[15] **viXra:1508.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 22:07:51*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The author completed this paper in Tokyo Japan in 1993 but it was not submitted for publication anywhere. This LaText version was released on arXiv.com in 2008 and is posted here on viXra with no changes for convenience.

The field of an electromagnetic (E) dipole has been examined using general relativistic (R) and
quantum mechanical (Q) points of view, and an E=Q=R equivalence principle presented whereas the
curvature of the electromagnetic streamlines of the field are taken to be evidence of the distortion
of spacetime, and hence of the presence of a gravitational field surrounding the dipole. Using a
quasi-refractive index function N, with the streamlines and equipotential surfaces as coordinates,
a new dipole relativistic metric is described, replacing Schwarzschild’s for a point mass. The same
principle equates the curvature and other physical features of the field with fundamental quantum
concepts such as the uncertainty principle, the probability distribution and the wave packet. The
equations of the dipole field therefore yield the three fields emerging naturally one from the other
and unified without resorting to any new dimensions. It is speculated whether this model can be
extended to dipolar matter-antimatter pairs.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1508.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-15 14:25:40*

**Authors:** Jae-Kwang Hwang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is shown that the particle energy is proportional to its surface area. This surface area dependence
of the particle energy extended to the universe scale indicates that our universe is the
holographic universe. The obtained equation of E = 12.2047 1038 x2 = ρsS is based on the experimental
rest mass and radius relation of the proton. This result can be a first evidence of the possible
holographic particles and universe based on the experimental data. Also, the graviton is proposed
to have the rest mass (mg) of 3.1872 10
−31 eV/c2 and the force range of 10.032 Mpc. The diameter
(d = 1.0493 1029 m) of the observable universe is obtained. The observed dark energy density is
explained in terms of the holographic character of the observable universe. Also, the mass gap in the
Quantum Yang-Mills theory is proposed as the rest mass (3.1872 10−31 eV/c2) of the Planck size
real particle (or graviton). The evolution and origin of the black hole and our universe are newly
explained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1508.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-25 11:04:45*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Escaping information from black holes (BHs) produce firewalls at the event horizon. Such walls of fire absorb anything falling in black holes so they destroy them. It leads to conclusion that black hole understood as singularity with event horizon cannot be realized by Nature and that General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Physics (QP) are the incomplete theories. To solve the information paradox, Hawking proposes to replace the event horizon for apparent horizon i.e. for horizon widened due to quantum fluctuations in such a way that light can escape but there is lack of a mathematical description. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we solved the information paradox in a different way. The key to solve the many unsolved problems concerning black holes are the interactions of nuclear matter with the luminal Einstein spacetime both composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (they dominate) and neutrinos (detection of the pairs is much difficult than neutrinos) - there appear the ordered virtual motions in spacetime, dark-matter structures and advection. Incompleteness of GR and QP causes that altogether with good solutions we obtain solutions that cannot be realized by Nature and singularities are such solutions. SST shows that there are objects with circular orbit for photons and abstract event horizon but without singularity - we will call such objects the modified black holes (MBHs). The RHIC experiment showed that inside baryons are dense gluon fields. On the other hand, the SST shows that intensity of the superluminal quantum entanglement (it follows from the extended GR) close to the Planck scale is tremendous so the cores of baryons are indestructible. It leads to conclusion that MBHs are built of modified neutron black holes (MNBHs) which are the biggest neutron stars. When we take into account also the gravitational interactions then matter winds around the central point of MBH at a continuously decreasing distance from the point, next spirals on surfaces of the MNBHs towards their poles, and next twists along the relativistic jet. Among many other things, we calculated maximum efficiency of accretion process (41.42%), radii of the accretion discs, described the mechanism of production of the dark-matter structures, gravitational redshift and answered why the luminal Einstein spacetime does not collapse to separated black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1508.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 02:52:48*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Imagine many, bazillions, of spheres rotating on 3 axes. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Inside these spheres is another level of spheres that are matched. Therefore we go down two levels of dimensions from our three dimensional level of the universe. Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass rations of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculation for the elementary particles of the proton, electron, muon, and tau(tauon) are shown below. It is shown that these particles are all ratios with the neutron. It is shown that the electron, muon, and tau are all derived from the proton neutron mass ratio. It is shown that the muon and tau are complimentary lepton particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1508.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-17 10:39:43*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** Pages. In Proceedings of the Int. Conference "Cosmology on Small Scales 2016", Michal Krızek and Yurii Dumin (Eds.), Institute of Mathematics CAS, Prague, pp 179-198

The model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author is based on the conjecture about an existence of the graviton background. An
interaction of photons and moving bodies with this background leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological consequences. In the model, redshifts of remote objects and the
dimming of supernovae 1a may be interpreted without any expansion of the Universe and without dark energy. Some of these consequences are discussed and confronted with supernovae 1a, long
GRBs, and QSOs observations in this paper. It is shown that the two-parametric theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits
observations with high confidence levels (100% for the SCP Union 2.1, 43% for JLA compilations, 99.81% for long GRBs, and 13.73% for quasars), if all data sets are corrected for no time dilation.
These two parameters are computable in the model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1508.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 17:17:56*

**Authors:** F. Winterberg

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The particle-wave duality of the de Broglie pilot wave is explained by the emission of watt-less gravitational waves from Schroedinger's "Zitterbewegung" of elementary particles obeying the Dirac equation. In particular is shown that the quantum potential of the Madelung-transformed Schroedinger equation is gravitational in it's origin.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1508.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 05:19:47*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently we develop a model of dynamic quantum vacuum in which a given stellar object increases curvature of space and diminishes density of quantum vacuum. Motion of stellar objects is diminishing density of dynamic quantum vacuum in the areas of their motion. Diminished density of quantum vacuum is causing minimal increasing of gravitational constant G. We propose experiment which will confirm that G has the same value when measured at the same time on places which are situated close the same meridian and have equal distances to the moon and planets of the solar system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1508.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 18:34:06*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 74 Pages. genebarbee@msn.com

Gravity is still an active research area for scientists even though English mathematician Isaac Newton published his work entitled Principia in 1867. For the last twenty years or so some of the best theorists have been working on quantum gravity. There is a basic disconnect at the heart of gravity. The problem is that although Isaac’s equations are correct they describe large scale behavior of objects. Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the modern theory of gravity but again, it describes large scale behavior of objects following paths curved by mass. This leaves small scale (quantum scale) gravity a subject of research. In the author’s opinion, a solution to the problem was delayed by general acceptance of an old relationship between fundamental constants. Literature states that the gravitational constant (G) originates at the Planck scale. The Planck length (Compton wavelength) L= (h*G/C^3)^0.5 = 1.61e-35 meters where h is Heisenberg’s reduced constant (H/2pi) = 6.58e-22 Mev-Sec and C is of course the speed of light. The energy associated with the Planck length is 1.2e22 MeV. This energy is far greater than the energy of a proton and the Planck length is incredibly small. Many physicists are reluctant to give up the equation that contains G, h and C in what appears to be a defining relationship. Theorists are exploring alternatives like string theory in search of unification but have failed to gain acceptance of a new theory describing the origin of the gravitational constant.
The proverbial apple that Isaac was watching when he conceived of gravity was a bit of Hollywood. He actually rolled objects down an incline and measured time and distance. He was an observational based scientist. But we have high standards for present day physics and should expect someone to find the source of the gravitational constant and its relationship to the other forces. During Newton’s lifetime the concept of a small scale was not taken seriously although
the idea of an atom came much earlier. We will explore the possibility that the Planck length is too low and the energy 1.2e22 MeV is too high. A new theory of quantum gravity will be proposed at the scale of the proton.
What is space and time? It is interesting to the author that there isn’t agreement on these basic concepts. The difficulties with gravity extend to the origin of space. Furthermore, we all experience elapsed time but some physicists don’t believe in time that moves forward. They do believe that time cycles at the small scale and of course they know that energy is related to these cycles.
A proposal will be made regarding the origin of space and time and its relationship to expansion of the universe. Most cosmologists believe that expansion exceeds the speed of light. They say that space is being created and carries light with it. This appears to violate one of our most sacred concepts; that particles cannot travel at the speed of light? There is no need to violate C in the author’s proposal.
Thermodynamics is one of the most advanced sciences but again there are disconnects at the core. Most physicists agree that velocity is relative but does this mean that kinetic energy is also relative? Kinetic energy is just a form of energy and kinetic energy (1/2*m*V^2) is conserved. Energy according to the first law of thermodynamics can’t be created or destroyed. The second law of thermodynamics says that systems of particles containing heat energy always “run down”. Entropy is a one way downward street but where is the origin? Unfortunately there appears to be no answer that everyone agrees on. We must tie cosmology and thermodynamics together.
During Sir Isaac’s lifetime, the concept of a universe was pretty much limited to a solar system. He wouldn’t have believed how large the universe is but he would have been fascinated as we all are about findings in the last 100 years. He probably couldn’t even conceptualize of gravity being so strong that even light can’t escape an object but this is exactly what happens in a black hole. Many have been discovered and they seem to come in mainly two types: Burnt out stars and supermassive black holes almost as massive as an entire galaxy. Scientists need a quantum theory of gravity because it might help them understand black holes. One question that keeps surfacing is “do black holes collapse?” If they do it suggests a singularity where physics breaks down.
There is another “physics breaks down” possibility at the heart of physics. What was the beginning condition? Some physicists believe that the big bang was a singularity, so hot that relationships we know and use might have been different and there is even speculation that the four forces of nature might have been unified at that point. The author believes that the laws of physics existed before the big bang and are based on information theory [1]. There are interesting parallels between information theory and thermodynamics suggesting that physics is information based like our minds [30].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1508.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 00:03:47*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. corrected typos

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is also shown that the Muon/Neutron mass ratio is calculated with a similar integrated polynomial. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the tau could also be modeled similarly with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the tau neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1508.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 00:41:58*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It was shown in “Serendipitous Mathematical Geometric Origin of Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Neutron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron to within 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was shown in “Serendipitous hints at shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio”(7) that the mass ratio of the electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation to 9 digits and within one sigma of the 2014 Codata values. It was also shown that the electron could be contained in or composed of 6 components, possibly a toroid shape. It is expected, that if this integrated polynomial reflects that actual mathematics of the mass ratios of fundamental particles, that the muon could also be modeled similarily with the integrated polynomial with Lorentz transformation factor against the equilibrium of the aether. It is shown below that a similar pattern is followed for the muon neutron mass ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1508.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-28 02:02:24*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge hypothesis of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The hypothesis of emergent reality (ER- hypothesis later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ER-hypothesis and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ER-hypothesis. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ER-hypothesis and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ER-hypothesis. ER-hypothesis unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1508.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 10:03:53*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Following on from the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales, as shown in the
3D Universe Theory, we propose a simple formula to calculate the age of the Universe. It is in agreement with Planck 2013 results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1508.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-08 17:15:31*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind. The following equation shows a mathematical relations that may relate to the mass ratio of the Proton/Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1508.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-15 07:29:28*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected Equation 3

It was shown in “Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron” (1), that the mass ratio of the proton to neutron and electron to neutron could be well approximated with an integrated polynomial equation. This equation could predict the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron within 8 digits. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron was only accurate to 5 digits. In this paper it is shown that the mass ratio of the electron can be improved to 9 digits and within the Codata one sigma limits by proposing that the electron is contained within 6 equal units and including a relativistic component and using the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1508.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 17:14:30*

**Authors:** Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.

**Comments:** 29 Pages. www.is-si.ru/atomic-pp.pdf

The atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) increases in the field of gravity. The value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. This is the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin. The authors propose a crucial physical experiment with two high precision atomic clocks to verify their hypothesis. According to the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin time goes faster in the field of gravity. The authors provide the official prize for the competent disproof of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin before the experiment, the necessary materials are in Russian Academy of Sciences. $ 100 000 will be paid to any person who will disprove the effect. To get $ 100 000 see the contacts in the end of this scientific paper – you have to send by e-mail and post the competent scientific disproof in case you have it.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory