[6] **viXra:1912.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-13 03:11:53*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A brief introduction of the history of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory, Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, and noncommutative spacetimes paves the road for the exploration of gravity in $curved$ phase spaces within the context of the Finsler geometry of the cotangent bundle $T^* M$ of spacetime. A scalar-gravity model is duly studied, and exact nontrivial analytical solutions
for the metric and nonlinear connection are found that
obey the generalized gravitational field equations, in addition to satisfying the $zero$ torsion conditions
for $all$ of the torsion components. The $curved$ base spacetime manifold and internal momentum space both turn out to be (Anti) de Sitter type.
A $regularization$ of the $8$-dim phase space action leads naturally to an extremely small effective cosmological constant $ \Lambda_{eff}$, and which in turn, furnishes an extremely small value for the underlying four-dim spacetime cosmological constant $ \Lambda$, as a direct result of a $correlation$ between $ \Lambda_{eff} $ and $ \Lambda$ resulting from the field equations. The rich structure of Finsler geometry deserves to be explore further since it can shine some light into Quantum Gravity, and lead to interesting cosmological phenomenology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1912.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-12 13:19:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Physicists have successfully developed a new instrument that significantly reduces quantum-level noise that has thus far limited experiments' ability to spot gravitational waves. [20] A group of researchers from Osaka University led by Prof. Masayuki Abe and Prof. Hiroshi Toki of the Graduate School of Engineering Science developed a high precision 3-D circuit simulator in the time-domain for quantifying electromagnetic (EM) noise and elucidated its origin, allowing for electronic and electrical circuit layout to reduce EM noise. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1912.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-10 10:18:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Quantum squeezing has been used to increase the sensitivity of the LIGO and Virgo interferometers, making them better at detecting gravitational waves. [19]
A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18]
A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17]
The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1912.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-08 09:30:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO, was picking up whispers of gravitational waves every month or so. Now, a new addition to the system is enabling the instruments to detect these ripples in space-time nearly every week. Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1912.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-12 10:50:05*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Science fiction has always wondered if there is repulsive gravity. If there is a positive and negative to elementary charge, why can’t there be positive and negative gravity. If the strong force and weak force are limited by distance, why not gravity. This paper proposes gravity is limited in its action distance. After this action distance is exceeded, then repulsive gravity takes over. This is the force that causes universe to look like it is expanding. This paper will propose that the limitations of gravity is about 18.93 million light years in radius. Islands of approximately 18.93 million light years in radius will form within the universe and then be pushed apart by repulsive gravity.
This paper’s purpose is to propose a size limit to action distance of gravity. Later papers will analyze redshift, galaxy luminosities, surface brightness, and size, and determine if this repulsive gravity model correlates the information better than existing models. This model will also be used to try to model the non-linear Hubble Constant.
People have tried to figure out how the universe went from a spec, to a very fast inflation. This is only necessary in a universe that has a finite age. In the spinning sphere universe, the universe is sectioned off into galaxy clusters. The universe may have a center galaxy cluster. New matter is probably created outside this center of this central galaxy cluster. This central galaxy cluster already has a size due to the universe being infinitely old. The central galaxy cluster pushes new matter away from the center of the universe. There may be a very odd and old galaxy cluster.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1912.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-12-01 12:35:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Cosmological Redshift has typically been calculated an effect of expansion of the universe. Currently there is debate about why the Hubble constant is different depending on the method being used to calculate the Hubble constant. This paper proposes that there are at least three different contributing factors to the cosmological redshift. These are radial redshift for the acceleration of matter in the universe, transverse redshift for the spinning of the universe, and gravitational blue shift for gravitational affects on cosmological light. There are also local affects. Perhaps our area of the universe has a gravitationally bound cosmic structure, and we observe other gravitational bound. There may also be other contributions to the gravitational redshift of the universe. There may be some difficulty in calculating cosmological redshift, because we really don’t know where in the universe we really are.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory