**Previous months:**

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2016 - 1601(12) - 1602(28) - 1603(21) - 1604(18) - 1605(21) - 1606(18) - 1607(21) - 1608(24) - 1609(16) - 1610(17) - 1611(25) - 1612(18)

2017 - 1701(25) - 1702(24) - 1703(13) - 1704(9) - 1705(13) - 1706(13) - 1707(13) - 1708(14) - 1709(16) - 1710(23) - 1711(15) - 1712(23)

2018 - 1801(18) - 1802(10) - 1803(22) - 1804(10) - 1805(20) - 1806(10) - 1807(15) - 1808(11) - 1809(12) - 1810(14) - 1811(17) - 1812(16)

2019 - 1901(12) - 1902(21) - 1903(35) - 1904(25) - 1905(16) - 1906(13) - 1907(12) - 1908(15) - 1909(18) - 1910(14) - 1911(11) - 1912(1)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1619] **viXra:1912.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 12:35:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Cosmological Redshift has typically been calculated an effect of expansion of the universe. Currently there is debate about why the Hubble constant is different depending on the method being used to calculate the Hubble constant. This paper proposes that there are at least three different contributing factors to the cosmological redshift. These are radial redshift for the acceleration of matter in the universe, transverse redshift for the spinning of the universe, and gravitational blue shift for gravitational affects on cosmological light. There are also local affects. Perhaps our area of the universe has a gravitationally bound cosmic structure, and we observe other gravitational bound. There may also be other contributions to the gravitational redshift of the universe. There may be some difficulty in calculating cosmological redshift, because we really don’t know where in the universe we really are.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1618] **viXra:1911.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-30 20:13:21*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Our universe appears to be 13.8 billion years old, or at least have an age. But the author sees evidence that the universe is infinitely old, but continually has new matter created and old matter destroyed. How could such a mechanism exist? A universe that appears to continually expand could be part of this mechanism. This paper proposes that there is a mechanism that causes this appearance of expansion and it all takes place in a spinning sphere universe that is infinitely old, but it always rejuvenates. This continuous creation of matter has been proposed before [4]. The difference in this paper is that the universe never changes size, and matter is always continuously destroyed as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1617] **viXra:1911.0526 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-30 09:52:47*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Our universe appears to be expanding away from every point in the universe. The measurements of this phenomena is seen in the red-shifting of light. No mechanism for this expansion has been proven. This paper proposes that there is a mechanism that causes this expansion and it all takes place in a spinning sphere universe that is infinitely old, but it always rejuvenates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1616] **viXra:1911.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-25 10:58:06*

**Authors:** Noah MacKay

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Gravitational wave detection raised the question regarding the existence of the graviton: the quanta of the gravitational interaction. In approaching a gravitational wave-particle duality, the Klein-Gordon Equation from Einstein’s linearized ﬁeld equations was used to derive a quantum wave function of the graviton. It is assumed that gravitons do not transition into higher dimensions while emitted as gravitational waves, do not aﬀect unbent spacetime, and have a non-zero mass of value m_g = 1.37E−58 kg [Abbott et al].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1615] **viXra:1911.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-21 03:48:49*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Of course, the most important premise for the existence of baryon core is the impossibility of compressing the nuclear plasma to a mathematical point, which is permissible due to asymptotic freedom. Here we show that baryon-core dynamics and Stefan-Boltzmann law assign characteristic masses inside the core to the masses of known particles. Core of baryons leads indirectly to properties of dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1614] **viXra:1911.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-21 08:32:52*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is partially a review article. On the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the difference between the N and S magnetic monopoles, between the opposite electric charges, and between the different weak charges of neutrinos. Such differences follow from behaviour of the components the tori/charges consist of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1613] **viXra:1911.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-15 01:19:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Atoms held in place by laser beams offer a new and more compact means of measuring the local acceleration due to gravity, paving the way for applications ranging from geophysical exploration to sensitive tests of fundamental forces. [34] In a study published online in Nature Methods, Prof. Compact quantum devices could be incorporated into laptops and mobile phones, thanks in part to small devices called quantum optical micro-combs. [31] Taking their name from an intricate Japanese basket pattern, kagome magnets are thought to have electronic properties that could be valuable for future quantum devices and applications. [30] A team of Cambridge researchers have found a way to control the sea of nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots so they can operate as a quantum memory device. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1612] **viXra:1911.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-12 01:18:49*

**Authors:** Balungi Francis

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this study we show that the gravitational force between any two electrons becomes strong when the distance between them is the Planck length and that this happens when the applied electric field used to accelerate one electron towards the other up to the Planck length where gravity becomes
strong has a value of approximately 5.5269 ×10^60��/��. We also deduce the limiting lengths and electric field at which the electromagnetic and Casimir force becomes strong. This study has implications for physics beyond the standard model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1611] **viXra:1911.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-12 07:02:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Presented here an extension of the dynamics of the core of baryons reduces the initial 3 iterative numbers in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) to 2. Now SST starts from 7 parameters and 2 iterative numbers which are derived after formulation of the theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1610] **viXra:1911.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-11 14:06:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In 2017, scientists from Osaka University measured unexpected gamma-ray energy spectrum of the lithium reaction with the 246-MeV protons. Here, using the dynamics of the core of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the two absorption lines follow from such dynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1609] **viXra:1911.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-10 20:56:18*

**Authors:** Jennifer Lorraine Nielsen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Unification via the Hopf field and the Beltrami flux

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1608] **viXra:1911.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-07 08:06:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we present how neutrinos acquire their masses and how internal structure of the neutrinos leads to the volumetric quantum confinement described within the Neutrino Quantum Gravity (NQG). Such confinement is responsible for mass of the condensates/scalars that are made of the Einstein-spacetime components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs). Mean distance between such pairs in the two-component spacetime is slightly larger than the range of NQG.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1607] **viXra:1910.0503 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-24 17:01:37*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Starting from the theoretical background developed for obtaining the Quantization of Gravity, in the paper Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, I show here that, it is possible to derive a theoretical value of the Cosmological Constant, extremely close to the observed value.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1606] **viXra:1910.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-22 13:44:31*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note we describe the correspondence between tangles and associahedra tiles, where R occurs in the case of braid tangles, leading to a natural extension to ribbons. Such tangles were used by Bar-Natan to study Khovanov complexes in nice cobordism categories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1605] **viXra:1910.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-22 14:46:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian DragoI

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper proposes a simple "Mirrored" Universe (toy-)Model (MUM) based on a relative big G (Newtonian gravitational constant [G]), a variable quantum big G and a finite mass ambitus of our universe (OU), with far reaching implications leading to new paths beyond the Standard model (SM) of particle physics (PP) and Einstein’s General Relativity (EGR). MUM also (empirically) predicts: (1) the total mass of all possible known and unknown life forms (LFs) from our observable universe (ObU); (2) a very strong quantum gravitational field (QGF) acting inside elementary particles (EPs); (3) an average non-zero radii of all known EPs; (4) that a nucleon (proton/neutron) and generally an atomic nucleus can be regarded as a binary logarithmic "map" of OU AND OU can be considered a binary exponential map/expansion of a standard nucleon or atomic nucleus;

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1604] **viXra:1910.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-22 14:48:18*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11788.05763

This paper proposes a simple "Mirrored" Universe (toy-)Model (MUM) based on a relative big G (Newtonian gravitational constant [G]), a variable quantum big G and a finite mass ambitus of our universe (OU), with far reaching implications leading to new paths beyond the Standard model (SM) of particle physics (PP) and Einstein’s General Relativity (EGR). MUM also (empirically) predicts (see the original [full] preprint of this paper): (1) the total mass of all possible known and unknown life forms (LFs) from our observable universe (ObU); (2) a very strong quantum gravitational field (QGF) acting inside elementary particles (EPs); (3) an average non-zero radii of all known EPs; (4) that a nucleon (proton/neutron) and generally an atomic nucleus can be regarded as a binary logarithmic "map" of OU AND OU can be considered a binary exponential map/expansion of a standard nucleon or atomic nucleus;

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1603] **viXra:1910.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-20 17:31:37*

**Authors:** Zane Andrea Quintili

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I will now try to demonstrate empirically how to solve the orbital stationarity of the electron in the 1s orbital completely eliminating the electromagnetic interactions and making use only of gravitational interactions of strong Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1602] **viXra:1910.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-15 14:44:54*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The associahedra appear in a line configuration space for the real Clebsch diagonal surface, which we relate to e6 in the magic star, with applications to mass generation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1601] **viXra:1910.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-13 12:43:49*

**Authors:** Eytan Haim Suchard

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Review of https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/845/1/012019

Abstract: In 1982, Dr. Sam Vaknin pondered the idea of reconstructing physics based on time as a field. His idea appeared in his doctorate dissertation as an amendment to the Dirac spinor equation. Sam saw the Quantum Field Theory particles and momentum and energy as a result of the language of physics and of the way the human mind perceives reality and not as reality. To the author’s opinion, it is a revolution of the language itself and is not a new interpretation of the existing language. The Special Theory of Relativity was a revolution and so was the General Theory of Relativity but yet these theories did not challenge the use of momentum and energy but rather gave them new relativistic interpretation. Later on, Quantum Mechanics used Energy and Momentum operators and even Dirac’s orthogonal matrices are multiplied by such operators. Quantum Field Theory assumes the existence of particles which are very intuitive and agree with the human visual system. Particles may be merely a human interpretation of events that occur in the human sensory world. This paper elaborates on one specific interpretation of Sam Vaknin’s idea that the author has developed from 2003 up to August 2018. It is a major improvement of previously published papers and it summarizes all of them and includes all the appendices along with new ideas.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1600] **viXra:1910.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-13 06:28:32*

**Authors:** Theoryofall.org

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Stephen Hawking famously said:
„If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we would know the mind of God.“
We the people agree to science and have to draw a line:
If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few leaders. Then we shall all, adam and eve, men and women, child and adult, black and white, believer and unbeliever, rich and poor, chinese and american, norwegian and south-african, muslim and christ, western world and islamic state, governments and citizens, nations and companies, heterosexual and homosexual, weak and strong, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we fail to live as a healthy community on earth.
If we continue to search for the mind of a God, our ecosystem, this planet and this entire living universe we live “with” in entanglement and community and
“wholeness” will die.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1599] **viXra:1910.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-12 05:09:14*

**Authors:** P. Davies

**Comments:** 272 Pages. in Russian

Science has always sought to build a holistic picture of the world. In recent decades, physicists have come closer than ever to realizing this dream: the prospects of combining the four fundamental interactions of nature within a single superpower loom, and the physics of the microcosm is increasingly merging with cosmology-the theory of the origin and evolution of the Universe.
About all this in a popular and fascinating form tells the book of the famous English scientist and popularizer of science Paul Davis.
It is addressed to all those who are interested in the problems of modern fundamental science, especially useful to teachers and students of both physical and philosophical faculties of universities.
Until now, the book has not lost its relevance for those interested in the state of modern physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1598] **viXra:1910.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 07:39:11*

**Authors:** S. Carlip

**Comments:** 14 Pages. in Russian

Perhaps standard effective field theory arguments are right, and vacuum fluctuations really do generate a huge cosmological constant. I show that if one does not assume homogeneity and an arrow of time at the Planck scale, a very large class of general relativistic initial data exhibit expansions, shears, and curvatures that are enormous at small scales, but quickly average to zero macroscopically. Subsequent evolution is more complex, but I argue that quantum fluctuations may preserve these properties. The resulting picture is a version of Wheeler’s “spacetime foam,” in which the cosmological constant produces high curvature at the Planck scale but is nearly invisible at observable scales.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1597] **viXra:1910.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-08 08:21:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we define quantum entanglement using spin-2 gravitons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1596] **viXra:1910.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-07 12:06:44*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 91 Pages.

We present a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. Under the premise that science is the best methodology to understand the World, then presumably a formalization of such is its best mathematical framework. Axiomatic science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science and it has numerous desirable properties. Axiomatic science is a model of science and of physics, and as such, it contains a 'science' part and a 'physics' part. Axiomatic science can derive the 'physics' part, including the laws of physics, using the 'science' part as the starting point and in the forms of theorems. Axiomatic science thus explains the origins of the laws of physics as a theorem of the formal practice of science. We begin the program to show that axiomatic science is the complete, free of physical baggage, mathematical foundation of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1595] **viXra:1910.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-07 04:38:51*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 4 pages

The Bohr radius is equal to the Planck length multiplied by the 125th power of pi/2. The reduced Compton wavelength of the Higgs boson is equal to the Bohr radius divided by the 25th power of 2, meaning the Higgs boson is of mass 125.1224±0.0014 GeV; the Particle Data Group’s 2019 evaluation is 125.10±0.14 GeV. The total mass/energy (Planck cosmological parameters 2018) of the observable universe is equal to the Planck mass multiplied by the 125th power of pi. In Planck units, the total mass/energy of the observable universe is equal numerically to the Bohr radius multiplied by the 125th power of 2 and also to the reduced Compton wavelength of the Higgs boson multiplied by the 150th power of 2. The spin angular momentum of the mid-Main Sequence sun is equal to the 250th power of 2 in units of h-bar. These and other equalities arise in an analysis of the Quantum/Classical connection. The new results suggest an explanation for the accelerating expansion of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1594] **viXra:1910.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-10-05 13:13:17*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

According to the unified theory of dynamic space, the first (Universal) and the second (local) deformation of space is described, which change the geometric structure of the isotropic space. These geometric deformations created the dynamic space, the Universe, and the space holes (bubbles of empty space), the early form of matter. The neutron cortex is structured around these space holes with the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) at the light speed, as the third deformation of space (electrical and geometric deformation), resulting in the creation of surface electric charges (quarks), to which the particles spin is due. The constant kinetic
energy of the particle spin is calculated at 100 million Joule. Thus, a single electron is
enough to become the heart of a future energy machine.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1593] **viXra:1909.0656 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-29 16:45:30*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1-11], the idea of gravity as a process of the nature of space shall be presented; the idea of space will be defined in a way that is able to support how Newton derived the equation for gravity using astronomical observations consistent with gravity being an “immediate” field force and not one travelling at “c”, while accommodating for Einstein’s “curvature of spacetime” theory for gravity. In using a definition of space that carries the notion of gravity being an immediate field force, a number of key features of quantum mechanics are able to be explained regarding the behaviour of light, this by defining “space” as “nothingness”, and as a type of feature of “uncertainty” that a quantum reference would abide by, as though space has its own “program” as “nothing”, putting everything within it as that which is defined as uncertain, not clearly definable, and thus must exist randomly, like a process of natural uncertainty. It is then highlighted how Einstein’s special and general relativity is incorrect in its application of the idea of measuring inertial frames of reference using the speed of light in his assuming, through such a process, that gravity, and thus inertial frames of reference, operate at light speed, despite relativity theory being accurate with the idea of gravity as a curvature of spacetime. Finally, an update to the method of proof in paper 7 [7], “Golden Ratio Entropic Gravity: Gravitational Singularity Field Testing”, is offered based on this new understanding of space and gravity, with associated confirmatory results posted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1592] **viXra:1909.0623 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-28 10:31:14*

**Authors:** Richard Blum

**Comments:** 35 Pages. (c) Richard Blum 2019

The Existence Framework offers a new paradigm for constructing a theory of quantum gravity. Its development was based upon an analysis of past major breakthroughs in physics, which revealed that several basic principles were utilized in the formation of each innovated theory. The assumption is that a next major breakthrough will require utilization of these same principles. The principles include: Equivalence, Hierarchical Structure, Quantum Discreteness, and Simple Underlying Dynamics. Utilization of these concepts leads to the proposition that all matter and energy is comprised of time and space, which itself is a discrete substance comprised of a more primary, binary element referred to as existence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1591] **viXra:1909.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 11:41:23*

**Authors:** Kaushal Timilsina

**Comments:** 61 Pages. It's a lot of fun and perhaps very creative to wonder and explore ideas from what each possibility leads to.

In 4 articles on abstract Physics, I explore perspectives on 1) what would become a theory of interacting manifolds, 2) emergence and virtual particles, 3) The loops in spacetime 4) Self-interaction and time, and a discussion on the Riemann hypothesis.
The discussions on abstract Physics do not contain any mathematical basis, and purely explore the sense of wonder in such philosophical perspectives. The discussion on the Riemann hypothesis contains some mathematics which is very non-rigorous. All of these articles are related to a more formal mathematical intuition, but still not very rigorous in this other article: Riemann zeroes and manifolds - http://viXra.org/abs/1909.0500

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1590] **viXra:1909.0518 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 15:45:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Many basic ideas applied in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) have counterparts in the mythology of the Bambara and Dogon tribes. Here, at each point, I first quote from the AllatRa Book a fragment of mythology and then explain what it means in my theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1589] **viXra:1909.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-24 06:03:12*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The 2018 CODATA proton charge radius is 8.414(19)*10^(-19) meters[1] This information may help in deciphering the construction of the universe. The value is not precise enough to make conclusion. This paper proposes a couple precise values. One being 8.40077662 × 10^-16 meters These numbers are from the Compton wavelength of the neutron. The calculations for the proton charge radius, done in this paper, are a continuation of Spinning Sphere Theory started in the paper “Gravity most related to the Proton Mass, Charge most related to the Electron Mass”[2] where the universe is discovered to be spinning spheres made out spinning spheres for many layers which is better described in “Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”[3]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1588] **viXra:1909.0486 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-22 07:25:26*

**Authors:** JianFei Chen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

As has been found: In a hydrogen atom, if the proton increase 1/12 of the total mass of the electron, then the mass ratio of proton and electron is exactly an integer of 1836; And in a hydrogen molecule, hydrogen molecular bond energy is equal to 1/12 of the kinetic energy of two electrons. Both of two attraction involve the same ratio of 1/12, which should been determined by the same rules of energy. Author has explained the format process of the two attraction with energy and energy waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the four fundamental forces with energy and energy waves. Email: eastear@outlook.com eastear@163.com

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1587] **viXra:1909.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-22 14:24:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), there is the two-component spacetime composed of the SST Higgs field (which consists of tachyons) and the Einstein spacetime (which consists of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The neutrinos are built of the superluminal binary systems of closed strings (we call them the gravitons or entanglons). The closed strings in a graviton have parallel spins and opposite internal helicity. Gravitons are placed in the SST Higgs field so they carry the smallest "piece" of gravitational field. Neutrinos produce gradient in the SST Higgs field - it is the elementary gravitational field defined by the gravitational constant G. Generally, the gradients/gravitational-fields are the classical fields but at distances smaller than 3510.1831 multiplied by the equatorial radius of neutrinos there appear groups of gravitons emitted and absorbed by the core of neutrinos. Here we described phenomena that concern the quantum region of neutrinos. The Neutrino Quantum Gravity (NQG) leads to the volumetric quantum confinement of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that is the origin of the masses of scalars in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1586] **viXra:1909.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-22 15:04:09*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In a paper in year 2011 the author implicitly predicted the masses of the neutrinos using some old empirical formulae. Now this prediction is explicitly written, mass of one neutrino is calculated as 21.44240(50) meV, respectively 21.36459(49) meV, dependent of the model. (The other masses of the neutrinos are connected with one of these values.) According to the upper bounds of neutrinos masses in 2005, and respectively in 2019, the author calculates that the upper bound of the lightest neutrino mass approached between 3 times to 20 times to the predicted value in 2019 according to 2005. At the same time, cosmologists predict that in the next five years we will have values of the neutrino masses, not only the lower and upper bounds. Thus this prediction can be tested, and maybe p-value for accident will not be large. Besides, the prediction of the gravitational constant with the same formulae is also mentioned.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1585] **viXra:1909.0463 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-21 09:47:33*

**Authors:** Richard L. Marker

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper develops the theoretical ratio of the gravitational force to
electromagnetic force between two electrons. The resulting ratio produces a
gravitational constant with the precision of electromagnetic constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1584] **viXra:1909.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-20 21:33:11*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 13 Pages. FIRST DRAFT

In quantum logic, the emergence of spacetime and related symmetries goes hand in hand with the emergence of the real and complex numbers themselves. In this paper, we show how finite fields are surprisingly sufficient for most physical questions, once we throw away classical geometrical models in favour of categorical axioms. In particular, generalised Pauli matrix algebras are closely related to braid and ribbon diagrams, and holographic information for mass localisation gains its intuition from algebras for anyon condensation. We discuss definitions of homology and cohomology associated to braids, recalling the twistor construction of massive solutions in H^2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1583] **viXra:1909.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-19 09:59:08*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything, also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical Big Bang into 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric copy universes.
However such a cyclic multiverse seems to be only possible with special ingredients,
1: a propeller shaped fermion able transform by collision and spin in two pitch directions.
2: A fermion knot based dark matter black hole of enough rigid string content, to become stable against the fierce oscillations of the oscillating vacuum lattice and repelling all spinning Fermions. but not other black hole nuclei or photons.
As a result, The Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy multiverse entangled particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1582] **viXra:1909.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-15 20:50:16*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 428 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The EHT picture is wrong; this shows how Low is the level of knowledge of the Black Holes in universities, in research centers
“There is no Gravitational redshift around the Black Hole, around the Event horizon of the Black Hole in Ferent Quantum Gravity, like the red color in the EHT picture of the Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
“All the photons interacting with Gravitons will fall inside the Black Hole. We will see only the photons which do not interact with Gravitons that is why we see the White light around the Black Hole, not the read light like in the EHT picture of the Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
“We do not see the black Event horizon, like in the EHT picture”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole picture from EHT is Black and Red; Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White; the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong, we do not see the black Event horizon because of the large luminosity as the result of gas and matter being accreted and we do not see the read light in the EHT picture around the Event horizon because at 3rs the Gravitational redshift does not exist”
Adrian Ferent
“You do not need a telescope to see a Black Hole, you need only an amazing brain to see it and a new Gravitation theory, Ferent Quantum Gravity”
Adrian Ferent
“At this distance, 26,000 light-years from Sgr A* the Gravitational flux on Earth is very small, but the Gravitons from Sgr A* destroy cells on Earth”
Adrian Ferent
“There are no Extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy, because of Sgr A*”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
The UCLA picture of a Black Hole is right and the EHT picture is wrong!
https://ucla.in/2NVbhCh
The scientists from UCLA are right!
‘The new findings are based on observations of the black hole — which is called Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A* — during four nights in April and May at the Keck Observatory. The brightness surrounding the black hole always varies somewhat, but the scientists were stunned by the extreme variations in brightness during that timeframe, including their observations on May 13.’
The energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Black Hole is much higher than the energy of the photons.
“All the photons interacting with Gravitons will fall inside the Black Hole. We will see only the photons which do not interact with Gravitons that is why we see the White light around the Black Hole, not the read light like in the EHT picture of the Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
“There is no Gravitational redshift around the Black Hole, around the Event horizon of the Black Hole in Ferent Quantum Gravity, like the red color in the EHT picture of the Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
That is why the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong.
This is another proof that:
“Einstein gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
The read light in the EHT picture of the Black Hole is the Gravitational redshift around the Black Hole, at 3rs around the Event horizon of the Black Hole.
The EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong:
The Schwarzschild radius rs of an object is proportional to the mass.
The Schwarzschild radius rs of the Sgr A* is 12×10^6 km
rs = 2GM / c^2
Between rs and 3rs around the Event horizon in EHT picture is red light, it is the Gravitational redshift.
How I explained:
“All the photons interacting with Gravitons will fall inside the Black Hole. We will see only the photons which do not interact with Gravitons that is why we see the White light around the Black Hole, not the read light like in the EHT picture of the Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
The read light in the EHT picture of the Black Hole, around the Event horizon is wrong.
That is why:
“The EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong and Einstein gravitation theory is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“The picture of the Black Hole is white not red like the EHT picture of the Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift”
Adrian Ferent
“We do not see the black Event horizon like in the EHT picture”
Adrian Ferent
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole picture is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.”
Adrian Ferent
How easy was accepted the wrong EHT picture of the Black Hole by universities, research centers, peer-reviewed journals…
“The EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong; this shows how Low is the level of knowledge of the Black Holes and Dark Matter in universities, research centers”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume”
Adrian Ferent
The scientists from UCLA are wrong!
No danger to Earth
‘The black hole is some 26,000 light-years away and poses no danger to our planet. Do said the radiation would have to be 10 billion times as bright as what the astronomers detected to affect life on Earth.’
“Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill Aliens”
Adrian Ferent
“The energy of the Gravitons inside a Black Hole, is much higher than the energy of gluons”
Adrian Ferent
“At this distance, 26,000 light-years from Sgr A* the Gravitational flux on Earth is very small, but the Gravitons from Sgr A* destroy cells on Earth”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational Radiation is the most dangerous because it travels the farthest and is the most penetrating”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations”
Adrian Ferent
“Extraterrestrial civilizations are on planets moving around stars far away from Black Holes”
Adrian Ferent
“There are no Extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy, because of Sgr A*”
Adrian Ferent
Conclusions
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole picture from EHT is Black and Red; Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White; the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong, we do not see the black Event horizon because of the large luminosity as the result of gas and matter being accreted and we do not see the read light in the EHT picture around the Event horizon because at 3rs the Gravitational redshift does not exist”
Adrian Ferent
“The EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong; this shows how Low is the level of knowledge of the Black Holes and Dark Matter in universities, research centers”
Adrian Ferent
“At this distance, 26,000 light-years from Sgr A* the Gravitational flux on Earth is very small, but the Gravitons from Sgr A* destroy cells on Earth”
Adrian Ferent
“There are no Extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy, because of Sgr A*”
Adrian Ferent
This is another proof that:
“Einstein gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right”
Adrian Ferent
248. I am the first who discovered that there is no Gravitational redshift around the Black Hole, around the Event horizon of the Black Hole in Ferent Quantum Gravity, like the red color in the EHT picture of the Black Hole
249. I am the first who discovered that all the photons interacting with Gravitons will fall inside the Black Hole. We will see only the photons which do not interact with Gravitons that is why we see the White light around the Black Hole, not the read light like in the EHT picture of the Black Hole
250. I am the first who discovered that we do not see the black Event horizon, like in the EHT picture
251. I am the first who discovered that Einstein supermassive Black Hole picture from EHT is Black and Red; Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White
252. I am the first who discovered that Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White; the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong, we do not see the black Event horizon because of the large luminosity as the result of gas and matter being accreted and we do not see the read light in the EHT picture around the Event horizon because at 3rs the Gravitational redshift does not exist
253. I am the first who discovered that the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong; this shows how Low is the level of knowledge of the Black Holes and Dark Matter in universities, research centers
254. I am the first who discovered that at this distance, 26,000 light-years from Sgr A* the Gravitational flux on Earth is very small, but the Gravitons from Sgr A* destroy cells on Earth
255. I am the first who discovered that there are no Extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy, because of Sgr A*
256. I am the first who discovered that Einstein gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1581] **viXra:1909.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-14 04:45:48*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

I think the best way to describe this article is by listing the
CONTENTS -
INTRODUCTION - Speculations about life, the universe and everything which have a basis in science
SECTION 1 - STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW, RADIATION PRESSURE FROM THERMODYNAMICS, "VECTOR-TENSOR-SCALAR GEOMETRY" ANALOGOUS TO STRESS TENSOR / EIGENVECTORS / EIGENVALUES
SECTION 2 - VECTOR-TENSOR-SCALAR GEOMETRY AND THE NUCLEAR FORCES
SECTION 3 - THE STRESS TENSOR ON THE COSMIC LEVEL
SECTION 4 - BITS AND TOPOLOGY – CONTINUING THE THEME OF THE MOBIUS STRIP AND MATHEMATICAL MATTER
SECTION 5 - ANALOGY OF QUANTUM SPIN AND MATRIX ARRAY, WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL WAVES PRODUCED FROM PURE MATHEMATICS
SECTION 6 - DARK MATTER, DARK ENERGY AND A HIGHER DIMENSION OF SPACE-TIME
SECTION 7A - EXPLAINING OCEAN TIDES WHEN GENERAL RELATIVITY SAYS GRAVITY IS A PUSH CAUSED BY THE CURVATURE OF SPACE-TIME
7B - M-SIGMA
7C - GEYSERS ON SATURN'S MOON ENCELADUS
7D - A BRIEF HISTORY OF GRAVITY

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1580] **viXra:1909.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-10 22:45:46*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 414 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Nobody understands Gravitation, because nobody understands Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Dark Matter has another Structure, based on Ferent length lF = 1.296 × 10^(-69) m much smaller than Planck length lP = 1.616199×10^(-35) m”
Adrian Ferent
“Quantum Mechanics can't explain Gravity because nobody understands Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from your professors that nobody understands Quantum Mechanics.
We understand Quantum Mechanics because there are a lot of applications of Quantum Mechanics.
But nobody understands what an electron is!
“The electron is a photon around Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron”
Adrian Ferent
The equation for an elementary particle made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Ferent equation for elementary particle as a quantum system:
“Ferent equation for elementary particles:”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!”
Adrian Ferent
Because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong, nobody understands Gravitation!
Your professors will not say ‘nobody understands Gravitation’ because that means what you learned at Universities about Gravitation is wrong, the articles in peer-review journals are wrong, your Science books are wrong…
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent
“Newton and Einstein did not understand Gravitation, they calculated Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy”
Adrian Ferent
LIGO: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong, LQG, String theory… are wrong theories”
Adrian Ferent
Why nobody understands Gravitation?
“Nobody understands Gravitation, because nobody understands Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational force is mediated by gravitons faster than the speed of light, with negative momentum”
Adrian Ferent
“I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
Why Quantum Mechanics can't explain Gravity?
Ferent Quantum Gravity:
“Quantum Mechanics can't explain Gravity because nobody understands Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
In Ferent Quantum Gravity I explained what Dark Matter is:
I discovered during the Big Bang:
“Two important walls:
The Ferent wall: here at time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s were created Dark Matter, Dark Photons and Gravitons.
The Planck wall: here at time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created Matter and Photons”
Adrian Ferent
Hawking and all the scientists did not understand Gravitation, Dark Matter and Black holes.
“Black holes are Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Dark Matter does not have temperature”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons from Black holes transform Matter, ‘heat’ in Dark Matter.”
Adrian Ferent
“Dark Matter has another Structure, based on Ferent length lF = 1.296 × 10^(-69) m much smaller than Planck length lP = 1.616199×10^(-35) m”
Adrian Ferent
Dark Matter does not emit, reflects and absorbs light.
“Dark Matter is not ‘invisible’, is not ‘transparent’ Matter.”
Adrian Ferent
That is why Gerard 't Hooft, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind are wrong, because the information is lost inside a black hole.
I discovered the equation of the Dark Matter universe:
“In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe.”
Adrian Ferent
“I discovered that: a < h < s”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:”
Adrian Ferent
Where: Ψ – the wave function of the Universe, material and spiritual
m1i – the mass of Matter elementary particle i
m2j – the mass of Dark Matter elementary particle j
m3k – the mass of Spiritual Matter elementary particle k
r1N – the position of Matter elementary particle N
r2M – the position of Dark Matter elementary particle M
r3L – the position of Spiritual Matter elementary particle L
Today all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain Dark Matter, they talk about Transparent matter because they can not see Dark Matter, they talk about Baryonic matter, Non-baryonic matter like axions, they talk about cold, warm or hot Dark Matte, about Spersymmetric Particles as Dark Matter…but NOT BEYOND THE PLANCK WALL.
Now they Stole my theory and they went beyond the Planck wall! Those who do not have a Gravitation theory, they started stealing my theory of Gravity.
https://www.sciencealert.com/new-study-brings-receipts-to-demonstrate-dark-matter-may-be-older-than-the-big-bang?fbclid=IwAR2IU7KARSt6FlR1SXAnRFR7NPzz-QHTj5EpuvAq_pwfxtZlv2GYFP3CVCY
The professors from the peer–review journal did not Search about ‘Beyond the Planck Wall’ because they do not know, do not understand how difficult is to go beyond the Planck Wall.
Before me nobody was able to think what is beyond Planck Wall.
Because all the Scientists do not understand Dark Matter, they have only wrong theories about Dark Matter!
The biggest assault on Ferent Quantum Gravity and on my Dark Matter theory will be in October (Dark Matter Days). Dark matter-themed events will be hosted throughout the month by universities, laboratories, and institutions around the world.
‘We just don’t know what that missing mass and energy are, hence the names ’dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’.
Understanding dark matter will shine a light on the nature of the universe we live in. We are not yet sure if these discoveries will require a new understanding of physics.’
“All Nobel Laureates were ignorant, thinking inside the Planck Universe; nobody was able before me to go beyond the Planck Wall”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Ferent Quantum Gravity is a new theory, I did not use References”
Adrian Ferent
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) Black holes are not cold or hot, Black holes are Dark Matter and do not have Temperature”
Adrian Ferent
“Virtual particles do not exist in Ferent Quantum Gravity, virtual particles exist in Quantum Field theory.”
Adrian Ferent
“Event horizons do not exist in Ferent Quantum Gravity, event horizons exist in Einstein General Theory of Relativity. At Event horizons there are only Gravitons without Hawking radiation.”
Adrian Ferent
245. I am the first who discovered that nobody understands Gravitation, because nobody understands Dark Matter
246. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter has another Structure, based on Ferent length lF = 1.296 × 10^(-69) m much smaller than Planck length lP = 1.616199×10^(-35) m
247. I am the first who discovered that Quantum Mechanics can't explain Gravity because nobody understands Dark Matter

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1579] **viXra:1909.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-06 09:47:25*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We compile a short list of reasons explaining why Quantum Theory (QT) and General Relativity (GR) cannot be trivially reconciled. Our opinion reflects a personal viewpoint and is likely to stand at odds with mainstream beliefs on Quantum Gravity, Black Hole phenomenology and related foundational topics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1578] **viXra:1909.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-05 01:30:57*

**Authors:** Dong-Yih Bau

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Journal-ref: IJASRM 3 (3): 30-34 (2018). DOI:10.36282/IJASRM/3.3.2018.496

Universal laws elucidate a basic understanding of nature. Imagine how marvellous it would be to have universal laws in biology as there are in physics. Herein, we apply Einstein’s principle theory as a constraining method to identify a new universal biological law (or principle) called the success/failure system principle. Based on this principle, we develop a principle theory called the success/failure system hypothesis, which suggests that every planet has the potential to evolve into a success/failure system. Then, we describe the implications regarding our place in the universe, the role of universal laws in biology in a final theory, and the current global challenges of sustainability and scientific ethics. This paper concludes with the interdisciplinary interest and scientific significance of this hypothesis. The path to truth: Einstein’s cosmos, a theory of the universe, thoroughly includes a cosmic order defined by three theories, quantum mechanics, general relativity, and the success/failure system. With regards to the theory of the universe, current quantum gravity, string theory, and all other possible theories of the universe, except Einstein’s cosmos, are definitely not final. However, we seek a final theory of the universe. Thus, we suggest researching Einstein’s cosmos immediately and seriously. As a prologue to this new academic enterprise, we have pioneered this enterprise by storing several papers in viXra, in hope of the scientific community’s attention. Who is more intelligent than Einstein, a human with cosmic religious feeling? Today, Einstein’s scientific thoughts still firmly lead the scientific community to a final theory of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1577] **viXra:1909.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-09-02 07:54:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The measurement is done by pointing laser light at a liquid and seeing how it is reflected. Compared to weight-spring seismometers, the PLI can detect angular motion in addition to translational motion (up-and-down and side-to-side), and it can pick up low-frequency motion with a very high precision. [21] A team of physicists and astronomers from Northwestern University is poised to lead gravitational-wave astronomy into its next evolution. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories-located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US-double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1576] **viXra:1908.0631 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-31 13:30:57*

**Authors:** Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Higgs boson (or Higgs particle) produced by the quantum excitation of the Higgs field, that was confirmed on 2012 in the ATLAS detector at CERN is supposed to be the explanation for the mass of elementary particles. In this paper I will explain why this Higgs field is a new dimension which I refer to as the Grid dimensions (or Grid extra dimensions). This paper will explain what are the expected measurements regarding the Higgs particles based on this assumption. In this paper I will show what will be the future measured evidence that he Higgs particle measured at the particle accelerators is a quantum excitation of the Grid dimensions themselves.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1575] **viXra:1908.0602 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-29 18:36:15*

**Authors:** Michael Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In 2015 a method was proposed that predicts the mass of the electron to the neutron, this number was found to be 5.438 673 4446*10^-4. In 2017 this prediction was updated to 5.438 673 44424*10^-4. The new 2018 CODATA value is 5.438 673 4424(26)*10^-4 . The predicted values are within about .8 sigma. It was shown that the electron could be broken up into three, six component parts. The author postulates these six component parts to be two-dimensional rings. A factor for calculating this mass is shown in Abstract A of this paper to be 1.000000779229966. These papers are saying that the electron can be broken up into 18 parts and that there is a relativistic portion to the electron. We are proposing that this relativistic portion is related to the neutrino masses. The basic unit of the electron neutrino would be (1.0000007799229966-1) multiplied by the mass of the electron divided by 18. Which yields about .022 electron volts. It is proposed that the neutrino masses would be some multiple of .022 electron volts. The article “Mysterious Neutrinos Get New Mass Estimate” [8] in Scientific American, it states the maximum mass of the electron neutrino is .086 electron volts and the maximum mass for the combination of the neutrinos is 0.26 electron volts. The .022 electron volts of this article is in line with these results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1574] **viXra:1908.0600 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-29 22:32:50*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

“In The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” [1] We found that the amount of matter in the universe is equal to the outside layer of the universe. We also find that the universe is not isotropic. In “Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”[2] We show that if red shifting of light is due to travel perpendicular to our location instead of away from our location that the universe is no longer isotropic looking. This would be contrary to the cosmological principle.
In “Gravity Most Related to the Proton Mass, Charge Most Related to the Electron Mass” [3], we showed that space was granular with the same particle everywhere. We called this particle the Plank sphere. In this paper we show that the Planck Sphere can follow the Lorentz transformation. As the Planck Sphere accelerates the discontinuities move away from the center of the Planck Sphere. This increases the energy which happens as the same proportion as the Lorentz transformation. Mass acts on the Planck spheres in the same way and creates the gravitational field. Once a Planck sphere has its momentum altered my any amount, that increased momentum travels, through adjacent Planck spheres, at the speed of light, settling only when it has reached a uniform field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1573] **viXra:1908.0577 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-28 10:55:50*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper proposes a dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH). DRH pushes the relativity of space and time to its…“informational” extremes, defining them as illusions created by the exchange of information in a bulk virtual matrix (BVM). No matter this current paper version, its latest variant can be always downloaded from this URL: http://www.dragoii.com/ALDragoi_DRH_latest.pdf

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1572] **viXra:1908.0533 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-27 00:28:13*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 405 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The Dark Matter Electron
In Ferent Quantum Gravity:
“The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron”
Adrian Ferent
“Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(=44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“When the photons were created, the photons with the energy 0.5 MeV and the Dark Matter electrons created the electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron is a photon around Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“The high energy Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter keep the photon inside the electron”
Adrian Ferent
“The Spin of the electron is the Orbital angular momentum of the photon within the electron”
Adrian Ferent
“The energy of the photon inside the electron is around 0.5 MeV”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle”
Adrian Ferent
“The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron”
Adrian Ferent
“Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field”
Adrian Ferent
“The photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge.
An electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron.
Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron!”
Adrian Ferent
“I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^(20) Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10(-19)
C, the electron charge”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent electron and positron collision:”
Adrian Ferent
“I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision”
Adrian Ferent
DMe is the Dark Matter inside the electron
DMp is the Dark Matter inside the positron
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity is important the energies of the Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter, not the Dark Matter mass”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation for N elementary particles:”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!”
Adrian Ferent
I discovered during the Big Bang:
“Two important walls:
The Ferent wall: here at time t = 1.294 × 10(-86) s were created Dark Matter, Dark Photons and Gravitons.
The Planck wall: here at time t = 5.391 × 10(-44) s were created Matter and Photons”
Adrian Ferent
I discovered the equation of the Dark Matter universe:
“In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe.”
Adrian Ferent
“I discovered that: a < h < s”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:”
Adrian Ferent
Where: Ψ – the wave function of the Universe, material and spiritual
m1i – the mass of Matter elementary particle i
m2j – the mass of Dark Matter elementary particle j
m3k – the mass of Spiritual Matter elementary particle k
r1N – the position of Matter elementary particle N
r2M – the position of Dark Matter elementary particle M
r3L – the position of Spiritual Matter elementary particle L
The Ferent wall: here at time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s were created Dark Matter, Dark Photons and Gravitons.
This means:
“Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“When the photons were created, the photons with the energy 0.5 MeV and the Dark Matter electrons created the electrons”
Adrian Ferent
“The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron”
Adrian Ferent
Today all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain Dark Matter, they talk about Transparent matter because they can not see Dark Matter, they talk about Baryonic matter, Non-baryonic matter like axions, they talk about cold, warm or hot Dark Matte, about Spersymmetric Particles as Dark Matter…but NOT BEYOND THE PLANCK WALL. Now they Stole my theory and they went beyond the Planck wall!
Before me nobody was able to think what is beyond Planck Wall.
241. I am the first who discovered a Dark Matter particle, the Dark Matter electron
242. I am the first who discovered the Dark Matter electron. The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron
243. I am the first who discovered that when the photons were created, the photons with the energy 0.5 MeV and the Dark Matter electrons created the electrons
244. I am the first who discovered that between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1571] **viXra:1908.0509 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-25 17:00:21*

**Authors:** Paolo Bolzoni

**Comments:** Pages.

In this new study we want to propose an updated heuristic model to compute and to
interpret the dark energy content of our
universe.
To this purpose we include
the mass-energy of the static gravitational field in Newtonian gravity, finding agreement with general relativity at large scales. We then
compute its effect at very small
distances also including quantum effects. From this analysis, we obtain an estimation of the smallest volume
in empty space.
Our result is compatible with loop quantum gravity and
this enables the embedding in it.
After that we show, how this can be used to compute a
natural energy cutoff $k_c$ for all quantum fields and
study its utility in computing the dark energy density and its
implications on the content of fermionic
and bosonic elementary fields. Indeed for the vacuum equation of
state $w\,{=}\,p_{vac}/\rho_{vac}$ we obtain
an expression depending on
$\Delta N\,{=}\, N_f - N_b$, which represents the difference between the number of
species of fermions and bosons.
Finally comparing our
result with the measured value of $w$,
we discuss general constraints on the field content
beyond the Standard Model of the elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1570] **viXra:1908.0508 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-25 18:09:24*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper proposes an elegant Adimensional Cyclic Universe (toy-)Model (ACUM) mainly based on the electrograviton hypothesis (EGH), the quantized gravitational waves hypothesis (QGW-Hyp) and the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH). DRH pushes the relativity of space and time to its…“informational” extremes (defining them as illusions created by the exchange of information in a bulk virtual matrix [BVM]): I have chosen the "ACUM" acronym also because “acum” means "now" in Romanian AND because ACUM emphasizes that both space and time are illusions created by pure-adimensional information transfer/exchange. Important note. No matter this current paper version, its latest variant can be always downloaded from this URL: http://dragoii.com/ALDragoi_ACUM_latest.pdf

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1569] **viXra:1908.0506 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-26 02:27:32*

**Authors:** Jeffrey ``Epstein`` McNutly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper (see below) I calculate the spatio-temporal volume of the universe and find it to be -1/12 ``McNutly``s, a convenient unit introduced in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1568] **viXra:1908.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-22 08:31:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

One of the open questions in physics is: What happens when an object massive enough to influence the flow of time is placed in a quantum superposition state? [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1567] **viXra:1908.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-23 03:53:55*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Newton did not invent or use the so-called Newton’s gravitational constant G. Newton’s original gravity formula was F = Mm/r and not F = GMm/r. In this paper, we will show how a series of major gravity phenomena can be calculated and predicted without the gravitational constant. This is to some degree well known, at least
for those that have studied a significant amount of the older literature on gravity. However, to understand gravity at a deeper level, still without G, one needs to trust Newton’s formula. It is first when we combine Newton’s observation that matter and light ultimately consist of hard indivisible particles with new insight in atomism that we can truly begin to understand gravity. This leads to a quantum gravity theory that is unified with quantum mechanics where there is no need for G and even no need for Planck’s constant. We claim that two mistakes have been made in physics, which have held back progress towards a unified quantum gravity theory. First, it has been common practice to consider Newton’s gravitational constant almost holy and untouchable. Thus we have neglected to see an important aspect of mass, namely the indivisible particle that also Newton held in high regard. Second, we have built our version of quantum mechanics around the de Broglie wavelength, rather than the Compton wavelength. We claim the de Broglie wavelength is merely a mathematical derivative of the Compton wavelength.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1566] **viXra:1908.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-21 21:43:20*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 396 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“To explain Gravity I went beyond the Planck Wall, to Ferent Wall and this extraordinary discovery was Stolen from me”
Adrian Ferent
“At first the scientists ignore your discovery, and then they say it's wrong and then they steal it”
Adrian Ferent
“All Nobel Laureates were ignorant, thinking inside the Planck Universe; nobody was able before me to go beyond the Planck Wall”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Ferent Quantum Gravity is a new theory, I did not use References”
Adrian Ferent
“Scientists use References in their articles because they are not capable to discover New Theories”
Adrian Ferent
They Stole my theory, Ferent Quantum Gravity!
Because Einstein Gravitation theory (GTR) is Wrong the Scientists, the professors Tommi Tenkanen from Johns Hopkins University, Avi Loeb from Harvard University start Stealing from Ferent Quantum Gravity where Dark Matter was First before Matter, where I discovered the Equation of the Dark Matter Universe!
They say the same thing ‘Dark matter (DM) may have its origin in a pre-big-bang epoch, Dark Matter have its origin before Matter’!
https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.061302
https://www.sciencealert.com/new-study-brings-receipts-to-demonstrate-dark-matter-may-be-older-than-the-big-bang?fbclid=IwAR2IU7KARSt6FlR1SXAnRFR7NPzz-QHTj5EpuvAq_pwfxtZlv2GYFP3CVCY
They say: ‘Perhaps, they were particles that appeared in a very brief period of time, just fractions of fractions of a second, before the Big Bang’.
I discovered:
“Two important walls:
The Ferent wall: here at time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s were created Dark Matter, Dark Photons and Gravitons.
The Planck wall: here at time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created Matter and Photons”
Adrian Ferent
I calculated t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s that ‘very brief period of time’.
I discovered the equation of the Dark Matter universe:
“In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe.”
Adrian Ferent
“I discovered that: a < h < s”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:”
Adrian Ferent
Where: Ψ – the wave function of the Universe, material and spiritual
m1i – the mass of Matter elementary particle i
m2j – the mass of Dark Matter elementary particle j
m3k – the mass of Spiritual Matter elementary particle k
r1N – the position of Matter elementary particle N
r2M – the position of Dark Matter elementary particle M
r3L – the position of Spiritual Matter elementary particle L
I discovered:
“Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature”
Adrian Ferent
How I was able to go beyond the Planck Wall?
Conservation of Energy
The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot change in time.
Planck energy is nature’s maximum allowed matter energy for point-energy (quanta).
“During the Big Bang, the Dark Matter energy at Ferent wall, is equal with the Planck energy at Planck Wall”
Adrian Ferent
Who else tried without success to go beyond the Planck Wall?
The Bogdanov affair was an academic dispute regarding the legitimacy of a series of theoretical physics papers written by French twins Igor and Grichka Bogdanov, they proposed a theory for describing what occurred at and before the Big Bang.
After 1 year of hard research I was able to go beyond the Planck wall and there was Dark Matter!
I defined the Ferent wall and there started the Dark Matter universe and they Stole my research.
Today all the Nobel Laureates, the greatest scientists, your professors… were not capable to explain Dark Matter, they talk about Transparent matter because they can not see Dark Matter, they talk about Baryonic matter, Non-baryonic matter like axions, they talk about cold, warm or hot Dark Matte, about Spersymmetric Particles as Dark Matter…but NOT BEYOND THE PLANCK WALL. Now they Stole my theory and they went beyond the Planck wall!
Before me nobody was able to think what is beyond Planck Wall.
I discovered the equation of Dark Matter universe and I posted at all important universities, easy to Steal!
If you do a Search on Google about ‘Beyond the Planck Wall’ you can see my presentations in 2014, 2015…
The professors from the peer–review journal did not Search about ‘Beyond the Planck Wall’ because they do not know, do not understand how difficult is to go beyond the Planck Wall.
To go beyond the Planck Wall it is the biggest discovery of the 21st century in my view, but it is not considered important by peer-review journals!
When Einstein, Hawking, Feynman…were not capable to go ‘Beyond the Planck Wall’ the professors from the peer–review journal did not ask the question: How these scientists who Stole my theory were capable to go ‘Beyond the Planck Wall’.
That is why I did not post Ferent Quantum Gravity in peer–review journals!
All my Articles Start in the last years with:
“I discovered a new Gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale!”
They stole this extraordinary discovery from me!
Looks like next time the Scientists will Steal my Ferent Quantum Gravity based on Gravitons, they will Steal what the electron is, how the Sun was formed…
“Because Ferent Quantum Gravity is a new theory, I did not use References”
Adrian Ferent
“Scientists use References in their articles because they are not capable to discover New Theories”
Adrian Ferent
“If you can not put your name on an equation you are not a scientist”
Adrian Ferent
“Working at Planck scale on Quantum gravity is not easy, that is why a lot of scientists in packs work on wrong Gravitation theories”
Adrian Ferent
240. I am the first who discovered a new Gravitation theory ‘Beyond the Planck Wall’, started with Dark Matter at Ferent Wall and this extraordinary discovery was Stolen from me

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1565] **viXra:1908.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-18 15:40:31*

**Authors:** Manfred U.E.Pohl

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Within the first article „Solution to the Problem of Time“ [1] the author explored the origin of time and suggested the Unified Priciples of Nature that must be applied in order to unify Quantum Gravity and General Relativity without contradiction. To emphasis the urging conclusion out of the Solution to the „Problem of Time“ the author summarize in this paper the claim to reintroduce rational thought and argument in science in order to solve pressing problems in human society. Science must consider the Scientific God to unite Quantum Theroy and General Relativity into a theory that can describe and predict reality.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1564] **viXra:1908.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-18 19:31:04*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, theoretical uncertainties fuelled by ad-hoc fixes of theory to explain observed astrophysical anomalies using models upholding the idea of space being a field of potential inertia for bodies in relative motion are discussed. A few of the basic discussion points include determining the difference between scientific space and mathematical space, the cosmic expansion of space, the ad-hoc theoretical localised effect of gravity in galaxies, and the need to use ideas such as dark matter and dark energy. This paper takes the current uncertainties and ad-hoc theoretical fixes in astrophysics theory and places those uncertainties and ad-hoc theoretical fixes together with the aim of determining the root cause of all the general anomalies, here in this paper identified as the idea of labelling space with “inertia”. Then, a general idea of space, more universal than contemporary theories hold, is presented, and demonstrated to uphold all observed astrophysical data. The general “fix” proposed here is a new theory for space, joining both the contemporary scientific and mathematical notions of space in the one construct without using the idea of “inertia”. To achieve this task, a general review of astrophysical data is presented, and each theoretical step used in history to explain that observed astrophysical data, while along the process here making mention both the uncertainty and the ad-hoc theoretical fix being used. all leading to “one” fundamental key oversight in physics theory, prompting the general fix to the standard model. Finally, a new landscape of the universe as a model is presented bearing reference to this new appraisal of space, further shedding light on the previous series of papers [1-10].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1563] **viXra:1908.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-11 15:52:02*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Haug [1, 2] has recently introduced a new theory of unified quantum gravity coined “collision space-time.” From this new and deeper understanding of mass we can also understand how a grandfather pendulum clock can be used to measure the world shortest time interval, namely the Planck time [3, 4], indirectly. Such a clock can, therefore, also be used to measure the diameter of an indivisible particle indirectly. Further, such a clock can easily measure the Schwarzschild radius of the gravity object and what we will call “Schwarzschild time.” This basically proves that the Newton gravitational constant not is needed to find the Planck length or the Planck time; it is also not needed to find the Schwarzschild radius. Unfortunately, there is significant inertia in the current physics establishment towards new ideas that could rock the fundamentals, but this is not new in the history of science. Still, the idea that the Planck time can be measured totally independent of any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant could be very important to move forward in physics; we hope it will be given serious consideration in the future.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1562] **viXra:1908.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-09 01:30:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Researchers have, for the first time, identified the sufficient and necessary conditions that the low-energy limit of quantum gravity theories must satisfy to preserve the main features of the Unruh effect. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1422] **viXra:1911.0528 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-01 09:06:50*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. replaced title

Our universe appears to be 13.8 billion years old, or at least have an age. But the author sees evidence that the universe is infinitely old, but continually has new matter created and old matter destroyed. How could such a mechanism exist? A universe that appears to continually expand could be part of this mechanism. This paper proposes that there is a mechanism that causes this appearance of expansion and it all takes place in a spinning sphere universe that is infinitely old, but it always rejuvenates. This continuous creation of matter has been proposed before [4]. The difference in this paper is that the universe never changes size, and matter is always continuously destroyed as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1421] **viXra:1911.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-14 13:20:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Presented here an extension of the dynamics of the core of baryons reduces the initial 3 iterative numbers in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) to 2. Now SST starts from 7 parameters and 2 iterative numbers which are derived after formulation of the theory. We calculated mass of the central condensate which is responsible for the nuclear weak interactions, the coupling constant for such interactions, the binding energy of the torus/electric-charge and central condensate, and masses of charged and neutral core. We showed also how important are the axial symmetries in weak interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1420] **viXra:1911.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-13 01:16:29*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In 2017, scientists from Osaka University measured unexpected gamma-ray energy spectrum of the lithium reaction with the 246-MeV protons. Here, using the dynamics of the core of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the two absorption lines follow from such dynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1419] **viXra:1910.0503 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-29 07:18:09*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Starting from the theoretical background developed for obtaining the Quantization of Gravity, in the paper Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, I show here that, it is possible to derive a theoretical value of the Cosmological Constant, extremely close to the observed value.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1418] **viXra:1910.0503 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-25 14:14:06*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Starting from the theoretical background developed for obtaining the Quantization of Gravity, in the paper Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, I show here that, it is possible to derive a theoretical value of the Cosmological Constant, extremely close to the observed value.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1417] **viXra:1910.0442 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-29 14:31:20*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this short lecture we describe the correspondence between tangles and associahedra tiles, where R occurs in the case of braid tangles, leading to a natural extension to ribbons. Such tangles come from the Temperley-Lieb algebra and were used by Bar-Natan to study Khovanov complexes in nice cobordism categories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1416] **viXra:1910.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-15 01:48:42*

**Authors:** Theoryofall.org

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Stephen Hawking famously said: „If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we would know the mind of God.“ We the people agree to science and have to draw a line: If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few leaders. Then we shall all, adam and eve, men and women, child and adult, black and white, believer and unbeliever, rich and poor, chinese and american, norwegian and south-african, muslim and christ, western world and islamic state, governments and citizens, nations and companies, heterosexual and homosexual, weak and strong, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we fail to live as a healthy community on earth. If we continue to search for the mind of a God, our ecosystem, this planet and this entire living universe we live “with” in entanglement and community and “wholeness” will die.
Credits to :
Theory of Thougth (Platon);Theory of Emotion (Aristotle); Theory of Gravitation (Newton), Theory of Special Relativity (Einstein), Theory of Radical Constructivism (Glasersfeld), Theory of Justice (Rawls)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1415] **viXra:1910.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-14 13:39:37*

**Authors:** Theoryofall.org

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Stephen Hawking famously said: „If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we would know the mind of God.“ We the people agree to science and have to draw a line: If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few leaders. Then we shall all, adam and eve, men and women, child and adult, black and white, believer and unbeliever, rich and poor, chinese and american, norwegian and south-african, muslim and christ, western world and islamic state, governments and citizens, nations and companies, heterosexual and homosexual, weak and strong, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we fail to live as a healthy community on earth. If we continue to search for the mind of a God, our ecosystem, this planet and this entire living universe we live “with” in entanglement and community and “wholeness” will die.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1414] **viXra:1910.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-14 08:19:14*

**Authors:** Theoryofall.org

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Stephen Hawking famously said: „If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we would know the mind of God.“ We the people agree to science and have to draw a line: If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few leaders. Then we shall all, adam and eve, men and women, child and adult, black and white, believer and unbeliever, rich and poor, chinese and american, norwegian and south-african, muslim and christ, western world and islamic state, governments and citizens, nations and companies, heterosexual and homosexual, weak and strong, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we fail to live as a healthy community on earth. If we continue to search for the mind of a God, our ecosystem, this planet and this entire living universe we live “with” in entanglement and community and “wholeness” will die.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1413] **viXra:1910.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-14 05:32:01*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

According to the unified theory of dynamic space, the first (Universal) and the second (local) deformation of space is described, which change the geometric structure of the isotropic space. These geometric deformations created the dynamic space, the Universe, and the space holes (bubbles of empty space), the early form of matter. The neutron cortex is structured around these space holes with the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) at the light speed, as the third deformation of space (electrical and geometric deformation), resulting in the creation of surface electric charges (quarks), to which the particles spin is due. The constant kinetic
energy of the particle spin is calculated at 100 million Joule. Thus, a single electron is
enough to become the heart of a future energy machine.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1412] **viXra:1909.0518 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-01 14:48:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Many basic ideas applied in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) have counterparts in the Bambara and Dogon mythology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1411] **viXra:1909.0518 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-29 03:18:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Many basic ideas applied in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) have counterparts in the Bambara and Dogon mythology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1410] **viXra:1909.0500 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-27 12:35:33*

**Authors:** Kaushal Timilsina

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The freedom of learning and the wonder of asking: What questions can you ask? What do they mean or what do you want them to mean? And can you make answers, What answers can you make and what do they mean (or perhaps what do you mean?).

4 pages of an update, has been added at the end. A discussion on a better mathematical intuition towards a theory of interacting manifolds includes the first question (and the second one as well), in the theory of interacting manifolds. The key discussion includes how an infinite union of singularities from finite dimensional manifolds of any dimensions each (possibly different), can be used to construct an infinite dimensional manifold and how that helps us understand singularities in finite dimensional manifolds, and hinting at an insight towards interactions between finite dimensional manifolds.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1409] **viXra:1909.0487 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-07 04:45:27*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Included new data from Nature

The 2018 CODATA proton charge radius is 8.414(19)*10^(-16) meters[1] A new measurement in Nature, “Progress on the proton-radius puzzle” is 8.33 ± 0.10 *10^(-16) meters(4).This information may help in deciphering the construction of the universe. The value is not precise enough to make conclusion. This paper proposes a couple precise values. One being 8.40077662 × 10^-16 meters These numbers are from the Compton wavelength of the neutron. The calculations for the proton charge radius, done in this paper, are a continuation of Spinning Sphere Theory started in the paper “Gravity most related to the Proton Mass, Charge most related to the Electron Mass”[2] where the universe is discovered to be spinning spheres made out spinning spheres for many layers which is better described in “Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”[3]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1408] **viXra:1909.0487 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-30 18:24:42*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The 2018 CODATA proton charge radius is 8.414(19)*10^(-19) meters[1] This information may help in deciphering the construction of the universe. The value is not precise enough to make conclusion. This paper proposes a couple precise values. One being 8.40077662 × 10^-16 meters These numbers are from the Compton wavelength of the neutron. The calculations for the proton charge radius, done in this paper, are a continuation of Spinning Sphere Theory started in the paper “Gravity most related to the Proton Mass, Charge most related to the Electron Mass”[2] where the universe is discovered to be spinning spheres made out spinning spheres for many layers which is better described in “Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”[3]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1407] **viXra:1909.0487 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-30 09:51:23*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The 2018 CODATA proton charge radius is 8.414(19)*10^(-19) meters[1] This information may help in deciphering the construction of the universe. The value is not precise enough to make conclusion. This paper proposes a couple precise values. One being 8.40077662 × 10^-16 meters These numbers are from the Compton wavelength of the neutron. The calculations for the proton charge radius, done in this paper, are a continuation of Spinning Sphere Theory started in the paper “Gravity most related to the Proton Mass, Charge most related to the Electron Mass”[2] where the universe is discovered to be spinning spheres made out spinning spheres for many layers which is better described in “Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”[3]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1406] **viXra:1909.0477 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-23 08:20:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), there is the two-component spacetime composed of the SST Higgs field (which consists of tachyons) and the Einstein spacetime (which consists of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The neutrinos are built of the superluminal binary systems of closed strings (we call them the gravitons or entanglons). The closed strings in a graviton have parallel spins and opposite internal helicity. Gravitons are placed in the SST Higgs field so they carry the smallest "piece" of gravitational field. Neutrinos produce gradient in the SST Higgs field - it is the elementary gravitational field defined by the gravitational constant G. Generally, the gradients/gravitational-fields are the classical fields but at distances smaller than 3510.1831 multiplied by the equatorial radius of neutrinos there appear groups of gravitons emitted and absorbed by the core of neutrinos. Here we described phenomena that concern the quantum region of neutrinos. The Neutrino Quantum Gravity (NQG) leads to the volumetric quantum confinement of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that is the origin of the masses of scalars in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1405] **viXra:1909.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-01 15:41:09*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In quantum logic, the emergence of spacetime and related symmetries goes hand in hand with the emergence of the real and complex numbers themselves. In this paper, we show how finite fields are surprisingly sufficient for most physical questions, once we throw away classical geometrical models in favour of categorical axioms. In particular, generalised Pauli matrix algebras are closely related to braid and ribbon diagrams, and holographic information for mass localisation gains its intuition from algebras for anyon condensation. We discuss definitions of homology and cohomology associated to braids, recalling the twistor construction of massive solutions in H2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1404] **viXra:1909.0417 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-10-22 02:36:40*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything, also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical Big Bang into 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric copy universes.
However such a cyclic multiverse seems to be only possible with special ingredients,
1: a propeller shaped fermion able transform by collision and spin in two pitch directions.
2: A compact String knot based dark matter Fuzzball black hole with enough rigid string content, to become stable against the fierce oscillations of the oscillating vacuum lattice and repelling all spinning Fermions. but not other black hole nuclei or photons.
As a result, The Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy multiverse entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be conscious by its entanglement with 8 or 12 CP symmetric copy particles located inside 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric universal bubbles at long distance in raspberry shape.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1403] **viXra:1909.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-07 16:48:41*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We compile a short list of reasons explaining why Quantum Theory (QT) and General Relativity (GR) cannot be trivially reconciled. Our opinion reflects a personal viewpoint and is likely to stand at odds with mainstream beliefs on Quantum Gravity, Black Hole phenomenology and related foundational topics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1402] **viXra:1908.0602 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-30 15:21:13*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 2015 a method was proposed that predicts the mass of the electron to the neutron, this number was found to be 5.438 673 4446*10^-4. In 2017 this prediction was updated to 5.438 673 44424*10^-4. The new 2018 CODATA value is 5.438 673 4424(26)*10^-4 . The predicted values are within about .8 sigma. It was shown that the electron could be broken up into three, six component parts. The author postulates these six component parts to be two-dimensional rings. A factor for calculating this mass is shown in Abstract A of this paper to be 1.000000779229966. These papers are saying that the electron can be broken up into 18 parts and that there is a relativistic portion to the electron. We are proposing that this relativistic portion is related to the neutrino masses. The basic unit of the electron neutrino would be (1.0000007799229966-1) multiplied by the mass of the electron divided by 18. Which yields about .022 electron volts. It is proposed that the neutrino masses would be some multiple of .022 electron volts. The article “Mysterious Neutrinos Get New Mass Estimate” [8] in Scientific American, it states the maximum mass of the electron neutrino is .086 electron volts and the maximum mass for the combination of the neutrinos is 0.26 electron volts. The .022 electron volts of this article is in line with these results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1401] **viXra:1908.0600 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-01 16:55:26*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

“In The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” [1] We found that the amount of matter in the universe is equal to the outside layer of the universe. We also find that the universe is not isotropic. In “Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe”[2] We show that if red shifting of light is due to travel perpendicular to our location instead of away from our location that the universe is no longer isotropic looking. This would be contrary to the cosmological principle.
In “Gravity Most Related to the Proton Mass, Charge Most Related to the Electron Mass” [3], we showed that space was granular with the same particle everywhere. We called this particle the Plank sphere. In this paper we show that the Planck Sphere can follow the Lorentz transformation. As the Planck Sphere accelerates the discontinuities move away from the center of the Planck Sphere. This increases the energy which happens as the same proportion as the Lorentz transformation. Mass acts on the Planck spheres in the same way and creates the gravitational field. Once a Planck sphere has its momentum altered my any amount, that increased momentum travels, through adjacent Planck spheres, at the speed of light, settling only when it has reached a uniform field.
It is proposed here, that the actual length change in Lorentz contraction, would be that all of the discontinuities in a sphere are moving toward the edge of the sphere, the higher the energy level. Therefor, the sphere would not shrink in size, but sphere would be changed more and more to a hollow sphere in the sense that all of the imperfections would move towards the edge of the sphere and perfect packing would be inside the sphere.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1400] **viXra:1908.0509 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-09-01 13:09:23*

**Authors:** Paolo Bolzoni

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this new study we want to propose an updated heuristic model to compute and to
interpret the dark energy content of our
universe.
To this purpose we include
the mass-energy of the static gravitational field in Newtonian gravity, finding agreement with general relativity at large scales. We then
compute its effect at very small
distances also including quantum effects. From this analysis, we obtain an estimation of the smallest volume
in empty space.
Our result is compatible with loop quantum gravity and
this enables the embedding in it.
After that we show, how this can be used to compute a
natural energy cutoff $k_c$ for all quantum fields and
study its utility in computing the dark energy density and its
implications on the content of fermionic
and bosonic elementary fields. Indeed for the vacuum equation of
state $w\,{=}\,p_{vac}/\rho_{vac}$ we obtain
an expression depending on
$\Delta N\,{=}\, N_f - N_b$, which represents the difference between the number of
species of fermions and bosons.
Finally comparing our
result with the measured value of $w$,
we discuss general constraints on the field content
beyond the Standard Model of the elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1399] **viXra:1908.0461 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-25 04:37:22*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Newton did not invent or use the so-called Newton’s gravitational constant G. Newton’s original gravity formula was F = Mm/r and not F = GMm/r. In this paper, we will show how a series of major gravity phenomena can be calculated and predicted without the gravitational constant. This is to some degree well known, at least for those that have studied a significant amount of the older literature on gravity. However, to understand gravity at a deeper level, still without G, one needs to trust Newton’s formula. It is first when we combine Newton’s observation that matter and light ultimately consist of hard indivisible particles with new insight in atomism that we can truly begin to understand gravity. This leads to a quantum gravity theory that is unified with quantum mechanics where there is no need for G and even no need for Planck’s constant. We claim that two mistakes have been made in physics, which have held back progress towards a unified quantum gravity theory. First, it has been common practice to consider Newton’s gravitational constant almost holy and untouchable. Thus we have neglected to see an important aspect of mass, namely the indivisible particle that also Newton held in high regard. Second, we have built our version of quantum mechanics around the de Broglie wavelength, rather than the Compton wavelength. We claim the de Broglie wavelength is merely a mathematical derivative of the Compton wavelength.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1398] **viXra:1908.0388 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-02 02:09:18*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, theoretical uncertainties fuelled by ad-hoc fixes of theory to explain observed astrophysical anomalies using models upholding the idea of space being a field of potential inertia for bodies in relative motion are discussed. A few of the basic discussion points include determining the difference between scientific space and mathematical space, the cosmic expansion of space, the ad-hoc theoretical localised effect of gravity in galaxies, and the need to use ideas such as dark matter and dark energy. This paper takes the current uncertainties and ad-hoc theoretical fixes in astrophysics theory and places those uncertainties and ad-hoc theoretical fixes together with the aim of determining the root cause of all the general anomalies, here in this paper identified as the idea of labelling space with “inertia”. Then, a general idea of space, more universal than contemporary theories hold, is presented, and demonstrated to uphold all observed astrophysical data. The general “fix” proposed here is a new theory for space, joining both the contemporary scientific and mathematical notions of space in the one construct without using the idea of “inertia”. To achieve this task, a general review of astrophysical data is presented, and each theoretical step used in history to explain that observed astrophysical data, while along the process here making mention both the uncertainty and the ad-hoc theoretical fix being used. all leading to “one” fundamental key oversight in physics theory, prompting the general fix to the standard model. Finally, a new landscape of the universe as a model is presented bearing reference to this new appraisal of space, further shedding light on the previous series of papers [1-10].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1397] **viXra:1908.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-18 07:13:52*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Haug [1, 2] has recently introduced a new theory of unified quantum gravity coined “collision space-time.” From this new and deeper understanding of mass we can also understand how a grandfather pendulum clock can be used to measure the world shortest time interval, namely the Planck time [3, 4], indirectly. Such a clock can, therefore, also be used to measure the diameter of an indivisible particle indirectly. Further, such a clock can easily measure the Schwarzschild radius of the gravity object and what we will call “Schwarzschild time.” This basically proves that the Newton gravitational constant is not needed to find the Planck length or the Planck time; it is also not needed to find the Schwarzschild radius. Unfortunately, there is significant inertia in the current physics establishment towards new ideas that could rock the fundamentals, but this is not new in the history of science. Still, the idea that the Planck time can be measured totally independent of any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant could be very important to move forward in physics; we hope it will be given serious consideration in the future.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory