Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1302 Submissions

[18] viXra:1302.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-27 02:15:35

Precursor to the Theory of Everything. This is Just a Brief Outline – not a Formal Theory with Specialized Terms and Maths Equations.

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 7 Pages. also published at www.researchgate.net

This article began as a question to an astronomy magazine about the Milky Way which I thought of when reading an article of theirs about astronomers looking billions of years into the past at dwarf galaxies. This led to my second question suggesting universal expansion can be reduced to an inflating cosmic fifth dimension. A 1919 paper by Einstein then combines with fractal geometry to equate it with multiple quantum fifth dimensions. It’s then suggested that the WMAP spacecraft shows dark energy is this fifth dimension and that it possesses mathematical form. This maths borrows ideas from string theory to conclude there are “currents” of binary digits flowing in two Mobius loops that are connected into an infinite number of figure-8 Klein bottles. In this way, in addition to fifth dimensional hyperspace being mathematical, the four dimensions of space-time are also shown to be composed of maths. This offers an explanation of wormholes and cosmic strings; and each figure-8 Klein bottle is said to be a subuniverse (our own being 13.7 billion years old) within an infinite, eternal universe often called the multiverse when subuniverses (which share one set of physics’ laws) are wrongly called parallel universes and claimed to have differing laws. Dark energy is considered to be not merely the fifth dimension but the radiation of binary digits from that hyperspace to create everything (in the form of mathematically-generated gravitational and electromagnetic waves). Since “everything” refers to mass and all the other properties of matter’s particles, they produce the non-Standard Model Higgs field. Binary digits are the cause of the effect known as gravitation and the idea of retrocausality – the time component of space’s quantum entanglement – can remove any separation of cause and effect to make gravitation equal to dark energy … as long as gravity is assumed to be a repelling force. This makes it compulsory to explain its obvious attraction. I’ve addressed various details concerning this in my articles but I’ll just address one point here – Earth’s orbit. This article ends by mentioning the warped nonlinearity of time and the possibility of future human involvement in creation; the existence of God (non-supernatural) via the inverse-square law’s infinite aspect coupled with eternal quantum entanglement; the Law of Conservation; and evolution’s continuing existence as adaptation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1302.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-23 06:55:54

The Spherical Solution of the Quantum Gravity and the Revised Gravity Field Equation

Authors: sangwha Yi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s revised gravity field equation (add the cosmological term), discover the spherical solution of the quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1302.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-24 01:56:49

E=mQ² as a Basis for Integration of q Electrical-Mass into Q Quantum Potential as E=Q

Authors: Andraz Pibernik
Comments: 5 Pages. The most simple approach to a Quantum Mechanical Solution ever done using Al Zeeper's true Energy Equation E=qA²Z².

This is a new approach to simulation where Q or Quantum Potential Energy is used to design Quantum simulated realities without the need to solve the Schrödinger equation. I present an unique integraion of q or Electrical-Mass aka cosmic-ocean that permeates all space and its pressure is pushing us down to earth wich is gravity. Volume x Pressure = Energy. In my model which is based on the most simple mathematics, I show that Electrical Energy = Quantum Potential Energy when relativistic mass m is replaced by the lighter and universal composite material called q or Electrical-Mass. This is the first step towards my newly invented notion of sapiedelic society that is based on self-betterment and betterment of all kind. An attempt like this has never been done before that is why I would like to dedicate this sicentific paper to my brother and future Univ. Dipl. Ing. of Electrotechnics for his 30th birthday.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1302.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-22 18:23:52

E=mQ² How Big Bang and Toe Are Overruled in Our Timeless Universe

Authors: Andraz Pibernik
Comments: 108 Pages. Please do not conduct experiments mentioned in the paper at home. If so, self-betterment and betterment of all kind are guaranteed for the price of one's image or even one's life.

This work answers two major scientific questions: 1) Do the theory of the beginning and final theory exist, as time represents only a numerical order of material change and does not exist as such in the vast and infinite universe? 2) How does the scientific society evaluate this as also distance and constant velocity are referred to as dummy units created by the conscious observers? Furthermore a fact from a source among the desperate physicists is provided: ... correct, today we know that the hope into the Theory of Everything has been an overambitious project, although right now, there is no evidence for any “new physics” at higher energies to be on the horizon ... I would like to thank to all scientists who participate in this largest project on the human soil, still being conducted. Main thanks go to TOE Quest forum community and all test entities during the 14 year old simulation and my last 4 month implementation of the simulation results again on the TOE Quest forum test polygon ... I overruled the Theory of Everything, because such blunder does not exist, let alone that such answer would be provided by the physicists. To give such an answer one needs at least 50 years of multidisciplinary work and research ... 30 down 20 to go. I often had a feeling that the science had never been united as it is is with this project that will pave the way for future generations to understand the struggle a single scientist had to go through, before being admitted by the scientific society. The work should remind the reader of the necessity of sparking the scientific disputes in order to fertilize one’s work. Yet it should also show to the old generation and rigid professors who stick to the comic, I repeat, comic constants and theories, being theories for millennia, based on an infinite amount of constants that more conventional and artistic approach is needed. A proof to them that they should sometimes think like kids in order to find a proper solution to a problem that could be solved by any child at the age of six, when kids gain their consciousness. Tell your kind that we are being pushed to the celestial body by the pressure of q Electrical-Mass, not pulled by the mass of the body, a false definition of gravity. Herewith you have already done the first step towards infinity. There was no beginning, just an everlasting ongoing. Nothing is constant in this universe, even the expansion is either accelerated or decelerated. "Try not, do." Quote: Master Yoda. Finally I dedicate this work to my late father and his cousin and my true uncle from Brazil, whom I miss very much and plan to visit soon. I devote all my free time and available financial ressources to this research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1302.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-22 00:36:15

E=mQ² Quantum Gravity and Quantum Sapiedelic Consciousness Equation as E=√Q

Authors: Andraz Pibernik
Comments: 3 Pages. For this experiment a new notion that can not be found by google was invented. Instead of humans being stoned apes or living in a psychedelic society, I now propose a sapiedelic Consciousness/Mind/Thought society where non-fiscal betterment takes place.

First I show a model how simple Quantum Mathematics and Geometry give birth to a Quantum Gravity equation where Einstein's Cosmological constant is put to Pi/Planck Time squared or Planck Linear and Angular Frequency in order to obtain Quantum Golden Ratio Proportioning or Organic Growth that corresponds Planck Acceleration over Planck Area or √(c x h_bar x G). Than I develop a model of a Planck Sphere with Hamid-Planck Length that puts dice^roulette (author Hamid from Iran) and annihilates the Heissenberg uncertainty principle of Quantum Mechanics, declaring Planck Length for the one and only Physics constant in this universe at (1/6)^37 x 10^-6 meters. Later on and on the page 2, I develop a quantum brain and consciousness model where electrical-thought-mass is applied and 4 Planck values square rooted just in order to keep the mind within the idea of the Special Relativity. Once we remove the square root, electrical-mass that has no velocity ceiling and builds the cosmic ocean we all swim in, gets integrated into the velocity of thought as E=Q in the realm of c or the speed of light to the 4th power integer. (to be discussed in my next paper as this non relativistic concept is being tested at IJS) On the page 3, I post some pictures, where I present a Quantum Gravity Model that proves we do not think straight, but in circles or double helix spiral due to the universal motion or spin, latter represents the seat of consciousness. Enjoy the paper and share it with your friends. I dedicate this work to my little brother and future Univ. Dipl. Ing. Tadej.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1302.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-19 11:25:50

A New Basis for Cosmology Without Dark Energy

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 3 pages, 1 figure

It is shown that small quantum effects of the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author give a possibility of another interpretation of cosmological observations without an expansion of the Universe and dark energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1302.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-19 06:02:43

The Photon Consists of a Positive and a Negative Charge

Authors: Hans W Giertz
Comments: 6 Pages. In my paper “Gravity caused by TEM waves operating on dipoles in atoms”, viXra:1302.0066 [pdf], the nature of gravity is explained and that it is caused by TEM waves.

The study displays that the photon consists of a positive charge and a negative charge. A gravitational singularity in the universe generates synchronized, extremely low frequency gravitational waves consisting of extremely low frequency photons. This photon was exposed to a magnetic field resulting in that the photon was split into a separate positive charge and a separate negative charge. These charges were exposed to electric fields, revealing their nature. It is proposed that the photon’s positive charge rotates clockwise and the negative charge rotates counter clockwise perpendicular to the photons radial direction forming a double helix. The photon’s radial speed is equal to the speed of light. The charge’s rotational speed is equal to the photon frequency ν. The study describes how the photon’s charges were measured. The study describes a method to measure how e.g. an incandescent light bulb and a radio transmitter antenna generate photons, revealing the true nature of photons. The study describes the relationship between photon, gravity and the atom’s elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1302.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-17 19:20:04

Bounds Upon Graviton Mass – Using the Difference Between Graviton Propagation Speed and HFGW Transit Speed to Observe Post-Newtonian Corrections to Gravitational Potential Fields: Updated to Take Into Account Early Universe Cosmology and Penrose Cyclic co

Authors: A.W.Beckwith
Comments: 9 Pages. Has three appendix entries, justifying title change. Also, to be submitted to prespacetime journal later., One table included

The author presents a post-Newtonian approximation based upon an earlier argument in a paper by Clifford Will as to Yukawa revisions of gravitational potentials, in part initiated by gravitons having explicit mass dependence in their Compton wave length. Prior work with Clifford Will’s idea was stymied by the application to binary stars and other such astrophysical objects, with non-useful frequencies topping off near 100 Hertz, thereby rendering Yukawa modifications of Gravity due to gravitons effectively an experimental curiosity which was not testable with any known physics equipment. This work improves on those results.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1302.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-20 20:42:51

The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Phase Spaces and Modifications of Gravity at the Planck/hubble Scales

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 30 Pages. Submitted to Foundations of Physics. It is explained how to construct n-ary extensions of Born's reciprocal relativity based on n-ary algebras.

We extend the construction of Born's Reciprocal Phase Space Relativity to the case of Clifford Spaces which involve the use of $polyvectors$ and a $lower/upper$ length scale. We present the generalized polyvector-valued velocity and acceleration/force boosts in Clifford Phase Spaces and find an $explicit$ Clifford algebraic realization of the velocity and acceleration/force boosts. Finally, we provide a Clifford Phase-Space Gravitational Theory based in gauging the generalization of the Quaplectic group and invoking Born's reciprocity principle between coordinates and momenta (maximal speed of light velocity and maximal force). The generalized gravitational vacuum field equations are explicitly displayed. We conclude with a brief discussion on the role of higher-order Finsler geometry in the construction of extended relativity theories with an upper and lower bound to the higher order accelerations (associated with the higher order tangent and cotangent spaces). We explain how to find the procedure that will allow us to find the $n$-ary analog of the Quaplectic group transformations which will now mix the $X, P, Q, .......$ coordinates of the higher order tangent (cotangent) spaces in this extended relativity theory based on Born's reciprocal gravity and $n$-ary algebraic structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1302.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-15 20:11:55

Basics of Atomic Cosmology

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai
Comments: 18 Pages. 100 years of quantum mechanics, nuclear physics and cosmology can be refined and unified.

Part-2: Current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. Hubble length (c/H_t) can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. In this report an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. The four key assumptions are : 1) Reduced Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and angular velocity being (H_t), universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) Atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant and 4) Atomic gravitational constant shows discrete behavior. This may be the root cause of discrete nature of revolving electron’s total energy. With reference to the present atomic and nuclear physical constants, obtained (H_0) = 69.642 km/sec/Mpc and can be compared with the recent value (H_0)= (69.32 +/-0.80) km/sec/Mpc.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1302.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-17 21:37:13

Strings Are Binary Digits Whose Currents in Two 2-D Mobius Loops Produce a 4-D Figure-8 Klein Bottle that Composes Each of the Subuniverses in the One Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 36 Pages. Reason for replacement - added details about sunspots, black holes, Earth's orbit, and SOHO spacecraft supporting idea of matter's wave packets

The strings of physics’ string theory are the binary digits of 1 and 0 used in computers and electronics. The digits are constantly switching between their representations of the “on” and “off” states. This switching is usually referred to as a flow or current. Currents in the two 2-dimensional programs called Mobius loops are connected into a four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottle by the infinitely-long irrational and transcendental numbers. Such an infinite connection translates - via bosons being ultimately composed of 1’s and 0’s depicting pi, e, √2 etc.; and fermions being given mass by bosons interacting in matter particles’ “wave packets” – into an infinite number of 8-Kleins. Each Klein 1) is one of the universe’s subuniverses (our own is 13.7 billion years old), 2) is made flexible through its binary digits which seamlessly, or almost seamlessly, join it to surrounding subuniverses and eliminate its central hole, and 3) possesses warped time and space because its foundation is the programmed curves in its mathematical Mobius loops (along with the twists they generate [p.7]). The universe functions according to the rules of fractal geometry. So the Mobius does not exist only at the cosmic level. It also manifests at the quantum scale, giving us photons and protons etc. Space and time are no longer separate, but are an indivisible space-time. So if space and the universe are infinite, how can time not be eternal? The past and the future must both extend forever (the idea of time being finite arises from confusion of our subuniverse with the one infinite universe). BITS (BInary digiTS) only suggest existence of the divine if time is linear. Although a non-supernatural God is proposed via the inverse-square law coupled with eternal quantum entanglement, Einstein taught us that time is warped. Warped time is nonlinear, making it at least possible that the BITS composing space-time and all particles originate from the computer science of humans. I suspect many readers will be content with reading this abstract. While there are more details, and mathematics, in the content; my natural style of writing is to avoid jargon and maths. I also tend to get philosophical. While I personally feel that there’s a lot of precious information in the content, I realize it won’t all be to everyone’s liking. Other subjects dealt with in this article are - the “Pioneer anomaly”, refinement of gravitational physics, dark energy and dark matter, quantum phenomena like mass and electric charge and quantum spin, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, deflection of starlight by the sun, tides, falling bodies, Earth’s orbit, ancient Greek philosophers, Newton, Kepler, Galileo, Aristotle, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, time travel into the past as well as the future, the elimination of distances in space, humanity’s construction of this universe we live in, The Law of Conservation of Matter-Energy, and support for the science-fiction-like idea of the electronic binary digits of 1 and 0 being the building blocks of our universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1302.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-13 09:00:28

Ulianov String Theory. Uma Nova Representação Para Partículas Fundamentais

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 15 Pages. This is a Portuguese version of the paper http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0101

This paper introduces a new model for fundamental particles representation, named Ulianov String Theory(UST). In the UST model, the space is composed of eight dimensions, being four of them “rolled up” dimensions while the other four are ”ordinary” dimensions. Moreover, in the UST, time dimension is modeled as a complex variable and can also be “rolled up”. This new string model also defines point-like particles named Ulianov Holes (uholes), which, from the imaginary time collapse, is transformed into strings. These strings allow generation of a series of structures, which can be associated to configurations of the observed matter and energy in our universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1302.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-12 05:16:03

Theory of New Space

Authors: Edward William Johnson
Comments: 25 Pages. Description of Gravity as an operator and mechanism

Abstract Gravity as an identifiable force or mechanism is one of the greatest physical mysteries alluded physicists since Euclid. This paper reintroduces and reconfirms Sir Isaac Newton’s idea and belief that Space provides us with a ‘Background Absolute’, later discounted by Albert Einstein. It is explained here by the constant emergence of New Primary Space. This same mechanism determines how gravitational information is exchanged but also to, the ability of a photon to transmit and transit in spacetime and determines the local maximum speed of ‘C’. This is central and a key feature in this paper. Both Gravity & Light are subject to this fundamental ‘Absolute’ space mechanism which determines the abilities of both. It introduces the concept of ‘Primary Space’ with a constantly emergent population of 1 dimensional points of time which is the physical key to unlocking this long lasting mystery. If this philosophy is correct then it is necessary to change our current audit of spatial dimensions, and remove temporal time as being one of them. The details presented provide explanation of this system which is dependent upon the following layout of dimensions. Ut, x, y, z and temporal time is excluded from these four. [ Ut is the symbol for Universal Time Constant ] this being the Primary dimension providing Newton’s Absolute.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1302.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-11 20:30:15

Octonion in Superstring Theory

Authors: B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 13 Pages. bcchanyal@gmail.com

In this paper, we have made an attempt to discuss the role of octonions in superstring theory (i.e. a theory of everything to describe the unification of all four types of forces namely gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong) where, we have described the octonion representation of the superstring(SS) theory as the combination of four complex (C) spaces namely associated with the gravitational (G-space), electromagnetic (EM-space), weak (W-space) and strong (S-space) interactions. We have discussed the octonionic differential operator, octonionic valued potential wave equation, octonionic field equation and other various quantum equations of superstring theory in simpler, compact and consistent manner. Consequently, the generalized Dirac-Maxwell’s equations are studied with the preview of superstring theory by means of octonions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1302.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-21 04:20:36

Gravity Caused by Tem Waves Operating on Dipoles in Atoms

Authors: Hans W Giertz
Comments: 9 Pages.

The study displays the existence of a gravitational singularity in the universe generating synchronized and extremely low frequency plane TEM (transverse electromagnetic) waves. It is proposed that atomic intrinsic electromagnetic fields create resonance with these plane TEM waves, causing particles and atoms to receive and to re-emit synchronized plane TEM waves. The energy flow of synchronized plane TEM waves, travelling in opposite directions between e.g. two atoms, creates mutual force of attraction, i.e. gravity. Consequently, gravity is not an intrinsic atomic feature; however, the result of fully passive atoms exposed to electromagnetic energy. The study describes how plane TEM waves emitted by the gravitational singularity were measured. The study also displays how gravity was measured and how gravity was simulated using an electronic device. The present electromagnetic law of gravity is compared with Newtonian geometric law of gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1302.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-08 12:34:42

Space-Time as an Expanded State of Matter with a Physical Structure Interpreted as Simultaneously Exhibiting 10, 11, and 26 Dimensions

Authors: Gary Heen
Comments: 10 Pages.

The model of this paper presupposes that space-time is not a mathematical abstraction, but that space-time is an expanded state of matter. The fundamental quantum of matter is designated the B-string, (for Brane/String complex). The B-string quanta of particle matter and space-time differ from one another only in the volumetric state of the B-string. It is demonstrated how the B-string can be interpreted as 10-dimensional, 11-dimensional, and 26-dimensional. The relationship of the B-string quanta to Planck's natural constants is shown, and a mathematical argument is presented demonstrating the conversion of space-time into particle matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1302.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-02 10:54:53

Octonion Dark Matter

Authors: B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 13 Pages. bcchanyal@gmail.com

In this paper, we have made an attempt to discuss the role of octonions in gravity and dark matter where, we have described the octonion space as the combination of two quaternionic spaces namely gravitational G-space and electromagnetic EM-space. It is shown that octonionic hot dark matter contains the photon and graviton (i.e. massless particles) while the octonionic cold dark matter is associated with the W-;Z (massive) bosons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1302.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-20 15:43:19

Understanding Confirmed Predictions in Quantum Gravity

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 7 Pages. Reference hyperlinks corrected.

Feynman’s relativistic path integral replaces the non-relativistic 1st quantization indeterminancy principle (required when using a classical Coulomb field in quantum mechanics) with a simple physical mechanism, multipath interference between small mechanical interactions. Each mechanical interaction is represented by a Feynman Moller scattering diagram (Fig. 1) for a gauge boson emitted by one charge to strike an effective interaction cross-section of the other charge, a cross-sectionl that is proportional to the square of the interaction strength or running coupling. Each additional pair of vertices in a Feynman diagram reduce its relative contribution to the path integral by a factor of the coupling, so for a force with a very small couplings like observable (low energy) quantum gravity, only the 2-vertex Feynman diagram has an appreciable contribution, allowing a very simple calculation to check the observable (low energy) quantum gravity interaction strength. Evidence is given that quantum gravity arises from a repulsive U(1) gauge symmetry which also causes the cosmological acceleration.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory