**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(6) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(6) - 1111(10) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(8) - 1202(10) - 1203(12) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(8) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(15) - 1305(12) - 1306(8) - 1307(11) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(6) - 1311(14) - 1312(13)

2014 - 1401(15) - 1402(12) - 1403(15) - 1404(6) - 1405(14) - 1406(12) - 1407(16) - 1408(12) - 1409(18) - 1410(18) - 1411(19) - 1412(16)

2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(15) - 1503(18) - 1504(12) - 1505(17) - 1506(15) - 1507(20) - 1508(16)

Any replacements are listed further down

[785] **viXra:1508.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 09:28:59*

**Authors:** Jae - Kwang Hwang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is shown that the particle energy is proportional to its surface area. This surface area dependence of the particle energy extended to the universe scale indicates that our universe is the holographic universe. The obtained equation of E = 12.2047 1038 x2 = sS is based on the experimental rest mass and radius relation of the proton. This result can be a first evidence of the possible holographic particles and universe based on the experimental data. Also, the graviton is proposed to have the rest mass (mg) of 3.1872 10-31 eV/c2 and the force range of 10.032 Mpc. Also, the evolution and origin of the black hole and our universe are newly explained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[784] **viXra:1508.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 11:48:35*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time can be identified in quantum gravity, if the Hamiltonian of the gravitational field has a certain look. In this paper we obtain the canonical formulation of quantum gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[783] **viXra:1508.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 04:50:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Escaping information from black holes (BHs) produce firewalls at the event horizon. Such walls of fire absorb anything falling in black holes so they destroy them. It leads to conclusion that black hole understood as singularity with event horizon cannot be realized by Nature and that General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Physics (QP) are the incomplete theories. To solve the information paradox, Hawking proposes to replace the event horizon for apparent horizon i.e. for horizon widened due to quantum fluctuations in such a way that light can escape but there is lack of a mathematical description. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we solved the information paradox in a different. The key to solve the many unsolved problems concerning black holes are the interactions of nuclear matter with the luminal Einstein spacetime both composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs, which dominate, and neutrinos (detection of the pairs is much difficult than neutrinos) - there appear the ordered virtual motions in spacetime, dark-matter structures and advection. Incompleteness of GR and QP causes that altogether with good solutions we obtain solutions that cannot be realized by Nature and singularities are such solutions. SST shows that there are objects with circular orbit for photons and abstract event horizon but without singularity - we will call such objects the modified black holes (MBHs). The RHIC experiment showed that inside baryons are dense gluon fields. On the other hand, the SST shows that intensity of the superluminal quantum entanglement (it follows from the extended GR) close to the Planck scale is tremendous so the cores of baryons are indestructible. It leads to conclusion that MBHs are built of modified neutron black holes (MNBHs) which are the biggest neutron stars. When we take into account also the gravitational interactions then matter winds around the center point of MBH at a continuously decreasing distance from the point, next spirals on surfaces of the MNBHs towards their poles, and next twists along the relativistic jet. Among many other things, we calculated maximum efficiency of accretion process (42.41%), radii of the accretion discs, described the mechanism of production of the dark-matter structures, gravitational redshift and answered why the luminal Einstein spacetime does not collapse to separated black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[782] **viXra:1508.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 02:52:48*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Imagine many, bazillions, of spheres rotating on 3 axes. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Inside these spheres is another level of spheres that are matched. Therefore we go down two levels of dimensions from our three dimensional level of the universe. Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass rations of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculation for the elementary particles of the proton, electron, muon, and tau(tauon) are shown below. It is shown that these particles are all ratios with the neutron. It is shown that the electron, muon, and tau are all derived from the proton neutron mass ratio. It is shown that the muon and tau are complimentary lepton particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[781] **viXra:1508.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-20 13:15:55*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author is based on
the conjecture about an existence of the graviton background. An
interaction of photons and moving bodies with this background
leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological
consequences. In the model, redshifts of remote objects and the
dimming of supernovae 1a may be interpreted without any expansion
of the Universe and without dark energy. Some of these
consequences are discussed and confronted with supernovae 1a and
long GRBs observations in this paper. It is shown that the
two-parametric theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits
observations with high confidence levels (100% for the SCP Union
2.1 and JLA compilations and 99.81% for long GRBs). These
parameters are computable in the model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[780] **viXra:1508.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 17:17:56*

**Authors:** F. Winterberg

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The particle-wave duality of the de Broglie pilot wave is explained by the emission of watt-less gravitational waves from Schroedinger's "Zitterbewegung" of elementary particles obeying the Dirac equation. In particular is shown that the quantum potential of the Madelung-transformed Schroedinger equation is gravitational in it's origin.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[779] **viXra:1508.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 05:19:47*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently we develop a model of dynamic quantum vacuum in which a given stellar object increases curvature of space and diminishes density of quantum vacuum. Motion of stellar objects is diminishing density of dynamic quantum vacuum in the areas of their motion. Diminished density of quantum vacuum is causing minimal increasing of gravitational constant G. We propose experiment which will confirm that G has the same value when measured at the same time on places which are situated close the same meridian and have equal distances to the moon and planets of the solar system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[778] **viXra:1508.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 18:34:06*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 74 Pages. genebarbee@msn.com

Gravity is still an active research area for scientists even though English mathematician Isaac Newton published his work entitled Principia in 1867. For the last twenty years or so some of the best theorists have been working on quantum gravity. There is a basic disconnect at the heart of gravity. The problem is that although Isaac’s equations are correct they describe large scale behavior of objects. Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the modern theory of gravity but again, it describes large scale behavior of objects following paths curved by mass. This leaves small scale (quantum scale) gravity a subject of research. In the author’s opinion, a solution to the problem was delayed by general acceptance of an old relationship between fundamental constants. Literature states that the gravitational constant (G) originates at the Planck scale. The Planck length (Compton wavelength) L= (h*G/C^3)^0.5 = 1.61e-35 meters where h is Heisenberg’s reduced constant (H/2pi) = 6.58e-22 Mev-Sec and C is of course the speed of light. The energy associated with the Planck length is 1.2e22 MeV. This energy is far greater than the energy of a proton and the Planck length is incredibly small. Many physicists are reluctant to give up the equation that contains G, h and C in what appears to be a defining relationship. Theorists are exploring alternatives like string theory in search of unification but have failed to gain acceptance of a new theory describing the origin of the gravitational constant.
The proverbial apple that Isaac was watching when he conceived of gravity was a bit of Hollywood. He actually rolled objects down an incline and measured time and distance. He was an observational based scientist. But we have high standards for present day physics and should expect someone to find the source of the gravitational constant and its relationship to the other forces. During Newton’s lifetime the concept of a small scale was not taken seriously although
the idea of an atom came much earlier. We will explore the possibility that the Planck length is too low and the energy 1.2e22 MeV is too high. A new theory of quantum gravity will be proposed at the scale of the proton.
What is space and time? It is interesting to the author that there isn’t agreement on these basic concepts. The difficulties with gravity extend to the origin of space. Furthermore, we all experience elapsed time but some physicists don’t believe in time that moves forward. They do believe that time cycles at the small scale and of course they know that energy is related to these cycles.
A proposal will be made regarding the origin of space and time and its relationship to expansion of the universe. Most cosmologists believe that expansion exceeds the speed of light. They say that space is being created and carries light with it. This appears to violate one of our most sacred concepts; that particles cannot travel at the speed of light? There is no need to violate C in the author’s proposal.
Thermodynamics is one of the most advanced sciences but again there are disconnects at the core. Most physicists agree that velocity is relative but does this mean that kinetic energy is also relative? Kinetic energy is just a form of energy and kinetic energy (1/2*m*V^2) is conserved. Energy according to the first law of thermodynamics can’t be created or destroyed. The second law of thermodynamics says that systems of particles containing heat energy always “run down”. Entropy is a one way downward street but where is the origin? Unfortunately there appears to be no answer that everyone agrees on. We must tie cosmology and thermodynamics together.
During Sir Isaac’s lifetime, the concept of a universe was pretty much limited to a solar system. He wouldn’t have believed how large the universe is but he would have been fascinated as we all are about findings in the last 100 years. He probably couldn’t even conceptualize of gravity being so strong that even light can’t escape an object but this is exactly what happens in a black hole. Many have been discovered and they seem to come in mainly two types: Burnt out stars and supermassive black holes almost as massive as an entire galaxy. Scientists need a quantum theory of gravity because it might help them understand black holes. One question that keeps surfacing is “do black holes collapse?” If they do it suggests a singularity where physics breaks down.
There is another “physics breaks down” possibility at the heart of physics. What was the beginning condition? Some physicists believe that the big bang was a singularity, so hot that relationships we know and use might have been different and there is even speculation that the four forces of nature might have been unified at that point. The author believes that the laws of physics existed before the big bang and are based on information theory [1]. There are interesting parallels between information theory and thermodynamics suggesting that physics is information based like our minds [30].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[777] **viXra:1508.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 03:20:09*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is also shown that the Muon/Neutron mass ratio is calculated with a similar integrated polynomial. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the tau could also be modeled similarly with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the tau neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[776] **viXra:1508.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 02:00:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendiptious Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the muon could also be modeled similarily with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the muon neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[775] **viXra:1508.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 15:39:37*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 43 Pages. article for the colloquium QSCP-XX, September 2015, Varna, Bulgary

Arthur Haas explained the Hydrogen spectra, 3 years before Niels Bohr, by extending the virial theorem to the Planck energy formula. This suggests the holographic coherence principle: energy conservation means frequency unicity, i.e. the coherence condition for Holography. This is applied to an Hydrogen molecule model, in a black-hole sphere of horizon R = 2GM/c2: this critical condition being seen as a general holographic conservation, and tied to the Non-Doppler cosmic period tcc. So R/c appears as a period 2GFtcc²/ħƛe3 ≈ 13.8123(1) Gyr, while R = 2ħ2/GmempmH ≈ 13.812(1) Glyr confirms Eddington's Theory. These two formulas displays a G-GF symmetry between Newton and Fermi constants and are compatible with the so-called 'Universe age' 13.81(5) Gyr of standard cosmology.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) wavelength enters an associated special holographic conservation, confirming a come-back to the steady-state cosmology, for which the factor Wm = 3/10 for matter density is trivial, eliminating the 'dark energy problem', and confirming the Eddington prediction M/mH = 136 × 2256, while the real Hydrogen density is √(me/mH) ≈ 0.0233, nearly compatible with the Helium density and CMB temperature, and connected to Wm. From Sanchez-Maruani matter-antimatter vibration viewpoint, dark matter would be usual matter vibrating in quadrature. A cosmic Hydrogen atom model relates directly R, ƛe and the Bohr radius rB with R' = 2re3/lP2 ≈ 4R/3, seen as the radius of a sphere representing a Grandcosmos. This rules out several common conjectures: 1) the Primordial Big-Bang, 2) the Planck Wall, 3) the Cosmic Anthropic Principle, 4) the Multiverse.
The holographic relations can be represented in a topological axis, involving a double exponential function, and showing the special string dimension series n = 2 + 4p. It yields R and rB for the canonic values n = 26 (tachyo-bosonic) and 10 (superstring), with a non-standard Gluon mass for p = 1. The Grandcosmos is the lacking concept in 1) the CMB interpretation (not a fossil radiation) 2) the steady-state model (no need for an internal thermostat) 3) the lacking point p = 7. The physical parameters are shown to connect with music numbers, economic numbers and biological parameters, pointing to a Grand Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[774] **viXra:1508.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 13:10:55*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge hypothesis of emergent space-time-matter, in which space-time-matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. The hypothesis of emergent reality (ER- hypothesis later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, to make cosmology compatible with ER-hypothesis, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. General Relativity, Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model are expected to be solutions of equations of ER-hypothesis for extreme cases. ER-hypothesis is non-gauge theory and is not based on space of states. Equations of ER-hypothesis forms system of functional equations, and they are expected to be valid for any physical case without any limits. So, if ER-hypothesis is valid, all physical phenomena, include undiscovered yet, are possible to predict and derive from equations of ER-hypothesis. Equations of ER-hypothesis are complex and solution for them was not found, approach how they can be solved is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[773] **viXra:1508.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 10:03:53*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Following on from the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales, as shown in the
3D Universe Theory, we propose a simple formula to calculate the age of the Universe. It is in agreement with Planck 2013 results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[772] **viXra:1508.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-07 14:31:24*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind. The following equation shows a mathematical relations that may relate to the mass ratio of the Proton/Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[771] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 21:21:44*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1) That the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[770] **viXra:1508.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 17:14:30*

**Authors:** Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.

**Comments:** 29 Pages. www.is-si.ru/atomic-pp.pdf

The atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) increases in the field of gravity. The value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. This is the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin. The authors propose a crucial physical experiment with two high precision atomic clocks to verify their hypothesis. According to the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin time goes faster in the field of gravity. The authors provide the official prize for the competent disproof of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin before the experiment, the necessary materials are in Russian Academy of Sciences. $ 100 000 will be paid to any person who will disprove the effect. To get $ 100 000 see the contacts in the end of this scientific paper – you have to send by e-mail and post the competent scientific disproof in case you have it.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[769] **viXra:1508.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 05:14:25*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note describes the global geometric structure of the Universe based on the Ricci flow and Einstein's equations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[768] **viXra:1507.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 03:58:15*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Model, Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[767] **viXra:1507.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 20:44:29*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Units of length, time and energy calculated by applying the Holographic Principle to the cosmological Event Horizon are concordant with the properties of the atomic nucleus, and remain so over the history of the universe from CMB decoupling into the infinite future. Such units differ from the Planck units by 20 orders of magnitude. The link between cosmology and particle physics is a non-zero cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[766] **viXra:1507.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 05:14:41*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

temporal physics, multitempal physics

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[765] **viXra:1507.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 17:30:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Explicit deformations of the Lorentz (Conformal) algebra are performed by recurring to Clifford algebras. In particular, deformations of the boosts generators are possible which still retain the form of the Lorentz algebra. In this case there is an invariant value of the energy that is set to be equal to the Planck energy. A discussion of Clifford-Hopf $\kappa$-deformed quantum Poincare algebra follows. To finalize we provide further deformations of the Clifford geometric product based on Moyal star products associated with noncommutative spacetime coordinates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[764] **viXra:1507.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 13:44:40*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to highlight the deep connection between Einstein's relativistic kinetic
energy formula and two quantum gravity laws' governing their respective domains: black holes and
particle physics. It seems this connection leads to a deeper understanding of the nature of the
intervening processes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[763] **viXra:1507.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 17:33:14*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a continuation of this conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the
Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of
Spacetime, Strings and Branes and in the forming of a new concept called the Probability of
Geometry. Further taking these concepts through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology
concerning possible physics and cosmology beyond the Planck scale. With the added feature
of testability, and expansion of how to conceptually marry General Relativity, Quantum
Mechanics, M-Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity into one complete theory of Line Space.
With a more full understanding of Black Holes and how the modern concepts fails.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[762] **viXra:1507.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 04:10:32*

**Authors:** Yevgeniy Kutanov

**Comments:** 8 pages in English and 9 pages in Russian

This paper describes a model of gravity where gravitational pull is created by accelerating flow of space which is absorbed by mass. Proposed model of gravity is used to define the size of a zone of gravitational influence of mass and to explain the value of the rest mass energy and the phenomenon of time dilation. This model suggests that the gravitational influence of mass squeezes space cells and accelerates them towards the mass until a certain critical speed is reached at which the space cells collapse. The critical speed of the space cells is the mass’s space absorption speed which sets an absolute speed limit for a movement in space for any object. The total energy of mass is equal to the sum of its gravitational and kinetic energies. Stationary object with uniform space absorption from all directions has the highest gravitational energy for its mass but no kinetic energy. When an object is moving with the speed of light absorbing space from one direction it completely loses its gravitational influence but gains the highest possible kinetic energy. The last case defines the value of the total energy of mass as equal to its highest kinetic energy. Time for the particle of matter is measured in the acts of space cells absorption. Duration of the quantum of time is a function of the size of the space cells when they reach a particle of matter. The gravitational influence of mass is weakening when an object is moving in space. Lower gravity means bigger size of the space cells on the surface of the matter and therefore slower time for the moving mass. This model of mass shows that even moving with the speed of light particles experience time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[761] **viXra:1507.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 05:35:44*

**Authors:** Klimets Alexander

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We discuss the gravitational collapse of a photon. It is shown that when the photon gets Planck energy, it turns into a black hole (as a result of interaction with the object to be measured). It is shown that three-dimensional space is a consequence of energy advantage in the formation of the Planck black holes. New uncertainty relations established on the basis of Einstein’s equations. It is shown that the curvature of space-time is quantized.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[760] **viXra:1507.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 14:43:03*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper predicts the fine structure constant with relativistic correction to 10 digits

This paper proposes an equation for the fine structure constant, and relativistic contribution to the fine structure constant. This relativistic contribution gives a prediction of the fine structure constant within one sigma of the fine structure constant and accuracy to 11 digits.
In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine structure constant constant. This constant is found to depend only on pi and the ratios of the rest masses of the electron, neutron, and proton.
This paper proposes an equation for the fine structure constant, and relativistic contribution to the fine structure constant. This relativistic contribution gives a prediction of the fine structure constant within one sigma of the fine structure constant and correlation to 10 digits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[759] **viXra:1507.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 04:57:12*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recent observations suggest that the models of synchronized co-evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies in the early Universe are partially incorrect - Trakhtenbrot et al. (10 July 2015). They found in the galaxy CID-947, which is placed in time distance about 12 Gyr (z = 3.328), a black hole with a mass of about 10 % of the total galactic mass. On the other hand, the SMBH in such a normal-size galaxy achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5 % of the host galaxy mass in the present day i.e. their mass is about 20 to 50 times smaller (!). This observational fact is consistent with the cosmology described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Here we present a revised scenario for the evolution of galaxies. We can see all galaxies but we cannot see the initial period 7.75 Gyr of their 21.61 Gyr evolution (the Ludwig et al. data (2009) suggest that the Universe is about 22 Gyr old but within the Scale-Symmetric Theory we showed that we can see only the last period about 13.8 Gyr). During the unseen period, due to the inflows of dark matter and next of the turbulent inflows of dark energy, evolution of the initial protogalaxies had been differentiated. The SST shows that in the visible period of evolution of the Universe, the ratio of mass of the central black hole to total mass of galaxy (it concerns the quasars also) should be equal to or lower than 0.583 and this result is consistent with new data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[758] **viXra:1507.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 04:25:05*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The second and third deformation of space are manifestations that we perceive as matter (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040) and http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097). In this paper it is described that motion is a form of space deformation, by deduction of forces from the space as motion forces, which are accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonia (oscillators), as quantum forces, causing harmonic change of cohesive pressure in proximal space (see http://viXra.org/abs/1505.0211).
It is described, here, the motion dynamics and the change that is installed on the gravitational field of the particle, resulting to the ability of detection of the uniform motion. Besides, the motion should be absolute, since the intervals are referring to the absolute dynamic space of the Universe. The maintaining of the accumulated forces, due to the particle speed, is the cause for change of the dynamics of the uniform motion and, hence, of the Physics Laws in inertial systems. Moreover, with the new concept of absolute motion it is considered a natural consequence the contribution of the two parts of monochromatic light in Michelson-Morley’s experiment (will be developed at a next paper), without the arbitrariness of the constant light speed in inertial systems.
Also, it is defined the timeless speed, at which happen all the phenomena of the Universe. The gravitational red shift of the stars spectrum and the chaotic motion of galactic systems are interpreted, without the assumption of dark matter and energy.
Finally, it is communicated the forecast of Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space, that refers to the research of the observatory (Magic telescope on La Palma), in which it is recorded (October 2007) a 4 min delay in high-energy photons (gamma rays) from galaxy Markarian 501. This observation proves that the space contains unsung forces, which are evident in our senses as deformations of space, as the above theory describes.
Accordingly, for the great problem of Physics and Philosophy, «What is the space», there is the answer-solution: «The dynamic space».

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[757] **viXra:1507.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 19:10:53*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “Calculation of the Planck Constant” (1), an alternative method for calculating the Planck constant was derived using the Rydberg constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[756] **viXra:1507.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-06 03:24:45*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we argue for the tower of the Chandrasekhar limits as the origin of the helium-rich hot subdwarfs in omega Centauri cluster. The structure of bare muons described within SST leads to the hot blue stars with a mass of 0.465 solar masses. Previously we showed that stars with masses of 1.395, 11.20 and 0.891 solar masses should behave as the Type Ia supernovae i.e. after the explosion of such stars there should not be created a neutron star as a remnant. Stars with a mass of 0.465 solar masses are the untypical supernovae. They are the remnants of the exploding stars with a mass of 0.891 solar masses which lose their outer hydrogen layers. Their mass is too small to cause a collapse and next explosion as it is for higher Chandrasekhar limits. But the 3-component weak mass (a ball composed of the confined Einstein-spacetime components that is entangled with two rotating neutrinos) in muons (for mass equal to 0.465 solar masses there appears a maximum for number density of such 3-component systems and each component carries energy equal to 17.61 MeV) is a catalyst for fusions of three alpha particles into carbon-12 (the last experimental data show that any nonzero amount of coherence in a system can be converted into an equal amount of entanglement between that system and another initially incoherent one). Due to such fusions, surfaces of the untypical supernovae are very hot (a narrow temperature range from 35,000 K to 40,000 K). They are the extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[755] **viXra:1507.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 13:44:42*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine structure constant constant. The following paper shows a predicted fine structure constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969. As the data for the fundamental physical constants has become more accurate, the prediction for the fine structure constant has been trending for a precise number difference of approximately 0.999999983.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[754] **viXra:1507.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 11:33:22*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 40 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

As long as humans have been trying to understand the laws of objective reality, they have been proposing theories. In contrast to the well-known quantum theory, the most fundamental theory of matter currently available, Laplace's demon and Einstein's Weltformel are related more widely at least by standing out against the indeterminacy as stipulated by today’s quantum theory. Randomness as such does not exclude a deterministic relationship between cause and effect, since every random event has its own cause. The purpose of this publication is to provide a satisfactory description of the microstructure of space-time by mathematising the deterministic relationship between cause and effect at quantum level in the form of a mathematical formula of the causal relationship k.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[753] **viXra:1507.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-04 16:48:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 2, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a potentially more accurate value of Planck’s constant. The following paper shows a predicted range of Planck’s constant at one sigma for Planck’s constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[752] **viXra:1507.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-04 08:08:43*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A short version of an eprint with the same name (1506.0212)

To complete the standard model I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a Kerr (Schwarzschild) core object of size Planck length. The core replaces the general relativity singularity of the black hole. A simple phenomenological model is presented for the core. In the high curvature t~0 universe cores were created in the false vacuum. Subsequently they tunneled into the true vacuum causing the inflationary expansion of the universe. Gravitons condensate around the cores to form primordial black holes which evolve into dark matter in the big bang together with the standard model particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[751] **viXra:1507.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 04:14:17*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Will be brought up in Marcel Grossman Meeting, Rome

We initially look at a non singular universe representation as given by Rovelli and Vidotto, in terms of a quantum bounce, via quark stars, as a start of how to estimate of entropy and also of the number of operations of an expanding universe. The bench mark used is, to after considering a quark star, to look at the mass of a universe, estimated, and from there, we can obtain the entropy if we look at the Schwartzshield radii of a universe, and then the radii of the universe about 380,000 years after the big bang. In the latter, we show how to get the number of operations as akin to the reasoning used by Seth Lloyd , in 2001, and also from there close with a few comments as to the ‘naturalness’ of heavy Gravity from this formulation of entropy, which is based upon a start of considering what is a Planck star, as far as minimum quantum effects in Black hole physics, and by extension early universe cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[750] **viXra:1507.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 11:44:43*

**Authors:** R. Born

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is not the best paper, it's pieces of a larger work that didn't fit the constraints of an essay I have many more details, references, I was not able to include, but will provide in other works. The important part here is that it helps preserve your free will by showing how it is important to gravity, a universal truth, law. The observer scales up in the far future, which astronomers can't see in telescopes. You don't need a crystal ball to use logic, follow trends like evolution another 85 billion years...

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[749] **viXra:1507.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 03:32:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here we present the new structure of the Theory of Everything (ToE or SQUARE Theory). The time problem that concerns the General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) (contrary to QM, in GR is not a distinguished physical time) suggests that the irreversible separation of GR and QM during the inflation is the good idea - just there was created the two-component spacetime with very different properties of the two components. One component is directly associated with gravitational fields whereas the second with the Standard-Model interactions and particles. It causes that unification of GR and QM within the same methods is impossible. The separation of GR and QM follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal Higgs field that existence results from the extended GR (the phase transitions are described within the unique Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST)). The SST shows that both theories, i.e. GR and QM, start from correct but incomplete sets of initial conditions. It causes that, generally, they lead to experimental data so both are the correct theories but due to the incompleteness, there appear as well the not numerous incorrect solutions i.e. solutions that cannot be realized by Nature. The Scale-Symmetric Theory limits the GR and QM in such a way that there do not appear infinities, indeterminate mathematical forms, approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. Nature on lower and lower levels should be simpler and simpler, not more and more complex as it is in the not unique Loop Quantum Gravity or the not unique string/M-theory. We do not need new differential equations to solve the tremendous number of unsolved basic problems - we need a very simple theory that limits the GR and QM and describes the scales below the Planck scale and solves all problems above this scale and SST is such a theory. In the RHIC experiment we can test the SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[748] **viXra:1506.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 22:38:39*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

The shared background independence of spacetime algebra and the impedance approach to quantization, coupled with the natural gauge invariance of phase shifts introduced by quantum impedances, opens the possibility that identifying the geometric objects of the impedance model with those of spacetime algebra will permit a more intuitive understanding of the equivalence of gauge theory gravity in flat space with general relativity in curved space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[747] **viXra:1506.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 15:19:48*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Comments on errors, omissions and opinions are welcome.

I propose a model of black holes and dark matter to extend the standard model. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a Kerr (Schwarzschild) black hole core object. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. During early inflation gravitons condensate gradually around the cores to form a primordial quantum black holes which evolve into dark matter in the universe together with the standard model particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[746] **viXra:1506.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 07:28:53*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Includes Russian text

This essay presents the so called “delta-integrator” model of gravity which is a conceptual rethinking of gravity phenomena – stages of birth and life of the gravity field. This essay summarizes author’s previously presented information on this model. The model does not offer a comprehensive set of tools for use in theoretical and applied physics. The model offers philosophy, framework and terms for discussions about gravity’s nature, and also offers several hypotheses. The author has a hope that the required set of tools, formulas and constants can be further created by the interested parties considering specifics of their corresponding fields of expertise.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[745] **viXra:1506.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 04:30:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Theorists argue that warped spacetime prevents quantum superpositions of large-scale objects. [9]
Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[744] **viXra:1506.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 12:16:05*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We propose a model of microscopic black holes and dark matter to reinforce the standard model. We assume that at the center of a black hole there is a spin 1/2 neutral core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. During Starobinsky inflation gravitons condensate around the core to form a primordial quantum black holes which evolve naturally into abundant dark matter universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[743] **viXra:1506.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 11:58:48*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 10 references

The holographic principle is extended to deal with a two dimensional universe. Applying it to a spherical shell, which radius is related to the cosmological constant, we find a characteristic time comparable to the age of the observable universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[742] **viXra:1506.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 14:03:39*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

In view of many possible approaches to quantize the gravitational field already developed, it is possible to describe the dynamics of the gravitational field by the principles of quantum mechanics while following strictly the rules of Einstein’s theory of relativity. Thus far, quantum mechanics strictly predicts that all matter is quantum while general relativity describes the gravitational effects of classical matter. Then again, one might argue that we cannot reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics at all. As we will see, it is possible to solve the problem of the quantization of the gravitational field in accordance with Einstein’s theory of realtivity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[741] **viXra:1506.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 03:34:30*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here we show that the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP) is the realistic/unique String Theory realized by Nature - S-SP starts from 7 parameters only (there do not appear free parameters) and 3 very simple formulae that follow from new symmetries. We present the realistic interpretation of the different string theories, of the compactification of the higher degrees of freedom, new fermion-boson supersymmetry, of new SS-duality concerning shapes (a self-similar duality), of S-duality (a strong-weak duality), T-duality (duality of different spacetime geometries; duality of large and small distance scales), U-duality (unified duality; a symmetry for combined S-duality and T-duality), of radions and dilatons. There appear following spacetime objects: the luminal 26-degrees-of-freedom Einstein-spacetime components, the superluminal 10-degrees-of-freedom spin-1 entanglons responsible for the quantum entanglement and the 6-degrees-of-freedom tachyons carrying infinitesimal imaginary spin (existence of such tachyons results from General Relativity; the gravitational fields consist of them). There as well appear the 58- and 122-degrees-of-freedom stable objects composed of the luminal 26-degrees-of-freedom spacetime objects. The 11-dimensional supersymmetric M-theory and its 10-dimensional components cannot be realized by Nature (it follows from the thermodynamics of the tachyonic liquid at the beginning of the inflation). New symmetries of the initial liquid-like spacetime lead to the succeeding phase transitions of the tachyonic Higgs field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[740] **viXra:1506.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 09:55:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists have searched for a theory of quantum gravity for 80 years. Though gravitons are individually too weak to detect, most physicists believe the particles roam the quantum realm in droves, and that their behavior somehow collectively gives rise to the macroscopic force of gravity, just as light is a macroscopic effect of particles called photons. But every proposed theory of how gravity particles might behave faces the same problem: upon close inspection, it doesn’t make mathematical sense. Calculations of graviton interactions might seem to work at first, but when physicists attempt to make them more exact, they yield gibberish — an answer of “infinity.” “This is the disease of quantized gravity,” Stelle said. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[739] **viXra:1506.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-09 23:44:48*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

FTEP dynamics is the underlying driver in Theory of Everything by Illusion (TOEBI). This paper includes new TOEBI force law for electron like particles. Presented law replaces the current Second Law of TOEBI and it will be merged to the existing TOEBI papers in future.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[738] **viXra:1506.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 12:08:25*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Losing entry in FQXi essay contest: "Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics"

This paper uses a small set of mathematical principles to describe a very wide swath of physics. These principles define a new theory of quantum gravity called the theory of infinite complexity. The main result is that Einstein's equation for general relativity can be derived from unrelated, mathematically novel quantum phenomena. That the theory takes no free parameters should be considered strong evidence in favor of a real connection between physics and mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[737] **viXra:1506.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-06 08:17:23*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Measurements of Newton’s gravitational constant G have yielded inconsistencies suggesting that variations in measurements of G are correlated with Length Of Day (LOD). In 2007 Anderson et al. published an empirical formula that accurately described the flyby anomaly for 6 flybys of Earth. There might be one or more phenomena that explain the flyby anomaly and the inconsistencies in measurements of G. A better understanding of Milgrom’s MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) might be essential for improving measurements of ∆G/G from 2 * 10^-4 to 5 * 10^-5 — in other words, if metrologists ignore MOND they cannot improve estimates of ∆G/G by order-of-magnitude from the present measurements, because MOND implies Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is slightly wrong. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis might explain problems with measurements of G.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[736] **viXra:1506.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 23:03:54*

**Authors:** Zhiqiang Zhang

**Comments:** 29 Pages. in English

In this paper, at first seven primary questions about universal gravitation are put forward as follows:
Question No.1 Does universal gravitation pass on via gravitational energies? If it does, then what’s the formula to describe spreading of gravitational energies?
Question No.2 How do gravitational energies give rise to gravitation?
Question No.3 Given universal gravitation passes on through gravitational energies, then what is medium for spreading of gravitational energies?
Question No.4 Do gravitational energies possess quantized nature？If they have, then what is quanta of gravitational energies?
Question No.5 Given gravitational energies spread in form of waves, then do wave lengths of gravitational energies distribute themselves within an certain wave band? or just have an common wave length? If only having an common wave length, then how long is it?
Question No.6 Why is universal gravitation attractive instead of repulsive?
Question No.7 Why couldn’t all of matters shield off universal gravitation?
and then, answers to them are made respectively one by one based on TCST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[735] **viXra:1506.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 06:56:28*

**Authors:** Todd Sicklinger

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity are the two primary theories of modern physics and they are both very accurate in their realms of use. However, physicists have been unable to unify them. I show that the two theories can be unified by considering elementary particles to be standing gravitational waves. Further, the gravitational waves are representations of more fundamental energy density waves. The energy density wave include P and S type waves, analogous to seismic waves. The P waves and S Waves are waves that travel through a 4D shell volume, which is similar to a balloon, where the thickness of the elastic shell is determined by the total energy density at that point in space. It is shown that standing waves made of such P and S type traveling waves can reproduce the observable characteristics of elementary particles. It is also predicted that neutrinos can have velocities greater than C, since neutrinos are standing P type waves and P type waves typically travel faster than S waves. Indeed, traveling P waves should have a velocity of approximately 1.7C and neutrino velocities can approach 1.7C.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[734] **viXra:1506.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-02 08:19:52*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Will try to make it an entry into a conference

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto This is a gateway to bringing up information and computational steps ( as defined by Seth Lloyd) as to what would be available initially due to a modified ZPE formalism. The ZPE formalism is modified as due to Matt Visser’s alternation of k (maximum) ~ 1/(Planck length), with a specific initial density giving rise to initial information content which may permit fixing the initial Planck’s constant, h, which is pivotal to the setting of physical law. The settings of these parameters depend upon NLED.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[733] **viXra:1506.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 07:04:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantizing gravity is an important goal of contemporary physics, but after decades of effort it’s proven to be an extremely tough nut to crack. So it’s worth considering a very slight shift of emphasis. What if the right strategy is not “finding the right theory of gravity and quantizing it,” but “finding a quantum theory out of which gravity emerges”? [8]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[732] **viXra:1505.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 18:55:49*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto, and then generalize it to the question of initial time step as a function of NLED (non linear Electrodynamics) . Speculations as to the contribution of initial entropy to massive gravitons is also included. In addition, the non singular nature of an initial cosmology configuration , with its emphasis upon initial density proportional to 1 over the fourth power of an initial scale factor will lead to an initial time step of the order of Planck time, as opposed to the GR equation which postulates time set at t = 0 initially

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[731] **viXra:1505.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 08:50:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we analyse the internal interactions in the dark matter and the weak interactions via leptons of the entangled dark matter with the hadronic and leptonic matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[652] **viXra:1508.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-28 03:28:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Escaping information from black holes (BHs) produce firewalls at the event horizon. Such walls of fire absorb anything falling in black holes so they destroy them. It leads to conclusion that black hole understood as singularity with event horizon cannot be realized by Nature and that General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Physics (QP) are the incomplete theories. To solve the information paradox, Hawking proposes to replace the event horizon for apparent horizon i.e. for horizon widened due to quantum fluctuations in such a way that light can escape but there is lack of a mathematical description. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we solved the information paradox in a different. The key to solve the many unsolved problems concerning black holes are the interactions of nuclear matter with the luminal Einstein spacetime both composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs, which dominate, and neutrinos (detection of the pairs is much difficult than neutrinos) - there appear the ordered virtual motions in spacetime, dark-matter structures and advection. Incompleteness of GR and QP causes that altogether with good solutions we obtain solutions that cannot be realized by Nature and singularities are such solutions. SST shows that there are objects with circular orbit for photons and abstract event horizon but without singularity - we will call such objects the modified black holes (MBHs). The RHIC experiment showed that inside baryons are dense gluon fields. On the other hand, the SST shows that intensity of the superluminal quantum entanglement (it follows from the extended GR) close to the Planck scale is tremendous so the cores of baryons are indestructible. It leads to conclusion that MBHs are built of modified neutron black holes (MNBHs) which are the biggest neutron stars. When we take into account also the gravitational interactions then matter winds around the center point of MBH at a continuously decreasing distance from the point, next spirals on surfaces of the MNBHs towards their poles, and next twists along the relativistic jet. Among many other things, we calculated maximum efficiency of accretion process (41.42%), radii of the accretion discs, described the mechanism of production of the dark-matter structures, gravitational redshift and answered why the luminal Einstein spacetime does not collapse to separated black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[651] **viXra:1508.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 00:03:47*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. corrected typos

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is also shown that the Muon/Neutron mass ratio is calculated with a similar integrated polynomial. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the tau could also be modeled similarly with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the tau neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[650] **viXra:1508.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 00:41:58*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the muon could also be modeled similarily with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the muon neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[649] **viXra:1508.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-15 11:48:16*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendiptious Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the muon could also be modeled similarily with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the muon neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[648] **viXra:1508.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-08 17:15:31*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind. The following equation shows a mathematical relations that may relate to the mass ratio of the Proton/Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[647] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-15 07:29:28*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected Equation 3

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[646] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-14 20:57:17*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[645] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-07 14:03:34*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[644] **viXra:1507.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-05 14:58:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to highlight the deep connection between Einstein's relativistic kinetic
energy formula and two quantum gravity laws' governing their respective domains: black holes and
particle physics. It seems this connection leads to a deeper understanding of the nature of the
intervening processes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[643] **viXra:1507.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-19 05:38:50*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The second and third deformation of space are its manifestations that we perceive as matter (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 and http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097). In this paper it is described that motion is a form of space deformation, by deduction of forces from the space as motion forces, which are accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonia (oscillators), as quantum forces, causing harmonic change of cohesive pressure in proximal space (see http://viXra.org/abs/1505.0211).
It is described, here, the motion dynamics and the change that is installed on the gravitational field of the particle, resulting to the ability of detection of the uniform motion. Besides, the motion should be absolute, since the intervals are referring to the absolute dynamic space of the Universe. The maintaining of the accumulated forces, due to the particle speed, is the cause for change of the dynamics of the uniform motion and, hence, of the Physics Laws in inertial systems. Moreover, with the new concept of absolute motion it is considered a natural consequence the contribution of the two parts of monochromatic light in Michelson-Morley’s experiment (will be developed at a next paper), without the arbitrariness of the constant light speed in inertial systems.
Also, it is defined the timeless speed, at which happen all the phenomena of the Universe. The gravitational red shift of the stars spectrum and the chaotic motion of galactic systems are interpreted, without the assumption of dark matter and energy.
Finally, it is communicated the forecast of Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space, that refers to the research of the observatory (Magic telescope on La Palma), in which it is recorded (October 2007) a 4 min delay in high-energy photons (gamma rays) from galaxy Markarian 501. This observation proves that the space contains unsung forces, which are evident in our senses as deformations of space, as the above theory describes.
Accordingly, for the great problem of Physics and Philosophy, «What is the space», there is the answer-solution: «The dynamic space».

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[642] **viXra:1507.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 15:30:18*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In “Calculation of the Planck Constant” (1), an alternative method for calculating the Planck constant was derived using the Rydberg constant. In table 2, the Planck Constant is calculated for each year of the Codata publication of the fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[641] **viXra:1507.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-26 02:48:20*

**Authors:** Michael Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The Planck constant from the Rydberg Constant

In “Calculation of the Planck Constant” (1), an alternative method for calculating the Planck constant was derived using the Rydberg constant. In table 2, the Planck Constant is calculated for each year of the Codata publication of the fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[640] **viXra:1507.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-26 02:19:46*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Updated with Relativity adjustment

The predicted values of Fine Structure are close to the limits of the Codata value. Although this does not prove that equation 2.2 is correct, the values predicted leave open the possibility that the equation could be correct.
Note that as time goes on the prediction of equation 2.2 becomes more precise.
The calculated values are within the values measured using the Quantum hall affect. This a new and different method of derived and empirical calculation for the fine structure constant. It does not have the appearance of random number manipulation like numerology. The calculations are part of a new derivation to unite the forces of gravity and electromagnetic force through a polynested spinning sphere that has the appearance of both string theory and quantum foam theory. It is also not unexpected that pi should be part of the equation for the fine structure constant, nor that it should have aspects that hint at wrapped up dimension of String Theory, nor is in unexpected that there should be undulations proposed by Quantum Foam theory. These undulations rather appear to be patterns of differences in rotation like Calabi Yau, rather than a physical differences in structure.
If one looks at the values of the fine structure constant predicted with Equation (2.2), for years 1969 and 1973, one sees that they are not within 3 sigma of the Codata value for 1969 and 1973, but if one uses the masses for the proton, electron, and neutron for years 1986 and afterwards, we see that the correct Codata for 1969 an 1973. This shows that had the equation been known earlier, that it could have made better estimations for the mass of the electron, proton, and neutron back in the years of 1969 and 1973, and presumably, to 1986. It appears that the method used to calculate the mass of these particles, were not as accurate as thought. I would like that people evaluate this work.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[639] **viXra:1507.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-10 19:06:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This theory correctly showed that the Codata mass ratios for the proton, electron and neutron were inadequate.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine structure constant constant. The following paper shows a predicted fine structure constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969. As the data for the fundamental physical constants has become more accurate, the prediction for the fine structure constant has been trending for a precise number difference of approximately 0.999999983

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[638] **viXra:1507.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-06 14:09:22*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine structure constant constant. This constant is found to depend only on pi and the rest masses of the electron, neutron, and proton. The following paper shows a predicted fine structure constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969. As the data for the fundamental physical constants has become more accurate, the prediction for the fine structure constant has been trending for a precise number difference.
Some, like John D. Barrow, Richard Feynman, and Sir Arthur Eddington knew that the fine structures existence is embarrassingly elusive to grasp. Is its value to be found in string theory or quantum foam? Is pi a value incorporated in the fine structure constant?
John D. Barrow wrote;“If the deep logic of what determines the value of the fine-structure constant also played a significant role in our understanding of all the physical processes in which the fine-structure constant enters, then we would be stymied. Fortunately, we do not need to know everything before we can know something.”
― John D. Barrow, New Theories of Everything(4)
Why does, this Equation 2.2, below predict a value for the fine structure constant within the limits of the Quantum Hall method of measuring the fine structure constant? We do not know, but we also touch a forever that we do not yet understand, yet are allowed to exist in the “ moment an instant lasted forever and be destined for the leading edge of Eternity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[637] **viXra:1507.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 14:47:51*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 2, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a potentially more accurate value of Planck’s constant. The following paper shows a predicted range of Planck’s constant at one sigma for Planck’s constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[636] **viXra:1507.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-26 16:57:27*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 2, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a potentially more accurate value of Planck’s constant. The following paper shows a predicted range of Planck’s constant at one sigma for Planck’s constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[635] **viXra:1507.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-06 01:30:46*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Added sections for sub-Planckian black holes and higher derivative gravity.

To extend the standard model to Planck scale energies I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a core object of Planck length scale. The core replaces the singularity of general relativity. A simple phenomenological schematic model is presented for the core. In the high curvature t~0 universe a core is spontaneously created in a false vacuum. Subsequently it tunnels into the true vacuum causing an inflationary process in the universe. A survey is made of calculational models that could support the present scheme and of theoretical frameworks for future work.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[634] **viXra:1507.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-23 13:36:47*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Rewritten for logical clarity. New material added. New title.

To extend the standard model to Planck scale energies I propose a phenomenological
model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that at the center of any black
hole there is a core object of Planck length scale. The core replaces the singularity of
general relativity. A simple phenomenological model is presented for the core. In
the high curvature t~0 universe a core is spontaneously created in a false vacuum.
Subsequently it tunnels into the true vacuum causing an inflationary process in the
universe. Possible conformity with the string world is brifely mentioned.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[633] **viXra:1507.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-13 03:18:08*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages. A major revision of the model on black holes and inflation.

To extend the standard model at Planck scale energies I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a Schwarzschild core object of size Planck length. The core replaces the singularity of general relativity. A simple phenomenological model is presented for the core. In the high curvature t~0 universe a core is spontaneously created in a false vacuum. Subsequently it tunnels into the true vacuum causing an inflationary process in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[632] **viXra:1506.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 02:17:08*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages. presented to the 2015 Barcelona Conference on Applications of Geometric Algebra. http://www-ma2.upc.edu/agacse2015/3641572286-EP/150729%20AGACSE%202015%20Early%20Proceedings.pdf

The shared background independence of spacetime algebra and the impedance approach to quantization, coupled with the natural gauge invariance of phase shifts introduced by quantum impedances, opens the possibility that identifying the geometric objects of the impedance model with those of spacetime algebra will permit a more intuitive understanding of the equivalence of gauge theory gravity in flat space with general relativity in curved space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[631] **viXra:1506.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-17 16:05:19*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

The shared background independence of spacetime algebra and the impedance approach to quantization, coupled with the natural gauge invariance of phase shifts introduced by quantum impedances, opens the possibility that identifying the geometric objects of the impedance model with those of spacetime algebra will permit a more intuitive understanding of the equivalence of gauge theory gravity in flat space with general relativity in curved space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[630] **viXra:1506.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-01 23:55:23*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Added a simple model for gravons. Consequently the title had to be changed.

To complete the standard model I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a Kerr (Schwarzschild) core object of size Planck length. The core replaces the general relativity singularity of the black hole. A simple phenomenological model is presented for the core. During very early inflation the overlapping wave functions of the cores caused rapid expansion of the universe. Gravitons condensated around the cores to form primordial black holes which evolve into dark matter in the big bang together with the standard model particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[629] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-23 02:46:11*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[628] **viXra:1506.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-13 12:01:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists have searched for a theory of quantum gravity for 80 years. Though gravitons are individually too weak to detect, most physicists believe the particles roam the quantum realm in droves, and that their behavior somehow collectively gives rise to the macroscopic force of gravity, just as light is a macroscopic effect of particles called photons. But every proposed theory of how gravity particles might behave faces the same problem: upon close inspection, it doesn’t make mathematical sense. Calculations of graviton interactions might seem to work at first, but when physicists attempt to make them more exact, they yield gibberish — an answer of “infinity.” “This is the disease of quantized gravity,” Stelle said. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[627] **viXra:1506.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-08 09:04:22*

**Authors:** Todd Sickinger

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Space is a four dimension spherical shell comprised of energy density, where the distribution of energy density in space is determined by distribution of mass (energy) in space. An object’s energy density decreases at approximately one over the square root of the distance from the object. Accordingly, space (the Universe) is like a four dimensional balloon wherein the thickness of the balloon varies according to the magnitude of the energy density (mass divided by radius squared for each object in the Universe). The energy density (the thickness of the 4D balloon) at any given point is given by the value of the G00 element of the metric tensor at that point, where the G00 element of the metric tensor can be determined by solving the Equations of General Relativity or by using an approximate solution if appropriate. Elementary particles are travelling wave and standing wave solutions to a second order hyperbolic partial differential equation, which is exactly the same differential equation that applies to seismic waves in the Earth, except that the elementary particle differential equations have a fourth dimension. Photons are shear waves that oscillate in two of the normal space dimensions and travel in the third space direction. The differential equations and the wave function solutions and the wave properties for a photon can be same to exactly the same as those of a shear wave in the Earth. An electron is shown to be a standing wave comprising two photons, where the standing wave of the electron affects the space surrounding the electron and causes some of that space to become anisotropic (having different velocities in different directions). The location of an electron is at its central wave packet, which is where a photon would most likely interact with the standing wave. All gauge bosons are traveling waves, like photons. All massive particles are standing waves or linear combinations of standing waves, like electrons. A group of seismic waves will split off a travelling wave, if the seismic wave encounters anisotropic space (this wave splitting can be observed on the internet). Similarly, when a charged massive particle (standing wave) encounters anisotropic space, the anisotropic space of the charged particle interacts with the anisotropic space and splits off a photon. This occurs when two electrons interact and exchange photons (traveling waves). Savickas and Hilo have separately demonstrated that the speed of light in a vacuum is proportional to the G00 element of the metric tensor. Accordingly, light will refract towards the normal when it travels into an area having a smaller magnitude of value for the G00 element of the metric tensor, where the magnitude of the G00 element decreases for greater mass density, which occurs as you go deeper into a gravity well. However, gravity does not have discontinuous edges. Gravity provides a continuously reducing index of refraction. Maxwell proved that a continuing reducing index of refraction provides circular orbits. Accordingly, this refraction provides gravity consistent with traditional GR, since the refraction is determined by the G00 element of the metric tensor and since the velocity of massive objects is also determined by the G00 element of the metric tensor and since the direction of the normal is determined by the G11 element, the G22 element, and the G33 element of the metric tensor.. Accordingly, the proposed model provides an intuitive framework for understanding forces and gravity and it provides that framework in a manner that is completely consistent with General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[626] **viXra:1505.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 02:18:14*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Cleaned up and reformatted. Part of what was / is for a Marcel Grossman contribution

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto, and then generalize it to the question of initial time step as a function of NLED (non linear Electrodynamics) . Speculations as to the contribution of initial entropy to massive gravitons is also included. In addition, the non singular nature of an initial cosmology configuration , with its emphasis upon initial density proportional to 1 over the fourth power of an initial scale factor will lead to an initial time step of the order of Planck time, as opposed to the GR equation which postulates time set at t = 0 initially.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[625] **viXra:1505.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 04:43:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we analyse the internal interactions in the dark matter and the weak interactions via leptons of the entangled dark matter with the hadronic and leptonic matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory