[14] **viXra:1208.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-18 16:01:48*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 165 Pages. WARNING: written under extreme stress - ignore prior drafts

This elementary text is for anyone interested in combinatorial methods in modern axiomatic particle physics. It focuses on the role of knots in motivic arithmetic, and the connection to category theoretic structures. Phenomenological aspects of rest mass quantum numbers are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1208.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-26 02:41:14*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. submitted to J. Phys A : Mathematical and Theoretical

We continue with the study of Clifford-space Gravity and analyze further
the Clifford space ($ C$-space) generalized gravitational field equations which are obtained
from a variational principle based on the generalization of the Einstein-Hilbert-Cartan action.
One of the main features is that the $C$-space connection requires $torsion$
in order to have consistency with the Clifford algebraic structure associated with the curved
$C$-space basis generators. Hence no spin matter is required to induce torsion since it already exists in the vacuum. The field equations in $C$-spaces associated to a Clifford algebra in $D$-dimensions are $not$ equivalent to the ordinary gravitational equations with torsion
in higher $2^D$-dimensions. The most physically relevant conclusion, besides the presence of torsion in the vacuum, is the contribution of the $higher$ grade metric components $g^{\mu_1 \mu_2 ~\nu_1 \nu_2}, g^{\mu_1 \mu_2 \mu_2~\nu_1 \nu_2 \nu_3 }, ~.....$ of the $C$-space metric to dark energy/dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1208.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-19 04:57:58*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

R. Kiehn has proposed what he calls Topological Thermodynamics (TTD) as a new formalism of thermodynamics. The basic vision is that thermodynamical equations could be translated to differential geometric statements using the notions of differential forms and Pfaffian system. That TTD differs from TGD by a single letter is not enough to ask whether some relationship between them might exist. Quantum TGD can however in a well-defined sense be regarded as a square root of thermodynamics in zero energy ontology (ZEO) and this leads leads to ask seriously whether TTD might help to understand TGD at deeper level. The thermodynamical interpretation of space-time dynamics would obviously generalize black hole thermodynamics to TGD framework and already earlier some concrete proposals have been made in this direction.
This raises several questions. Could the preferred extremals of Kähler action code for the square root of thermodynamics? Could induced Kähler gauge potential and Kähler form (essentially Maxwell field) have formal thermodynamic interpretation? The vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action implies 4-D spin glass degeneracy and strongly suggests the failure of strict determinism for the dynamics of Kähler action for non-vacuum extremals too. Could thermodynamical irreversibility and preferred arrow of time allow to characterize the notion of preferred extremal more sharply?
It indeed turns out that one can translate Kiehn's notions to TGD framework rather straightforwardly.
Kiehn's work 1- form corresponds to induced Kähler gauge potential implying that the vanishing of instanton density for Kähler form becomes a criterion of reversibility and irreversibility is localized on the (4-D) "lines" of generalized Feyman diagrams, which correspond to space-like signature of the induced metric. Heat produced in given generalized Feynman diagram is just the integral of instanton density and the condition that the arrow of geometric time has definite sign classically fixes the sign of produced heat to be positive. In this picture the preferred extremals of Kähler action would allow a trinity of interpretations as non-linear Maxwellian dynamics, thermodynamics, and integrable hydrodynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1208.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-18 08:00:15*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Replacement of document due to fact author pasted in some equations which showed up badly in PDF form.

The author presents a post Newtonian approximation based upon an earlier argument / paper by Clifford Will as to Yukawa revisions of gravitational potentials in part initiated by gravitons with explicit mass dependence in their Compton wave length. Prior work with Clifford Will’s idea was stymied by the application to binary stars and other such astro-physical objects with non useful frequencies topping off as up to 100 Hertz, thereby rendering Yukawa modifications of Gravity due to gravitons effectively an experimental curiosity which was not testable with any known physics equipment

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1208.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-17 20:11:29*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Simple concepts paper as related by the author. The main goal aside from the detection of GW from the big bang, if possible, would also be to determine if the re heating phase of the cosmological history of the universe is accompanied by steady state or a dramatic increase in entropy production. As reviewing Roo's (2003) about re heating.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1208.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-20 22:27:56*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An alternate interpretation of Quantum Theory is given. The fine structure constant is derived.
An experiment is proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1208.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-17 10:39:03*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This construction preserves a minimum non zero vacuum energy, and in doing so keep the bits, for computational bits cosmological evolution even if initial radius goes to zero . We state that the presence of computational bits is necessary for cosmological evolution to commence. We also state that entanglement entropy not disappearing even if 4 dimensional length disappears is similar to the problem of a higher dimensional surface area at the tangential sheet intersecting a point of space-time, so that the presence of non zero entanglement entropy, embedded on an infinitesmally thick space-time thickness is the same as embedding the known 4 dimensional universe into a higher dimensional structure, as hypothesized by Steinhardt and Turok and Durrer.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1208.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-26 19:43:33*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Final version of paper as it appeared on the fourth FQXi essay contest

A fundamental assumption embedded in our current worldview is that there exists an as yet undiscovered `theory of everything', a fifinal unified framework according to which all interactions in nature are but different manifestations of the same underlying thing. This paper argues that this assumption is wrong because our current distinct fundamental theories of nature already have mutually exclusive
domains of validity, though under our current worldview this is far from obvious. As a concrete example, it is shown that if the concepts of mass in general relativity and quantum theory are distinct in a specific way, their domains become non-overlapping. The key to recognizing the boundaries of the domains of validity of our fundamental theories is an aspect of the frame of reference of an observer which has
not yet been appreciated in mainstream physics. This aspect, called the dimensional frame of reference(DFR), depends on the number of length dimensions that constitute an observer frame. Edwin Abbott's Flatland is used as point of departure from which to provide a gentle introduction to the applications of
this idea. Finally, a metatheory of nature
is proposed to encompass the collection of theories of nature with mutually exclusive domains of validity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1208.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-10 16:16:52*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Thought experiment as to how to possibly use the idea of minimum time length, even if spatial length goes to zero, in early phases of cosmology, as a response to Stoica's paper on a re done version of the Einstein equations

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1208.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-09 12:50:37*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

what happens to vacuum energy, if Stoica's calculations , 2012, remove necessity of avoiding analyzing BB singularity for Einstein's equations

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1208.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-09 12:52:59*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Problems with space-time foam, if BB singularities no longer are inaccessible to modified version of Einstein equations, as given by Stoica (2012)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1208.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-09 12:55:56*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

How to answer Volivik's questions in Vacuum energy, myths and realities document , if BB singularities no longer are inaccessible to modified version of Einstein equations, as given by Stoica (2012);
We summarize first the highlights of the paper by Volovik, 2006 as to Vacuum energy and afterwards state that the non applicabillty of “Fjortoft theorem” for defining necessary conditions for instability solves certain problems raised by Volovik. The Myths and Realitites of Vacuum energies as stated by Volovik in particular state that there can be no (local?) perturbations of the quantum vacuum leading to a nonzero vacuum energy. Our paper applies the non applicability of “Fjortoft theorem” as another mechanism which could lead to a nonzero vacuum energy. We apply this theorem to what is called by Padmanabhan a thermodynamic potential which could show inititial conditions implying (structual) instability if conditions for the applications of “Fjortoft’s theorem” hold. In our case, there is no instability, so a different mechanism exists.for constructing vacuum energy. We appeal to Machians physics to account for the behavior of massive Gravitons with DE, in sync with extending answers to Volovick’s questions and identifying vacuum energy with DE. Then use Branes-Anti branes to create DE. Key point also is in the uniformity of Planck’s constant in cosmology, too as to preserve consistency of physical evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1208.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-08-07 05:27:27*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 9 Pages. FQXi 2012 Essay Contest "Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?"

This essay considers eight basic physical assumptions which are not fundamental: (i) spacetime as the arena for physics, (ii) unitarity of the dynamics, (iii) microscopic time-reversibility, (iv) the need for black hole thermodynamics, (v) state vectors as the general description of quantum states, (vi) general relativity as a field theory, (vii) dark matter as real matter, (viii) and cosmological homogeneity. This selection ranges from micro-physics to cosmology, but is not exhaustive.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1208.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-19 04:35:15*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

During years several approaches to what preferred extremals of Kähler action and solutions of the modified Dirac equation could be have been proposed and the challenge is to see whether at least some of these approaches are consistent with each other. It is good to list various approaches first.

- For preferred extremals generalization of conformal invariance to 4-D situation is very attractive approach and leads to concrete conditions formally similar to those encountered in string model. The approach based on basic heuristics for massless equations, on effective 3-dimensionality, and weak form of electric magnetic duality is also promising. An alternative approach is inspired by number theoretical considerations and identifies space-time surfaces as associative or co-associative sub-manifolds of octonionic imbedding space.
- There are also several approaches for solving the modified Dirac equation. The most promising approach is assumes that the solutions are restricted on 2-D stringy world sheets and/or partonic 2-surfaces. This strange looking view is a rather natural consequence of number theoretic vision. The conditions stating that electric charge is conserved for preferred extremals is an alternative very promising approach.