Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1912 Submissions

[13] viXra:1912.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-23 05:25:40

Physical and Mathematical Proof of God

Authors: Manfred U.E.Pohl
Comments: 4 Pages.

John 1:1 : In the beginning was the word [π] , and the word was with YHWH (God the Father) and the word was YHWH [God the Father = π] Genesis 1:1 : In the beginning YHWH created the heaven and the earth [π = second/meter ; 1/c [second/metre] ] Genesis 1:26 : Then he created man of his own likeness and image (God the Son) [(π) → (π,π)] Gave unto man wisdom (s/m=π),knowledge (s/m =1) and overstanding ( π=1)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1912.0358 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-21 11:30:41

Phantom Energy and Cosmic Doomsday

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Robert R. Caldwell, Marc Kamionkowski, and Nevin N. Weinberg, wrote a paper Phantom Energy and Cosmic Doomsday (1). They wrote an equation for the expiration date of the universe and used an example where the expiration date of the universe is 22 billion years. In spinning sphere theory, matter is created by imperfections forming in the universe. The imperfections are absence defects similar to Shottky defects in material science.(2) It is proposed that repulsive gravity pushes on these defects out to the edge of the universe. During that time of travel to the edge of the universe, stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters are formed and age. Over 22 billion years, the edge of the universe is reached and all matter goes into non-existence. New matter is continually formed on the interior of the universe. Old matter is destroyed at the edge of the universe. The following paper shows the equation for calculating the amount of time it takes for matter to be pushed out of the universe by repulsive gravity. In spinning sphere theory, the universe is about 3.018 billion light years in radius. If were to use the Hubble sphere radius of 13.8 billion years, the cosmic doomsday would be about 97.5 billion light years.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1912.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 16:36:30

Modern Physics Ignorance of Newton's Theory.Unification of Gravity with QM. The Beauty and the Beast.

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

Isaac Newton did not invent the gravity constant G, nor did he use it, and nor did he have any use for it. Newton's formula was F=Mm/r^2 and not F=GMm/r^2. Newton's formula can easily be unified with quantum mechanics, while the ugly modification of modern physics can only be unified with quantum mechanics by adding similar ugliness to the rest of physics. Modern physics in reality uses two different mass definitions, one for gravity and another for the rest of physics. This, we will prove, has made it impossible to unify quantum mechanics with gravity. It is first when one understands the cause of the problem that one easily can fix it. It can be fixed either by going back to the key insight given by Newton, which leads to a beautiful simple unified theory, in conception and in notation. Alternatively, one can arrive at the same theory, but with very ugly notation that hides the beauty at the depth of reality. We will show a beautiful way to unify gravity and quantum mechanics and also an ugly way. Both are the same way, but only one way, the Newton way gives the deep insight on matter, energy, time, space, and gravity and even quantum mechanics. Modern physics ignored Newton's insight on matter and altered the mass definition, and therefore had to modify Newton's gravity formula, such that a unified theory seemed to become impossible. Newton himself would probably not have approved of the gravity constant; it is a flaw on the foundation of his theory and his gravity formula. Still, when one understands what the gravity constant really represents, one can also unify standard physics, by adding the ugly gravity constant in other places as needed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1912.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 00:59:43

Space Matter. Unified Theory

Authors: Vladimir Pastushenko
Comments: 10 Pages. http://pva1.mya5.ru

Here, in axioms of dynamic space-matter, the single theory of all math and physical theories is introduced, with a possibility of researches of energy levels of a singularity. These are initial elements quantum gravity. Mass field. They follow from the equation of the General Theory of the Relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1912.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-19 05:12:48

Solution to the “Problem of Time” II + III

Authors: Manfred U.E.Pohl
Comments: corrected mistake in equation page 5, update equation page 2

Within the first article „Solution to the Problem of Time“ [3] the author explored the origin of time and suggested the Unified Principles of Nature that must be applied in order to unify Quantum Gravity and General Relativity without contradiction. To emphasis the urging conclusion out of the Solution to the „Problem of Time“ the author summarize in this paper the claim to reintroduce rational thought and argument in science in order to solve pressing problems in human society. Science must consider the Scientific God to unite Quantum Theory and General Relativity into a theory that can describe and predict reality.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1912.0285 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-22 11:09:54

The Ridiculous Aberrations of the International System of Unity

Authors: The ridiculous aberrations of the International System of Unity
Comments: 11 Pages. in French, submitted to Le CEP

The recent reformulation of the International System of Unity is correctly based on a logical return to the Planck fundamental constant. But the ancient error of introducing arbitrary constants in electric units are not corrected. The return to a number of only three fundamental unities would re conciliate research and teaching, as well as milit for a conciliation of different disciplines, such as Biology, Particle Physics and Cosmology, as illustrated by the Topological axis, which rehabilitates the string theory, but refuting the Big Bang model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1912.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-13 22:41:27

Calculating the Planck Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant consistently nearly equal to the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over all eight publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 700 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, Equation 2, below, predicted a more accurate Planck constant, than the Codata value of the respective Codata publication. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, may be mirroring the calculations, and may be measuring the same phenomena. Data for 2018 CODATA are included. The value calculated using spinning sphere theory, of 6.6260701507*10^-34 continues to be compatible with the CODATA value of 6.62607015*10^-34.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1912.0253 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-15 00:47:23

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory, Curved Phase Space, Finsler Geometry and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages.

A brief introduction of the history of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory, Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, and noncommutative spacetimes paves the road for the exploration of gravity in $curved$ phase spaces within the context of the Finsler geometry of the cotangent bundle $T^* M$ of spacetime. A scalar-gravity model is duly studied, and exact nontrivial analytical solutions for the metric and nonlinear connection are found that obey the generalized gravitational field equations, in addition to satisfying the $zero$ torsion conditions for $all$ of the torsion components. The $curved$ base spacetime manifold and internal momentum space both turn out to be (Anti) de Sitter type. The most salient feature is that the solutions capture the very early inflationary and very-late-time de Sitter phases of the Universe. A $regularization$ of the $8$-dim phase space action leads naturally to an extremely small effective cosmological constant $ \Lambda_{eff}$, and which in turn, furnishes an extremely small value for the underlying four-dim spacetime cosmological constant $ \Lambda$, as a direct result of a $correlation$ between $ \Lambda_{eff} $ and $ \Lambda$ resulting from the field equations. The rich structure of Finsler geometry deserves to be explore further since it can shine some light into Quantum Gravity, and lead to interesting cosmological phenomenology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1912.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 13:19:54

Gravitational Wave Detectors Cutting Quantum Noise

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Physicists have successfully developed a new instrument that significantly reduces quantum-level noise that has thus far limited experiments' ability to spot gravitational waves. [20] A group of researchers from Osaka University led by Prof. Masayuki Abe and Prof. Hiroshi Toki of the Graduate School of Engineering Science developed a high precision 3-D circuit simulator in the time-domain for quantifying electromagnetic (EM) noise and elucidated its origin, allowing for electronic and electrical circuit layout to reduce EM noise. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1912.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 10:18:15

Quantum Squeezing Gravitational Wave Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Quantum squeezing has been used to increase the sensitivity of the LIGO and Virgo interferometers, making them better at detecting gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1912.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 09:30:43

LIGO Instrument Extends

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO, was picking up whispers of gravitational waves every month or so. Now, a new addition to the system is enabling the instruments to detect these ripples in space-time nearly every week. Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1912.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-12 10:50:05

Repulsive Gravity, Gravity, and Dark Energy

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Science fiction has always wondered if there is repulsive gravity. If there is a positive and negative to elementary charge, why can’t there be positive and negative gravity. If the strong force and weak force are limited by distance, why not gravity. This paper proposes gravity is limited in its action distance. After this action distance is exceeded, then repulsive gravity takes over. This is the force that causes universe to look like it is expanding. This paper will propose that the limitations of gravity is about 18.93 million light years in radius. Islands of approximately 18.93 million light years in radius will form within the universe and then be pushed apart by repulsive gravity. This paper’s purpose is to propose a size limit to action distance of gravity. Later papers will analyze redshift, galaxy luminosities, surface brightness, and size, and determine if this repulsive gravity model correlates the information better than existing models. This model will also be used to try to model the non-linear Hubble Constant. People have tried to figure out how the universe went from a spec, to a very fast inflation. This is only necessary in a universe that has a finite age. In the spinning sphere universe, the universe is sectioned off into galaxy clusters. The universe may have a center galaxy cluster. New matter is probably created outside this center of this central galaxy cluster. This central galaxy cluster already has a size due to the universe being infinitely old. The central galaxy cluster pushes new matter away from the center of the universe. There may be a very odd and old galaxy cluster.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1912.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 12:35:41

Cosmological Redshift of the Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Cosmological Redshift has typically been calculated an effect of expansion of the universe. Currently there is debate about why the Hubble constant is different depending on the method being used to calculate the Hubble constant. This paper proposes that there are at least three different contributing factors to the cosmological redshift. These are radial redshift for the acceleration of matter in the universe, transverse redshift for the spinning of the universe, and gravitational blue shift for gravitational affects on cosmological light. There are also local affects. Perhaps our area of the universe has a gravitationally bound cosmic structure, and we observe other gravitational bound. There may also be other contributions to the gravitational redshift of the universe. There may be some difficulty in calculating cosmological redshift, because we really don’t know where in the universe we really are.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory