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Any replacements are listed further down

[810] **viXra:1510.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-07 07:49:47*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly P.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this work it is shown that it is necessary to modify the schrödinger equation to ensure that it described the collapse of the wave function. The basic idea lies in the fact that the Schrodinger equation is actually nonlinear, considering own gravity a free particle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[809] **viXra:1510.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 22:48:46*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Flux particle theory is a complete theory of everything... including Gravity, The four forces and a completely new way to understand the way dimensionality actually works.

It is based solely on irrefutable logic. And although it is easily understandable by anyone, it requires an open mind and a completely new way of thinking.

It uses strings but not the string theory type and everything is easily explained:

WHY THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS "C"

There is a high tension string particle field in space (not the string theory type). Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing). A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual string lengths are approximately one Ångström). Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web.

If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a string particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field strings have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is.

If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

Here is a regular string tension formula... Tension = velocity squared x mass / Length.

If we plug c in and rearrange we get... TL = mc^2

Both sides of the equation are in joules or energy... equivalent to "E".

It means the Tension of the strings in space times their length is equal to their energy.

This is why the speed of light is involved in Einsteins mass energy equivalence equation... E = mc^2 ...and actually why light travels at the speed of light

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[808] **viXra:1510.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 13:44:25*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work is based on modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of matter by the vacuum. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations (SnIa, SDSS-BAO and reduction of acceleration of the expanding universe). In this theory, there is no Big Bang at the beginning, but some local bangs during the evolution are probable. Also, there is no critical density of the universe and, therefore, no dark energy. Based on exact Gaussian solution for the scale factor, it is shown that an effective age of the universe is about 327 billion years. Production of primary dark matter particles have started 43 billion years later. It is shown that characteristic distance between particles is 30 times smaller than the thermal de Brogle wavelength, so that quantum effects, including formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate, can dominate. "Ordinary" matter was synthesized from dark matter in galaxies. Supplementary exact solutions are obtained for various ranges of parameters. From the theory we get an interface between dark and ordinary matter (IDOM), which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and our brain.
Key words: cosmology; age of the universe; dark matter; interface between dark and ordinary matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[807] **viXra:1510.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 05:34:37*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this work it is shown that it is necessary to modify the schrödinger equation for
to describe the collapse of the wave function. The basic idea lies in the fact that
the Schrodinger equation is actually nonlinear in the scale of the Planck length, where
a significant role is played by gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[806] **viXra:1510.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 04:01:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We know that the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) fails at low energies. For example, within QCD, we cannot calculate precise mass and spin of nucleons. It does not concern the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Moreover, experimental data show that at low energies the effective range parameters for nn, np, and pp scatterings are similar, but different. Why? Here, applying SST, we calculated the effective range parameters for nn (2.732 fm), for np (2.778 fm), and pp (2.824 fm). These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. At low energies, the effective range parameters follow from exchanges of virtual pions (which are responsible for the nuclear strong interactions) and production of the virtual condensates (which are responsible for the nuclear weak interactions at low energies). The condensates insignificantly increase the effective ranges. Just at low energies, the effective range parameters for nucleons follow from their strong-weak interactions described within SST. The obtained here and within SST results show that QCD is the incomplete and partially incorrect theory - the same concerns the electroweak theory at low energies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[805] **viXra:1510.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 23:24:50*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

In the first section of this paper we attempted to show that the fundamental particles can be built from infinite superpositions borrowing mass from a Higgs type scalar field and energy from zero point vector fields. Because zero point fields are limited especially at cosmic wavelengths we attempted to show that this borrowing connects with the warping of spacetime around mass and the expansion of the universe. In the interests of clarity we tried to keep things simple. In this second part we try to fill in those details and correct some errors. We attempt to show that there is a tensor relation between the cosmic wavelength quanta density borrowed and the contracted Ricchi curvature tensor. It does however require a small change to the Schwarzchild metric that has effect close to Black Holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[804] **viXra:1509.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 23:13:09*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 14 Pages. I discovered the graviton: the impulse of the graviton, the energy of the graviton, the speed of the graviton, the frequency of the graviton and the mass of the graviton. That is why my theory is a Quantum Gravity theory.

It is our ultimate task to discover a new quantum theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale and creates a new frontier.
I found another wall, the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall.
I replaced Max Planck equation E = h × f with the Ferent equation for the energy of a photon:
E = h × f + a × f
I discovered the impulse of the graviton: p = a / λ
I replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Δp × Δx ≥ h / 4π with Ferent Uncertainty Principle:
Δp × Δx ≥ a
I discovered a new electromagnetic theory.
The graviton has negative impulse, negative mass and negative energy.
I am the first who understood and explained that the gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep the constellations and the galaxy together. I explained the gravitation with the speed of the gravitons bigger than the speed of light.
The mass of a body, of a system M = m1 + im2 where m1 is the real mass and m2 is the imaginary mass, it is the rest mass of the gravitons.
I calculated the volume of the universe at Planck wall and the volume of the universe at Ferent wall.
My quantum gravity theory shows that the gravitons are too small to be detected by today’s technology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[803] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 00:15:51*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submission to Dr. P. Monitz's section of the Marcel Grossman 14 conference

First principle treatment as to how entropy may be affected by a metric tensor fluctuation, affecting initial temperature as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[802] **viXra:1509.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 04:09:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We are more than ready to hear the plucked strings of space-time. Last Friday, the revamped LIGO took its first observations – a step towards picking up the ripples that Einstein predicted should come from exotic cosmic collisions. [5]
Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[801] **viXra:1509.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 01:56:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The space roar is the unsolved problem in cosmology and particle physics. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that the ARCADE 2 and other literature the space roar for frequencies from 22 MHz to 10 GHz follows from the motion of the very early Universe in relation to the ground state of the luminal Einstein spacetime, follows also from the expansion of the Universe, and from the decays of the quadrupoles of charged pions and of the bottom quark-antiquark pairs into photons. Derived here the excess power-law spectrum in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 +- 0.001 K is consistent with observational data. Here as well we calculated the precise mass of the bottom quark: 4167.58 MeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[800] **viXra:1509.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 07:38:03*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain new results on the estimation of the maximum amount of information in material objects. Is considered for comparison and analysis, the limit of entropy of Bekenstein-Hawking. In the final part of the article derived the formula of the maximum amount of information for any physical system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[799] **viXra:1509.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 01:12:42*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Theory of Everything is The Holy Grail in physics. Physicists and like all over the world have searched the theory for a very long time. Modern day technological advances are finally opening the vast universe in all scales for curious human beings to explore. What we have accomplished is two theoretical platforms, relativity theories and quantum mechanics which are usable in their own domains. Obviously we have done good but we are still missing the theory. Due to all unsuccessful searches for the theory some people have suggested that there won't be such a theory.
Theory of Everything by Illusion 2.0 is based on the good ideas in previous Theory of Everything by Illusion. In an addition, few new ideas have emerged and at the same time few old, not so good, ideas have vanished as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[798] **viXra:1509.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 10:41:58*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published on the General Science Journal on 25th September 2015.

The void space does not have any meaning as itself. The space exists only when a particle (a fermion or a boson) occupies it. This means, if new particles appear in a region of space, the quantity of space increases in that area, creating distortions in that area of space, distortions that we call gravitation. A type of bosons, the photons, transmit the electromagnetic field using their energy. But in parallel, they create new space by its existence itself. If a particle emits photons, apart from the electromagnetic field, creates space by the new space occupied/created by the photons emitted. This new space creates distortions that correspond to gravitation effects. We will see, that the space created by a photon (and any other elemental particle) is related to the Planck length constant. Following the model and using only geometric and electromagnetic calculations we will arrive to the factor Gm/c²r for distortions of space caused by a mass. We will see that this is exactly the factor predicted by the Schwarzschild equation of general relativity. Also, following the model and using only geometric and electromagnetic equations, we will arrive to the factor 1/sqrt{1-(v²/c²)} as the relation between a moving mass and a motionless mass. The same relation predicted by special relativity equations. Besides, the immediate question using this model of how it is possible that particles have different masses and charges will be answered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[797] **viXra:1509.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-24 05:52:47*

**Authors:** L.A.N. de Paula

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The search for a consistent theory of quantum gravity has motivated the development of radically different approaches. This seeks consists of constructing a mathematical apparatus that encapsulates both concepts of quantum theory and general relativity. However, none approach has been definitive and the problem remains open. As the quantization of the metric is an alternative, this paper shows how a metric operator may be explicitly obtained by introducing a temporal operator, defining an induced metric and invoking some spacetime symmetries. This makes it possible to relate the effective acoustic metric to the model proposed here. The metric operator equations are expressed in terms of a hamiltonian operator describing the degrees of freedom of quantum vaccum whose dynamics gives rise to the metric field. These findings may help understand and study the quantum vacuum at Planck scale, consisting of one more tool for the community working on quantization of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[796] **viXra:1509.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 01:53:02*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Submitted to IJMPA

After reviewing the basic ideas behind Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the (co) tangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain $nonholonomic$ modifications of Riemann--Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry. The curvature tensors in the (co) tangent bundle of spacetime are explicitly constructed leading to the analog of the Einstein vacuum field equations. The geometry of Hamilton Spaces associated with curved phase spaces follows. An explicit construction of a gauge theory of gravity in the $8D$ co-tangent bundle $ T^*M$ of spacetime is provided, and based on the gauge group $ SO (6, 2) \times_s R^8$ which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle $ T_{ ( x, p) } T^*M $ at each point $ ({\bf x}, {\bf p})$. Several gravitational actions associated with the geometry of curved phase spaces are presented. We conclude with a discussion about the geometrization of matter, QFT in accelerated frames, {\bf T}-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[795] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-19 20:52:52*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Part of this will in a publication by the Ukrainian Journal of physics which will be referred to in 2 Marcel Grossman conference papers, as well as Rencontres Du Vietnam, Hot topics in Gravitation

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[794] **viXra:1509.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 22:24:14*

**Authors:** Aloysius Sebastian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance of the object. Still we are following the Newtonian concepts of gravity to measure the gravity of objects. Albert Einstein has made a great work on the concept of gravity, after Newton. But still we are trying to know more about gravity. According to me gravity is the property of energy. One must have to explain gravity on the basis of energy and it should be agree with the Newtonian theory of Gravity and law of conservation of Energy. I am agreeing that mass is also a form of energy. But I prefer to find gravity in accordance with the total energy of a system. I am going to find a relation to Newton’s theory of Gravity and Einstein’s Equivalency principle (E = mc2). Here I am making an attempt on this field. I am sure that I am on the right track. I am not placing any new equations here. I am using the existing equations in physics to find the gravity through my thoughts. The way which I am using these equations are may be strange. Sometimes I am thinking in reverse order, first I have found the gravity with the concept of energy. For that I am applying a constant ‘’A’’ to relate Newtonian concepts to Einstein’s Equation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[793] **viXra:1509.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-12 09:26:56*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

About Gibadullin's theory of everything.
The main idea is that "The whole Universe is composed of times, the times play a key role in all processes and phenomena"

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[792] **viXra:1509.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-11 02:27:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mathematicians investigating one of science's great questions—how to unite the physics of the very big with that of the very small—have discovered that when the understanding of complex networks such as the brain or the Internet is applied to geometry the results match up with quantum behavior. [6]
Vectors are great for describing the motion of a particle. But now suppose you need to analyze something more complicated, where multiple magnitudes and directions are involved. Perhaps you’re an engineer calculating stresses and strains in an elastic material. Or a neuroscientist tracing the changing forces on water flow near nerve cells. Or a physicist attempting to describe gravity in the cosmos. For all that, you need tensors. And they might even help you unify gravitational theory with quantum physics. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[791] **viXra:1509.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 12:38:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the inelastic cross section versus the centre-of-mass energy for proton-proton collisions. For centre-of-mass energies lower than 34.2 TeV, the obtained theoretical results overlap with the Standard-Model predictions but for energies of proton higher than 17.1 TeV, contrary to the Standard-Model prediction, there appears the asymptote: cross-section = 82.4 mb = constant. It follows from the fact that due to the production of the 17.1 TeV Higgs-boson-like particles, the protons cannot be accelerated above energy 17.1 TeV. Just whole surplus proton energy is instantaneously emitted. It is associated with the internal structure of the core of baryons. Emphasize that calculated here the cross section for energy 13 TeV (73.1 mb) is the central value obtained in the ATLAS experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[790] **viXra:1509.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-06 11:00:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

High frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are characteristic for the X-ray power-density spectra of a few microquasars and low mass X-ray binaries. Sometimes there appear the twin peak QPOs and then the frequency ratio for the peaks is close or equal to 3/2. Mostly the QPOs models assume oscillations of toroidal structures near black holes or neutron stars. At present, there is no consensus on the origin of QPOs. Here we present the model of the twin-peak QPOs as a result of oscillations defined by torus and a ring inside it. We use the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), especially the revised theory of black holes and accretion discs. Within presented here model we calculated the masses of the twin peak QPO microquasars. Obtained theoretical results are consistent with observational data. But accuracy of the observational data is very low whereas of the theoretical results is very high so future more precise observational data can be used to verify presented here model. We showed some analogy between the phenomena inside the core of baryons and the phenomena leading to the twin peak QPOs i.e. we showed some analogy between particle physics and cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[789] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 12:34:03*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the rest mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Short-range gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[788] **viXra:1509.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 02:43:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated for an isoscalar target and electrons the total neutrino and antineutrino charged-current (CC) cross-sections divided by neutrino energy as a function of neutrino energy. Obtained results are very close to experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[787] **viXra:1509.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 03:26:09*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Atomic electron binding energies, nuclear binding energies and the gravitational binding energies of celestial bodies are all connected to Planck scale within a coherent model based on the geometry of a standard string theory background.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[786] **viXra:1508.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 22:07:51*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The author completed this paper in Tokyo Japan in 1993 but it was not submitted for publication anywhere. This LaText version was released on arXiv.com in 2008 and is posted here on viXra with no changes for convenience.

The field of an electromagnetic (E) dipole has been examined using general relativistic (R) and
quantum mechanical (Q) points of view, and an E=Q=R equivalence principle presented whereas the
curvature of the electromagnetic streamlines of the field are taken to be evidence of the distortion
of spacetime, and hence of the presence of a gravitational field surrounding the dipole. Using a
quasi-refractive index function N, with the streamlines and equipotential surfaces as coordinates,
a new dipole relativistic metric is described, replacing Schwarzschild’s for a point mass. The same
principle equates the curvature and other physical features of the field with fundamental quantum
concepts such as the uncertainty principle, the probability distribution and the wave packet. The
equations of the dipole field therefore yield the three fields emerging naturally one from the other
and unified without resorting to any new dimensions. It is speculated whether this model can be
extended to dipolar matter-antimatter pairs.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[785] **viXra:1508.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 09:28:59*

**Authors:** Jae - Kwang Hwang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that the particle energy is proportional to its surface area. This surface area dependence of the particle energy extended to the universe scale indicates that our universe is the holographic universe. The obtained equation of E = 12.2047 1038 x2 = sS is based on the experimental rest mass and radius relation of the proton. This result can be a first evidence of the possible holographic particles and universe based on the experimental data. Also, the graviton is proposed to have the rest mass (mg) of 3.1872 10-31 eV/c2 and the force range of 10.032 Mpc. Also, the evolution and origin of the black hole and our universe are newly explained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[784] **viXra:1508.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 11:48:35*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time can be identified in quantum gravity, if the Hamiltonian of the gravitational field has a certain look. In this paper we obtain the canonical formulation of quantum gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[783] **viXra:1508.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 04:50:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Escaping information from black holes (BHs) produce firewalls at the event horizon. Such walls of fire absorb anything falling in black holes so they destroy them. It leads to conclusion that black hole understood as singularity with event horizon cannot be realized by Nature and that General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Physics (QP) are the incomplete theories. To solve the information paradox, Hawking proposes to replace the event horizon for apparent horizon i.e. for horizon widened due to quantum fluctuations in such a way that light can escape but there is lack of a mathematical description. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we solved the information paradox in a different. The key to solve the many unsolved problems concerning black holes are the interactions of nuclear matter with the luminal Einstein spacetime both composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs, which dominate, and neutrinos (detection of the pairs is much difficult than neutrinos) - there appear the ordered virtual motions in spacetime, dark-matter structures and advection. Incompleteness of GR and QP causes that altogether with good solutions we obtain solutions that cannot be realized by Nature and singularities are such solutions. SST shows that there are objects with circular orbit for photons and abstract event horizon but without singularity - we will call such objects the modified black holes (MBHs). The RHIC experiment showed that inside baryons are dense gluon fields. On the other hand, the SST shows that intensity of the superluminal quantum entanglement (it follows from the extended GR) close to the Planck scale is tremendous so the cores of baryons are indestructible. It leads to conclusion that MBHs are built of modified neutron black holes (MNBHs) which are the biggest neutron stars. When we take into account also the gravitational interactions then matter winds around the center point of MBH at a continuously decreasing distance from the point, next spirals on surfaces of the MNBHs towards their poles, and next twists along the relativistic jet. Among many other things, we calculated maximum efficiency of accretion process (42.41%), radii of the accretion discs, described the mechanism of production of the dark-matter structures, gravitational redshift and answered why the luminal Einstein spacetime does not collapse to separated black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[782] **viXra:1508.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 02:52:48*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Imagine many, bazillions, of spheres rotating on 3 axes. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Inside these spheres is another level of spheres that are matched. Therefore we go down two levels of dimensions from our three dimensional level of the universe. Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass rations of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculation for the elementary particles of the proton, electron, muon, and tau(tauon) are shown below. It is shown that these particles are all ratios with the neutron. It is shown that the electron, muon, and tau are all derived from the proton neutron mass ratio. It is shown that the muon and tau are complimentary lepton particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[781] **viXra:1508.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 13:15:55*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author is based on
the conjecture about an existence of the graviton background. An
interaction of photons and moving bodies with this background
leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological
consequences. In the model, redshifts of remote objects and the
dimming of supernovae 1a may be interpreted without any expansion
of the Universe and without dark energy. Some of these
consequences are discussed and confronted with supernovae 1a and
long GRBs observations in this paper. It is shown that the
two-parametric theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits
observations with high confidence levels (100% for the SCP Union
2.1 and JLA compilations and 99.81% for long GRBs). These
parameters are computable in the model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[780] **viXra:1508.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 17:17:56*

**Authors:** F. Winterberg

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The particle-wave duality of the de Broglie pilot wave is explained by the emission of watt-less gravitational waves from Schroedinger's "Zitterbewegung" of elementary particles obeying the Dirac equation. In particular is shown that the quantum potential of the Madelung-transformed Schroedinger equation is gravitational in it's origin.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[779] **viXra:1508.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 05:19:47*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently we develop a model of dynamic quantum vacuum in which a given stellar object increases curvature of space and diminishes density of quantum vacuum. Motion of stellar objects is diminishing density of dynamic quantum vacuum in the areas of their motion. Diminished density of quantum vacuum is causing minimal increasing of gravitational constant G. We propose experiment which will confirm that G has the same value when measured at the same time on places which are situated close the same meridian and have equal distances to the moon and planets of the solar system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[778] **viXra:1508.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 18:34:06*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 74 Pages. genebarbee@msn.com

Gravity is still an active research area for scientists even though English mathematician Isaac Newton published his work entitled Principia in 1867. For the last twenty years or so some of the best theorists have been working on quantum gravity. There is a basic disconnect at the heart of gravity. The problem is that although Isaac’s equations are correct they describe large scale behavior of objects. Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the modern theory of gravity but again, it describes large scale behavior of objects following paths curved by mass. This leaves small scale (quantum scale) gravity a subject of research. In the author’s opinion, a solution to the problem was delayed by general acceptance of an old relationship between fundamental constants. Literature states that the gravitational constant (G) originates at the Planck scale. The Planck length (Compton wavelength) L= (h*G/C^3)^0.5 = 1.61e-35 meters where h is Heisenberg’s reduced constant (H/2pi) = 6.58e-22 Mev-Sec and C is of course the speed of light. The energy associated with the Planck length is 1.2e22 MeV. This energy is far greater than the energy of a proton and the Planck length is incredibly small. Many physicists are reluctant to give up the equation that contains G, h and C in what appears to be a defining relationship. Theorists are exploring alternatives like string theory in search of unification but have failed to gain acceptance of a new theory describing the origin of the gravitational constant.
The proverbial apple that Isaac was watching when he conceived of gravity was a bit of Hollywood. He actually rolled objects down an incline and measured time and distance. He was an observational based scientist. But we have high standards for present day physics and should expect someone to find the source of the gravitational constant and its relationship to the other forces. During Newton’s lifetime the concept of a small scale was not taken seriously although
the idea of an atom came much earlier. We will explore the possibility that the Planck length is too low and the energy 1.2e22 MeV is too high. A new theory of quantum gravity will be proposed at the scale of the proton.
What is space and time? It is interesting to the author that there isn’t agreement on these basic concepts. The difficulties with gravity extend to the origin of space. Furthermore, we all experience elapsed time but some physicists don’t believe in time that moves forward. They do believe that time cycles at the small scale and of course they know that energy is related to these cycles.
A proposal will be made regarding the origin of space and time and its relationship to expansion of the universe. Most cosmologists believe that expansion exceeds the speed of light. They say that space is being created and carries light with it. This appears to violate one of our most sacred concepts; that particles cannot travel at the speed of light? There is no need to violate C in the author’s proposal.
Thermodynamics is one of the most advanced sciences but again there are disconnects at the core. Most physicists agree that velocity is relative but does this mean that kinetic energy is also relative? Kinetic energy is just a form of energy and kinetic energy (1/2*m*V^2) is conserved. Energy according to the first law of thermodynamics can’t be created or destroyed. The second law of thermodynamics says that systems of particles containing heat energy always “run down”. Entropy is a one way downward street but where is the origin? Unfortunately there appears to be no answer that everyone agrees on. We must tie cosmology and thermodynamics together.
During Sir Isaac’s lifetime, the concept of a universe was pretty much limited to a solar system. He wouldn’t have believed how large the universe is but he would have been fascinated as we all are about findings in the last 100 years. He probably couldn’t even conceptualize of gravity being so strong that even light can’t escape an object but this is exactly what happens in a black hole. Many have been discovered and they seem to come in mainly two types: Burnt out stars and supermassive black holes almost as massive as an entire galaxy. Scientists need a quantum theory of gravity because it might help them understand black holes. One question that keeps surfacing is “do black holes collapse?” If they do it suggests a singularity where physics breaks down.
There is another “physics breaks down” possibility at the heart of physics. What was the beginning condition? Some physicists believe that the big bang was a singularity, so hot that relationships we know and use might have been different and there is even speculation that the four forces of nature might have been unified at that point. The author believes that the laws of physics existed before the big bang and are based on information theory [1]. There are interesting parallels between information theory and thermodynamics suggesting that physics is information based like our minds [30].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[777] **viXra:1508.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 03:20:09*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is also shown that the Muon/Neutron mass ratio is calculated with a similar integrated polynomial. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the tau could also be modeled similarly with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the tau neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[776] **viXra:1508.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 02:00:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendiptious Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the muon could also be modeled similarily with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the muon neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[775] **viXra:1508.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 15:39:37*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 43 Pages. article for the colloquium QSCP-XX, September 2015, Varna, Bulgary

Arthur Haas explained the Hydrogen spectra, 3 years before Niels Bohr, by extending the virial theorem to the Planck energy formula. This suggests the holographic coherence principle: energy conservation means frequency unicity, i.e. the coherence condition for Holography. This is applied to an Hydrogen molecule model, in a black-hole sphere of horizon R = 2GM/c2: this critical condition being seen as a general holographic conservation, and tied to the Non-Doppler cosmic period tcc. So R/c appears as a period 2GFtcc²/ħƛe3 ≈ 13.8123(1) Gyr, while R = 2ħ2/GmempmH ≈ 13.812(1) Glyr confirms Eddington's Theory. These two formulas displays a G-GF symmetry between Newton and Fermi constants and are compatible with the so-called 'Universe age' 13.81(5) Gyr of standard cosmology.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) wavelength enters an associated special holographic conservation, confirming a come-back to the steady-state cosmology, for which the factor Wm = 3/10 for matter density is trivial, eliminating the 'dark energy problem', and confirming the Eddington prediction M/mH = 136 × 2256, while the real Hydrogen density is √(me/mH) ≈ 0.0233, nearly compatible with the Helium density and CMB temperature, and connected to Wm. From Sanchez-Maruani matter-antimatter vibration viewpoint, dark matter would be usual matter vibrating in quadrature. A cosmic Hydrogen atom model relates directly R, ƛe and the Bohr radius rB with R' = 2re3/lP2 ≈ 4R/3, seen as the radius of a sphere representing a Grandcosmos. This rules out several common conjectures: 1) the Primordial Big-Bang, 2) the Planck Wall, 3) the Cosmic Anthropic Principle, 4) the Multiverse.
The holographic relations can be represented in a topological axis, involving a double exponential function, and showing the special string dimension series n = 2 + 4p. It yields R and rB for the canonic values n = 26 (tachyo-bosonic) and 10 (superstring), with a non-standard Gluon mass for p = 1. The Grandcosmos is the lacking concept in 1) the CMB interpretation (not a fossil radiation) 2) the steady-state model (no need for an internal thermostat) 3) the lacking point p = 7. The physical parameters are shown to connect with music numbers, economic numbers and biological parameters, pointing to a Grand Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[774] **viXra:1508.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 13:10:55*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge hypothesis of emergent space-time-matter, in which space-time-matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. The hypothesis of emergent reality (ER- hypothesis later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, to make cosmology compatible with ER-hypothesis, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. General Relativity, Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model are expected to be solutions of equations of ER-hypothesis for extreme cases. ER-hypothesis is non-gauge theory and is not based on space of states. Equations of ER-hypothesis forms system of functional equations, and they are expected to be valid for any physical case without any limits. So, if ER-hypothesis is valid, all physical phenomena, include undiscovered yet, are possible to predict and derive from equations of ER-hypothesis. Equations of ER-hypothesis are complex and solution for them was not found, approach how they can be solved is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[773] **viXra:1508.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 10:03:53*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Following on from the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales, as shown in the
3D Universe Theory, we propose a simple formula to calculate the age of the Universe. It is in agreement with Planck 2013 results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[772] **viXra:1508.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-07 14:31:24*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind. The following equation shows a mathematical relations that may relate to the mass ratio of the Proton/Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[771] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 21:21:44*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1) That the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[770] **viXra:1508.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 17:14:30*

**Authors:** Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.

**Comments:** 29 Pages. www.is-si.ru/atomic-pp.pdf

The atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) increases in the field of gravity. The value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. This is the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin. The authors propose a crucial physical experiment with two high precision atomic clocks to verify their hypothesis. According to the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin time goes faster in the field of gravity. The authors provide the official prize for the competent disproof of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin before the experiment, the necessary materials are in Russian Academy of Sciences. $ 100 000 will be paid to any person who will disprove the effect. To get $ 100 000 see the contacts in the end of this scientific paper – you have to send by e-mail and post the competent scientific disproof in case you have it.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[769] **viXra:1508.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 05:14:25*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note describes the global geometric structure of the Universe based on the Ricci flow and Einstein's equations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[768] **viXra:1507.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 03:58:15*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Model, Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[767] **viXra:1507.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 20:44:29*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Units of length, time and energy calculated by applying the Holographic Principle to the cosmological Event Horizon are concordant with the properties of the atomic nucleus, and remain so over the history of the universe from CMB decoupling into the infinite future. Such units differ from the Planck units by 20 orders of magnitude. The link between cosmology and particle physics is a non-zero cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[766] **viXra:1507.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 05:14:41*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

temporal physics, multitempal physics

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[765] **viXra:1507.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 17:30:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Explicit deformations of the Lorentz (Conformal) algebra are performed by recurring to Clifford algebras. In particular, deformations of the boosts generators are possible which still retain the form of the Lorentz algebra. In this case there is an invariant value of the energy that is set to be equal to the Planck energy. A discussion of Clifford-Hopf $\kappa$-deformed quantum Poincare algebra follows. To finalize we provide further deformations of the Clifford geometric product based on Moyal star products associated with noncommutative spacetime coordinates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[764] **viXra:1507.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 13:44:40*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to highlight the deep connection between Einstein's relativistic kinetic
energy formula and two quantum gravity laws' governing their respective domains: black holes and
particle physics. It seems this connection leads to a deeper understanding of the nature of the
intervening processes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[763] **viXra:1507.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 17:33:14*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a continuation of this conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the
Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of
Spacetime, Strings and Branes and in the forming of a new concept called the Probability of
Geometry. Further taking these concepts through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology
concerning possible physics and cosmology beyond the Planck scale. With the added feature
of testability, and expansion of how to conceptually marry General Relativity, Quantum
Mechanics, M-Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity into one complete theory of Line Space.
With a more full understanding of Black Holes and how the modern concepts fails.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[678] **viXra:1510.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-03 10:13:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We know that the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) fails at low energies. For example, within QCD, we cannot calculate precise mass and spin of nucleons. It does not concern the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Moreover, experimental data show that at low energies the effective range parameters for nn, np, and pp scatterings are similar, but different. Why? Here, applying SST, we calculated the effective range parameters and scattering lengths for nn (respectively 2.732 fm and -18.806 fm), for np (2.778 fm and -23.867 fm), and pp (2.824 fm and -16.995 fm). These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. At low energies, the effective range parameters follow from exchanges of virtual pions (which are responsible for the nuclear strong interactions) and production of the virtual condensates (which are responsible for the nuclear weak interactions at low energies). The condensates insignificantly increase the effective ranges. Just at low energies, the effective range parameters for nucleons follow from their strong-weak interactions described within SST. On the other hand, the scattering lengths we interpret as the circumferences of the produced gluon/photon loops with maximum radius. The obtained here and within SST results show that QCD is the incomplete and partially incorrect theory - the same concerns the electroweak theory at low energies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[677] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-02 21:04:16*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Re do of equation 12, with explanations of dimensional scaling put in ; 6 Pages. For Marcel Grossman 14. Details put in as to Riemannian Penrose inequality only being used here due to a non zero scale factor, initially.

Initial temperature, particle count are tied into entropy genration, and we make a reference to the Riemannian Penrose inequality, in terms of , if it is an equality what it says about admissible frequencies, as to the early universe. The author is fully aware of the Riemannian Penrose inequality's usual application, black hole physics. Its application to early universe cosmology is due to assuming a non zero, but extremely small initial scale factor at the start of inflation. The frequency, of Eq.(12) is proportional to [1/ distance] with the distance ~ Area to the 1/3rd power. Which is used as a bound to make sense of the range of frequencies assumed in this problem

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[676] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-02 00:48:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. For Marcel Grossman 14. Details put in as to Riemannian Penrose inequality only being used here due to a non zero scale factor, initially, Explanations included in for meeting MG 14 standards of submission quality

Initial temperature, particle count are tied into entropy genration, and we make a reference to the Riemannian Penrose inequality, in terms of , if it is an equality what it says about admissible frequencies, as to the early universe. The author is fully aware of the Riemannian Penrose inequality's usual application, black hole physics. Its application to early universe cosmology is due to assuming a non zero, but extremely small initial scale factor at the start of inflation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[675] **viXra:1509.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-01 01:12:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Changed my cite name from A.W.Beckwith, to Andrew Beckwith

Initial temperature, particle count are tied into entropy genration, and we make a reference to the Riemannian Penrose inequality, in terms of , if it is an equality what it says about admissible frequencies, as to the early universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[674] **viXra:1509.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-30 05:41:36*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The space roar is the unsolved problem in cosmology and particle physics. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that the ARCADE 2 and other literature the space roar for frequencies from 22 MHz to 10 GHz follows from the motion of the very early Universe in relation to the ground state of the luminal Einstein spacetime, follows also from the expansion of the Universe, and from the decays of the quadrupoles of charged pions and of the bottom quark-antiquark pairs into photons. Derived here the excess power-law spectrum in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 +- 0.001 K is consistent with observational data. Here as well we calculated the precise mass of the bottom quark: 4167.58 MeV. We showed also that production of the Higgs bosons during the period of time the CMB was produced cannot be neglected in a theory of the early Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[673] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-03 10:47:24*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Added through an article by Bojowald in the Volume 172, springer verlag "The arrows of time" proof that the Kinetic energy in the (pre-Planckian) state is dominant over Potential energy

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.Main finding is that due to the fluctuation of the metric tensor that there is a non zero initial entropy. Plus a mechanism for why the flat space condition was approached As an immediate consequence of the fluctuation of the time component of the space-time metric. An information theory based calculation in Appendix D also adds to an initial value of graviton mass, which scales to 10^-62 grams if initial entropy later becomes 10^120 or so, in the present era. Appendix E. FINALLY, using Bojowald's article in the "Fundamental theoreis of Physics 172 ( Springer Verlag), to argue as to the dominance of Kinetic energy which is a proof in concept as to using the lower bound expression derived as for the Graviton mass, which we calculated as 10^-70 Grams

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[672] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-02 21:56:05*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Equation 6E rationalized and given explanation, so the dimensional approximation used is understood by the reader.

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.Main finding is that due to the fluctuation of the metric tensor that there is a non zero initial entropy. Plus a mechanism for why the flat space condition was approached As an immediate consequence of the fluctuation of the time component of the space-time metric. An information theory based calculation in Appendix D also adds to an initial value of graviton mass, which scales to 10^-62 grams if initial entropy later becomes 10^120 or so, in the present era. Appendix E

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[671] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-01 04:42:06*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Adds on G. Galloway, P. Miao, and R. Schoen, “Initial Data and the Einstein Constraints”, pp 412-448, for bringing up the role of the Riemannian Penrose inequality which may permit setting an optimal frequency for Gravitational and NLED radiation

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.Main finding is that due to the fluctuation of the metric tensor that there is a non zero initial entropy. Plus a mechanism for why the flat space condition was approached As an immediate consequence of the fluctuation of the time component of the space-time metric. An information theory based calculation in Appendix D also adds to an initial value of graviton mass, which scales to 10^-62 grams if initial entropy later becomes 10^120 or so, in the present era. Appendix E discusses applying the Riemannian Penrose Inequality to obtain a range of frequency, which may enable magnetic fields to be generated from Relic Cosmological conditions

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[670] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-30 18:22:23*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Three more references added, plus Appendix D which gives an information theory based set value for initial Graviton mass. Which in the limit of today becomes 10^-62 grams in the present era (Entropy grows)

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.Main finding is that due to the fluctuation of the metric tensor that there is a non zero initial entropy. Plus a mechanism for why the flat space condition was approached As an immediate consequence of the fluctuation of the time component of the space-time metric. An information theory based calculation in Appendix D also adds to an initial value of graviton mass, which scales to 10^-62 grams if initial entropy later becomes 10^120 or so, in the present era

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[669] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-24 21:29:19*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Three new references, from Padmanabhan, and C. Egan and C. H. Lineweaver, added, plus AppendixC on a calculation for initial entropy added

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.Main finding is that due to the fluctuation of the metric tensor that there is a non zero initial entropy. Plus a mechanism for why the flat space condition was approached As an immediate consequence of the fluctuation of the time component of the space-time metric

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[668] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-23 21:22:58*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 pages. Main change, that there is a reference, [27] I. Ciufolini and J. Wheeler, Gravitation and Inertia , Princeton Series in Physics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA, 1995: This reference changed Appendix B of this document

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.Main finding is that due to the fluctuation of the metric tensor that there is a non zero initial entropy. Plus a mechanism for why the flat space condition was approached As an immediate consequence of the fluctuation of the time component of the space-time metric

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[667] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-23 06:36:16*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. New reference , Hambler added, plus conditions for why k ->0, flat space, in the formulation of this problem

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.Main finding is that due to the fluctuation of the metric tensor that there is a non zero initial entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[666] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-21 04:54:08*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Addition of non zero entropy , at the end of the manuscript as a direct consequence of Ng. infinite quantum statistics, plus variation in the g(tt) component of the metric tensor

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.Main finding is that due to the fluctuation of the metric tensor that there is a non zero initial entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[665] **viXra:1509.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-20 22:46:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Added more , with respect to classical and quantum versions of uncertainty in part, due to a future works discussion as an extension of Robert Wald's " Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime and Black Hole Thermodynamics

Determination of a major refinement of Unruth's metric tensor uncertainty principle, as of a Plank interval of time, in the beginning of cosmology,with consequences outlined. Main result, a lower bound to the mass of a "massive" graviton, in part based on Barbour's "emergent" time hypothesis, plus other findings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[664] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-18 18:20:32*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Inverse fourth power (1/r4) gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[663] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-17 19:18:38*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “inverse fourth-power (1/distance4) gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[662] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-16 22:44:41*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Naked gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[661] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-08 09:15:31*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Naked gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[660] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-07 00:06:25*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Naked gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[659] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 15:45:21*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Elementary gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[658] **viXra:1509.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 05:16:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Within the Standard Model (SM) it is assumed that neutrinos are scattered on quarks and that quark and gluon contributions to the proton’s spin are the same. Such assumptions lead to conclusion that cross section for neutrino is about two times higher than for antineutrinos (the cross-section problem) - it is consistent with experimental data. On the other hand, the RHIC experiment shows that the gluon and quark contributions to proton’s spin, in some approximation, indeed are the same, about 20-30 percent of the total proton’s spin but we can see that it does not solve the proton spin crisis so the SM assumptions concerning the neutrinos are not clear. Here we solved the cross-section problem in a different way. According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the baryons have an atom-like structure and the spin and charge of the core of baryons are both directly associated with the torus composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs. In centre of the torus is the condensate composed as well of such pairs. Structure of the bare electrons is similar. The phenomena concerning the condensates solve the cross-section problem. Here, within SST, we calculated as well for an isoscalar target and electrons the total neutrino and antineutrino charged-current (CC) cross-sections divided by neutrino energy as a function of neutrino energy. Obtained results are very close to experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[657] **viXra:1508.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-15 14:25:40*

**Authors:** Jae-Kwang Hwang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is shown that the particle energy is proportional to its surface area. This surface area dependence
of the particle energy extended to the universe scale indicates that our universe is the
holographic universe. The obtained equation of E = 12.2047 1038 x2 = ρsS is based on the experimental
rest mass and radius relation of the proton. This result can be a first evidence of the possible
holographic particles and universe based on the experimental data. Also, the graviton is proposed
to have the rest mass (mg) of 3.1872 10
−31 eV/c2 and the force range of 10.032 Mpc. The diameter
(d = 1.0493 1029 m) of the observable universe is obtained. The observed dark energy density is
explained in terms of the holographic character of the observable universe. Also, the mass gap in the
Quantum Yang-Mills theory is proposed as the rest mass (3.1872 10−31 eV/c2) of the Planck size
real particle (or graviton). The evolution and origin of the black hole and our universe are newly
explained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[656] **viXra:1508.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-07 10:12:15*

**Authors:** Jae-Kwang Hwang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is shown that the particle energy is proportional to its surface area. This surface area dependence
of the particle energy extended to the universe scale indicates that our universe is the
holographic universe. The obtained equation of E = 12.2047 1038 x2 = ρsS is based on the experimental
rest mass and radius relation of the proton. This result can be a first evidence of the possible
holographic particles and universe based on the experimental data. Also, the graviton is proposed
to have the rest mass (mg) of 3.1872 10
−31 eV/c2 and the force range of 10.032 Mpc. The diameter
(d = 1.3186 1030 m) of the observable universe is obtained. The observed dark energy density is
explained in terms of the holographic character of the observable universe. Also, the evolution and
origin of the black hole and our universe are newly explained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[655] **viXra:1508.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-28 03:28:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Escaping information from black holes (BHs) produce firewalls at the event horizon. Such walls of fire absorb anything falling in black holes so they destroy them. It leads to conclusion that black hole understood as singularity with event horizon cannot be realized by Nature and that General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Physics (QP) are the incomplete theories. To solve the information paradox, Hawking proposes to replace the event horizon for apparent horizon i.e. for horizon widened due to quantum fluctuations in such a way that light can escape but there is lack of a mathematical description. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we solved the information paradox in a different. The key to solve the many unsolved problems concerning black holes are the interactions of nuclear matter with the luminal Einstein spacetime both composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs, which dominate, and neutrinos (detection of the pairs is much difficult than neutrinos) - there appear the ordered virtual motions in spacetime, dark-matter structures and advection. Incompleteness of GR and QP causes that altogether with good solutions we obtain solutions that cannot be realized by Nature and singularities are such solutions. SST shows that there are objects with circular orbit for photons and abstract event horizon but without singularity - we will call such objects the modified black holes (MBHs). The RHIC experiment showed that inside baryons are dense gluon fields. On the other hand, the SST shows that intensity of the superluminal quantum entanglement (it follows from the extended GR) close to the Planck scale is tremendous so the cores of baryons are indestructible. It leads to conclusion that MBHs are built of modified neutron black holes (MNBHs) which are the biggest neutron stars. When we take into account also the gravitational interactions then matter winds around the center point of MBH at a continuously decreasing distance from the point, next spirals on surfaces of the MNBHs towards their poles, and next twists along the relativistic jet. Among many other things, we calculated maximum efficiency of accretion process (41.42%), radii of the accretion discs, described the mechanism of production of the dark-matter structures, gravitational redshift and answered why the luminal Einstein spacetime does not collapse to separated black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[654] **viXra:1508.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 00:03:47*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. corrected typos

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is also shown that the Muon/Neutron mass ratio is calculated with a similar integrated polynomial. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the tau could also be modeled similarly with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the tau neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[653] **viXra:1508.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 00:41:58*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the muon could also be modeled similarily with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the muon neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[652] **viXra:1508.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-15 11:48:16*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendiptious Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the muon could also be modeled similarily with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the muon neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[651] **viXra:1508.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-08 17:15:31*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind. The following equation shows a mathematical relations that may relate to the mass ratio of the Proton/Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[650] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-15 07:29:28*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected Equation 3

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[649] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-14 20:57:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[648] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-07 14:03:34*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[647] **viXra:1507.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-05 14:58:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to highlight the deep connection between Einstein's relativistic kinetic
energy formula and two quantum gravity laws' governing their respective domains: black holes and
particle physics. It seems this connection leads to a deeper understanding of the nature of the
intervening processes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory