[15] **viXra:1503.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-21 12:44:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, the critical remarks about luminal gravitational waves and luminal gravitons are presented. The mechanism of emission of the potential gravitational energy differs very much from the mechanism described within the General Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1503.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 16:37:23*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Geometric algebra is universal, encompassing all the tools of the mathematical physics toolbox, is background independent, and is the foundation of gauge theory gravity. Similarly, impedance is a fundamental concept of universal validity, is background independent, and the phase shifts generated by impedances are at the foundation of gauge theory. Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Generalizing quantum impedances from photon and quantum Hall to all forces and potentials generates a network of both scale dependent and scale invariant impedances. This essay conjectures that these quantum impedances can be identified with the gauge fields of gauge theory gravity, scale dependent with the translation field and scale invariant with rotation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1503.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 12:26:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1503.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 11:45:41*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a Mathematica notebook saved as PDF which theorizes a relationship between fundamental constants (c, Planck, Gravity, Hubble, FineStructure) and computes within current experimental values the values of a (Higgs) particle mass of 124.443...GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1503.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-20 13:05:59*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It caused that there appeared a proposal to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, there appear approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the composite Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1503.0210 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 03:29:09*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

On link http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first and second space deformation, while on http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097 described the third space deformation. The fourth and fifth space deformation is a consequence of the presence of a proton and an electron in the dynamic space, after the inevitable end of the primary neutron (beta decay). So, it is caused an electrostatic induction of positive and negative units of the surrounding space and an inverse electric field of the proton (nucleus) is created, with reduction of the space cohesive pressure. The nuclear force now is interpreted as an electric force, 100 times stronger than the corresponding force of the outer electric field that extends beyond the potential barrier.
The Universal and the particulate (see http://viXra.org/abs/1501.0111) antigravity force is complemented by the stronger nuclear antigravity force, since at the lower nuclear field the reduction of the cohesive pressure is rapid and contributes to the architecture of the nuclei structure. Moreover, the reduction of cohesive pressure at the lower nuclear field is the cause of the neutron mass deficit, while protons do not undergo mass deficit, as it will be described below.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1503.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-09 08:00:36*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used. In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1503.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-20 13:02:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory, is presented the fragmentation of hadrons in the pp and Pb-Pb collisions. Applying the Stefan-Boltzmann law, the calculated production of pion/kaon/proton in pp and Pb-Pb collisions is in agreement with the ALICE data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1503.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 00:55:28*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The best place to begin is with Einstein, who revolutionized understanding of gravity and said “time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter” (this must include matter's electric charges and magnetic poles). Following the introductory paragraphs, Einstein's theory that gravitation is a push created by the hills and valleys of curved space is recalled and there’s a paragraph explaining the Krasinsky/Blumberg astronomy paper in terms of gravitational waves being a repelling force, with a brief explanation reconciling this repulsion with gravity’s apparent attraction. Believing everything from the quantum to the cosmic is intricately united, I shift to discussion of gravity, the ocean tides and cosmology. Then the final paragraph says gravitational waves move in two directions. Since gravitation forms matter and its forces, the dualism naturally extends to the electromagnetism of particles, resulting in electric charges that are positive or negative (combination of these two produces neutrality) and magnetic polarities being either north or south.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1503.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:45:13*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1503.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 07:20:20*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The unspoken background for this article is a hypothesis for origins (of life, the universe and everything). That hypothesis believes human science is responsible for everything, and neither supernatural nor evolutionary means originate anything. In a biological sense, the Theory of Evolution certainly explains adaptations and modifications. But believing it also explains origins is unwarranted extrapolation. It takes an idea that accounts for some parts of life and, since it’s the only scientific explanation we currently have, assumes it accounts for all parts of life.
Albert Einstein showed space-time is warped, so it’s possible our own computer science (and terraforming, and biotechnology from many centuries in the future) found its way into the past. Dr Graham Phillips said “(The physicist) Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God, but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics that allow for the existence of minds in the first place.”
To discover what the unknown is, we must relate it to the known. In this comment, a possible answer to what dark matter is will be proposed by relating it to General Relativity's curvature of space-time. A Mobius strip is given a twist of 180 degrees before its ends are joined. Assuming space-time is modelled on the Mobius strip is one way to explain why space-time is curved. Such a model is plausible if string theory is invoked.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1503.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-20 12:58:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), is presented some recapitulation concerning structure of proton. It shows that distribution of gluons described within the Quantum Chromodynamics is incorrect - there appears the spin crisis. The SST shows that there appear three super-dense fields composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components i.e. of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The three super-dense gluon fields follow from the short-distance quantum entanglement and/or confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components and they are as follows: the torus/charge (its surface mass density is about 300,000 times higher than a plane in the Einstein spacetime; external radius is about 0.7 fm), central condensate (its mass density is about 3 times greater than 23 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter; radius is about 0.009 fm) and relativistic pion on the S orbit (radius of the orbit is about 1.2 fm). Range of the strong interactions is about 3 fm. Within such model we calculated the rigorous mass, spin and two radii (the electron radius and muon radius) of proton. The torus/charge is spinning and its spin is half-integral. We can compare the densities of the super-dense gluon fields with the mean mass density of proton on assumption that its radius is the range of the strong interactions: about 1.54 times greater than 16 powers of ten kilograms per cubic meter. Barbara Jacak, a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, claims that the much faster than expected formation of baryonic-plasma droplets and the spin crisis follow from existence of a super-dense gluon field instead discrete gluons - it is consistent with SST. Here as well are calculated the fundamental quantities characteristic for partonic plasma - they are consistent with the PHENIX data. Among other things, a puzzle of anomalous enhancement of (anti)protons relative to pions is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1503.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 13:52:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Casimir effect has been demonstrated with electromagnetic waves, which transport energy. The general idea of Quach’s proposal is to exploit the gravitational opacity of superconductors to, in theory, produce a similar effect from gravity. Doing so, by inference, would pave the way for the detection of the graviton. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1503.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 05:06:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1503.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-19 13:37:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Ludwig et al. derived solar ages up to 22.3 Gyr (2009). The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the mainstream-cosmology age of the Universe (about 13.8 Gyr). On the other hand, the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the age of the Universe is about 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but due to the duality of relativity (due to the quantum entanglement, the speed of light, c, is the speed in relation to source of light or to a last-interaction object) we cannot see the initial period about 7.75 Gyr of evolution of the protogalaxies/quasars. The calculated time distance to the observed most distant galaxies is 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr but they are already 7.75 Gyr old. The era of the quasars and the big stars in quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the last period about 2.3 Gyr. Due to evolution of the Universe, hydrogen transforms into helium whereas helium transforms into more massive atomic nuclei. It suggests that it can be that with time, mass abundance of helium in relation to hydrogen can slowly decrease. Here, by an analogy to the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we obtain formulae for change in abundance of helium-4 and hydrogen in the expanding Universe. For the invisible primordial Universe we obtain about 1. On the assumption that today abundances are 24.5% for helium and 75.5% for hydrogen (ratio = 3.1; we neglect the other chemical elements), we obtain that for the most distant observed Universe is 2.3 whereas for the end of the era of quasars and big stars is 2.45.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory