# Quantum Gravity and String Theory

## 1803 Submissions

 viXra:1803.0743 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-07 15:14:58

### The Quantum Bang Equations (part 2)

Authors: Patrick Tonin

Two more equations linking Temperature to Length and linking Charge to Mass and time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0740 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-25 12:37:58

### Planck Mass Measured Totally Independent of Big G Utilizing McCulloch-Heisenberg Newtonian Equivalent Gravity

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

In 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newtonian gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and obtains a gravitational constant of hbar*c/m_p^2. This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton's gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed out that his approach requires an assumption on the value of $G$, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton's gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. From this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass without Newton's gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own. And further we show that we can easily measure the Schwarzschild radius of a mass without knowing its mass, or Newton's gravitational constant, or the Planck constant. The very essence of gravity is linked to the Planck length and the speed of light, but here we will claim that we do not need to know the Planck length itself. Our conclusion is that Newton's gravitational constant is a universal constant, but it is a composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3/hbar where the Planck length and the speed of light are the keys to gravity. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0713 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 05:17:45

### Holography and Twistor Theory

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force.  Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled.  Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field.  THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from.  In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV.  'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.'  The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models.  They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought.  The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0692 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 05:51:24

### Quantum Entanglement and Multi-Universe

Authors: Xin Jiang

Quantum entanglement in 2 dimensional world
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0674 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 09:03:48

### Understanding Gravity on the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force.  Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled.  Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field.  THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from.  In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV.  'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.'  The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models.  They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought.  The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0660 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 07:35:36

### A Short Note From Myself to Myself to Better Understand Hawking

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

In this short paper we look at the Hawking temperature from a Newtonian perspective as well as a General Relativity perspective. If we are considering the Hawking temperature, and simply replace the gravitational field input in his 1974 formula with that of Newton, we will get a Hawking temperature of half of that of the well-known Hawking temperature formula. This is very similar to the case where Newton’s theory predicts half the light bending that GR does. Based on recent theoretical research on Newton’s gravitational constant, we also rewrite the Hawking temperature to give a somewhat different perspective without changing the output of the formula, that makes some of the Hawking formulas more intuitive.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0655 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-15 15:25:45

### Heisenberg Quantum Probabilities Leads to a Quantum Gravity Theory that Requires Much Less Mass to Explain Gravitational Phenomena

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

In this paper we suggest that through working with the Planck mass and its link to other particles in a simple way, it possible to “convert” the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into a very simple quantum probabilistic model. We further combine this with key elements from special relativity theory and get an interesting quantum relativistic probability theory. Some of the key points presented here could help to eliminate negative and above unity (pseudo) probabilities that often are used in standard quantum mechanics. These fake probabilities may be rooted in a failure to understand the Heisenberg principle fully in relation to the Planck mass. When properly understood, the Heisenberg principle seems to give a probabilistic range of quantum probabilities that is sound. There are no instantaneous probabilities and the maximum probability is always unity. In our formulation, the Planck mass particle is always related to a probability of one. Thus, we have certainty at the Planck scale for the Planck mass particle, or for particles accelerated to reach Planck energy. We are also presenting a relativistic extension of the McCulloch Heisenberg-derived Newton equivalent gravity theory. Our relativistic version requires much less mass than the Newtonian theory to explain gravitational phenomena, and initial investigation indicates it is consistent with perihelion of Mercury.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0642 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 17:48:58

### Heisenberg Probabilistic Quantum Gravity that Holds at the Subatomic and the Macroscopic Scale

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

Here we will present a probabilistic quantum gravity theory derived from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Surprisingly, this theory is fully deterministic when operating with masses that are exactly divisible by the Planck mass. For masses or mass parts less than one Planck mass, we find that probabilistic effects play an important role. Most macroscopic masses will have both a deterministic gravity part and a probabilistic gravity part. In 2014, McCulloch derived Newtonian gravity from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. McCulloch himself pointed out that his theory only seems to hold as long as one operates with whole Planck masses. For those who have studied his interesting theory, there may seem to be a mystery around how a theory rooted in Heisenberg’s principle, which was developed to understand quantum uncertainty, can give rise to a Newtonian gravity theory that works at the cosmic scale (which is basically deterministic). However, the deeper investigation introduced here shows that the McCulloch method is very likely correct and can be extended to hold for masses that are not divisible by the Planck mass, a feature that we describe in more detail here. Our extended quantum gravity theory also points out, in general directions, how we can approach the set up of experiments to measure the gravitational constant more accurately.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 14:09:13

### Symmetry Breaking Equivalence Principle

Authors: Thomas Neil Neubert

The equivalence principle has been hypothesized as strong, weak , symmetric and so forth. Clear understanding of the equivalence principle is necessary to develop quantum gravity theory. This brief paper sheds light upon the conundrum of the equivalence principle and offers a Symmetry Breaking Equivalence Principle interpretation of the CERN AEGIS antihydrogen gravitational experiments.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-11 07:25:51

### Demonstrating the Relationship Between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

Authors: John R Cipolla

This paper postulates all massive objects from electrons to galaxies can be modeled as massless superstrings and the force of gravity is a vector component of string tension. Where, gravity, which is an emergent property of general relativity, is caused by tension in massless supersymmetric strings called gravitons. In addition, this paper attempts to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity and quantum mechanics or the wave nature of matter for a theory of quantum gravity. This paper also assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed strings and the force of gravity is a fundamental property of string theory. In this paper the relationship between string theory and general relativity are simplified by allowing the equations for general relativity to approach the Newtonian limit for small velocity. Background: The first particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0487 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-28 00:15:21

### Dynamical Dark Energy and the Relativistic Bohm-Poisson Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 19 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to an exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $\Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:57:03

### The Quantum Bang Equation

Authors: Patrick Tonin

It is hypothesised that the fundamental dimensions of Time, Length, Mass, Charge and Temperature are linked. To support this hypothesis, the Quantum Bang Equation is proposed. The equation is correct to 6 digits (which is the maximum given the relative uncertainty on the gravitational constant G)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0290 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-26 17:11:50

### Discovery of an Interaction Constant, Variation of the Principal Constants, and Consequences for Cosmology

Authors: Terrence J. McMahon

An ‘interaction constant’ with the irrational number phi is discovered, unifying Nature’s principal constants with gravity. This constant reveals an elegant symmetry permitting the universe to have change, while conserving principal parameter ratios. New relationships for principal constants are shown. Magnetic permeability and electric permittivity of free space, set by convention last century are found to have new values. This allows an exact value for the Planck constant, and a precise value for the elementary charge e to be obtained. Errors in current Planck units are discussed. A reevaluation of dimensional analysis introduces new dimensional units for G, ε, µ, gravity, the Coulomb constant and electric force. The fine-structure constant is found to have dimensions Hz. Pi and phi are found to have dimensions in some configurations. Energy variation causes most principal constants to run, while still adhering to this scale invariant, overall symmetry. Electromagnetic and gravitational forces also run, with gravity dominating at high energies as expected. Wavelength red-shifting occurs via dilation of space-time, attenuated by running of gravity and energy. Structural symmetry requires a new cosmic model where the universe has a constant form. Discussion of a toroidal cosmology introduces candidates for the Hubble and cosmological constants, and a mass-density parameter. These are found to have identical values to most recent Planck data. Standard Model anomalies become redundant. This study confirms and extends general relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-25 22:23:55

### Quantum Gravity: Reconciliation of Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Seamus McCelt

There cannot be quantum gravity.
Although gravity and the other "forces" all work by the same means -- threads -- the situation and configurations are totally different.

Gravitational Force:

This is an atom representation: ~~~~~(●)~~~~~
This is a thread network unit (Flux): ~~~~~╳~~~~~ It is made from 10 full length threads joined at their centers (or 20 radii emanating from a common center)

Gravity is full length threads pulling atoms together via simple thread tension.

~~~~~(●)~~~~~∙~~~~~╳~~~~~∙~~~~~╳~~~~~∙~~~~~(●)~~~~~

There must be individual yet connected threads pulling something together. The distance can be small -- for instance one thread separation -- but it cannot be inside of an atom. That is NOT the way it works -- gravity is one or more full length threads with tension on them. If stuff gets close enough to touch -- other "forces" take over.

Electro-magnetic Force:

Here are two electrons...

~~~~~∗~~~~~ ~~~~~∗~~~~~

When electrons are close enough to attach or bond together: there are two full length threads -- one from each electron -- completely twisted together (but still full length).

~~~~~∗≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~

The electrons are literally tied to one another, that is much stronger than a simple thread tension pull.

Strong Force:

A free proton would look like this ~~~~~●~~~~~(that's one free thread, 18 balled, one free thread)
A free neutron would look like this ●~~~~~ (19 balled, and one free thread)
A free neutrino would look like this  ●  (20 balled)
A free electron would look like this ~~~~~∗~~~~~ (one free thread, 18 free threads in a disc shape, one free thread)

When one proton thread ~~~~~●~~~~~
and the neutron thread ●~~~~~
ball up (knot) together ●●~~~~~ that is the strong force.
Add an electron to that package ●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~ and you also get the EM force (package aka deuterium)

neutron / knot / proton / twist / electron / thread

●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~

The "knot" is just threads (like everything else) and it is balled-up between the neutron and the proton so you cannot see it. A balled-up knot is much stronger than a twist.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 08:20:46

### Quantum Gravity Experiment

Authors: George Rajna

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled.  Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field.  THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from.  In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV.  'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.'  The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models.  They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought.  The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:21:36

### Anthropic Principle as a Consequence of the Time Emergence

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov

The paper considers the philosophical component of the approach to the time as an emergent phenomenon absent at the fundamental level. The anthropic principle is shown as arising from the time emergence. Consciousness is shown as an epiphenomenon in such a model, although it is more fundamental than matter in this case. An answer to the question about the prime cause is suggested.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:25:16

### Anthropic Principle as a Consequence of the Time Emergence (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov

The paper considers the philosophical component of the approach to the time as an emergent phenomenon absent at the fundamental level. The anthropic principle is shown as arising from the time emergence. Consciousness is shown as an epiphenomenon in such a model, although it is more fundamental than matter in this case. An answer to the question about the prime cause is suggested.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 08:29:16

### Gravitation. My Discoveries

Comments: 125 Pages. I discovered a new Gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale!

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 11:25:32

### Skyrmion Interference Black Holes, Photonic Molecules, Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs and Sunspots According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Skyrmion based Ball Lightning. I assume that the largest Skyrmion Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 17:28:31

### A Modified Newtonian Quantum Gravity Theory Derived from Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle that Predicts the Same Bending of Light as GR

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

Mike McCulloch has derived Newton's gravity from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in a very interesting way that we think makes great sense. In our view, it also shows that gravity, even at the cosmic (macroscopic) scale, is related to the Planck scale. Inspired by McCulloch, in this paper we are using his approach to the derivation to take another step forward and show that the gravitational constant is not always the same, depending on whether we are dealing with light and matter, or matter against matter. Based on certain key concepts of the photon, combined with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, we get a gravitational constant that is twice that of Newton's when we are working with gravity between matter and light, and we get the (normal) Newtonian gravitational constant when we are working with matter against matter. This leads to a very simple theory of quantum gravity that gives the correct prediction on bending of light, i.e. the same as the General Relativity theory does, which is a value twice that of Newton's prediction. One of the main reasons the theory of GR has surpassed Newton's theory of gravitation is because Newton's theory predicts a bending of light that is not consistent with experiments.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1803.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 10:27:13

### Interactions in Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov