1.1[5,6,7][8]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE
(Theory of Everything), together with the concept of biological information (BI) in a unified concept of biophysical information (BPI) [9].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[913] **viXra:1604.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 18:35:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[912] **viXra:1604.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:12:45*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 55 equations, 6 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with gravity-like, non-polynomial interactions characterized by a dimensional coupling constant. This treatment would give a clear perspective regarding the viability of applying the divergence-free approach to quantum gravity. Issues regarding the masslessness of the effective graviton, while the virtual counterpart is massive, as well as, regarding the invariance of the basic Lagrangian, are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[911] **viXra:1604.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 12:14:19*

**Authors:** Jonathan Crabb

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We propose a new theory of subatomic particles that replaces the existing theory of "quarks" and "string theory". Instead, we consider a new approach: what if the atoms were actually made of light?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[910] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 17:26:10*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new concept of the vacuum describes the operation of the EM drive, the first warp drive that has been demonstrated by NASA and other researchers to produce thrust based on microwaves resonating in a tapered cavity. A new design for improving thrust in the cavity using stimulated emission of microwaves, such as in a MASER, is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[915] **viXra:1609.0313 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 14:38:18*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Change to the title with Has changed to Have

Andrew Walcott Beckwith
Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China
rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu
Abstract.
We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion.
Key words: Infinite quantum statistics, Quantum gas, semi classical approximation, nonsingular cosmology

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[914] **viXra:1609.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 04:52:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[913] **viXra:1609.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-19 16:05:54*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[912] **viXra:1609.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-15 10:20:46*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G:
G=(παq²/me²ε0)*exp(-(1/√2)*((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408E-11 m³/(kg s²)
Being α the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, me the mass of the electron, ε0 the permittivity of the free space and π the relation between a circumference and its diameter.
As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper.
To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[911] **viXra:1609.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-14 23:19:12*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G:
G=(παq²/me²ε0)⁎exp(-(1/√2)⁎((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408E-11 m³/(kg s²)
Being α the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, me the mass of the electron, ε0 the permittivity of the free space and π the relation between a circumference and its diameter.
As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper.
To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[910] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 00:18:46*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Mechanism for Possible Electronic Creation of the Universe and its Infinity of Time. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3837858.v4 Retrieved: 05 03, Sep 21, 2016 (GMT)

True to the nonlinear nature of time (it's arranged in Einstein's warps and curves), it's also correct that gravity is a product of electromagnetism – in the form of electronic pulses of energy from computers connected to sources of electrical power, and manifesting the pulses as virtual gravitons (the quanta of gravity). This provides a possible, electronic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels. Please read the following, remembering that in a TV program it was reported that "the physicist and writer Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics" (as well as, this author thinks, the electronic energy pulses known as virtual particles) "that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing." [Phillips G (August 29 2013) "Custom Universe – Finetuned For Us?" in Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s "Catalyst" program]
A computer simulation of the universe that's made of 1's and 0's might generate infinity because some of the numbers in the simulation could be infinitely long numbers like pi and e. Pi, plus things like the Mobius and Klein, would be built-in to the cosmos (including electrons and quantum phenomena), like it says about pi in "Contact" by Carl Sagan (1986) - Century Publishing, p.430. Admittedly, Dr. Sagan's book is a work of fiction, but its reference to pi could still be included in a simulation. The simulated universe would then incorporate spatial and temporal infinity - and could include immortality if the programmer(s) wanted it to. Comprehending the idea of infinity really is a very hard concept to wrap your head around. If we achieved this, we'd understand the simulation we built (and would, because of the quantum-mechanical rules present in our cosmos and also programmed into this simulated universe, be entangled with it ... and part of it). What would it be like to stand outside this infinite, simulated universe which I called mini-infinity: and outside its extra dimensions, too. Part of my brain is saying this just isn't possible. But another part is fascinated by the idea of stepping outside the infinite.
Buddha, founder and leader of the Buddhist religion, believed each person must find peace and freedom from suffering by following what is called the Noble Eightfold Path. Presented here is an Eightfold Path to using a certain type of computer simulation of the Universe to completely understand the real Universe. A line or two about each Universal path is in this subsection. It's up to the reader to decide how noble they are.
Admittedly, this Universal Eightfold Path may sound too speculative for some. But there's a place for speculation in cosmology. The universe is too big to put in a lab so experiments can be performed on it. The best we can do is build a simulation of it in that lab which is the result of imagination, intuition and speculation grounded in the laws of science. Hopefully, the programmed model will agree with what is known and offer plausible explanations of the unknown.
The above is a fascinating idea! But without backup from science, it can't be considered seriously. That's why the below sections - about physics, cosmology and mathematics – are essential in an article devoted to computer science. Unfortunately, we live in a world that's in love with putting everything in strict categories. That would quickly put an end to this article, if it were not for interdisciplinary science. The emerging understanding that the different branches of science are interconnected and rely on each other is what this article is all about. However, there are signs that science has not yet put into practice what it preaches. These ideas have been universally rejected by science journals for years - either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll submit my ideas to the "International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications", and trust that computer science is more enlightened than other branches.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[909] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-19 05:49:54*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** Pages.

True to the nonlinear nature of time (it's arranged in Einstein's warps and curves), it's also correct that gravity is a product of electromagnetism – in the form of electronic pulses of energy from computers connected to sources of electrical power, and manifesting the pulses as virtual gravitons (the quanta of gravity). This provides a possible, electronic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels. Please read the following, remembering that in a TV program it was reported that "the physicist and writer Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics" (as well as, this author thinks, the electronic energy pulses known as virtual particles) "that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing." [Phillips G (August 29 2013) "Custom Universe – Finetuned For Us?" in Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s "Catalyst" program]
A computer simulation of the universe that's made of 1's and 0's might generate infinity because some of the numbers in the simulation could be infinitely long numbers like pi and e. Pi, plus things like the Mobius and Klein, would be built-in to the cosmos (including electrons and quantum phenomena), like it says about pi in "Contact" by Carl Sagan (1986) - Century Publishing, p.430. Admittedly, Dr. Sagan's book is a work of fiction, but its reference to pi could still be included in a simulation. The simulated universe would then incorporate spatial and temporal infinity - and could include immortality if the programmer(s) wanted it to. Comprehending the idea of infinity really is a very hard concept to wrap your head around. If we achieved this, we'd understand the simulation we built (and would, because of the quantum-mechanical rules present in our cosmos and also programmed into this simulated universe, be entangled with it ... and part of it). What would it be like to stand outside this infinite, simulated universe which I called mini-infinity: and outside its extra dimensions, too. Part of my brain is saying this just isn't possible. But another part is fascinated by the idea of stepping outside the infinite.
Buddha, founder and leader of the Buddhist religion, believed each person must find peace and freedom from suffering by following what is called the Noble Eightfold Path. Presented here is an Eightfold Path to using a certain type of computer simulation of the Universe to completely understand the real Universe. A line or two about each Universal path is in this subsection. It's up to the reader to decide how noble they are.
Admittedly, this Universal Eightfold Path may sound too speculative for some. But there's a place for speculation in cosmology. The universe is too big to put in a lab so experiments can be performed on it. The best we can do is build a simulation of it in that lab which is the result of imagination, intuition and speculation grounded in the laws of science. Hopefully, the programmed model will agree with what is known and offer plausible explanations of the unknown.
The above is a fascinating idea! But without backup from science, it can't be considered seriously. That's why the below sections - about physics, cosmology and mathematics – are essential in an article devoted to computer science. Unfortunately, we live in a world that's in love with putting everything in strict categories. That would quickly put an end to this article, if it were not for interdisciplinary science. The emerging understanding that the different branches of science are interconnected and rely on each other is what this article is all about. However, there are signs that science has not yet put into practice what it preaches. These ideas have been universally rejected by science journals for years - either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll submit my ideas to the "International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications", and trust that computer science is more enlightened than other branches.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[908] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-17 00:30:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Paradigm Shift to Cosmic Unification, and Human Creation of Universe.docx. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3837858.v1 Retrieved: 05 26, Sep 17, 2016 (GMT)

These ideas are universally rejected by science journals either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll post my ideas here.
A paradigm shift in science is a fundamental change in its concepts and practices. “We need a very different view of basic physics. This is the time for radical, new ideas” (theoretical physicist Neil) Turok concluded in early October, 2015. He believes that this is a great time in human history for the revolution to occur. This article strives towards that revolution by addressing many topics – including dark energy, dark matter, black holes, radioactive dating, gravity, mathematics, the shape of space-time, and imaginary time. Historically, mathematics often finds practical application in physics. The idea of the quantum was originally developed by Max Planck purely as a mathematical convenience^, but it's been part of our reality for over a century. So imaginary time and the Complex Number Plane might find applications undreamt of today.
^ The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, is a failure of classical physics to predict observed phenomena: it can be shown that a blackbody - a hypothetical perfect absorber and radiator of energy - would release an infinite amount of energy, contradicting the principles of conservation of energy and indicating that a new model for the behaviour of blackbodies was needed. At the start of the 20th century, physicist Max Planck derived the correct solution by making some strange (for the time) assumptions. In particular, Planck assumed that electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete packets, called quanta. Albert Einstein postulated that Planck's quanta were real physical particles (what we now call photons), not just a mathematical fiction. From there, Einstein developed his photoelectric effect (when quanta or photons of light shine on certain metals, electrons are released and can form an electric current).
My ideas initially suggested gravitation (G) is the universe's only fundamental force and that electromagnetism (EM), as well as the strong and weak nuclear forces, are products of G. While the latter part has been retained, the fundamental force is now seen as a gravitational-electromagnetic (G-EM) union. This union of the different waveforms could be made possible by rearrangement of gravitons' binary digits (bits) into the bits of the particles constituting the other 3 forces (surrounding space-time's virtual particles and their produced digits are included in this rearrangement, to vary particle mass) [details in TOPOLOGY]. Rearrangement could be achieved by a quantum-scale version of gravitational lensing, which can split the image of an astronomical object into several images. The G-EM union/field is counterintuitive – even ridiculous, absurd, impossible to some people – since gravitation is so weak (EM is 10^36 times as powerful, and the Strong Nuclear Force is a hundred times stronger again ie 10^38 times as powerful). The solution is infinity. Even the weakest force, when infinitely multiplied, has literally no limit to its power. It can produce another universal force that is measured, at distances tiny compared to infinity ie any distance, to be approximately 10^36 times stronger^. Such strangeness may be necessary to fulfil Albert Einstein's dream of uniting G and EM, then unifying all space-time into a single Unified Field. Obeying the Pauli Exclusion Principle that says there is no limit to the number of photons and presently hypothetical gravitons that can be exchanged (those particles are limitless in number), the Unified Field would be the G-EM field.
^ "For instance, at the distance of 3 × 10-18 meters, the electromagnetic α is closer to 1/128 than its long-distance value of about 1/137." [“The Strengths of the Known Forces” by theoretical physicist Matt Strassler [May 31, 2013] - http://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physicsbasics/the-known-forces-of-nature/the-strength-of-the-known-forces/]. The Internet's free encyclopedia, Wikipedia, defines α (the fine-structure constant) this way: In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted α (the Greek letter alpha), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[907] **viXra:1609.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-04 02:05:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of entropy and information and their evolution in time in the Cosmos as a whole (the Cosmos has radius about 30 powers of ten of meters i.e. is much greater than the present-day radius of the expanding Universe). On the lowest level of Nature, the global information depends on distribution of rotational and kinetic energies and orientation of the infinitesimal spins of all free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all objects in the Cosmos consist of. The field composed of the free tachyons is the Higgs field - this field causes that neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. During the inflation, almost whole Higgs field transformed into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime that ground state consists of the non-rotating-spin neutrino-antineutrino pairs interacting gravitationally only. Orientation of spin is not important in gravitational field so all such pairs are in the same energetic state i.e. entropy of the ground state is equal to zero and this state dominates in the Cosmos. Moreover, the tachyonic energy frozen inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (it is the missing energy that results from quantum physics) is about 119 powers of ten times higher than their gravitational energy. The SST and the Kasner solution (which concerns the non-gravitating objects) show that there is a left-handedness of the residual Higgs field. The collapse of the outer shell of the Einstein spacetime at the end of the inflation created the returning shock wave. The shock wave plus the left-handedness of the residual Higgs field produced more matter than antimatter - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The returning energy-matter wave created the Universe in the centre of the Cosmos. Due to the boundary of the Cosmos, the Universe behaves cyclically. We start from the era before the inflation and via the inflation and via the neutron-black-holes state of the early Universe and via the present-day, we finish the description in the distant future. The tachyons cause that information cannot be destroyed by the SST black holes - the same concerns the energies of photons in gravitational fields. Entropy of the initial state of the inflation field and of the SST black holes is equal to zero. We can define time as the succeeding changes in the global information. In an approximation, Information behaves cyclically. In the Cosmos as a whole, entropy per particle is infinitesimal whereas total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[906] **viXra:1609.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-04 01:30:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The alignment of the angular-momentums/spins of quasars and the perpendicularity of the planes of the main disc of massive spiral galaxies and the disc of a vast polar structure (VPOS) which contains the satellite galaxies, some globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams, suggest that the Universe as a whole and the massive galaxies have a history that cannot be easily explained within the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared in the binary systems of protogalaxies two perpendicular discs each composed of the dark-matter (DM) loops. Dynamics of the binary systems of protogalaxies and the early Universe leads to perpendicularity of the main disc and VPOS. During the highest radial acceleration of the protogalaxies just at the beginning of expansion of the Universe (initially it was cosmic double loop with left-handed internal helicity of each loop), to stabilize the main disc and conserve its angular momentum, the binary systems of protogalaxies made a rotation (i.e. a rotation of their rotation and magnetic axes) of 90 degrees in such a way that initially the angular-momentums/spins (and magnetic axes) were mostly antiparallel to their radial velocities, i.e. initially the expanding Universe looked as a magnetic monopole. But the succeeding inflows of dark energy (locally they could be turbulent and they lasted a few Gyr) that initially caused the explosions of the binary systems of protogalaxies (in such a way appeared the VPOSs), partially destroyed the monopole-like structure of the early Universe. But a statistical analyse should show that described here correlation is preferred i.e. in the distant Universe, there should be a little more massive spiral galaxies with counter-clockwise rotation i.e. left-handed. The initial radial polarization of the spins of quasars explains their alignment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[905] **viXra:1608.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 04:07:25*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 20 Pages. CITE: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Tomorrow's Computer Science Makes Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe.docx. figshare. - https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3544994.v2 - Retrieved: 08 36, Aug 23, 2016 (GMT)

uter Science Builds Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe
Author – Rodney Bartlett
Abstract -
Listening to Brian Cox and Dr. Karl talking on triple j (http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/media/s4513719.htm), the thing that most interested me was the subject "the opposite of gravity". By viewing reality as entanglement with the topological extension of a computer-simulated universe, comments can be made about: 1) the nature of gravity, and so-called antigravity being a result of the Complex Number Plane; 2) how this explanation of antigravity could explain dark energy and dark matter; 3) universal expansion being replaced by the closely related, though more precise, extension into space-time of binary digits and Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles; 4) a non-supernatural, humanistic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[904] **viXra:1608.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 11:04:55*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[903] **viXra:1608.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 09:09:20*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[902] **viXra:1608.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-07 01:44:01*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamics model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamics model. We then discuss on the (1+3) forces, the gravity force and an additional three pseudo-forces that are described by force carrier particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[901] **viXra:1608.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-18 14:28:24*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a type of motor which converts Gravitational Energy directly into Rotational Kinetic Energy. Its fuel is therefore the Gravitational Energy (no needs gasoline, oil, etc). An example of Gravitational Motor is the turbines of the hydroelectric plants. However, they are not mobile i.e., they cannot be transported from one place to another as the combustion motors or the electric motors. Mobiles Gravitational Motor can be developed starting from the devices of gravity control, such as the Quantum Controller of Gravity (QCG) [1]. The form of the QCG originally proposed is spherical. Here, it is described a Gravitational Motor which uses a QCG with spherical cylindrical form. This Gravitational Motor can have very-high power, and it can be used in order to generate electrical energy at large scale or traction to move cars, ships, tankers, aircraft carrier, trains, etc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[900] **viXra:1608.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-17 10:07:27*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong-weak interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Here we show that the SST interactions of the source of the nuclear strong interactions determine the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[899] **viXra:1608.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-16 11:40:40*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong-weak interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Here we show that the SST interactions of the source of the nuclear strong interactions determine the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[898] **viXra:1608.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-27 01:55:01*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. The ratios of the mixing angles are as 1 : 4 : 5 and they represent respectively one stable flavour (i.e. electron- or muon-neutrino), two entangled flavours (i.e. electron- or muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. four entangled stable neutrinos), and three entangled flavours (i.e. electron- plus muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. five entangled stable neutrinos). We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[897] **viXra:1608.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-26 13:48:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[896] **viXra:1608.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 09:55:02*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We continue our investigation of the new project launched in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8] by generalizing Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of elec- trons and photons, to our setting. At ﬁrst, we deal with the respective two point functions, deﬁne the correct interaction theory as a series of connected Feynman diagrams and ﬁnally, we show that for a certain class of spacetime metrics, each diagram is ﬁnite and a modiﬁed perturbation series is analytic.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[895] **viXra:1608.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-06 03:52:17*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we study the nature of space - time based on the holographic principle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[894] **viXra:1608.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-04 12:20:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the two-stage explosions of the hydrogen-poor Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). We calculated their quantized masses: 3.14, 6.28, 12.55 and 25.10 solar masses, maximum absolute magnitudes for the initial and main explosions and we solved the ejecta-velocity problem. The derived light curves are consistent with observational data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[893] **viXra:1608.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 09:53:44*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further deﬁne the interacting theory and study the behavior of modiﬁed particle propagators, leading to a ﬁnite theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[892] **viXra:1608.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-12 07:27:42*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 33 Pages. minor corrections made

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further deﬁne the interacting theory and study the behavior of modiﬁed particle propagators, leading to a ﬁnite theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[891] **viXra:1607.0561 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-03 10:32:16*

**Authors:** D.Mastoridis, K.Kalogirou

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The current paper presents an attempt to express the mass problem in a more con-
crete mathematical scheme where all the Physical quantities could come naturally. The
Standard Model and its extensions where investigated where SU(4) has appeared as a
conclusion of this attempt.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[890] **viXra:1607.0376 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-21 02:31:35*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 28 Pages. 28

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of
elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model.
As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative
black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive
vacuum etc.
In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring
shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting
point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface.
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is
coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives
the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other
particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other
particles.
Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is
interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by
transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles
into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black
hole nuclei..
Introduction,

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[889] **viXra:1607.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-04 19:57:27*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Beautiful Universe (BU) model is a universal cellular automata (CA) of rotating dielectric dipolar nodes exchanging angular momentum with neighboring nodes to make radiation, matter, and space itself. In this paper a simplified simulation of non-rotating nodes that nevertheless obey the momentum-exchange 'rules' of (BU) provide a qualitative picture of energy transport in the model and can be considered a preliminary proof of concept on which to build further work

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[888] **viXra:1607.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-11 01:43:26*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short note, first we will show a few ways to rewrite Einstein's field equation without basically changing it. Then we speculate a bit more broadly on how to change the equation to make it hold at the quantum scale. More precisely, we modify it for bodies with masses less than the Planck mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[887] **viXra:1607.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-03 14:49:05*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This is a short note to show how big G can be derived from dimensional analysis by assuming that the Planck length is much more fundamental than Newton's gravitational constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[886] **viXra:1607.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-02 21:48:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** put in 2 pages as to referring to gravitons as information carriers, with formula delineating relationship to quantum number N derived earlier

Using the idea of a quantum ‘number’ N, which is due to , with the walls nixing the space-time import of interior dynamics of a pre Plackian state, using energy
And the U ~ potential. Energy expression given by Padmanabhan for an inflaton state when the scale factor , we obtain the term, N, for quantum exited state, prior to the exiting of the Pre Planck state, to inflationary physics. From there we bridge this creation of N, in Pre Planckian space-time, to Semi classical and brane theory versions of entropy, and also its linkage to both graviton and nonstandard beyond the standard model physics. We conclude with a speculation in the conclusion for future work which is to make entropy(information) a new synthesis for Graviton physics, just before the start of cosmological expansion as a partial information based replacement for the Higgs boson hypothesis, at least for gravitons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[885] **viXra:1607.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-03 07:52:13*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 77 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2016, 4, 1379-1438. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.48147.

In the Einstein field equations the geometry or the curvature of space-time defined as depended
on the distribution of mass and energy principally resides on the left-hand side is set identical to a nongeometrical tensorial representation of matter on the right-hand side. In one or another form, general relativity accords a direct geometrical significance only to the gravitational field while the other physical fields are not of spacetime, they reside only in spacetime. Less well known, though of comparable importance is Einstein's dissatisfaction with the fundamental asymmetry between gravitational and non-gravitational fields and his contributions to develop a completely relativistic geometrical field theory of all fundamental interactions, a unified field theory. Of special note in this context and equally significant is Einstein’s demand to replace the symmetrical tensor field
by a non-symmetrical one and to drop the condition gik = gki for the field components. Historically, many other attempts were made too, to extend the general theory of relativity's geometrization of gravitation to non-gravitational interactions, in particular, to electromagnetism. Still, progress has
been very slow. It is the purpose of this publication to provide a unified field theory in which the gravitational field, the electromagnetic field and other fields are only different components or manifestations of the same unified field by mathematizing the relationship between cause and effect under conditions of general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[884] **viXra:1607.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-16 06:26:46*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (their mass is greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim/cold massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. The SST cosmology shows that the distribution of redshift of massive galaxies must be balanced in such a way that the average redshift was 0.6415. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. SST leads to conclusion that we should see a weak redshift quantization for redshift lower than 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct. Here we described the number density of massive galaxies as a function of redshift and, separately, as a function of the SST time distance, we compared the SST, GR and Special-Relativity relative recession velocities (RRV), we described the redshift quantization, and we solved the luminosity problem of quasars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[883] **viXra:1607.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-06 04:46:43*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (mass greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[882] **viXra:1607.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-04 12:41:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In a cosmic scale of a few hundred Mega-parsecs, according to the General Relativity (GR) cosmology, the mean number density of massive galaxies (mass greater than 11 powers of ten multiplied by solar mass) should be about 0.0072 massive galaxies per cubic Mpc whereas according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) should be 0.0067. We can see that both results are similar, about 0.007. On the other hand, the surveys of massive galaxies lead to number densities about 10 times lower. It leads to conclusion that there must be big number of dim massive galaxies. N. Trujillo formulated following question: Where are the untouched massive “relic” galaxies in the nearby Universe? Here, applying the SST, we show that most of them should be close to the threshold redshift 0.6415 and they should be composed of the bare neutron black holes. Such dim sphere of massive galaxies forces the radial acceleration of all galaxies at redshift about 0.35 up to 0.6415, and deceleration of all galaxies above such threshold redshift. We showed that the postulated within the GR cosmology an acceleration of expansion of spacetime is an illusion (for redshift 0.35 up to about 0.6, we observe an acceleration whereas for redshift higher than about 0.6, we observe a deceleration). In reality, the SST shows that there indeed are the regions of acceleration and deceleration but their existence follows from the gravitational attraction of the massive dim sphere at mean redshift 0.6415. Future more precise surveys of galaxies should confirm that the SST cosmology is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[881] **viXra:1606.0293 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-29 06:53:48*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The Cooper pair state is responsible for superconductivity, as described in the BCS theory developed by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Schrieffer for which they shared the 1972 Nobel Prize. A Cooper pair or BCS pair is a pair of electrons (or other fermions) bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner first described in 1956 by American physicist Leon Cooper. These have some bosonic properties – properties similar to photons, gravitons and the Higgs boson. Bosons, at sufficiently low temperature, can form a Bose–Einstein condensate which is an example of macroscopic quantum phenomena (quantum behavior at the macroscopic scale, rather than at the atomic scale where quantum effects are prevalent). The best-known examples of macroscopic quantum phenomena are superfluidity and superconductivity. The fact that bosons can form a Bose–Einstein condensate which is related to superconductivity hints at superconductivity being a wave-function phenomenon. Also, the Complex Number Plane of mathematics in conjunction with the so-called Imaginary Time of physics suggests this wave-function might find practical application beyond abstract maths and could be multidimensional having "real", "imaginary" and "complex" types. The explanation of superconductivity by means of Cooper pairs confirms the validity of wave-particle duality.
This article also extends the quantum scale and the wave-function to computer science and the cosmic scale - commenting on gravitational superconductivity, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, the Big Bang and cosmological Inflation, Unification, Artificial Intelligence, and black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[880] **viXra:1606.0284 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-07 01:57:17*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Excellent question by Dr. Li on if HFGW would be able to have traces of quantum gravity,as of July 3rd, lead to inquiry as reflected in this version of the initial e fold document. Many thanks to Dr. Li for his adroit question and his geometrical insight

First, referring to an article by K. Freeze on “Natural Inflation”, we review e folds data, and also the role of a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle as to what to expect from initial conditions as to satisfying the onset of inflation.. .. This leads to , combined with the authors work in delineating a ‘perfect bounce’ a minimum HFGW which may exist due to the early universe, possibly from the influence of a minimum nonsingular universe starting point forming the template of a minimum wave length for starting GW, which may lead to an initial quantum gravity influenced frequency which is subsequently e shifted down by inflation. The initial conditions for the generation of HFGW, may correspond to early universe quantum gravity . I.e. this last part is due to a question asked the author, Dr. Li Fangyu, in the first week of July 2016

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[879] **viXra:1606.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-26 01:06:42*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The word document had many errors which were subsequently fixed. My apologies for the mess

We look at, starting with Shankar’s treatment of the partition function, inserting in the data of the modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to give a role of the inflaton in the formation of a partition of the universe. The end result will be, even with the existence of a multiverse, i.e. simultaneous universes, uniform physical laws throughout the Multiple universes.
Comments: 11 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[878] **viXra:1606.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-23 03:35:08*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the parallel nature of the universe based on the holographic principle

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[877] **viXra:1606.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-06 06:03:28*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the parallel nature of the universe based on the holographic principle

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[876] **viXra:1606.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-19 06:31:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Precise maximum mass for DM loop corresponds to the upper limit for frequency 1669 Hz. Intensity for the frequency 1669 Hz should be highest. But emphasize that the DM loops are the perfectly elastic structures. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature. The correct big bang, i.e. the inflation and the “soft” big bang of the Universe, is described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[875] **viXra:1606.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-29 15:33:12*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the quantum equation (QE) in curved (3+1) spacetime $\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla^{\alpha}\Psi=k^{2}\Psi$, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using the Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem, a new tensor describing dynamic dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor to form a modified equation of general relativity (GR). GR and dark energy vanish in the symmetric part of the QE for each spin. The mixed frequency solutions of the QE are not affected by the modified Einstein equation. GR and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime. The metric as a field variable does not appear in the spin 2 QE for a massless graviton. Massless spin 2 particles do not couple to the energy momentum tensor as the force mediators for gravity. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity. The dark energy tensor is dynamic, and with positive density and pressure, tends to accelerate the universe. The Proca equation for a massive vector boson of spin 1 could describe neutral dark matter or dark photons, if they exist.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[874] **viXra:1606.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-18 19:23:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Added types of universes.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres. This however does mean that everything is made of one sphere. Part of what we call the universe would be a sphere made of tightly packed spheres, mostly packed in a cuboctahedron structure. Some small groups of these spheres could be held together by a large scale universe type force similar to electromagnetic force, but obvious a much grander scale and too uniform at our level to perceive. One of these shapes maybe be a toroid. Perhaps similar to proposed radiationless structure as shown by Dr Miroshnichenko in “New theory to lead to radiationless revolution”(1) Dr. Miroshnichenko shows that there may be radiationless structures that are made of radiating materials, that are toroid shape. First we review the Hubble Constant values. We will review the values of the Hubble constant from WMAP, Planck Mission, Hubble Telescope, other measurements and compares it to Sphere Theory Hubble Constant. Reviewing the observable universe we see a universe that we can see back 13.8 billion light years, but because of expansion must be about 91 billion light years in diameter. This paper shows that our universe may be a combination of spheres in a toroid shape. Each sphere would be the size of the Hubble Sphere, as calculated by Sphere Theory. The toroid shape as acknowledged, as a possibility, by other physicists, like Max Tegmark The toroid, which in this paper, is a 6 sphere structure organized as a hexagon that may explain the size of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[873] **viXra:1606.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-11 10:53:24*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 53 pages

Three of the four known forces in physics are unified into one equation with a clear explanation for the different properties of each force. The strong, electromagnetic and gravitational forces are governed by the same force equation, yet they have different characteristics of wave amplitude that modify a particle’s wave and motion. Although it is intentionally not unified into the general equation for force, an explanation is provided for the weak force. All calculations with the newly proposed Force Equation match experimental results and can derive Newton’s laws for gravity and Coulomb’s law for electromagnetism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[872] **viXra:1606.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-25 22:04:54*

**Authors:** Joseph Forrington

**Comments:** 65 pages

Generally speaking, Einstein’s gravity is a distortion of space/time geometry, expressed in the spatial aspect. Distortions in time, which are apparent different rates of time in different reference frames, manifest apparent curvature of motion in space. In Relativity, gravity disappears in a free fall in open space except for “residual” tidal forces as objects converge on a common gravitational center, i.e., the center of a mass, or an unbalanced force is applied to the mass, accelerating it. This theory postulates that Einstein stopped short and that Relativity describes the geometric effects of gravity, and not gravity itself, which is an actual force in time.
According to this theory, the tidal force convergence is caused by a focusing of the update in time into a time dilation vortex, and the shift of the update in time through the time dilation gradient creates the drag of gravity.
When Advanced LIGO1 detected gravity waves on Sept. 14, 2015, it did so detecting distortions in the time aspect, fluctuations in the rate of time, which this theory is built upon. This theory explains how that distortion is responsible for the gravitational force in time.
LIGO’s detection, if verified, proves effects in time generate force on space. Otherwise they could not distort space to produce the detected signal. The effects in time force space to change, distorting it. In the case of LIGO, this was a change in the shape of the antenna, a shortening of the length of a meter by accelerated time. The shortening of a meter creates stress in space, which is cohesive and resistant to change. Both space and time possess inertia.
In this paper, first a Gravitational Equivalency Constant for the force in time relative to the force in Newtons is mathematically derived.
This is used to mathematically derive the mass/energy “Dark Matter” content of the Andromeda galaxy, and again in the Elementary Particles section to derive the formation of quanta and their entanglement in space/time that forms complex particles, mathematically explaining why the masses of protons and neutrons are so much larger than the sum of the masses of their constituent particles, and how gravity is responsible for the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces.
The Andromeda dark matter derivation eliminate the need for dark matter.
We see time dilation as a result of mass, but when we look at the processes in time, we see that mass is the result of time dilation. Space/time is not being stretched and thinned by mass. Space/time is not isotropic to begin with, especially in the time aspect. This theory demonstrates that the fluctuations in rates of time create gravity waves that result in the formation of mass in slow time rate areas and, unlike Relativity, the math works on the galactic scale, as in the Andromeda Dark Matter derivation.
This paper is based on the interactions of the true, temporal, direction of time all observers experience in their own inertial reference frames and the relativistic apparent lateral shift of the update of time down-gradient through time dilation fields in external frames; two forward directions of time.
Einstein’s geometric curvature in the future evolution of space/time is due to the effects in time this theory explains: reference frames shift forward in space/time in the direction of the lateral update.
On the quantum level, temporal time and space curve sharply in the spins of the quanta as temporal time and space follow the lateral shift into a spin, a space/time vortex. Because space is also drawn into the spin, and is limited by the restrictions of Planck units, the quanta can be quantized at the Planck level in space, though not in time, which is dimensionless.
This theory does not try to alter the mathematics describing gravity and other effects used in Relativity that work so well on the scale of the solar system, but it explains gravity in different terms that give us gravity waves that can be applied to larger systems, such as galaxies and galactic clusters, where time dilation fields are irregular in shape and where Relativity fails to accurately describe gravity, resulting in theories of dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[871] **viXra:1606.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 01:34:13*

**Authors:** Joseph Forrington

**Comments:** Hubble shift revision - 82 pages

Generally speaking, Einstein’s gravity is a distortion of space/time geometry, expressed in the spatial aspect. Distortions in time, which are apparent different rates of time in different reference frames, manifest apparent curvature of motion in space. In Relativity, gravity disappears in a free fall in open space except for “residual” tidal forces as objects converge on a common gravitational center, i.e., the center of a mass, or an unbalanced force is applied to the mass, accelerating it. This theory postulates that Einstein stopped short and that Relativity describes the geometric effects of gravity, and not gravity itself, which is an actual force in time.
According to this theory, the tidal force convergence is caused by a focusing of the update in time into a time dilation vortex, and the shift of the update in time through the time dilation gradient creates the drag of gravity.
When Advanced LIGO1 detected gravity waves on Sept. 14, 2015, it did so detecting distortions in the time aspect, fluctuations in the rate of time, which this theory is built upon. This theory explains how that distortion is responsible for the gravitational force in time.
LIGO’s detection, if verified, proves effects in time generate force on space. Otherwise they could not distort space to produce the detected signal. The effects in time force space to change, distorting it. In the case of LIGO, this was a change in the shape of the antenna, a shortening of the length of a meter by accelerated time. The shortening of a meter creates stress in space, which is cohesive and resistant to change. Both space and time possess inertia.
In this paper, first a Gravitational Equivalency Constant for the force in time relative to the force in Newtons is mathematically derived.
This is used to mathematically derive the mass/energy “Dark Matter” content of the Andromeda galaxy, and again in the Elementary Particles section to derive the formation of quanta and their entanglement in space/time that forms complex particles, mathematically explaining why the masses of protons and neutrons are so much larger than the sum of the masses of their constituent particles, and how gravity is responsible for the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces.
There is an additional time dilation effect besides gravitational and motion induced time dilation. This effect becomes evident when we consider the difference in the rates of time at infinity and the center of an energy density (mass).
This gives us a different dRt (difference in the rate of time) between frames than those currently in use for gravitational and motion induced dilation, and it is applied differently over distance.
In current formulas, as distance doubles, the dRt halves: 2D = dRt/2, and vice-versa: D/2 = 2dRt.
In this larger perspective, as D halves, the dRt also halves: D/2 = dRt/2. This is because there are mirror gradients between infinity and the center of an energy concentration.
This effect is responsible for the Red Shift and is used in the Red Shift section to derive the Red Shift over the expanse of the visible universe.
The Andromeda dark matter and red shift derivations eliminate the need for either dark matter or dark energy.
We see time dilation as a result of mass, but when we look at the processes in time, we see that mass is the result of time dilation. Space/time is not being stretched and thinned by mass. Space/time is not isotropic to begin with, especially in the time aspect. This theory demonstrates that the fluctuations in rates of time create gravity waves that result in the formation of mass in slow time rate areas and, unlike Relativity, the math works on the galactic scale, as in the Andromeda Dark Matter derivation.
This paper is based on the interactions of the true, temporal, direction of time all observers experience in their own inertial reference frames and the relativistic apparent lateral shift of the update of time down-gradient through time dilation fields in external frames; two forward directions of time.
Einstein’s geometric curvature in the future evolution of space/time is due to the effects in time this theory explains: reference frames shift forward in space/time in the direction of the lateral update.
On the quantum level, temporal time and space curve sharply in the spins of the quanta as temporal time and space follow the lateral shift into a spin, a space/time vortex. Because space is also drawn into the spin, and is limited by the restrictions of Planck units, the quanta can be quantized at the Planck level in space, though not in time, which is dimensionless.
This theory does not try to alter the mathematics describing gravity and other effects used in Relativity that work so well on the scale of the solar system, but it explains gravity in different terms that give us gravity waves that can be applied to larger systems, such as galaxies and galactic clusters, where time dilation fields are irregular in shape and where Relativity fails to accurately describe gravity, resulting in theories of dark matter.
This is a grand unification theory. The reader will find much correlation between quantum and cosmic events, tying the two scales together.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[870] **viXra:1606.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 00:56:05*

**Authors:** Joseph Forrington

**Comments:** Red Shift revision - 82 pages

Generally speaking, Einstein’s gravity is a distortion of space/time geometry, expressed in the spatial aspect. Distortions in time, which are apparent different rates of time in different reference frames, manifest apparent curvature of motion in space. In Relativity, gravity disappears in a free fall in open space except for “residual” tidal forces as objects converge on a common gravitational center, i.e., the center of a mass, or an unbalanced force is applied to the mass, accelerating it. This theory postulates that Einstein stopped short and that Relativity describes the geometric effects of gravity, and not gravity itself, which is an actual force in time.
According to this theory, the tidal force convergence is caused by a focusing of the update in time into a time dilation vortex, and the shift of the update in time through the time dilation gradient creates the drag of gravity.
When Advanced LIGO1 detected gravity waves on Sept. 14, 2015, it did so detecting distortions in the time aspect, fluctuations in the rate of time, which this theory is built upon. This theory explains how that distortion is responsible for the gravitational force in time.
LIGO’s detection, if verified, proves effects in time generate force on space. Otherwise they could not distort space to produce the detected signal. The effects in time force space to change, distorting it. In the case of LIGO, this was a change in the shape of the antenna, a shortening of the length of a meter by accelerated time. The shortening of a meter creates stress in space, which is cohesive and resistant to change. Both space and time possess inertia.
In this paper, first a Gravitational Equivalency Constant for the force in time relative to the force in Newtons is mathematically derived.
This is used to mathematically derive the mass/energy “Dark Matter” content of the Andromeda galaxy, and again in the Elementary Particles section to derive the formation of quanta and their entanglement in space/time that forms complex particles, mathematically explaining why the masses of protons and neutrons are so much larger than the sum of the masses of their constituent particles, and how gravity is responsible for the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces.
There is an additional time dilation effect besides gravitational and motion induced time dilation. This effect becomes evident when we consider the difference in the rates of time at infinity and the center of an energy density (mass).
This gives us a different dRt (difference in the rate of time) between frames than those currently in use for gravitational and motion induced dilation, and it is applied differently over distance.
In current formulas, as distance doubles, the dRt halves: 2D = dRt/2, and vice-versa: D/2 = 2dRt.
In this larger perspective, as D halves, the dRt also halves: D/2 = dRt/2. This is because there are mirror gradients between infinity and the center of an energy concentration.
This effect is responsible for the Red Shift and is used in the Red Shift section to derive the Red Shift over the expanse of the visible universe.
The Andromeda dark matter and red shift derivations eliminate the need for either dark matter or dark energy.
We see time dilation as a result of mass, but when we look at the processes in time, we see that mass is the result of time dilation. Space/time is not being stretched and thinned by mass. Space/time is not isotropic to begin with, especially in the time aspect. This theory demonstrates that the fluctuations in rates of time create gravity waves that result in the formation of mass in slow time rate areas and, unlike Relativity, the math works on the galactic scale, as in the Andromeda Dark Matter derivation.
This paper is based on the interactions of the true, temporal, direction of time all observers experience in their own inertial reference frames and the relativistic apparent lateral shift of the update of time down-gradient through time dilation fields in external frames; two forward directions of time.
Einstein’s geometric curvature in the future evolution of space/time is due to the effects in time this theory explains: reference frames shift forward in space/time in the direction of the lateral update.
On the quantum level, temporal time and space curve sharply in the spins of the quanta as temporal time and space follow the lateral shift into a spin, a space/time vortex. Because space is also drawn into the spin, and is limited by the restrictions of Planck units, the quanta can be quantized at the Planck level in space, though not in time, which is dimensionless.
This theory does not try to alter the mathematics describing gravity and other effects used in Relativity that work so well on the scale of the solar system, but it explains gravity in different terms that give us gravity waves that can be applied to larger systems, such as galaxies and galactic clusters, where time dilation fields are irregular in shape and where Relativity fails to accurately describe gravity, resulting in theories of dark matter.
This is a grand unification theory. The reader will find much correlation between quantum and cosmic events, tying the two scales together.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[869] **viXra:1606.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-19 13:40:44*

**Authors:** Joseph Forrington

**Comments:** 80 Pages

Generally speaking, Einstein’s gravity is a distortion of space/time geometry, expressed in the spatial aspect. Distortions in time, which are apparent different rates of time in different reference frames, manifest apparent curvature of motion in space. In Relativity, gravity disappears in a free fall in open space except for “residual” tidal forces as objects converge on a common gravitational center, i.e., the center of a mass, or an unbalanced force is applied to the mass, accelerating it. This theory postulates that Einstein stopped short and that Relativity describes the geometric effects of gravity, and not gravity itself, which is an actual force in time.
According to this theory, the tidal force convergence is caused by a focusing of the update in time into a time dilation vortex, and the shift of the update in time through the time dilation gradient creates the drag of gravity.
When Advanced LIGO1 detected gravity waves on Sept. 14, 2015, it did so detecting distortions in the time aspect, fluctuations in the rate of time, which this theory is built upon. This theory explains how that distortion is responsible for the gravitational force in time.
LIGO’s detection, if verified, proves effects in time generate force on space. Otherwise they could not distort space to produce the detected signal. The effects in time force space to change, distorting it. In the case of LIGO, this was a change in the shape of the antenna, a shortening of the length of a meter by accelerated time. The shortening of a meter creates stress in space, which is cohesive and resistant to change. Both space and time possess inertia.
In this paper, first a Gravitational Equivalency Constant for the force in time relative to the force in Newtons is mathematically derived.
This is used to mathematically derive the mass/energy “Dark Matter” content of the Andromeda galaxy, and again in the Elementary Particles section to derive the formation of quanta and their entanglement in space/time that forms complex particles, mathematically explaining why the masses of protons and neutrons are so much larger than the sum of the masses of their constituent particles, and how gravity is responsible for the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces.
There is an additional time dilation effect besides gravitational and motion induced time dilation. This effect becomes evident when we consider the difference in the rates of time at infinity and the center of an energy density (mass).
This gives us a different dRt (difference in the rate of time) between frames than those currently in use for gravitational and motion induced dilation, and it is applied differently over distance.
In current formulas, as distance doubles, the dRt halves: 2D = dRt/2, and vice-versa: D/2 = 2dRt.
In this larger perspective, as D halves, the dRt also halves: D/2 = dRt/2. This is because there are mirror gradients between infinity and the center of an energy concentration.
This effect is responsible for the Red Shift and is used in the Red Shift section to derive the Red Shift over the expanse of the visible universe.
The Andromeda dark matter and red shift derivations eliminate the need for either dark matter or dark energy.
We see time dilation as a result of mass, but when we look at the processes in time, we see that mass is the result of time dilation. Space/time is not being stretched and thinned by mass. Space/time is not isotropic to begin with, especially in the time aspect. This theory demonstrates that the fluctuations in rates of time create gravity waves that result in the formation of mass in slow time rate areas and, unlike Relativity, the math works on the galactic scale, as in the Andromeda Dark Matter derivation.
This paper is based on the interactions of the true, temporal, direction of time all observers experience in their own inertial reference frames and the relativistic apparent lateral shift of the update of time down-gradient through time dilation fields in external frames; two forward directions of time.
Einstein’s geometric curvature in the future evolution of space/time is due to the effects in time this theory explains: reference frames shift forward in space/time in the direction of the lateral update.
On the quantum level, temporal time and space curve sharply in the spins of the quanta as temporal time and space follow the lateral shift into a spin, a space/time vortex. Because space is also drawn into the spin, and is limited by the restrictions of Planck units, the quanta can be quantized at the Planck level in space, though not in time, which is dimensionless.
This theory does not try to alter the mathematics describing gravity and other effects used in Relativity that work so well on the scale of the solar system, but it explains gravity in different terms that give us gravity waves that can be applied to larger systems, such as galaxies and galactic clusters, where time dilation fields are irregular in shape and where Relativity fails to accurately describe gravity, resulting in theories of dark matter.
This is a grand unification theory. The reader will find much correlation between quantum and cosmic events, tying the two scales together.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[868] **viXra:1605.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-06 12:14:58*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new type of device for controlling gravity is here proposed. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy at subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this device is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for controlling gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[867] **viXra:1605.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-15 02:11:26*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** Pages. Published in "Global journal of physics", Vol 4 No 3

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ESTM-theory and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ESTM-theory. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ESTM-theory and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ESTM-theory. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[866] **viXra:1605.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-31 03:38:08*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Last update on: 31.07.2016

Dear readers, I appreciate your time and patience to read/try to read my article. However, this is not a simple article: as it describes the universe in informational terms (as it is a model of the universe; Bio-Info-Digital-Universe-Model [BIDUM]) and has almost 60 pages, it tends to be more like a manual in which I have reformulated a lot of classical and modern concepts of physics. Like any manual/book-like article, the abbreviations are inevitable, as I also try to impose new general concepts (together with their abbreviations which I try to propose too). If I had used the classical terms with a minimal abbreviational strategy, the phrases would become very complex and hard to read as the explanations have a lot of parenthesis (as I practice a tree-like multi-level phrase structures). The main abbreviations I have imposed is for fundamental physical concepts I try to present and I always first explain them (and mention them between parenthesis). These are the most frequent: (elementary) quantum particle ([E]QP), gauge-boson (GB), non-gauge particle (NGP), physical information (quantity/quanta) (PI[q/qua]), biological information (quantity/quanta) (BI[q/qua]), biophysical information (quantity/quanta) (BPI[q/qua]), physical observer (PO), biological observer (BO), Fine Structure Constant (FSC), GCC (gravitational coupling constant), fundamental forces/fields (FFs): strong nuclear force/field (SNF), weak nuclear force/field (WNF), electromagnetic force/field (EMF), (electro)gravitational force/field (EGF), super string theory (SST), M-theory (MT) etc. The majority of the rest of them are standard abbreviations used in standard physical language. I have also anticipated the difficulty of reading this manual-like article, that is why I have also created this separate file with all the abbreviations used in my BIDUM. Important remark: this update is also due Sergey G. Fedosin which I want to thank again as he convinced my once again that this table of abbreviations is a must to share with all my readers.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[865] **viXra:1605.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:10:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: an important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [3]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [4,5]. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s Bio-IDUM (BIDUM) version 1.1 [6]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[864] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 12:35:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Updated Paper

The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances could give the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[863] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-12 22:23:29*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added Bremsstrahlung Lorentz factor electron adjustment

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[862] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 10:58:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Corrected typos, and missing information, corrected some format

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[861] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-05 15:56:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. corrected typos in abstract

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[860] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-04 20:43:07*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Added sections

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[859] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-28 17:49:16*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added equations 5.3 and 5.4

When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[858] **viXra:1604.0323 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:13:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[857] **viXra:1604.0297 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-01 08:33:24*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published version: Open Access Library Journal, 3, e2788 (2016). New title. Slightly expanded.

I consider a statistical mechanical model for black holes as atoms of spacetime with the
partition function sum taken over area eigenvalues as given by loop quantum gravity. I
propose a unied structure for matter and spacetime by applying the area eigenvalues
to a black hole composite model for quarks and leptons. Gravitational baryon number
non-conservation mechanism is predicted. Argument is given for unified field theory be
based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. The non-Abelian gauge
interactions of the standard model are briefly
discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[856] **viXra:1604.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-18 01:29:58*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French.

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[855] **viXra:1604.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 09:44:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons, structure of bare electrons and electroweak theory described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.843 +- 0.002 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[854] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 05:49:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a joint probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now on there is GravityElectroMagnetism!

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[853] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-25 13:21:35*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a joint probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now on there is GravityElectroMagnetism!

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[852] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-20 18:21:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb’s electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now there is GravityElectroMagnetism, at least for the three enlightened ones still walking this earth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[851] **viXra:1604.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-21 04:45:28*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we are rewriting the gravitational coupling constant in a slightly different form than has been shown before (without changing its value). This makes it simpler to understand what is meant and what is not meant by a “dimensionless gravitational coupling constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[850] **viXra:1604.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-31 03:46:15*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 62 Pages. Last update on: 31.07.2016

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system [3,4]; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [5]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [6,7]. In this BIDUM version 1.1[5,6,7][8]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE (Theory of Everything), together with the concept of biological information (BI) in a unified concept of biophysical information (BPI) [9].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[849] **viXra:1604.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:18:16*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system [3,4]; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [5]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [6,7]. In this BIDUM version 1.1[5,6,7][8]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE (Theory of Everything), together with the concept of biological information (BI) in a unified concept of biophysical information (BPI) [9].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[848] **viXra:1604.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-15 15:41:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected Typos

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from –pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[847] **viXra:1604.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-10 17:20:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[846] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-01 13:37:02*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Wave Structure of Matter is used to describe the operation of the EM drive, with the thrust differential shown to be proportional to the square of the group velocity in the cavity, which is in turn found to be inversely-proportional to cos(phi), where phi is the taper angle of the cone-shaped cavity. Comparisons of calculated thrusts with measured results shows agreement with Shawyer and Tajmar’s results. Improvements in thrust are found by adding a gain medium to the cavity that will increase the number of photons through stimulated emissions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[845] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-29 16:29:48*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Wave Structure of Matter is used to describe the operation of the EM drive, with the thrust differential shown to be related to the square of the group velocity in the cavity, which is in turn found to be proportional to the inverse of the cosine of the taper angle of the cone-shaped cavity. Improvements in thrust are found by adding a gain medium to the cavity that will increase the number of photons through stimulated emissions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[844] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-24 18:46:46*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new concept of the vacuum describes the operation of the EM drive, the first warp drive that has been demonstrated by NASA and other researchers to produce thrust based on microwaves resonating in a tapered cavity. A new design for improving thrust in the cavity using stimulated emission of microwaves, such as in a MASER, is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory