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2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(15) - 1503(18) - 1504(12) - 1505(17) - 1506(14)

Any replacements are listed further down

[745] **viXra:1506.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 07:28:53*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Includes Russian text

This essay presents the so called “delta-integrator” model of gravity which is a conceptual rethinking of gravity phenomena – stages of birth and life of the gravity field. This essay summarizes author’s previously presented information on this model. The model does not offer a comprehensive set of tools for use in theoretical and applied physics. The model offers philosophy, framework and terms for discussions about gravity’s nature, and also offers several hypotheses. The author has a hope that the required set of tools, formulas and constants can be further created by the interested parties considering specifics of their corresponding fields of expertise.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[744] **viXra:1506.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 04:30:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Theorists argue that warped spacetime prevents quantum superpositions of large-scale objects. [9]
Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[743] **viXra:1506.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 12:16:05*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We propose a model of microscopic black holes and dark matter to reinforce the standard model. We assume that at the center of a black hole there is a spin 1/2 neutral core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. During Starobinsky inflation gravitons condensate around the core to form a primordial quantum black holes which evolve naturally into abundant dark matter universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[742] **viXra:1506.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 11:58:48*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 10 references

The holographic principle is extended to deal with a two dimensional universe. Applying it to a spherical shell, which radius is related to the cosmological constant, we find a characteristic time comparable to the age of the observable universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[741] **viXra:1506.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 14:03:39*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

In view of many possible approaches to quantize the gravitational field already developed, it is possible to describe the dynamics of the gravitational field by the principles of quantum mechanics while following strictly the rules of Einstein’s theory of relativity. Thus far, quantum mechanics strictly predicts that all matter is quantum while general relativity describes the gravitational effects of classical matter. Then again, one might argue that we cannot reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics at all. As we will see, it is possible to solve the problem of the quantization of the gravitational field in accordance with Einstein’s theory of realtivity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[740] **viXra:1506.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-12 03:34:30*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here we show that the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP) is the realistic/unique String Theory realized by Nature - S-SP starts from 7 parameters only (there do not appear free parameters) and 3 very simple formulae that follow from new symmetries. We present the realistic interpretation of the different string theories, of the compactification of the higher degrees of freedom, new fermion-boson supersymmetry, of new SS-duality concerning shapes (a self-similar duality), of S-duality (a strong-weak duality), T-duality (duality of different spacetime geometries; duality of large and small distance scales), U-duality (unified duality; a symmetry for combined S-duality and T-duality), of radions and dilatons. There appear following spacetime objects: the luminal 26-degrees-of-freedom Einstein-spacetime components, the superluminal 10-degrees-of-freedom spin-1 entanglons responsible for the quantum entanglement and the 6-degrees-of-freedom tachyons carrying infinitesimal imaginary spin (existence of such tachyons results from General Relativity; the gravitational fields consist of them). There as well appear the 58- and 122-degrees-of-freedom stable objects composed of the luminal 26-degrees-of-freedom spacetime objects. The 11-dimensional supersymmetric M-theory and its 10-dimensional components cannot be realized by Nature (it follows from the thermodynamics of the tachyonic liquid at the beginning of the inflation). New symmetries of the initial liquid-like spacetime lead to the succeeding phase transitions of the tachyonic Higgs field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[739] **viXra:1506.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 09:55:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists have searched for a theory of quantum gravity for 80 years. Though gravitons are individually too weak to detect, most physicists believe the particles roam the quantum realm in droves, and that their behavior somehow collectively gives rise to the macroscopic force of gravity, just as light is a macroscopic effect of particles called photons. But every proposed theory of how gravity particles might behave faces the same problem: upon close inspection, it doesn’t make mathematical sense. Calculations of graviton interactions might seem to work at first, but when physicists attempt to make them more exact, they yield gibberish — an answer of “infinity.” “This is the disease of quantized gravity,” Stelle said. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[738] **viXra:1506.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-09 23:44:48*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

FTEP dynamics is the underlying driver in Theory of Everything by Illusion (TOEBI). This paper includes new TOEBI force law for electron like particles. Presented law replaces the current Second Law of TOEBI and it will be merged to the existing TOEBI papers in future.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[737] **viXra:1506.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 12:08:25*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Losing entry in FQXi essay contest: "Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics"

This paper uses a small set of mathematical principles to describe a very wide swath of physics. These principles define a new theory of quantum gravity called the theory of infinite complexity. The main result is that Einstein's equation for general relativity can be derived from unrelated, mathematically novel quantum phenomena. That the theory takes no free parameters should be considered strong evidence in favor of a real connection between physics and mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[736] **viXra:1506.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-06 08:17:23*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Measurements of Newton’s gravitational constant G have yielded inconsistencies suggesting that variations in measurements of G are correlated with Length Of Day (LOD). In 2007 Anderson et al. published an empirical formula that accurately described the flyby anomaly for 6 flybys of Earth. There might be one or more phenomena that explain the flyby anomaly and the inconsistencies in measurements of G. A better understanding of Milgrom’s MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) might be essential for improving measurements of ∆G/G from 2 * 10^-4 to 5 * 10^-5 — in other words, if metrologists ignore MOND they cannot improve estimates of ∆G/G by order-of-magnitude from the present measurements, because MOND implies Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is slightly wrong. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis might explain problems with measurements of G.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[735] **viXra:1506.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 23:03:54*

**Authors:** Zhiqiang Zhang

**Comments:** 29 Pages. in English

In this paper, at first seven primary questions about universal gravitation are put forward as follows:
Question No.1 Does universal gravitation pass on via gravitational energies? If it does, then what’s the formula to describe spreading of gravitational energies?
Question No.2 How do gravitational energies give rise to gravitation?
Question No.3 Given universal gravitation passes on through gravitational energies, then what is medium for spreading of gravitational energies?
Question No.4 Do gravitational energies possess quantized nature？If they have, then what is quanta of gravitational energies?
Question No.5 Given gravitational energies spread in form of waves, then do wave lengths of gravitational energies distribute themselves within an certain wave band? or just have an common wave length? If only having an common wave length, then how long is it?
Question No.6 Why is universal gravitation attractive instead of repulsive?
Question No.7 Why couldn’t all of matters shield off universal gravitation?
and then, answers to them are made respectively one by one based on TCST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[734] **viXra:1506.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 06:56:28*

**Authors:** Todd Sicklinger

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity are the two primary theories of modern physics and they are both very accurate in their realms of use. However, physicists have been unable to unify them. I show that the two theories can be unified by considering elementary particles to be standing gravitational waves. Further, the gravitational waves are representations of more fundamental energy density waves. The energy density wave include P and S type waves, analogous to seismic waves. The P waves and S Waves are waves that travel through a 4D shell volume, which is similar to a balloon, where the thickness of the elastic shell is determined by the total energy density at that point in space. It is shown that standing waves made of such P and S type traveling waves can reproduce the observable characteristics of elementary particles. It is also predicted that neutrinos can have velocities greater than C, since neutrinos are standing P type waves and P type waves typically travel faster than S waves. Indeed, traveling P waves should have a velocity of approximately 1.7C and neutrino velocities can approach 1.7C.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[733] **viXra:1506.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-02 08:19:52*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Will try to make it an entry into a conference

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto This is a gateway to bringing up information and computational steps ( as defined by Seth Lloyd) as to what would be available initially due to a modified ZPE formalism. The ZPE formalism is modified as due to Matt Visser’s alternation of k (maximum) ~ 1/(Planck length), with a specific initial density giving rise to initial information content which may permit fixing the initial Planck’s constant, h, which is pivotal to the setting of physical law. The settings of these parameters depend upon NLED.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[732] **viXra:1506.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 07:04:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantizing gravity is an important goal of contemporary physics, but after decades of effort it’s proven to be an extremely tough nut to crack. So it’s worth considering a very slight shift of emphasis. What if the right strategy is not “finding the right theory of gravity and quantizing it,” but “finding a quantum theory out of which gravity emerges”? [8]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[731] **viXra:1505.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 18:55:49*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto, and then generalize it to the question of initial time step as a function of NLED (non linear Electrodynamics) . Speculations as to the contribution of initial entropy to massive gravitons is also included. In addition, the non singular nature of an initial cosmology configuration , with its emphasis upon initial density proportional to 1 over the fourth power of an initial scale factor will lead to an initial time step of the order of Planck time, as opposed to the GR equation which postulates time set at t = 0 initially

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[730] **viXra:1505.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 08:50:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we analyse the internal interactions in the dark matter and the weak interactions via leptons of the entangled dark matter with the hadronic and leptonic matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[729] **viXra:1505.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 00:58:03*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, the inductive-inertial phenomenon G is developed, as well as the force FG, which acts on the units of the dynamic space (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040). This explains the nature of the magnetic forces, that are Coulomb’s electric forces between grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field), created by the accelerated electron. Also, Coulomb's Law for magnetism, the physical significance of magnetic intensities and the strangeness of the fluctuation of nucleons magnetic moment are interpreted.
De Broglie’s wave-particle is Gosdas’s motion wave (wave-like form) and his wave function replaces Schrödinger’s equation. So, the wave phenomena of particles, the atomic orbitals and the wave-particle «paradox» are interpreted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[728] **viXra:1505.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 06:27:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this work, we study the Unruh effect from the point of view of electrodynamics. You can get a
formula for the specific conductivity of the Unruh vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[727] **viXra:1505.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 06:28:23*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages. submitted to the Gravity journal of Hindawi press

We use a linkage between gravitation and electrodynamics the author shared with Unnishkan . In doing so, we find that a time step minimization procedure given by Peebles may be given further definition as to fine tune an NLED contribution to time step, which the author then links to gravity due to adopting the fifth force formalism of Fishbach . The rest of the document takes, then a derivation of a linkage between the number of gravitons, a minimum grid size, and the time evolution of Hubbles parameter, to ascertain a minimum number, n, of initial gravitons produced, which in turns of Ng’s infinite quantum statistics can be then a measure of entropy. This ‘count’ of gravitons is compared with Ng’s infinite quantum statistics versions of entropy, initially, as well as comments as to how to avoid having zero entropy initially. As to structure formation, we find that the stronger an early universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/H with H the magnitude of the early universe Hubble’s constant, per Planck time interval in evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[726] **viXra:1505.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 06:32:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Experimentalists used an entangled state of two photons to show that time is going in different way for internal and external observers. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we show that such scenario concerns the elliptical states of electron in atoms. There are two different entangled circular states of an elliptical state and jumps of entanglon, responsible for quantum entanglement, between them. It causes that global energy is static whereas an internal observer associated with one of two entangled circular states (the clock) sees evolution of the other circular state. It is the duality of time from quantum entanglement. Similar mechanism concerns two mass states of proton and of neutron but there is exchanged electric charge between the very dense gluon fields. Such exchanges lead to the mean fractional charges of the dense gluon fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[725] **viXra:1505.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 21:15:18*

**Authors:** S Bogue, T Bogue, E Bogue

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This theory of Quantum Gravity will describe the physical process which causes the force of Gravity. The energy of the vacuum causes photon pressure on every particle and energy wave in the universe. As interactions occur with the vacuum energy, it creates a locally uneven distribution of energy density. When another object is within a region of uneven density, it will be accelerated towards the object which created the variance in density. This theory uses the quite large energy of the vacuum 10^113J/m^3, C, and the small Planck length 10^-35m to calculate G, the gravitational constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[724] **viXra:1505.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 09:16:25*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Maybe every elementary particle has channels for the transmission of quantum information in a vacuum. Sounds pretty wild. However, it is experimentally proved that a single particle can have quantum entanglement, and hence to process some information. In this article, the Unruh effect is obtained as the thermal processing of quantum information in physical vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[723] **viXra:1505.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:33:27*

**Authors:** Gy. Szondy

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Presentation of the seminar 2015.04.29 at Eötvö Lorand University (ELTE)

In Special Relativity minkowski four-force is known to be perpendicular to the four-velocity and four-momentum vector. In the ‘50s Károly Novobátzky worked out the generalization of this four-force. We will shortly explain how this formalism can be used to describe conservative fields and how it leads to a Scalar-Tensor gravity that also fits the mathematical background of GPS. We also explain how this Scalar-Tensor gravity related to General Relativity and how can we derive the necessary scalar function (gravitation potential) from the Ricci scalar of the metric tensor. As a final thought we introduce an enhancement of a quantum particle model, where rest mass depends on backgound curvature - explaining the correspondance between gravitation potential and background curvature as revealed in the ST theory above.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[722] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 05:46:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The S-SP, due to the succeeding phase transitions, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[721] **viXra:1505.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 09:02:53*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The vacuum energy density of free scalar quantum field with a distributional background spacetime also is considered.It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, sub-dominant contributions. Here we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background distributional spacetime such BHs, to become dominant over any classical energydensity component. This semiclassical gravity effect finds its roots in the singular behavior of quantum fields on curved spacetimes. In particular we obtain that the vacuum fluctuations <Ф^2> has a singular behavior on BHs horizon r_+: <Ф^2>~|r−r_+|^−2.We argue that this vacuum dominance may bear importent astrophysical implications.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[720] **viXra:1505.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 03:19:58*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this article, I propose new paradigm of physics. The paradigm leads to simple and unified picture of world. Such simplification and unification has cost of several key concepts of philosophy, including Being. I propose very radical hypothesis of emergent space-time-matter, in which space-time-matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. The hypothesis of emergent reality (ER- hypothesis later) shows how it is possible to find space-time-matter from a more fundamental, static field and space without time and matter. In the article, I show how it is possible to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity in one conceptual model, how to unify all existing forces. Changes in equations of general relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. New model of Big Bang is described and new cosmological model is proposed. New law for recession velocity was proposed, the hypothesis predicts what Hubble law is not applicable at large distance. ER-hypothesis predicts what Theory of Everything is non-gauge theory and cannot be based on space of states. The ER-hypothesis also describes possible parallel universes, propose way of theoretical finding of parallel universes, and way to calculate interactions between parallel universes. Theory of time is described in the article.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[719] **viXra:1505.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 09:28:40*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In his 2007 publication “Physics based calculation of the fine structure constant “ J. P. Lestone suggested that “the photon emission and absorption area A of an electron is controlled by a length scale” where the length scale is near the Planck length. What might be some of the implications of Lestone’s hypothesis? Renormalization in quantum electrodynamics deals with infinite integrals that arise in perturbation theory. Does Lestone’s hypothesis have important implications for renormalization? I conjecture that, EVEN AFTER QUANTUM AVERAGING, Maxwell’s equations might be false at the Planck scale, because Lestone’s heuristic string theory might be empirically valid. Let ρ represent the electric charge density (charge per unit volume). I conjecture that, in equation (19b) on page 23 of Einstein’s “The Meaning of Relativity” (5th edition), ρ should be replaced by the expression ρ/ (1 – (ρ^2 / (ρ(max))^2))^(1/2), where ρ(max) is the maximum of the absolute value of the electric charge density in the physical universe. Polchinski (2003) offered “two general principles of completeness: (1) In any theoretical framework that requires charge to be quantized, there will exist magnetic monopoles. (2) In any fully unified theory, for every gauge field there will exist electric and magnetic sources with the minimum relative Dirac quantum n = 1 (more precisely, the lattice of electric and magnetic charges is maximal).” It seems to me that Polchinski’s two general principles are likely to be correct if and only if nature is infinite. This brief communication considers two conjectures: String theory with the infinite nature hypothesis is empirically valid if and only if magnetic monopoles occur in nature. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis is empirically valid if and only if magnetic monopoles do not occur in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[718] **viXra:1505.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-08 19:08:53*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Submitted to Int.. J. Geom. Methods in Mod. Phys.

A Moyal deformation of a Clifford $ Cl (3, 1) $ Gauge Theory of (Conformal) Gravity is performed for canonical noncommutativity (constant $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters). In the very special case when one imposes certain constraints on the fields, there are $no$
first order contributions in the $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters to the Moyal deformations of
Clifford gauge theories of gravity. However, when one does $not$ impose constraints on the fields, there are first order contributions in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ to the Moyal deformations in variance with the previous results obtained by other authors and based on different gauge groups. In particular, there are Moyal deformations of the Einstein-Hilbert gravitational action with a cosmological constant to first order in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ . Despite that the generators of $U(2,2), SO(4,2), SO(2,3)$ can be expressed in terms of the Clifford algebra generators this does $not$ imply that these algebras are isomorphic to the Clifford algebra. Therefore one should not expect identical results to those obtained by other authors.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[717] **viXra:1505.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-08 14:45:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we present four selected cosmological problems. In the Universe the total dynamic pressure of baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy practically should not depend on spatial coordinates so the baryonic matter displaces dark matter. The high-energy astrophysical particles are produced by baryonic plasma - there appear segments composed of charge-anticharge pairs and their cascade annihilation leads to high-energy particles especially neutrinos, photons and electrons. Flavor ratio of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos should be the same for source and at Earth: (electron-neutrinos-to-muon-neutrinos-to-tau-neutrinos) = (1 : 0 : 0). In the gamma ray spectrum produced by the inner Milky Way there is an apparent maximum at energies about 1.5 - 4 GeV and a drop at energy close to 30 GeV - here we show that these features follow from the weak interactions of the components of baryonic plasma, not from dark matter annihilation. The Holographic Principle concerns the quantum entanglement, not gravitational interactions. It causes that there are both the real volumetric Universe and the cosmological hologram in which is stored some part of information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[716] **viXra:1505.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 06:26:42*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We propose a model scheme of microscopic black holes. We assume that at the center of the hole there is a spin 1/2 core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. Possible frameworks for non-singular models are discussed briefly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[715] **viXra:1504.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 05:22:44*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 464-472

In conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number, the extra space dimensions are compactized. In string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly, and there is no compactization. Dimension number decreases with decreasing speed of light. and increasing rest mass. The 4D particle has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. The two different oscillations between 10D and 4D are the stepwise oscillation passing through every dimension number and the direct oscillation oscillating directly between 10D and 4D without the intermediate dimension numbers. Dark energy represents the stepwise oscillation, and dark energy becomes observable only when it has 4D space-time. 4D baryonic matter and 4D dark matter represent the direct oscillation directly from 10D to 4D. Our universe is the dual cyclic universe of the dark energy universe and the baryonic-dark matter universe. The Big Bang in the baryonic-dark matter universe produced irreversible kinetic energy that stopped the reversible direct oscillation. The reversible direct oscillation will resume after the Big Crush to remove irreversible kinetic energy. Our cyclic universe started from the zero-energy universe through the four-stage transformation. The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 68.3, 26.4, and 5.3, respectively, in agreement with observed 68.3, 26.8, and 4.9, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.28 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 billion years ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[714] **viXra:1504.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 05:42:41*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 1234-1243

In this paper, all elementary particles (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson) can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles based on string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, instead of conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number. Dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly. The oscillation of space-time dimension number (D) is accompanied by mass dimension number (d) to represent mass. Space-time dimension number decreases with increasing mass dimension number, decreasing speed of light and increasing rest mass. 4D particle originally is 4D10d particle, and has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. According to the proposed cosmology, the non-gravitational 4D10d particles were sliced into 4D4d core particles surrounded by 6 separated mass dimensions as the 6 dimensional orbitals constituting the non-gravitational forces (electromagnetism, strong, and weak). The combination of the 6 dimensional orbitals and the gravitational 4D10d particle resulted in the 7 dimensional orbitals. As the periodic table of elements based on the atomic orbitals, the periodic table of elementary particles is based on the combination of the two asymmetrical sets of the 7 dimensional orbitals. One set as the principal dimensional orbitals is mainly for leptons and gauge bosons, and another set as the auxiliary orbitals is mainly for individual quarks. The calculated constituent masses of leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson are in good agreement with the observed values. For examples, the calculated mass of top quark is 176.5 GeV in good agreement with the observed 173.34 GeV, and the calculated average mass of the Higgs boson is 128.8 GeV in good agreements with the observed 125 or 126 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[713] **viXra:1504.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 15:14:43*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 02 pages, 04 links

In the present letter the time evolution of the universe is compared with the growth of a polymer chain. It is proposed a link between the Evolving Block Universe, a model by Ellis and Rothman, with the Self Avoiding Random Walk Model. An old popular song: “Que Sera, Sera”, nicely fits to the model’s unpredictability.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[712] **viXra:1504.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 05:27:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A recent article in Physical Review Letters proposed a new way to detect gravitons. The setup could be done in a lab, which is in stark contrast to the usual view that you’d need a Jupiter-mass detector orbiting a neutron star to detect gravitons. It’s one of those “if we pull this off we’ll eat like kings” experiments…so naturally we should be a little skeptical. [6]
Unambiguous detection of individual gravitons, though not prohibited by any fundamental law, is impossible with any physically reasonable detector. The reason is the extremely low cross section for the interaction of gravitons with matter. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[711] **viXra:1504.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 02:59:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article bosonic string is output as quantum entanglement between two points in space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[710] **viXra:1504.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-23 06:15:56*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper considers a thought experiment in which an idealized version of the double slit experiment is carried out in a gravitational field. It is argued that the interference pattern observed will be modified from the pattern observed in the identical experiment performed in free space as a result of the blue/red shift of the photons fired at the screen caused by the gravitational field. The results of this are then interpreted in the context of an atom falling in a gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[709] **viXra:1504.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-20 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics that leads to the atom-like structure of baryons, the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the energy coordinates and some qualitative and partially quantitative description of proton flux as a function of rigidity are presented. Obtained results are consistent with the AMS data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[708] **viXra:1504.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 07:15:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unambiguous detection of individual gravitons, though not prohibited by any fundamental law, is impossible with any physically reasonable detector. The reason is the extremely low cross section for the interaction of gravitons with matter. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[707] **viXra:1504.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-16 03:31:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A single equation within Theory of Everything would be infinitely complex so we should formulate a fractal skeletal theory which should lead to the much simpler partial theories. In such theory should not appear free parameters and the indeterminate mathematical forms. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST) is such skeletal theory. Its structure looks as a Christmas tree. Here, within a model which is dual to the structure of baryons, applying the S-ST, we calculated the median effective radius of the Type 1 cosmological voids in observed redshift coordinates, number of such voids in the Universe, the quantized median effective radii of such voids, radius of the WMAP Cold Spot and the Cosmological Ruler. Obtained results are consistent with observational facts. Moreover, there is calculated the expected void abundance. Presented here theoretical results suggest that the picture of the high-redshift Universe obtained within the mainstream cosmology is misshapen.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[706] **viXra:1504.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-03 11:43:10*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The charged radius (r) of Fermion closes at 1/2 spin from the Compton wavelength [λ = h/mc = (1/2)πr] of Photon (Boson). These 1/2 spin means having the axiality to space-time. "The proton radius 0.841 (fm) was calculated from the proton mass" and "The proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen" are consistent.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[705] **viXra:1504.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 12:35:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the original Kaluza-Klein theory (KK-theory), the radion, i.e. the circumference or size of the fifth dimension, was invariant. In the newer versions of this theory, the radion is not constant. On the other hand, in the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), the radions are quantized and their sizes follow from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field. In S-SP there are the four radions associated respectively with the loops responsible for the quantum entanglement, with the weak charge of neutrinos, with the strong charge in baryons (the radion is the neutral pion), and with the superstrong charge of the cosmic structure before the expansion of the Universe (the radion was the very early Universe). All such radions are the pseudoscalars. The real Higgs boson is composed of two non-rotating and entangled (it is the shortest-distance entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components with antiparallel unitary spins so it is the pseudoscalar as well. But the condensates composed of the real Higgs bosons are the scalars as it is in the Standard Model. Just the detected Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is the composite Higgs boson built of the confined real Higgs bosons. Here as well we explained the difference between photon, gluon, masson, photomasson and gluomasson (in S-SP we must replace the massless gravitons for the massons that are the binary systems of non-rotating Einstein-spacetime components with parallel unitary spins).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[704] **viXra:1503.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 10:18:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, the critical remarks about luminal gravitational waves and luminal gravitons are presented. The mechanism of emission of the potential gravitational energy differs very much from the mechanism described within the General Relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[703] **viXra:1503.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 16:37:23*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Awards for Essays on Gravitation

Geometric algebra is universal, encompassing all the tools of the mathematical physics toolbox, is background independent, and is the foundation of gauge theory gravity. Similarly, impedance is a fundamental concept of universal validity, is background independent, and the phase shifts generated by impedances are at the foundation of gauge theory. Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Generalizing quantum impedances from photon and quantum Hall to all forces and potentials generates a network of both scale dependent and scale invariant impedances. This essay conjectures that these quantum impedances can be identified with the gauge fields of gauge theory gravity, scale dependent with the translation field and scale invariant with rotation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[702] **viXra:1503.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 12:26:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[701] **viXra:1503.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 11:45:41*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a Mathematica notebook saved as PDF which theorizes a relationship between fundamental constants (c, Planck, Gravity, Hubble, FineStructure) and computes within current experimental values the values of a (Higgs) particle mass of 124.443...GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[700] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 11:36:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[699] **viXra:1503.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-27 07:24:05*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

On site http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first and second space deformation, while on http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097 described the third space deformation. The fourth and fifth space deformation is a consequence of the presence of a proton and an electron in the dynamic space, after the inevitable end of the primary neutron (beta decay). So, it is caused an electrostatic induction of positive and negative units of the surrounding space and an inverse electric field of the proton (nucleus) is created, with reduction of the space cohesive pressure. The nuclear force now is interpreted as an electric force, 100 times stronger than the corresponding force of the outer electric field that extends beyond the potential barrier.
The Universal and the particulate (see http://viXra.org/abs/1501.0111) antigravity force is complemented by the stronger nuclear antigravity force, since at the lower nuclear field the reduction of the cohesive pressure is rapid and contributes to the architecture of the nuclei structure. Moreover, the reduction of cohesive pressure at the lower nuclear field is the cause of the neutron mass deficit, while protons do not undergo mass deficit, as it will be described below.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[614] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-23 02:46:11*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[613] **viXra:1506.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-13 12:01:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists have searched for a theory of quantum gravity for 80 years. Though gravitons are individually too weak to detect, most physicists believe the particles roam the quantum realm in droves, and that their behavior somehow collectively gives rise to the macroscopic force of gravity, just as light is a macroscopic effect of particles called photons. But every proposed theory of how gravity particles might behave faces the same problem: upon close inspection, it doesn’t make mathematical sense. Calculations of graviton interactions might seem to work at first, but when physicists attempt to make them more exact, they yield gibberish — an answer of “infinity.” “This is the disease of quantized gravity,” Stelle said. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[612] **viXra:1505.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 02:18:14*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Cleaned up and reformatted. Part of what was / is for a Marcel Grossman contribution

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto, and then generalize it to the question of initial time step as a function of NLED (non linear Electrodynamics) . Speculations as to the contribution of initial entropy to massive gravitons is also included. In addition, the non singular nature of an initial cosmology configuration , with its emphasis upon initial density proportional to 1 over the fourth power of an initial scale factor will lead to an initial time step of the order of Planck time, as opposed to the GR equation which postulates time set at t = 0 initially.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[611] **viXra:1505.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 04:43:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we analyse the internal interactions in the dark matter and the weak interactions via leptons of the entangled dark matter with the hadronic and leptonic matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[610] **viXra:1505.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-09 20:36:17*

**Authors:** S. Bogue, T. Bogue, E Bogue

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This theory of Quantum Gravity will describe the physical process which causes the force of Gravity due to interactions between the Vacuum Energy and matter/energy in the universe. Mass/energy interacts with the quantum vacuum and create locally uneven distribution of the vacuum energy density. All mass and energy will be accelerated towards the area of the vacuum with a lower energy density. The acceleration will occur in discrete, quantized amounts due to statistical interactions with the vacuum energy while avoiding the near instantaneous collapse of the universe in to a singularity most theories involving vacuum energy predict. This theory predicts the acceleration due to gravity, proper value of G, gravitational lensing of light, and time dilation within this quantized gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[609] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-23 10:05:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The S-SP, due to the succeeding phase transitions, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[608] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 05:12:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The S-SP, due to the succeeding phase transitions, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[607] **viXra:1505.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 16:59:54*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP.

A Moyal deformation of a Clifford $ Cl (3, 1) $ Gauge Theory of (Conformal) Gravity is performed for canonical noncommutativity (constant $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters). In the very special case when one imposes certain constraints on the fields, there are $no$
first order contributions in the $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters to the Moyal deformations of
Clifford gauge theories of gravity. However, when one does $not$ impose constraints on the fields, there are first order contributions in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ to the Moyal deformations in variance with the previous results obtained by other authors and based on different gauge groups. Despite that the generators of $U(2,2), SO(4,2), SO(2,3)$ can be expressed in terms of the Clifford algebra generators this does $not$ imply that these algebras are isomorphic to the Clifford algebra. Therefore one should not expect identical results to those obtained by other authors. In particular, there are Moyal deformations of the Einstein-Hilbert gravitational action with a cosmological constant to first order in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ . Finally, we provide a mechanism which furnishes a plausible cancellation of the huge vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[606] **viXra:1505.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-17 09:22:32*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Starobinsky model included, text and Latex typos corrected.

We propose a model scheme of microscopic black holes. We assume that at the center of the hole there is a spin 1/2 core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. Possible frameworks for non-singular models are discussed briefly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[605] **viXra:1505.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-04 08:20:26*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 14 Pages. New section and references added.

We propose a model scheme of microscopic black holes. We assume that at the center of the hole there is a spin 1/2 core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. Possible frameworks for non-singular models are discussed briefly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[604] **viXra:1505.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 12:48:16*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez Nunez.

**Comments:** 28 Pages. This theory is do not perfect scoeres, but you can say that if you have a roulette, and in continous movement, the 90 percent is light, the 9 percent is energy and 1 percent is mass, you can say that the energy is 9 times the velocity of the mass, and the

This theory is do not perfect scoeres, but you can say that if you have a roulette, and in continous movement, the 90 percent is light, the 9 percent is energy and 1 percent is mass, you can say that the energy is 9 times the velocity of the mass, and the light is 10 times and 90 times the velocity of the mass, and energy, but if you add 90 percent, plus 9 percent, plus 1 percent, you can say that is equal 100 percent, light, mass, and energy., and this is the effect of this camp, this is the same case about the gravity forcé is the same form, but in effect of camp.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[603] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-20 16:25:22*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then. Results: Four solutions to the gravitational wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[602] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 15:07:39*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 pages

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then. Results: Four solutions to the gravitational wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[601] **viXra:1504.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 12:55:26*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The charge radius (r = 2λ/π) of Fermion closes at ±1/2 spin from the Compton wavelength (λ = h/mc) of Photon (Boson). These ±1/2 spin means having the axiality to space-time. "The proton radius (0.841 fm) was calculated from the proton mass" and "The proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen" are consistent. Closed Yukawa potential at charge radius is going to reduce the linear density in accordance with 1/r potential, and become material density of mass (1.672E-27 kg/m), which is published on the 1 meter scale. How the fermion to acquire the radius and mass pave the way for quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[600] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-31 07:55:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[599] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-30 02:27:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[598] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 10:39:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[597] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 07:15:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[596] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-27 14:57:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory