[24] **viXra:1702.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-23 20:25:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Our view point is to assume that the cosmological constant is indeed invariant. And also done where we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor g(t,t) in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, we come up with a polynomial expression for a minimum time step, we can call which leads to a development of the arrow of time, and the preservation of information, of essential type, in cosmological early universe dynamics. In doing so we delineate where Causal structure as outlined by Dowker is relevant to Space-time, which is integral to where we examine a nonsingular beginning of space-time, albeit with a very small initial radii, of the order or smaller than Planck’s length in radii. We show an inter relationship between the formation of the Arrow of time, and Causal structure, assuming developments which are from the setting of H = 0 in the Friedman equation as a starting point and systematically allows delineation of where we can meaningfully discuss creation of Causal structure

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1702.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-23 10:59:06*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our view point is to assume that the cosmological constant is indeed invariant. And also done where we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor if we furthermore use g(tt) as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, we come up with a polynomial expression for a minimum time step, we can call delta t which would be likely smaller than the Planck time interval/ We then discuss how the development of leads to a development of the arrow of time, and the preservation of information, of essential type, in cosmological early universe dynamics. In doing so, the goal of an ‘arrow of time’ is intrinsically linked to the utility of causal structure. Our goal of identification of causal structure, which we bring up is essential to the arrow of time, and the use of the Friedman equation, which in itself gives little information, is motivation for how we form the
arrow of time, and assumed causal structure. Without this sort of additional information, the Friedman equation and the use of the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle are actually mathematical structures with no real content, in themselves. And the existence of Causal structure only commences right after the regime of Space-time for which H > 0,. Not in when H = 0. The aims of this study is to configure extremely general Friedman equations into a specific inquiry as to how to form a minimum time step, and its relations to how the arrow of time (linked to initial generation of entropy) arises through

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1702.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-13 18:45:16*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we show how it is possible to measure the Planck length from a series of different measurements. One of these measurements is totally independent of big G, but requires particle accelerators far more powerful than the ones that we have today. However, a Cavendish-style experiment can be performed to find the Planck length with no knowledge of the value of big G. Not only that, the Cavendish style set-up gives half the relative measurement error in the Planck length compared to the measurement error in big G.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:1702.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 03:16:43*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The reviews of McLaughlin (2003) and of Brodie and Strader (2006) show that the globular cluster mass function in present-day galaxy halos is approximately log-normal with a peak log M = 5.3, where M is expressed in solar masses. On the other hand, our investigation of distribution of disc masses of dwarf spiral galaxies (we used the 36 objects selected by Karukes et al. (6 January 2017)) leads to 3 peaks for log M = 8.017, 7.415 and 6.813. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of such quantization of masses of discs and globular clusters within one coherent model. The peaks follow from the initial large-scale structure of the Universe described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1702.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 09:21:47*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

B. Kiziltan et al. (9 February 2017) showed that pulsars in 47 Tuc imply a central black hole (BH) with a mass of about 2,200 solar masses (the upper limit is 3,700 solar masses whereas the lower limit is 1,400). Predictive power correlates with number of observed pulsars. The inference flattens with decreasing number of randomly selected pulsars. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we suggest that the BH consists of 16 neutron black holes (NBH) entangled with 16 pulsars. With time, the set of 16 pulsars changes its constituents. SST shows that then mass of the central BH should be 2,536 solar masses. To such mass lead as well the observational data for 16 randomly selected pulsars. More precise observational data should show whether predicted within SST the exact mass of the central BH is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1702.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 03:10:49*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

By the early 1970’s estimates of the Hubble constant from Sandage and Tammann were hovering around 55. On the other hand, VandenBerg and deVaucouleurs obtained values near 100. Even at the beginning of the current millennium still was evident such bimodality. Then cosmologists corrected the diameters and magnitudes of galaxies to reconcile two or more groups receiving different values of Hubble constant. Such a “method” of averaging the results leads to a value of about 70. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the two different values for the local Universe follow from two different ways of emission of photons which causes that the same redshift leads to two different light travel times - it concerns supernova and its host galaxy. We obtain respectively 45.17 (the upper limit is 46.44) and values two times higher i.e. 90.34 (the upper limit is 92.88) - the mean value is 67.75 (the upper limit is 69.66), which are consistent with the recent observational data. Emphasize that the bimodality does not result from assumed uncertainties - just bimodality is characteristic for the near Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1702.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 02:49:18*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Its a pleasure to post this on Vixra.

The basic building blocks of the universe have been debated for millennia. Recently advances have been made in string theory and variant schools of thought. Here I propose the notion that, at extremely small scales, information has a structure, and the information that determines a system is equivalent to it's momentum.
This is achieved through an analogous mechanism to the Cartesian axes. These axes are aware of their position. This has many implications and I believe the mathematics regarding this will flourish.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1702.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 02:53:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we described the mechanism of creation of the dark-matter (DM) structure in massive spiral galaxies by the initial quasars. Such mechanism moves the angular momentum of quasars to the outer regions of massive galaxies. We calculated that range of the DM structure in the Milky Way should be about 51.5 kpc. We calculated also the range of the DM structure for dwarf galaxies with initial baryonic mass equal to giga-solar-masses on the assumption that now in their centre is the lightest gravitational BH - we obtained 1.9 kpc. We as well answered following question: How can we detect loops of dark matter in the Earth experiments? Just we should mimic the mechanism in quasars - we should use strong magnetic field to create relativistic vortex of baryonic plasma. We explained also why the DM structures cannot interact electromagnetically.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1702.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 18:00:36*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Essay submitted to Gravity Research Foundation 2016 essay contest: 24 March 2016

A theory’s equations are designed to model physical behavior that reflects the nature of physical reality. Einstein's nonlinear gravity equation is 'linearized' in the 'weak field limit' by ignoring nonlinear terms. This can be misinterpreted as affecting the nature of the field. Linearization is a mathematical artifice making equations easier to solve, having zero effect on the physical nature of the field itself. Thus it is false to say that the weak gravitational field is not self-interacting. Nor is the weak gravitational field based on mass; the field equation is based on mass density. These aspects of gravity are investigated by replacing curved space-time with mass density in flat space. A novel quantum gravity relation is derived and related to quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1702.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 19:34:45*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 3 Pages. A very short communication

Based on Mach's principle and quantum gravity, we imagine our universe as a best quantum gravitational sphere and assume that, at any stage of cosmic evolution: 1) Planck scale Hubble parameter plays a crucial role. 2) Space-time curvature follows, ${GM_t}\cong{R_tc^2}$ where $M_t$ and $R_t$ represent the ordinary cosmic mass and radius respectively. 3) Both, cosmic radius and expansion velocity, are proportional to the ratio of dark matter density and ordinary matter density. 4) Cosmic temperature is proportional to the ratio of ordinary matter density and critical density. With further research, a unified model of `quantum cosmology' with evolving dark energy or evolving vacuum energy can be developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1702.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 01:32:04*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some explanations about the "Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light" and the "Gravitational Theory of Time"
1、The existence of time is because our fancy.Time is not exist,we found a change in our universe,so we think there is time.What's the change?All change in our universe is the change of entropy.(All the change, the cause and the effect,the logic is the change of entropy.)Stephen W. Hawking said that:"this means that our subjective sense of the direction of time,the psychological arrow of time,is determined by the thermodynamic arrow of time."Time is only our felling of the increase of entropy.So we can get the relation between time and entropy:ΔT∝ΔS.As we all know,this relation is the base of my two theory that I have write in my two paper:"Gravitational theory of entropy(time)" and "Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light".But from "Gravitational theory of entropy" we can know that all of our universe is not exist.Entropy and our universe and all of the difference in our universe is only our obverse and our felling which all come our fancy.Because our fancy,w
e found the difference between past and future.So we have an illusion that the time is exist.
So that make another conclusion:we can't measure time period which is shorter than our cycle.2、"gravitational theory of entropy" think that all change in the universe is because the change of the entropy.So two forces dominate all changes in the universe:the force to reduce the entropy and the force to increase the entropy.
It's very interesting that Chinese has put forward this view in the ancient times.
yin and yang , the two opposing principles in nature, the former feminine and negative, the latter masculine and positive.Yin is the force to reduce the entropy and yang is the force to increase the entropy.
The time more early,the entropy more less.So in the begining of the universe,the enprogy is very little,so it was in a very smooth,ordered and symmetrical state.If more early,the defference from the observer and the thing which we are observing will disappear.The observer and the thing which the observer are observing will be the same thing.So the existence of the universe becase our observing.This is the explain of the begining of the universe in the gravitational theory of entropy:because our fancy,we fancied the difference from ourselve and the thing which we are observing(the difference from "I" and "the thing which is not I").And the difference cause more difference:the increase of the entropy and the decrease of the entropy.And then yin and yang.Then we can see that the yin become the gravity and the yang become the light,and then,they become more things.
This is a additional paper for my paper "Gravitational theory of entropy".I have submit this paper to the Gravity Research Foundation.
Thanks to "Naughty blue cat 3000 question space adventure"

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1702.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 17:50:50*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Added 2 equations as to explain how the square of the time derivative of the inflaton is >> Susy potential, explicitly

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely. If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints which are in line with modifications of the Friedman equation in a quantum bounce, with removal of the Penrose theorem initial singularity. In line with super negative pressure being applied, so as to understand what we can present as far as H = 0 ( quantum bounce) in terms of density of the Universe. And also considering what to expect when . I.e. we have a negative energy density in Pre Planckian space-time. This leads to a causal discontinuity between Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time due to the sign of the inflaton changing from minus to positive, for reasons brought up in this manuscript. i.e. looking at Eq. (9) , Eq. (10) and Eq. (11) of this document, with explanations as to what is going on physically.
Keywords: Emergent time , metric tensor perturbations, HUP , negative energy density

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1702.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 10:15:33*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely. If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints which are in line with modifications of the Friedman equation in a quantum bounce, with removal of the Penrose theorem initial singularity. In line with super negative pressure being applied, so as to understand what we can present as far as H = 0 ( quantum bounce) in terms of density of the Universe. And also considering what to expect when . I.e. we have a negative energy density in Pre Planckian space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1702.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 02:52:26*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Critique is welcome from physicists

Observer remains in quantum mechanics an undefined notion. I argue that to eliminate the measurement problem, for instance, the observer must not be considered also an observable. Instead, it must be deemed by own definition as the self referencing state rather the qualitatively “un-definable”; in the exact same sense that the self referencing state is in Gödel’s 2nd incompleteness theorem own “un-decidable” qualitatively. This has the crucial import that the observer is in fact the “uncertainty” proper—same seen otherwise as the entanglement (norm; wave function) of observables. It is modeled here as the zero refractive index n0 = vg/vp. Meaning, observables are non-zero refractive indices. I show here that absolute neutrino mass (sterile neutrino) is in fact the “mass gap” n0 signifying man as the observer vp.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1702.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 03:29:13*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Critique welcome from physicists

Grant that neutrino absolute mass is the “mass gap”—modeled as the zero refractive index n0 = (vg/vp); wherein, man as observer signifies the phase velocity vp and the CMB is group velocity vg. I argue now that as the material self-referential state n0 is then the material “wave function of the universe” (the Heisenberg cut). I show here that this will be in the material sense that n0 is the substantive mass-energy constant in place of conventional carbon-12 or c2. Meaning now, it is the bona fide “Hoyle resonance state”; something otherwise termed the natural unit.
I propose strictly thus that a material self i.e., a “wave function” n0 defines a space-time and vice versa. Specifically, it is that whose interference pattern or beats (“oscillations”; “curvatures”) constitutes the valid observables—the observable “space” and “time”. Overall, this permits us to adopt quite literally the Everett many-worlds or the “multiverse” picture. Basically here it is the complex form wherein the observer is the imaginary unit and the observables constitute the real axis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1702.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 03:34:23*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published in: Open Access Library Journal, 4: e3432. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103432

I study the properties of a preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons. The goal is to establish both local and global group representations for the particles of the model. Knot theory algebra SLq(2) is shown to be applicable to the model. Teleparallel gravity is discussed with an interesting result to hadronic physics. A tentative glimpse on quantum gravity is indicated.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1702.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 09:44:48*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely with a small ttg , affected by a small nonsingular region of space-time. The resulting density will be of the form 24 int~ ( ) visc H a t with the first term, on the right viscosity, of space-time, the 2nd on the right the square of an initial expansion rate, and due to the nonsingular nature of initial space time the fourth power of a scale factor, with 55 ~ ~10 init aa . We apply these density alteration tools to a criterion of self-replication of the universe, as written up by Mukhanov, as to how classical and quantum inflaton variations lead to understanding if the initial inflaton field of the Universe will be ‘growing’, or shrinking with .. The first contribution to the initial alteration of the inflaton is classical, equivalent to minus the inverse of the inflation field, and the second quantum mechanically based alteration of the inflaton is a ‘mass’ term times an initial inflaton field. If this change in inflaton is positive, it means that domains of space time are increasing, and this is dependent upon the effective mass term we calculate in this manuscript., Finally after we do this we state how this relates to a formulation of the initial change in the Cosmological ‘constant’ as given by ~ initial total space time mass M as well as heavy gravity issues.
Keywords: Emergent time, heavy gravity, metric tensor perturbations, HUP

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1702.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 05:59:13*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 59 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained Gravitational lensing and Gravitational redshift.
“Because the momentum of each graviton pk is negative, the final momentum of a photon p is smaller than the initial momentum pi and the photon will move towards the source of gravitons for example a galaxy.”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the energy of the gravitons Ek is negative, the energy of the photon E after n interactions with gravitons it is smaller than the initial energy of the photon Ei.”
Adrian Ferent
Einstein theory of gravity is wrong because fails to explain Gravitational lensing and Gravitational redshift during Gravitational lensing.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1702.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-04 05:40:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we listed the basic structures in the Universe at different scales. They are as follows: multi-loop-like structures, condensate-like structures, atom-like structures, and binary systems. We have highlighted the structures that should be discovered or accepted in the future. Black hole with a central singularity and 3-quark model of baryons do not fit into the generalized scheme presented here. There is place for the quarks as the loops.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1702.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 10:53:46*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Does string theory with the finite nature hypothesis imply MOND and no supersymmetry?
Consider 3 conjectures: (1) Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology, and the empirical validity of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) requires a modification of Einstein’s field equations. (2) The Koide formula suggests that there might be a modification of Einstein’s field equations. (3) Lestone’s heuristic string theory suggests that there might be a modification of Einstein’s field equations. Are (2) and (3) sure bets? No. Is (1) a sure bet? I say yes. I suggest that there might be 3 possible modifications of Einstein’s field equations. Consider Einstein’s field equations: R(mu,nu) + (-1/2) * g(mu,nu) * R = - κ * T(mu,nu) - Λ * g(mu,nu) — what might be wrong? Consider the possible correction R(mu,nu) + (-1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant) * g(mu,nu) * R * (1 - (R(min) / R)^2)^(1/2) = - κ * (T(mu,nu) / equivalence-principle-failure-factor) - Λ * g(mu,nu), where equivalence-principle-failure-factor = (1 - (T(mu,nu)/T(max))^2)^(1/2) — if dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0, R(min) = 0, and T(max) = +∞ then Einstein’s field equations are recovered. This brief communication offers 3 criticisms involving physical assumptions used by Einstein when he formulated his field equations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1702.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 06:51:11*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Extract from the 3D Universe Theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1702.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-01 16:20:13*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely . If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints initial temperature, particle count and entropy as would be affected by a small nonsingular region of space-time. The resulting density will
be of the form with the first term, on the right viscosity, of space-time, the 2nd on the right the square of an initial expansion rate, and due to the non singular nature of initial space time the fourth power of a scale factor, with This leads to an initial graviton production due to a minimum magnetic field, as established in our analysis. Which we relate to the inflaton as it initially would be configured and evaluated; with , and with the change in the initial cosmological constant
Keywords: Emergent time, heavy gravity, metric tensor perturbations, HUP

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1702.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 04:11:24*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** Pages. This Article is Dedicated to my cousin Lorena Cordero Muñiz

In this Article I lay down the Theory of Quantum Gravity which unify Relativity of Friedmann and Einstein and Quantum Cosmology of Einstein and Hawking

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1702.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-02 01:20:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here I present my comment to an article entitled “Do Dark Matter And Dark Energy Affect Ordinary Atoms?” by Chad Orzel posted on the website of Forbes. Applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we justify that dark energy can be neglected while in the theories of atoms the dark matter plays a significant role and its omission causes that there appear infinities, free parameters, mathematical indeterminate forms - sometimes such messy theories, even though there are free parameters included, lead to results inconsistent with the experimental data, for example, it concerns the magnetic moment of muon calculated within QED.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory