**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(6) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(6) - 1111(10) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(9) - 1202(11) - 1203(12) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(8) - 1212(3)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(14) - 1305(12) - 1306(8) - 1307(11) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(6) - 1311(14) - 1312(13)

2014 - 1401(15) - 1402(13) - 1403(15) - 1404(7) - 1405(14) - 1406(12) - 1407(18) - 1408(12) - 1409(18) - 1410(17) - 1411(19) - 1412(17)

2015 - 1501(20) - 1502(15)

Any replacements are listed further down

[694] **viXra:1502.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 09:50:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Information can be sent with superluminal speed between entangled particles but new entanglement is created when luminal particles are very close one from another - it leads to conclusion that we cannot send information with superluminal speed because at first we must separate the entangled luminal particles. But when such separation is made then superluminal information is possible - it leads to the superluminal entanglement in quantum physics. Arrangements of the entangled Einstein-spacetime components in the physical matter and mental matter are different. For example, the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components on a torus/electric-charge are perpendicular to surface of the torus whereas the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components in the loops the thoughts consist of are tangent to the loops. It causes that the mental matter is flexible (the mental solitons are flexible) whereas the physical matter is rigid i.e. the bare particles are rigid. It is true that the superluminal dark photons responsible for quantum entanglement mimic the electromagnetic interactions but they cannot be detected directly i.e. they are dark. The dark matter is entangled with baryonic matter due to the superluminal dark photons carried by the superluminal entanglons the luminal Einstein-spacetime components consist of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[693] **viXra:1502.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 18:19:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[692] **viXra:1502.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 12:13:12*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published also in FQXi Essay Contest 2015

Extraordinary mathematicality of physics is also shown by dimensionlessness of Planck spacetime and mass. At the same time the Planck granularity of spacetime also shows that physics can be simulated by a binary computer. So physics is informational. But mathematics is not everything in physics, consciousness cannot be solely explained by mathematics. The reason that quantum gravity (QG) does not yet exist is the lack of knowledge about spacetime as background. Quantum mechanics is not complete, because foundational principle is not yet known, and because consciousness and QG are not yet explained. The free will and quantum randomness are similar unexplained phenomena. Even philosophy is important in physics, because what mathematics cannot describe in physics is ontology. And, intuition affects what is mainstream physics. Simplicity and clearness of physics and mathematics of physics are important not only for beginners, but also for the development of the fundamental physics. Uncertainty principle is so simple that maybe it could be derived without the use of wave functions. On the simplicity and clearness of fundamental physics it can be done a lot.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[691] **viXra:1502.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-18 10:28:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Physics we showed that the structure of proton leads to the Theory of Chaos. We proved that the structure of the nonchaotic star KIC 5520878 mimics the internal structure of the core of baryons. The more precise observations should show that the ratio of the two principal frequencies for KIC 5520878 is 1.5711 (the today observations lead to 1.57) and has nothing with the golden ratio 1.618…. Moreover, notice that the ratio of the radius of the equator of the torus in the core of proton to the radius of the gluon loops the neutral pions consist of is 1.5 so there should be stars with such ratio of principal frequencies also. The same concerns the quasars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[690] **viXra:1502.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 08:41:40*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

On site http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first (Universal) and the second (local) space deformation, which change the geometric structure of the isotropic space. These geometric deformations created the dynamic space, the Universe, and the space holes (bubbles of empty space), the early form of matter. The Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space describes how the neutron cortex is structured around the space holes with the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) of space at the light speed, defining on the one hand this elementary motion as quantum time in the units region and on the other the completion of the elementary phenomenon (i.e. the creation of a particle, photon etc.) as quantum time in the formations region. So, an electrical and geometric deformation of the neutron cortex occurs, as the third space deformation, resulting in the creation of surface electric charges (quarks) in the neutron cortex, to which the particles spin is due.
The inevitable end of the primary neutron is its breaking (beta decay), due to the growing space cohesive pressure, as the neutron is accelerated centrifugally to the Universe periphery. The presence of the proton and electron has result in induction of the electrical units of dynamic space, with the creation of the inverted electric (nuclear) field and the outer electric field.
Finally, the physical meaning of Planck’s constant is interpreted, as the product of two Nature entities: of the above quantum time in the formations region and of the energy talantonio (oscillator), which is the foundation of motion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[689] **viXra:1502.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 08:06:47*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There has been some confusion about the previous paper on this subject, so some basic calculations were included to allow for mathematically minded people to understand the concepts more fluidly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[688] **viXra:1502.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 18:20:08*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Sphere Discontinuity Theory of the Universe proposes that the Universe is a sphere made of spheres, that again is made of spheres. This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. To further extend the Sphere Discontinuity Theory it will be shown how the discontinuities can account for the Lorentz Transformations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[687] **viXra:1502.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 15:34:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, the non-perturbative quantum electrodynamics of electron is presented. We calculated the lower and upper limits for the fine structure constant (1/137.035999053(11194)). The error is equal to the value of the coupling constant for the electron-proton weak interactions. The obtained results are very close to the experimental values which follow from the experimental values of the electron charge and reduced Planck constant (1/137.35999053(12095)). As expected, the error is a little higher than the theoretical value. There appeared papers in which theoretical and experimental values of the fine structure constant have much higher accuracy than the quantities which appear in its definition. In this paper is proven that the higher accuracies are groundless. Using the combined value of the fine structure constant (the experimental central value plus the theoretical limits), 1/137.035999053(11194), we obtain a theoretical value of the electron anomaly 0.001159652191(95). The weak interactions cause that this value cannot have higher accuracy. Within the Scale-Symmetric Physics are calculated physical constants and other quantities which appear in definitions, from the fundamental initial conditions. The initial parameters lead to 1/137.036001 and 0.001159652174. We can see that both results are consistent with the determinations. Emphasize that today the mainstream QED contains the 12,672 diagrams (number of terms is tremendous) whereas presented here non-perturbative QED contains only one diagram with six terms. The difference follows from an improperly understood weak interactions and production of virtual pairs in the Einstein spacetime. To calculate all needed quantities we do not need supercomputers, we used the Microsoft Office Excel with 13 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[686] **viXra:1502.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 13:06:12*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Relativistic mass follows from constancy of the speed of light in “vacuum” and the law of conservation of spin. Relativistic mass appears in grainy spacetime. The Einstein-spacetime components have mass and luminal speed but they are the non-relativistic objects. In the Einstein spacetime can appear virtual objects. A virtual object consists of a particle-antiparticle pair or a condensate carrying positive mass and of a mass “hole” carrying negative mass. The gravitational fields are not directly associated with the luminal Einstein spacetime, they are directly associated with the superluminal Higgs field. Today production of virtual objects in the Higgs field is impossible - it is the reason that we cannot unify directly (within the same methods) gravity with electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions i.e. a direct unification of gravity and Standard Model is impossible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[685] **viXra:1502.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-03 12:49:33*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 10 references

Flory’s model of a polymer deals with three characteristics lengths, namely: the monomer’s length, the chain’s length and the length of the radius of gyration. A first analogy can be established between this model and that of the electrical conductivity of good metals at the room temperature, by taking the Compton’s length, the electron mean free path and the Fermi’s length. A second analogy is considered, thinking the universe world line as a segmented chain, where we have the Planck’s length, the radius of the observable universe and the length associated to the cosmological constant. A characteristic time for the evolution of the universe is obtained (not the Hubble’s time), and it is compared with a possible proton’s decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[684] **viXra:1502.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 21:42:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Using the approximation of constant pressure , a thermodynamic identity for GR as given by Padmanabhan is applied to Early universe graviton production, We build upon an earlier result in doing this calculation. Previously, we reviewed a relationship between the magnitude of an inflaton, the resultant potential, GW frequencies and also GW wavelengths. The NLED approximation makes full use of the Camara et.al. result about density and magnetic fields to ascertain when the density is positive or negative , meaning that at a given magnetic field strength, if one uses a relationship between density and pressure at the start of inflation one can link the magnetic field to pressure. From there an estimated initial temperature is calculated. This temperature scales down if the initial entropy grows.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[683] **viXra:1502.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 21:49:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Submitted to IOP DICE 2014 conference proceedings, in December 2014

We find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Mukhanov’s chapter on “self reproduction” of the universe in in his reference. The stronger an early-universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/H, with H the early-universe Hubble constant, per Planck time interval in evolution. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as comparing entropy in galaxies versus entropy in the universe, through a lens of Mistra’s quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[682] **viXra:1502.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 22:04:56*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using Tokamaks to identify and possibly detect GW generated due to processes identified with Plasma Fusion burning, in Tokamaks, with experimental equipment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[681] **viXra:1502.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 09:09:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We use the results of A. Montiel et al, as to the contribution of energy density of non linear magnetic components to RW inflationary physics, as well as the standard of ephemeris time to come up with a standard of bound to early universe graviton mass. In doing so, we also ascertain that using the derived evolution equations that the mass of the graviton today could be different from the early universe value with obtain in closed form. Our results also indicate that quintessence, i.e. a time varying cosmological “constant” parameter, will in the case of large initial values of this “cosmological constant” inevitably lead to a singularity. . If one has a magnetic field contributing to a non zero initial scale factor, we will be assuming that the “cosmological constant” remains invariant during space-time expansion. The case of a fast roll physics treatment of inflation is gone over in the end, as a counter point to some of the discussion so offered. I.e. a fast roll, approximation means that the simple cancellation given below in Eq.(3) is no longer assumed. Which would influence the value of initial graviton mass. I.e. heavy gravity in the case of the elimination of slow roll is almost 20 orders of magnitude larger in initial magnitude for gravitons than the observations today portend for massive gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[680] **viXra:1501.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 07:48:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Entanglement Makes Quantum Particles Measurably Heavier, Says Quantum Theorist. The discovery is a long sought-after link between the theories of quantum mechanics and general relativity. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[679] **viXra:1501.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 03:13:24*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A solution to the mechanism of forces and space-time that is too simple to be true, yet too elegant to be ignored.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[678] **viXra:1501.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 17:01:32*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. To be published in the "Proceedings of Science", http://pos.sissa.it/

Recently, several discussions on the possible observability of 4-vector fields have been published
in literature. Furthermore, several authors recently claimed existence of the helicity=0 fundamental
field. We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials.
We study the massless limits. In fact, theoretical motivation for this venture is the old papers
of Ogievetskiı and Polubarinov, Hayashi, and Kalb and Ramond. They proposed the concept of
the notoph, whose helicity properties are complementary to those of the photon. We analyze the
quantum field theory with taking into account mass dimensions of the notoph and the photon. We
also proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the
Bargmann-Wigner formalism. They are consistent with the general relativity. Particular attention
has been paid to the correct definitions of the energy-momentum tensor and other Nöther currents.
We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph.
PACS number: 03.65.Pm , 04.50.-h , 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[677] **viXra:1501.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 21:01:10*

**Authors:** Kyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get basic provisions on the conclusion of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is given a completely different interpretation of the curvature geometry through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time. The entanglement entropy of the gravitational field as a parameter occurs in geometric flows Ricci .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[676] **viXra:1501.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 03:58:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[675] **viXra:1501.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 04:48:35*

**Authors:** Robert Watson

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Kaluza's 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach is
presented that more fully unies gravity and electromagnetism. Emphasis
is placed on admitting important electromagnetic elds not present in
Kaluza's original theory, and on deriving a Lorentz force law. This is
done by identifying 5D momentum with charge. By doing so the usual
assumption of Ricci
atness for sourceless electromagnetic elds is made
obsolete and replaced by the simple and physically intuitive assumption
that background 5D momentum is vanishing. An electromagnetic limit is
imposed by assuming a constant scalar eld.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[674] **viXra:1501.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-12 08:20:10*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Based upon an essay (by Brown) in the Spring, 2015 FQXi contest, quoted comments from Witten are presented followed by quoted comments from Milgrom in response to Witten’s comments. Brown’s viewpoint is then given, followed by quoted statements made by Kroupa in 2011.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[673] **viXra:1501.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-12 00:36:10*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Yes, can I take your order, Ma'am?
The reality? Wow, that's a big order - but I'll put it in the smallest package I can.
Do you want fries with that - or would you prefer a doughnut?
(a moment passes while Penny, the waitress, goes to the kitchen and returns)
Here's your reality - and your doughnut. Enjoy your meal!
This article was posted on the FQXi Community’s “Ultimate Reality” page - http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1928 - which says, “If you have an unconventional, alternative model of reality, then this is the place to discuss it. (This is for contributors who have preliminary ideas and would like feedback, but do not have an academic paper or arXiv preprint and have not given a conference talk based on their ideas.)” My article refers to the article "Quantum Life" by Zeeya Merali - Discover Magazine, December 2014.
Zeeya’s article about quantum biology fascinated me! Then it got me thinking of sentences I’d written on subjects like quantum entanglement, artificial intelligence, and macro-entanglement of matter on larger-than-subatomic (even cosmic) scales. I started writing just to see where my ideas went. In next to no time, paragraphs about cosmic things and topics like time travel were filling up the computer screen. My article almost got deleted then because I thought I couldn’t stop straying from the topic at hand. At the last moment, the idea that everything was being unified occurred to me. And I decided to go ahead and explore the connections “From Quantum Entanglement To Quantum Biology To Quantum Universe”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[672] **viXra:1501.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-11 14:51:53*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I present the mathematically very simple theory of nuclear binding energy. We start from the Newtonian dynamics. It leads to binding energy proportional to coupling constant (or running coupling) of interaction and inversely proportional to distance between interacting objects. Applying the new formula, as some examples, I calculated binding energy of electron in ground state in hydrogen atom (13.6 eV), mean binding energy per nucleon in the alpha particle (7.07 MeV) mean binding energy per nucleon in the nucleus of iron atom (8.79 MeV) and in nucleus of nobelium atom (7.21 MeV). Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[671] **viXra:1501.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-09 08:02:15*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On site http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 (see chapter A, paragraph 7) it is described the Universal antigravity force as the first Nature force. Additionally, there are the particulate antigravity force and the nuclear antigravity force. The particulate antigravity force will be developed below, while the nuclear one, important for the nuclei structure, we will be developed on a new site.
On the above site (see chapter B, paragraphs 1 and 3) the Genesis of the space hole (bubble of empty space) in the area close to the Universe center creates the gravity pressure, as a new form of pressure in the region of the particle gravitational field. This pressure causes condensation of the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) of space and reduction of the space cohesive pressure. Therefore, the gravity pressure replaces part of the space cohesive pressure. It converts the cohesive forces of space to gravitational ones, due to the presence of the space hole (local deformation).
This change of the cohesive pressure in the region of the particle creates particulate antigravity pressure gradient and therefore repulsive antigravity force opposite to the gravity traction between two particles.
The fact that the rate of the particulate antigravity force declines rapidly with the distance from the particle attributes to this phenomenon a theoretical significance concerning the structure of black holes. The reason is that only at the small scale of the particle core vacuum the particulate antigravity pressure gradient has a calculable rate.
It is noted that the Theory of Dynamic Space describes the black holes as a form of grid space matter, consisting of polyhedral cells, like bubbles in a foamed liquid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[670] **viXra:1501.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 04:33:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Many great physicists criticized the renormalization as an incoherent method of neglecting infinities in an arbitrary way. Dirac said that renormalization ‘is just not sensible mathematics’. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I proved that the mainstream QED is incomplete and is based on a few wrong assumptions. QED leads to experimental data only due to the free parameters. It is not true that there is not upper limit (cutoff) for energy of virtual pairs and it is not true that bare particles are sizeless. The elimination of these two wrong assumptions causes that the modified QED (MQED) is very simple and free from infinities so from renormalization as well. In reality, an electron-positron pair at first appears as a binary system of loops with condensates in their centres both composed of entangled Einstein-spacetime components. Next, due to the superluminal quantum entanglement of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components, the binary system immediately transforms into binary system of tori/electric-charges. With each torus/electric-charge is associated loop, condensate responsible for weak interactions and only one virtual electron-positron pair. Due to the superluminal quantum entanglement, electron disappears in one place and appears in another one, and so on - it is the quantum behaviour of electron. Most important is the fact that both descriptions of magnetic moment and spin of an electron, i.e. via the initial loop plus condensate and via the torus/electric-charge plus loop plus condensate plus virtual pair, are equivalent. Both descriptions lead to the same ratio of magnetic moment of electron to Bohr magneton: 1.0011596521735. This result is very close to experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[669] **viXra:1501.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 04:26:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Vectors are great for describing the motion of a particle. But now suppose you need to analyze something more complicated, where multiple magnitudes and directions are involved. Perhaps you’re an engineer calculating stresses and strains in an elastic material. Or a neuroscientist tracing the changing forces on water flow near nerve cells. Or a physicist attempting to describe gravity in the cosmos. For all that, you need tensors. And they might even help you unify gravitational theory with quantum physics. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[668] **viXra:1501.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-04 12:23:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The gravity of a black hole swallows the matter around it. The link between tensor networks and quantum entanglement may prove useful in studying the physics of black holes, some physicists propose. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[667] **viXra:1501.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-04 05:13:12*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted to Physics Letters B

It is proposed how the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) allows a unified formulation of point particles, strings, membranes and $p$-branes, moving in ordinary target spacetime backgrounds, within the description of a single $polyparticle$ moving in $C$-spaces. The degrees of freedom of the latter are provided by Clifford polyvector-valued coordinates (antisymmetric tensorial coordinates). A correspondence between the $p$-brane ($p$-loop) wave functional ``Schroedinger-like" equations of Ansoldi-Aurilia-Spallucci and the polyparticle wave equation in $C$-spaces is found via the polyparticle/$p$-brane duality/correspondence. The crux of exploiting this correspondence
is that it might provide another unexplored avenue to quantize $p$-branes (a notoriously difficult and unsolved problem) from the more straightforward quantization of the polyparticle in $C$-spaces, even in the presence of external interactions. We conclude with some comments about the $compositeness$ nature of the polyvector-valued coordinate operators in terms of
ordinary $p$-brane coordinates via the evaluation of $n$-ary commutators.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[666] **viXra:1501.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 21:31:33*

**Authors:** M. Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The notion of induced second quantization is introduced as an
unavoidable aspect of the induction procedure for metric and spinor connection, which is the key element of TGD. Induced second quantisation provides insights about the QFT limit, about generalizes Feynman diagrammatics, and about TGD counterpart of second quantization of strings which appear in TGD as emergent objects. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) naturally
restricts the anti-commutation relations inside causal diamonds defining quantum coherence regions so that the counterintuitive implication that all identical particles of the Universe are in totally symmetric/antisymmetric state is avoided. The relation of statistics to negentropic entanglement and the new view about position measurement provided by ZEO are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[665] **viXra:1501.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 22:29:19*

**Authors:** M. Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Twistors Grassmannian formalism has made a breakthrough in N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories and the Yangian symmetry suggests that much more than mere technical breakthrough is in question. Twistors seem to be tailor made for TGD but it seems that the generalisation of twistor structure to that for 8-D imbedding space H=M^{4}× CP_{2} is necessary. M^{4} (and S^{4} as its Euclidian counterpart) and CP_{2} are indeed unique in the sense that they are the only 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure.
The Cartesian product of twistor spaces P_{3}=SU(2,2)/SU(2,1)× U(1) and F_{3} defines twistor space for the imbedding space H and one can ask whether this generalized twistor structure could allow to understand both quantum TGD and classical TGD defined by the extremals of Kähler action. In the following I summarize the background and develop a proposal for how to construct extremals of Kähler action in terms of the generalized twistor structure. One ends up with a scenario
in which space-time surfaces are lifted to twistor spaces by adding CP_{1} fiber so that the twistor spaces give an alternative representation for generalized Feynman diagrams.
There is also a very closely analogy with superstring models. Twistor spaces replace Calabi-Yau manifolds and the modification recipe for Calabi-Yau manifolds by removal of singularities can be applied to remove self-intersections of twistor spaces and mirror symmetry emerges naturally. The overall important implication is that the methods of algebraic geometry used in super-string theories should apply in TGD
framework.
The physical interpretation is totally different in TGD. The landscape is replaced with twistor spaces of space-time surfaces having interpretation as generalized Feynman diagrams and twistor spaces as sub-manifolds of P_{3}× F_{3}replace Witten's twistor strings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[664] **viXra:1501.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-02 02:55:49*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I described composition and calculated masses of the Upsilon mesons. This follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. Obtained results are very close to experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[663] **viXra:1412.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-27 15:29:14*

**Authors:** Klee Irwin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A first principles theory of everything has never been achieved. An E8 derived code of quantized spacetime could meet the following suggested requirements: (1) First principles explanation of time dilation, inertia, the magnitude of the Planck constant and the speed of light (2) First principles explanation of conservation laws and gauge transformation symmetry. (2) Must be fundamentally relativistic with nothing that is invariant being absolute. (4) Pursuant to the deduction that reality is fundamentally information-theoretic, all information must be generated by observation/measurement at the simplest Planck scale of the code/language. (5) Must be non-deterministic. (6) Must be computationally efficient. (7) Must be a code describing “jagged” (quantized) waveform – a waveform language. (8) Must have a first principles explanation for preferred chirality in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[662] **viXra:1412.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-25 07:51:30*

**Authors:** E. P. J. de Haas

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper is a sequel to ``Doppler Boosting a de Broglie Electron from a Free Fall Grid Into a Stationary Field of Gravity'' \cite{Haas2014c}. We Doppler boost a de Broglie particle from a free fall grid onto a stationary field of gravity. This results in an identification of the two Doppler boost options with an electron energy double-valueness similar to electron spin. It seems that, within the limitations of our approach to gravity, we found a bottom up version of a possible theory of Quantum Gravity, on that connects the de Broglie hypothesis to gravity. This paper finishes and adapts ``Towards a 4-D Extension of the Quantum Helicity Rotator with a Hyperbolic Rotation Angle of Gravitational Nature'' for the quantum gravity part. We try to boost the de Broglie particle's quantum wave equation from the free fall grid to the stationary grid. We find that this is impossible on the Klein-Gordon level, the Pauli level and the Dirac level. But when we double the Dirac level and thus realize a kind of a Yang-Mills doublet level, we can formulate a doublet version of the Weyl-Dirac equation that can be Doppler boosted from the free fall grid into the stationary grid in a central field of gravity. Of course, the free fall grid to stationary grid method is a limited one and that restricts all results obtained in this paper. Our FFG to SG approach is ad-hoc and pragmatic and does not present a fundamental theory. In the familiar domain our FFG to SG approach just reproduces the results obtained using the Schwarzschild metric.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[661] **viXra:1412.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 23:07:16*

**Authors:** Jia Dong, Jia Xiangyun

**Comments:** 72 Pages.

In the article titled On the formation of the Earth's gravitational field, the concepts of magneton line field and gravitational line field of primitive earth and the process of closure of bending are explained. The gravitational space of the astral body is transformed into a realistic linear mass system. This provides the basis for substantial mass field to address the problem of universal gravitation. In this situation, the concepts of graviton line and gravitational line field are proposed. Because of the cutting of the moving gravitational lines and magneton lines of other astral bodies, the precession of the graviton line and magneton link in a zigzag contraction manner occurs. From the perspective of quantization of gravity, the source of universal gravitation is given. Thus, the universal gravitation is related to the mass and movement of substance. This article proposes the method for theoretical calculation of universal gravitational constant. The theoretical quantized value of the Earth's universal gravitational constant calculated by this method is ΔG =2.281853214×10-30kg m/s2. The square principle of distance is explained in terms of the efficiency of quantized momentum, and the ratio of effective and ineffective transmission amount. Compared with the Kepler's theorem, it is essentially the ratio of area swept by each magnetic line due to cutting to the area swept by progression converted from such movement after the amplification over the distance. We compare the universal gravitation with Coulomb's force for the first time in essence. The universal gravitation and Coulomb's force are unified. We find some convincing proof that universal gravitation and Coulomb's force have identical principle of action.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[660] **viXra:1412.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-22 14:58:01*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper is a sequel to ``Frequency Gauged Clocks on a Free Fall Grid and Some Gravitational Phenomena''. We Doppler boost a de Broglie particle from a free fall grid onto a stationary field of gravity. First we do this for a photon and then for a particle with non-zero rest-mass. This results in an identification of the two Doppler boost options with electron spin or with electron energy double-valueness. It seems that, within the limitations of our approach to gravity, we found a bottom up version of a possible theory of Quantum Gravity, on that connects the de Broglie hypothesis to gravity. This paper realizes the connection between our papers ``Frequency Gauged Clocks on a Free Fall Grid and Some Gravitational Phenomena'' and ``Towards a 4-D Extension of the Quantum Helicity Rotator with a Hyperbolic Rotation Angle of Gravitational Nature''.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[659] **viXra:1412.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-22 11:21:32*

**Authors:** Aref Yazdani

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This article published in the Advances in High Energy Physics Vol. 2014, 349659, 9

We study a noncommutative theory of gravity in the framework of torsional spacetime. This theory is based on a Lagrangian obtained by applying the technique of dimensional reduction of noncommutative gauge theory and that the yielded diffeomorphism invariant field theory can be made equivalent to a teleparallel formulation of gravity. Field equations are derived in the framework of teleparallel gravity through Weitzenbock geometry. We solve these field equations by considering a mass that is distributed spherically symmetrically in a stationary static spacetime in order to obtain a noncommutative line element.This new line element interestingly reaffirms the coherent state theory for a noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole. For the first time, we derive the Newtonian gravitational force equation in the commutative relativity framework, and this result could provide the possibility to investigate examples in various topics in quantum and ordinary theories of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[658] **viXra:1412.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 09:45:54*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the very early Universe was the loop composed of protogalaxies built of the neutron black holes. Due to the succeeding inflows of the dark energy, there was the exit of the loop from its black-hole state and the loop transformed into the expanding sphere. The Milky-Way Galaxy is very close to the centre of the expanding Universe so we cannot see directly the first stage of evolution of the early Universe. But due to some phenomena, the early binary systems and clusters of protogalaxies are imprinted on the CMB. Due to the mergers of the protogalaxies during the unseen period of evolution, the number of observed today clusters of galaxies should be smaller than it follows from the CMB and such conclusion is consistent with the observational facts. Here, I answered following question: Why we cannot see directly the evolution of the early Universe whereas we can see the CMB with coded initial number of clusters of protogalaxies?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[657] **viXra:1412.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 13:14:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure.
In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe. In “New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe” 2 It was shown that the number of particles of mass in the Hubble Sphere Universe was related to the number of particles of mass in the Planck Spinning Sphere. This relationship, if extended all the way down through the layers of the universe yields the basic unit of the universe, which is a unit cuboctahedron. This paper will go through the math to show how this is possible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[656] **viXra:1412.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 06:23:13*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based upon the space roar and speculative ideas of Fredkin and Wolfram, I have suggested that the Big Bang recurs every (81.6 ± 1.7) billion years. (81.6 billion years)/(Planck time) = 4.773 * 10^61 where Fredkin-Wolfram-constant * (Planck time) is approximately 81.6 billion years. G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.165 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.773 * 10^61, where G is Newton’s gravitational constant. Note that in Milgrom’s MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics) the fundamental MOND acceleration constant a0 is 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. Newtonian-Einstein string theory needs to be replaced by Milgromian string theory. Why? There are 2 basic alternatives: Alternative (1). Milgrom is the greatest astrophysicist of his generation. Alternative (2). Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically wrong. Alternative (2) is not a real possibility, because if MOND were wrong then Milgrom could never have convinced McGaugh and Kroupa. This brief communication considers ideas concerning Milgromian string theory and Wolframian string theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[655] **viXra:1412.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 06:53:46*

**Authors:** Aloysius Sebastian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance of the object. Still we are following the Newtonian concepts of gravity to measure the gravity of objects. Albert Einstein has made a great work on the concept of gravity, after Newton. But still we are trying to know more about gravity. According to me gravity is the property of energy. One must have to explain gravity on the basis of energy. I am agreeing that mass is also a form of energy. But I prefer to find gravity in accordance with the total energy of a system. Here I am making an attempt on this field. I am sure that I am on the right track. I am not placing any new equations here. I am using the existing equations in physics to find the gravity through my thoughts. The way which I am using these equations are may be strange. Sometimes I am thinking in reverse order, first I have found the gravity with the concept of energy. For that I am applying a constant ‘’A’’ and I am getting the value of ‘’A’’ from the last part of equations. Because the value of gravity is still with Newtonian concepts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[654] **viXra:1412.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 13:32:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the confinement and Mexican-hat mechanism for baryons, atomic nuclei, neutrinos and Einstein-spacetime components is described qualitatively and quantitatively. In core of baryons there appears the circle/compactified-fifth-dimension. The range of confinement of the strongly interacting parts of baryons is defined by the circumference of the compactified fifth dimension. Ranges of Mexican-hat mechanism depend on radiation mass of the circles/loops produced inside the charges/tori. There are only five main shells inside the atomic-nucleus Mexican-hat well i.e. the maximum number of electrons inside the well can be 110 and it should be the upper limit for the Mendeleev’s table. Of course, we can produce nuclei containing more protons than 110 but such objects cannot be electrically neutral i.e. they cannot contain more than 110 electrons. The mean distance between the Einstein-spacetime components in the Einstein spacetime is only about 0.8% higher than the Mexican-hat range. It leads to conclusion that it is relatively very easy to transform, due to the Mexican-hat mechanism for the Einstein-spacetime components, the gravitationally interacting Einstein-spacetime components into condensates with a little higher mass density. In such a way are produced the W and Z bosons. Just the transition from the zero-mass state (the energy of photons and gluons) to the non-zero-mass states is due to the Mexican-hat mechanism for the Einstein-spacetime components. Such is the mechanism which leads to the confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components. This mechanism solves the mass gap problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[653] **viXra:1412.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 11:07:01*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

To eliminate the useless mathematical expressions from the perturbative string theory, we must assume that spacetime is 10-dimensional (the 9 spatial dimensions and 1 time dimension). Why string theory is still fruitless? To describe position, shape and motions of spinning physical circle/closed-string (it has thickness not equal to zero), we need 10 degrees of freedom. Six of the ten degrees of freedom lead to circles i.e. to the ‘compactified’ spatial degrees-of-freedom/dimensions. In an effective theory, the ten-degrees-of-freedom spacetime transforms into 4-dimensional spacetime. To describe within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET) position, internal structure and motions of a neutrino (it is torus and condensate in its centre both composed of the spinning physical circles), we need 26 degrees of freedom. In the S-SET, stability of the neutrinos follows from the interactions (due to the dynamic viscosity) of the closed strings with the superluminal modified Higgs field. The modified Higgs field is the radion field and it is the six-degrees-of-freedom subspacetime. On the other hand, in M-theory there appears the extra eleventh compact dimension associated with a radion field. Due to the succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs fields, there appear the more and more complex structures and number of degrees of freedom increases - there is following series: 6, 10, 26, 58 and 122. There as well appear new radion/scalar fields with very different properties. This causes that a complete description of Nature within one type of equations is impossible. We can partially unify all the main partial theories only via the theory of the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal modified Higgs field and it is the lacking part of ultimate theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[652] **viXra:1412.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 13:03:31*

**Authors:** Akhmat Gemuev

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

My research affects study of time as a physical phenomenon and its management capacity, as well as the possibility of providing physical effects on living and non-living objects remotely (and through the time). Also, my research provides understanding the general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical sense, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[651] **viXra:1412.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-01 12:48:20*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the correct interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein theory (KK theory) is presented. In S-SET, the charges are the spinning tori whereas in KK theory they are the masses moving along circle-like fifth dimension. Spinning torus collapses to spinning circle. In reality, the fifth dimension is the additional degree of freedom which follows from the real structure of charges. The fifth-dimension simplification causes that we lose information about internal structure of charges i.e. the KK theory is an effective theory of the S-SET. Radions are the components of the fifth dimensions. The S-SET shows that gravitational radions are superluminal whereas electromagnetic radions are luminal i.e. we cannot unify the two different radion fields within the same methods and it concerns the generalizations of the KK theory also (for example, the Yang-Mills theories). The S-SET shows that the cylinder condition in the KK theory follows from the fact that there are the spinning tori/charges and spinning loops. The luminal electromagnetic radion field leads to photons but the superluminal gravitational radion field does not lead to gravitons and gravitational waves. Emission of gravitational energy, i.e. a decrease in inertial-mass density of the modified Higgs field, is due to increase in gravitational-mass density of a system or due to emission of gravitational mass which carries non-gravitating gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[585] **viXra:1502.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-01 00:51:29*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Mass ratios of electron and proton to neutron.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[584] **viXra:1502.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-26 14:09:27*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), are the short remarks concerning the Einstein-spacetime, dark-energy and dark-matter particle. Such particle carries unitary spin and very small gravitational mass. It is the neutrino-antineutrino pair which we will refer to as the Planck boson. The superluminal energy frozen in the Planck boson is about 119 powers of ten higher than its gravitational mass. Detection of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs is much difficult than neutrinos because their resultant weak charge is equal to zero. The different properties of dark energy and dark matter follow from the quantum entanglement. Emphasize that the particle associated with the Einstein spacetime, dark matter and dark energy is the same particle so there can appear different interpretations. The obtained here theoretical results for the today Universe: visible matter 4.91%, dark matter 26.46%, dark energy 68.63%, and the ratio of dark and visible matter 5.389, are consistent with the Planck results (CMB + lensing) at the 68% levels. The Higgs boson is not the Standard Model particle associated with the Higgs mechanism. The Higgs boson is the condensate composed of confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is due to the Mexican-hat mechanism). The mechanism describing the transition from gravitationally massless pieces of space to the gravitational mass of neutrinos all Principle-of-Equivalence particles consist of is beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity. Such mechanism is described within S-SP.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[583] **viXra:1502.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-27 03:14:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), I present the incorrect mainstream views. The very short remarks and justifications concern the Type gravitational-wave B-modes in CMB, matter-antimatter asymmetry, constancy of the physical constants, dark matter, two different spacetimes, duality of relativity, production of black holes before galaxies, dark energy, decays of the superphotons, the preferred frame of reference in CMB, smoothness of CMB, bare particles, quark model and masses of quarks, mass and spin and two radii of proton, non-existence of ground quantum state, many-worlds interpretation of quantum physics, and universal time and travel in time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[582] **viXra:1502.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 00:49:32*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Replaced Lorentz Transformation with Lorentz Factor

The Sphere Discontinuity Theory of the Universe proposes that the Universe is a sphere made of spheres, that again is made of spheres. This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. To further extend the Sphere Discontinuity Theory it will be shown how the discontinuities can account for the Lorentz Factor

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[581] **viXra:1502.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-15 04:55:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, the non-perturbative quantum electrodynamics of electron is presented. We calculated the lower and upper limits for the fine structure constant (1/137.035999053(11194)). The error is equal to the value of the coupling constant for the electron-proton weak interactions. The obtained results are very close to the experimental values which follow from the experimental values of the electron charge and reduced Planck constant (1/137.35999053(12095)). As expected, the error is a little higher than the theoretical value. There appeared papers in which theoretical and experimental values of the fine structure constant have much higher accuracy than the quantities which appear in its definition. In this paper is proven that the higher accuracies are groundless. Using the combined value of the fine structure constant (the experimental central value plus the theoretical limits), 1/137.035999053(11194), we obtain a theoretical value of the electron anomaly 0.001159652191(95). The weak interactions cause that this value cannot have higher accuracy. Within the Scale-Symmetric Physics are calculated physical constants and other quantities which appear in definitions, from the fundamental initial conditions. The initial parameters lead to 1/137.036001 and 0.001159652174. We can see that both results are consistent with the determinations. Emphasize that today the mainstream QED contains the 12,672 diagrams (number of terms is tremendous) whereas presented here non-perturbative QED contains only one diagram with six terms. The difference follows from an improperly understood weak interactions and production of virtual pairs in the Einstein spacetime. To calculate all needed quantities we do not need supercomputers, we used the Microsoft Office Excel with 13 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[580] **viXra:1501.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-29 05:04:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is assumed in the mainstream cosmology that at the Chandrasekhar limit the white dwarfs explode due to the conditions in a Fermi gas. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I showed that there appears the tower of the Chandrasekhar limits and that the stars/white-dwarfs with the threshold masses explode via a neutron-star state. Neutron stars behave as liquid crystal. There are the needed flat structures and the elongated rectangular prisms. There appears the upper limit for mass of neutron star, i.e. of the neutron black hole, equal to 24.81 solar masses. But due to perfect energy flow from core of a star toward its surface there as well appear at least three Chandrasekhar limits i.e. masses of stars which explode as Type Ia supernovae via sudden collapse of whole star to the neutron-star state which leads to violent full volumetric explosion so there is not created a neutron-star remnant – the threshold masses are 1.395, 11.20 and 0.891 solar masses. The first mass is the very well known Chandrasekhar limit whereas the second was the mass of, for example, the SN 1987A supernova. Energy is carried by the condensates of the Einstein-spacetime components which are the black holes in respect of the weak interactions or is carried by energetic neutrinos. The condensates with a mass 52.828 MeV are produced in centres of muons, with a mass 424.124 MeV are produced in centres of baryons, whereas energy of the neutrinos is the one fourth of the mass of neutral pion (33.743 MeV). Their number densities increase rapidly for the threshold masses of stars. Here, as well, are calculated the lower (0.000768 s) and upper (4,228 s) limits for spin periods of pulsars i.e. for stars with neutron core and iron crust. Presented here model is very simple and leads to observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[579] **viXra:1501.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-24 19:57:22*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Classical or quantum impedances, geometric or topological, scale invariant or scale dependent, fermionic or bosonic, mechanical or electromagnetic or gravitational - impedance matching governs the flow of energy. This is a universal principle. As such, it is not surprising to find that quantized impedances provide an interesting sensibility when taken as a template for the Big Bang, presenting a detailed perspective on the first few zeptoseconds.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[578] **viXra:1501.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-26 02:57:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, on the basis of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST), I present a recapitulation concerning evolution of our Cosmos. In details I described evolution of the quasars and pointed the main differences between the new cosmology and the mainstream cosmology. I described the origin of dark energy and dark matter. They both are associated with flows in the Einstein spacetime. The matter-antimatter asymmetry results from internal helicity of the vortices which, due to fluctuations, appear in the Einstein spacetime. The asymmetry has nothing with an asymmetry in behaviour of matter and antimatter. Due to the duality of relativity, the Universe is about 21.6 Gyr old (Ludwig et al. (2009) derived solar ages up to 22.3 Gyr) but we cannot see the initial period about 7.75 Gyr of evolution of the quasars. It is not true that the neutrons in neutron stars behave as a Fermi gas. There are at least three Chandrasekhar limits which leads to supernova explosions without neutron-star remnant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[577] **viXra:1501.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-16 03:18:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is not true that we can calculate correctly the Chandrasekhar limit assuming that a neutron star is a Fermi gas that obeys Fermi-Dirac statistics. Due to the atom-like structure of baryons, the binding energy for all neutrons has the same value so the factors which appear in the Chandrasekhar limit are incorrect. There are at least two Chandrasekhar limits i.e. about 11.2 solar masses and 1.394 solar masses which is the mass of the Type Ia supernovae. The clouds, that later transform into the globular clusters, are produced on Schwarzschild surface of the quasars and are carried by the relativistic jets. Calculated here the upper limit for the initial mass of the globular clusters in the Milky-Way Galaxy is 155,200 solar masses. Quasars with greater mass produce more massive globular clusters. The obtained theoretical upper limit for the mass is consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[576] **viXra:1501.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-13 04:50:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I present the mathematically very simple theory of nuclear binding energy. We start from the Newtonian dynamics. It leads to binding energy proportional to coupling constant (or running coupling) of interaction and inversely proportional to distance between interacting objects. Applying the new formula, as some examples, I calculated binding energy of electron in ground state in hydrogen atom (13.6 eV), mean binding energy per nucleon in the alpha particle (7.07 MeV) mean binding energy per nucleon in the nucleus of iron atom (8.79 MeV), in nucleus of nobelium atom (7.21 MeV), for nucleus of oxygen atom (7.91 MeV) and for nuclei containing more than 56 nucleons. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[575] **viXra:1501.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-13 06:34:08*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted to Physics Letters B

It is proposed how the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) allows a unified formulation of point particles, strings, membranes and $p$-branes, moving in ordinary target spacetime backgrounds, within the description of a single $polyparticle$ moving in $C$-spaces. The degrees of freedom of the latter are provided by Clifford polyvector-valued coordinates (antisymmetric tensorial coordinates). A correspondence between the $p$-brane ($p$-loop) wave functional ``Schroedinger-like" equations of Ansoldi-Aurilia-Spallucci and the polyparticle wave equation in $C$-spaces is found via the polyparticle/$p$-brane duality/correspondence. The crux of exploiting this correspondence
is that it might provide another unexplored avenue to quantize $p$-branes (a notoriously difficult and unsolved problem) from the more straightforward quantization of the polyparticle in $C$-spaces, even in the presence of external interactions. We conclude with some comments about the $compositeness$ nature of the polyvector-valued coordinate operators in terms of ordinary $p$-brane coordinates via the evaluation of $n$-ary commutators.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[574] **viXra:1501.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-03 11:11:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I described composition and calculated masses of the Upsilon mesons. This follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. Applying the modified quantum chromodynamics, within the S-SET, we can calculate the masses of quarks. This leads to conclusion that S-SET is the superior theory to the Standard Model in initial conditions. Calculated mass of b quark is 4190 MeV. Here, I showed that the Type 1S Upsilon meson is both a structure containing b-b(anti) quark pair (theoretical mass of such structure is 9460.1 MeV), or mesonic nucleus (theoretical mass of such nucleus is 9465.1 MeV). Due to the transformations/oscillations of these two different structures having practically the same mass and spin and parity, the full width of the Type 1S Upsilon meson is very small. Calculated masses of Types 1S, 2S, 3S, 4S, 10860 and 11020 Upsilon mesons are very close to experimental data. They all have unitary spin and negative parity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[573] **viXra:1412.0261 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-25 13:10:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST), I answered following question: Why values of Hubble constant calculated on base of observational facts are such messy? The quantum entanglement causes that the speed of light in ‘vacuum’, c, is the speed of photons in relation to source-emitter or in relation to a last-interaction object (sometimes it is a detector). It is untrue that speed of a photon is the c in relation to all reference frames. On the other hand, the gravitational constant is constant because spacetime cannot expand. There expand baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy (maximum radial speed is 0.6415c) and CMB (maximum radial speed is c). The duality of relativity causes that the spatial distance to an object is not equal to time distance. The time Hubble ‘constant’ depends on redshift. Calculated here the today minimum time Hubble constant is about 59 (km/s)/Mpc whereas the spatial Hubble constant is 45.24 (km/s)/Mpc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[572] **viXra:1412.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-28 03:48:11*

**Authors:** Mohamed Salem

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A new relativistic mechanic that governs the motion of the vibrating string within the
compactified-dimensions space-time is speculated. This mechanic suggests that the relativistic
mechanic of the special relativity is only valid for the motion within the familiar four-dimensional
space-time. However, the new mechanic is valid for the motion within the compactified-dimensions
space-time suggested by the string theory. The equations of this new mechanic show that the vibrating
string can move in a speed that is faster than light. It is also shown that this new relativistic mechanic goes to the classical Newtonian mechanic whenever the speed of the vibrating string is much less than the speed of light. Since this mechanic does not prohibit the existence of faster than light particles, then it might uncover some of the mysteries regarding to the string theory, such as, the existence of tachyons, time travel, …etc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[571] **viXra:1412.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-17 16:58:44*

**Authors:** Mohamed Salem

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A new method for understanding the speed limits of matter is presented. This method is based on
the hypothesis that states that matter is vibrations of superstrings. The method uses the relativistic equations of the Special Relativity to, speculatively, obtain new relativistic equations that govern the vibrating motion of the superstring. Without the need of using the concept of the imaginary mass, these expressions show that the superstring can vibrate in a speed that is faster than light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[570] **viXra:1412.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-31 05:28:32*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper is a sequel to ``Doppler Boosting a de Broglie Electron from a Free Fall Grid Into a Stationary Field of Gravity''. We Doppler boost a de Broglie particle from a free fall grid onto a stationary field of gravity. This results in an identification of the two Doppler boost options with an electron energy double-valueness similar to electron spin. It seems that, within the limitations of our approach to gravity, we found a bottom up version of a possible theory of Quantum Gravity, on that connects the de Broglie hypothesis to gravity. This paper finishes and adapts ``Towards a 4-D Extension of the Quantum Helicity Rotator with a Hyperbolic Rotation Angle of Gravitational Nature'' for the quantum gravity part. We try to boost the de Broglie particle's quantum wave equation from the free fall grid to the stationary grid. We find that this is impossible on the Klein-Gordon level, the Pauli level and the Dirac level. But when we double the Dirac level and thus realize a kind of a Yang-Mills doublet level, we can formulate a doublet version of the Weyl-Dirac equation that can be Doppler boosted from the free fall grid into the stationary grid in a central field of gravity. In the end we add a quantitative prediction for the gravitational Doppler shift of the matter wave or probability density of an electron positron pair. Our free fall grid to stationary grid approach is ad-hoc and does not present a fundamental theory, but is a pragmatic attempt to formulate quantum mechanics outside the Poincaré group environment and beyond Lorentz symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[569] **viXra:1412.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-29 09:15:07*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper is a sequel to ``Doppler Boosting a de Broglie Electron from a Free Fall Grid Into a Stationary Field of Gravity''. We Doppler boost a de Broglie particle from a free fall grid onto a stationary field of gravity. This results in an identification of the two Doppler boost options with an electron energy double-valueness similar to electron spin. It seems that, within the limitations of our approach to gravity, we found a bottom up version of a possible theory of Quantum Gravity, on that connects the de Broglie hypothesis to gravity. This paper finishes and adapts ``Towards a 4-D Extension of the Quantum Helicity Rotator with a Hyperbolic Rotation Angle of Gravitational Nature'' for the quantum gravity part. We try to boost the de Broglie particle's quantum wave equation from the free fall grid to the stationary grid. We find that this is impossible on the Klein-Gordon level, the Pauli level and the Dirac level. But when we double the Dirac level and thus realize a kind of a Yang-Mills doublet level, we can formulate a doublet version of the Weyl-Dirac equation that can be Doppler boosted from the free fall grid into the stationary grid in a central field of gravity. Our free fall grid to stationary grid approach is ad-hoc and does not present a fundamental theory, but is a pragmatic attempt to formulate quantum mechanics outside the Poincaré group environment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[568] **viXra:1412.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-26 09:47:53*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper is a sequel to ``Doppler Boosting a de Broglie Electron from a Free Fall Grid Into a Stationary Field of Gravity''. We Doppler boost a de Broglie particle from a free fall grid onto a stationary field of gravity. This results in an identification of the two Doppler boost options with an electron energy double-valueness similar to electron spin. It seems that, within the limitations of our approach to gravity, we found a bottom up version of a possible theory of Quantum Gravity, on that connects the de Broglie hypothesis to gravity. This paper finishes and adapts ``Towards a 4-D Extension of the Quantum Helicity Rotator with a Hyperbolic Rotation Angle of Gravitational Nature'' for the quantum gravity part. We try to boost the de Broglie particle's quantum wave equation from the free fall grid to the stationary grid. We find that this is impossible on the Klein-Gordon level, the Pauli level and the Dirac level. But when we double the Dirac level and thus realize a kind of a Yang-Mills doublet level, we can formulate a doublet version of the Weyl-Dirac equation that can be Doppler boosted from the free fall grid into the stationary grid in a central field of gravity. Of course, the free fall grid to stationary grid method is a limited one and that restricts all results obtained in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[567] **viXra:1412.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-25 11:15:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Ludwig et al. derived solar ages from 1.7 to 22.3 Gyr (2009). The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the mainstream-cosmology age of the Universe, about 13.8 Gyr. The upper limit is very close to the age of the Universe obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST), about 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr. G. Hasinger et al. (2002) obtained that the Fe/O abundance in a high-redshift quasar is significantly higher than solar (Fe/O = 2 - 5). This result as well is inconsistent with mainstream cosmology and suggests that age of the Universe is longer than assumed or that there is an unknown mechanism for production of iron in the very early Universe. The S-ST shows that both conclusions are correct. The incorrect age of the expanding Universe follows from the fact that the front of the CMB has radial speed equal to the speed of light, c, whereas the front of the baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy (the dark part of the Universe is entangled with the baryonic matter) has radial speed equal to 0.6415c i.e. the most distant galaxies are already 7.75 Gyr old. The calculated within S-ST time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. Due to the cascade protuberances of the dark matter at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe, there appeared protogalaxies with redshift higher than z = 1 but such protuberances were very quickly damped. Due to the last-scattering spheres, we can see spectrums of not numerous “superluminal” galaxies. In reality, the era of quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the end of this era i.e. the last 2.5 Gyr.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[566] **viXra:1412.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-25 05:05:57*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (S-ST), the dark matter consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components whereas the dark-matter mechanism follows from existence of regions in the Einstein spacetime with lowered dynamic pressure (the loops in rotating protogalaxies and filaments along jets of quasars). The volumes filled with dark matter entangled with matter, lead to the gravitational lensing. On the other hand, the dark-matter loops and filaments were produced by ordered motions of baryonic plasma. Due to the expansion of the Universe, sizes of the loops and filaments increased. Since there is the lowered pressure, in the loops and filaments can collect the baryonic matter, especially the ferromagnetic iron and nickel. In rotating galaxies, the dark-matter loops produce the Type dark-matter orbital/spin speeds of stars. A very stable dark-matter loop overlapping with the d = 1 state of the Protoworld, which created the expanding Universe, is the Ruler in cosmology. The ordered radial motions of the virtual objects (the virtual photons and mass holes), which follow from the expansion of the Universe, produce negative pressure as well so there collect additional Einstein-spacetime components increasing local mass density. It is the dark energy associated with the radial motions of virtual objects. The rigorous calculations show that the today abundance of the baryonic matter should be 4.91%, of dark matter 26.46% and of dark energy should be 68.63%. These results are consistent with the Planck results at the 68% levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[565] **viXra:1412.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-05 12:05:55*

**Authors:** Akhmat Gemuev

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

My research includes study of time as a physical phenomenon, management of time and possibility of physical impact on living and nonliving objects remotely and through the time. Also, my research provides understanding of general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical senses, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[564] **viXra:1412.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-05 07:48:04*

**Authors:** Akhmat Gemuev

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

My research includes study of time as a physical phenomenon, management of time and possibility of physical impact on living and nonliving objects remotely and through the time. Also, my research provides understanding of general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical sense, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[563] **viXra:1412.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-04 13:37:14*

**Authors:** Akhmat Gemuev

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

My research includes study of time as a physical phenomenon, management of time and possibility of physical impact on living and nonliving objects remotely and through the time. Also, my research provides understanding of general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical sense, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[562] **viXra:1412.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-03 06:41:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the correct interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein theory (KK theory) is presented. In S-SET, the charges are the spinning tori whereas in KK theory they are the masses moving along circle-like fifth dimension. The most incredible fact is that when we abandon the international system of units then the product of the mass of the torus/charge of proton in S-SET and speed of light (i.e. the fifth momentum) is very close to the value of the electric charge of proton or electron i.e. there is possible the interpretation that electric charge is the motion of mass in the fifth dimension. Moreover, the fifth momentums for the quantum entanglement and electric charge of proton have the same values but physical meanings and densities of adequate radion fields are different. Spinning torus collapses to spinning circle. In reality, the fifth dimension is the additional degree of freedom which follows from the real structure of charges. The fifth-dimension simplification causes that we lose information about internal structure of charges i.e. the KK theory is an effective theory of the S-SET. Radions are the components of the fifth dimensions. The S-SET shows that gravitational radions are superluminal whereas electromagnetic radions are luminal i.e. we cannot unify the two different radion fields within the same methods and it concerns the generalizations of the KK theory also (for example, the Yang-Mills theories). The S-SET shows that the cylinder condition in the KK theory follows from the fact that there are the spinning tori/charges and spinning loops. The luminal electromagnetic radion field leads to photons but the superluminal gravitational radion field does not lead to gravitons and gravitational waves. Emission of gravitational energy, i.e. a decrease in inertial-mass density of the modified Higgs field, is due to increase in gravitational-mass density of a system or due to emission of gravitational mass which carries non-gravitating gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[561] **viXra:1412.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-02 01:26:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the correct interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein theory (KK theory) is presented. In S-SET, the charges are the spinning tori whereas in KK theory they are the masses moving along circle-like fifth dimension. The most incredible fact is that when we abandon the international system of units then the product of the mass of the torus/charge of proton in S-SET and speed of light (i.e. the fifth momentum) is very close to the value of the electric charge of proton or electron i.e. there is possible the interpretation that electric charge is the motion of mass in the fifth dimension. Spinning torus collapses to spinning circle. In reality, the fifth dimension is the additional degree of freedom which follows from the real structure of charges. The fifth-dimension simplification causes that we lose information about internal structure of charges i.e. the KK theory is an effective theory of the S-SET. Radions are the components of the fifth dimensions. The S-SET shows that gravitational radions are superluminal whereas electromagnetic radions are luminal i.e. we cannot unify the two different radion fields within the same methods and it concerns the generalizations of the KK theory also (for example, the Yang-Mills theories). The S-SET shows that the cylinder condition in the KK theory follows from the fact that there are the spinning tori/charges and spinning loops. The luminal electromagnetic radion field leads to photons but the superluminal gravitational radion field does not lead to gravitons and gravitational waves. Emission of gravitational energy, i.e. a decrease in inertial-mass density of the modified Higgs field, is due to increase in gravitational-mass density of a system or due to emission of gravitational mass which carries non-gravitating gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory