Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1409 Submissions

[18] viXra:1409.0232 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-28 12:04:18

Quantum Gravitational Shielding

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

We propose here a new type of Gravitational Shielding. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy on the subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this Gravitational Shielding can be produced in laminas with positive electric charge, subjected to a magnetic field sufficiently intense. It is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for gravity control.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1409.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-27 09:13:21

The Holographic Nature of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Kuyukov Vitali
Comments: 8 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions holographic quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of the principle of the Heisenberg uncertainty over the measurement information about the state of the quantum object.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1409.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 06:28:22

Does Constant Torque Induce Phase Transition Increasing the Value of Planck Constant?

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 6 Pages.

The hierarchy of phases with effective value of Planck constant coming as an integer multiple of the ordinary Planck constant and interpreted as dark matter is crucial in the TGD inspired model of living matter. The challenge is to identify physical mechanisms forcing the increase of effective Planck constant heff (whether to call it effective or not is to some extent matter of taste). The work with certain potential applications of TGD led to a discovery of a new mechanism possibly achieving this. The method would be simple: apply constant torque to a rotating system. I will leave it for the reader to rediscover how this can be achieved. The importance of the result is that it provides strong mathematical motivations for zero energy ontology (ZEO), causal diamonds (CDs), and hierarchy of (effective) Planck constants . Quite generally, the results apply to systems with external energy feed inducing generalized force acting in some compact degrees of freedom. Living matter represents basic example of this kind of system. Amazingly, ATP synthase enzyme contains generator with a rotating shaft: a possible TGD based interpretation is that the associated torque forces the generation of large heff phases.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1409.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 06:31:01

Scattering Amplitudes in Positive Grassmannian: TGD Perspective

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 22 Pages.

A generalization of twistor Grassmannian approach defines a very promising vision about the construction of generalized Feynman diagrams. Since particles are replaced with 3-D surfaces and since string like objects emerge naturally in TGD framework, one expects that scattering amplitudes define a generalization of twistor Grassmannian amplitudes with a generalized Yangian symmetry. The realization of this approach has been however plagued by long-standing problems. SUSY in some form seems to be strongly supported by theoretical elegance and TGD indeed suggests a good candidate for a broken SUSY realized in terms of covariantly constant right-handed neutrino and not requiring Majorana spinors. Separate conservation of baryon and lepton number imply that super-generators carry quark or lepton number. This has been the main obstacle in attempts to construct stringly amplitudes. In this article it is found that this obstacles can be overcome and that stringy approach is forced both by the TGD view about physical particles and by the cancellation of UV and IR divergences. Also the planarity restriction emerges automatically in stringy approach. Absolutely essential ingredient is that fundamental fermions can be regarded as massless on-shell fermions having non-physical helicity with propagator replaced with its inverse: this representation follows by perfoming the integration over the virtual four-momentum squared using residue calculus.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1409.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 06:33:26

Implications of Strong Gravimagnetism for TGD Inspired Quantum Biology

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 11 Pages.

Physicists M. Tajmar and C. J. Matos and their collaborators working in ESA (European Satellite Agency) have made an amazing claim of having detected strong gravimagnetism with gravimagnetic field having a magnitude which is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by General Relativity.

Tajmar et al have proposed the gravimagnetic effect as an explanation of an anomaly related to the superconductors. The measured value of the mass of the Cooper pair is slightly larger than the sum of masses whereas theory predicts that it should be smaller. The explanation would be that actual Thomson field is larger than it should be because of gravimagnetic contribution to quantization rule used to deduce the value of Thomson field. The required value of gravimagnetic Thomson field is however 28 orders of magnitude larger than General Relativity suggests. TGD inspired proposal is based on the notion of gravitational Planck constant assignable to the flux tubes connecting to massive objects. It turns out that the TGD estimate for the Thomson field has correct order of magnitude. The identification heff = hgr at particle physics and atomic length scales emerges naturally.

A vision about the fundamental role of quantum gravitation in living matter emerges. The earlier hypothesis that dark EEG photons decay to biophotons with energies in visible and ultraviolet range receives strong quantitative support. Also a mechanism for how magnetic bodies couple bio-chemistry emerges. The vision conforms with Penrose's intuitions about the role of quantum gravity in biology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1409.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 06:35:12

Further Progress Concerning the Relationship Between TGD and GRT and Kähler Dirac Action

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The earlier attempts to understand the relationship between TGD and GRT have been in terms of solutions of Einstein's equations imbeddable to M4 ×CP2 instead of introducing GRT space-time as a fictive notion naturally emerging from TGD as asimplified concept replacing many-sheeted space-time. This resolves also the worries related to Equivalence Principle. TGD can be seen as a "microscopic" theory behind TGD and the understanding of the microscopic elements becomes the main focus of theoretical and hopefully also experimental work some day.

The understanding of Kähler Dirac action has been second long term project. How can one guarantee that em charge is well-defined for the spinor modes when classical W fields are present? How to avoid large parity breaking effects due to classical Z0 fields? How to avoid the problems due to the fact that color rotations induce vielbein rotation of weak fields? The common answer to these questions is restriction of the modes of induced spinor field to 2-D string world sheets (and possibly also partonic 2-surfaces) such that the induced weak fields vanish. This makes string picture a part of TGD.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1409.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 06:37:00

Recent View About Kähler Geometry and Spin Structure of "World of Classical Worlds"

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 35 Pages.

The construction of Kähler geometry of WCW ("world of classical worlds") is fundamental to TGD program. I ended up with the idea about physics as WCW geometry around 1985 and made a breakthrough around 1990, when I realized that Kähler function for WCW could correspond to Kähler action for its preferred extremals defining the analogs of Bohr orbits so that classical theory with Bohr rules would become an exact part of quantum theory and path integral would be replaced with genuine integral over WCW. The motivating construction was that for loop spaces leading to a unique Kähler geometry. The geometry for the space of 3-D objects is even more complex than that for loops and the vision still is that the geometry of WCW is unique from the mere existence of Riemann connection.

This article represents the updated version of the construction providing a solution to the problems of the previous construction. The basic formulas remain as such but the expressions for WCW super-Hamiltonians defining WCW Hamiltonians (and matrix elements of WCW metric) as their anticommutator are replaced with those following from the dynamics of the modified Dirac action.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1409.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 06:58:39

General Ideas About Octonions, Quatenrions, and Twistors

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 28 Pages.

An updated view about M8-H duality is discussed. M8-H duality allows to deduce M4× CP2 via number theoretical compactification. One important correction is that octonionic spinor structure makes sense only for M8 whereas for M4× CP2 complefixied quaternions characterized the spinor structure.

Octonions, quaternions, quaternionic space-time surfaces, octonionic spinors and twistors and twistor spaces are highly relevant for quantum TGD. In the following some general observations distilled during years are summarized.

There is a beautiful pattern present suggesting that H=M4× CP2 is completely unique on number theoretical grounds. Consider only the following facts. M4 and CP2 are the unique 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure. Octonionic projective space OP2 appears as octonionic twistor space (there are no higher-dimensional octonionic projective spaces). Octotwistors generalise the twistorial construction from M4; to M8 and octonionic gamma matrices make sense also for H with quaternionicity condition reducing OP2 to to 12-D G2/U(1)× U(1) having same dimension as the the twistor space CP3× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) of H assignable to complexified quaternionic representation of gamma matrices.

A further fascinating structure related to octo-twistors is the non-associated analog of Lie group defined by automorphisms by octonionic imaginary units: this group is topologically six-sphere. Also the analogy of quaternionicity of preferred extremals in TGD with the Majorana condition central in super string models is very thought provoking. All this suggests that associativity indeed could define basic dynamical principle of TGD.

Number theoretical vision about quantum TGD involves both p-adic number fields and classical number fields and the challenge is to unify these approaches. The challenge is non-trivial since the p-adic variants of quaternions and octonions are not number fields without additional conditions. The key idea is that TGD reduces to the representations of Galois group of algebraic numbers realized in the spaces of octonionic and quaternionic adeles generalizing the ordinary adeles as Cartesian products of all number fields: this picture relates closely to Langlands program. Associativity would force sub-algebras of the octonionic adeles defining 4-D surfaces in the space of octonionic adeles so that 4-D space-time would emerge naturally. M8-H correspondence in turn would map the space-time surface in M8 to M4× CP2.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1409.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 07:00:12

Why TGD and What TGD Is?

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 45 Pages.

This piece of text was written as an attempt to provide a popular summary about TGD. This is of course mission impossible since TGD is something at the top of centuries of evolution which has led from Newton to standard model. This means that there is a background of highly refined conceptual thinking about Universe so that even the best computer graphics and animations fail to help. One can still try to create some inspiring impressions at least. This chapter approaches the challenge by answering the most frequently asked questions. Why TGD? How TGD could help to solve the problems of recent day theoretical physics? What are the basic princples of TGD? What are the basic guidelines in the construction of TGD?

These are examples of this kind of questions which I try to answer in using the only language that I can talk. This language is a dialect of the language used by elementary particle physicists, quantum field theorists, and other people applying modern physics. At the level of practice involves technically heavy mathematics but since it relies on very beautiful and simple basic concepts, one can do with a minimum of formulas, and reader can always to to Wikipedia if it seems that more details are needed. I hope that reader could catch the basic principles and concepts: technical details are not important. And I almost forgot: problems! TGD itself and almost every new idea in the development of TGD has been inspired by a problem.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1409.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 07:01:53

The Notion of Four-Momentum in TGD

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 10 Pages.

One manner to see TGD is as a solution of the energy problem of General Relativity in terms of sub-manifold gravity. The translations act now as translations of 8-D imbedding space M4×CP2 rather than in space-time itself and four-momentum can be identified as Noether charge. The detailed realization of this vision however involves several conceptual delicacies. What does Equivalence Principle mean in this framework: equivalence of gravitational and inertial momenta or just Einstein's equations or their generalization? What is the precise definition of inertial and gravitational four-momenta? What does quantum classical correspondence mean and could Equivalence Principle reduce to it? p-Adic mass calculations and the notion of generalised conformal invariance provide strong constraints on the attempts to answer these questions. This article provides the most recent view about the most plausible looking answer to these questions. Twistor Grassmann approach relies on the Yangian variant of 4-D conformal symmetry generalizing in TGD framework to Yangian variants of huge conformal symmetry algebras due to the effective 2-dimensionality of light-like 3-surfaces. This suggest also a generalization of four-momentum bringing in multilocal contributions analogous to interaction energy and also this is discussed in some detail.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1409.0179 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-28 02:02:41

P-Adic Length Scale Hypothesis

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 592 Pages.

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.

  1. p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2k, k integer, in particular prime, define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles.
  2. A much deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2k- and 2-fractality.
  3. Certain anomalous empirical findings inspire in TGD framework the hypothesis about the existence of entire hierarchy of phases of matter identifiable as dark matter. The levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.
The organization of the book is following.
  1. The first part of the book is devoted to the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics.
  2. In second part is devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1409.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 06:23:22

Hyper-Finite Factors, P-Adic Length Scale Hyoithesis, and Dark Matter Hierarchy

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 729 Pages.

The book is devoted to hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants.

  1. Configuration space spinors indeed define a canonical example about hyper-finite factor of type II1. The work with TGD inspired model for quantum computation led to the realization that von Neumann algebras, in particular hyper-finite factors of type II1 could provide the mathematics needed to develop a more explicit view about the construction of M-matrix. This has turned out to be the case to the extent that a general master formula for M-matrix with interactions described as a deformation of ordinary tensor product to Connes tensor products emerges.
  2. The idea about hierarchy of Planck constants emerged from anomalies of biology and the strange finding that planetary orbits could be regarded as Bohr orbits but with a gigantic value of Planck constant. This lead to the vision that dark matter corresponds to ordinary particles but with non-standard value of Planck constant and to a generalization of the 8-D imbedding space to a book like structure with pages partially characterized by the value of Planck constant. Using the intuition provided by the inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1 one ends up to a prediction for the spectrum of Planck constants associated with> M4; and CP2 degrees of freedom. This inspires the proposal that dark matter could be in quantum Hall like phase localized at light-like 3-surfaces with macroscopic size and behaving in many respects like black hole horizons.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1409.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-26 14:05:24

Can Niels Bohr's Philosophy be Wrong?

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 3 Pages. DE BROGLIE is like self-announced dictator: "on this concept of the duality of waves and corpuscles... all future development of this science will apparently have to be founded."

I take a very exciting and revival excurse on a hypothesis that has risen in the midst of General Relativity and Quantum field description (in the form of the electromagnetic wave). The Emeritus Dr. Cooperstock has derived the absence of energy harvesting from the gravitational waves using wave description of light, however latter MUST be seen as photon gas. Let me show this necessity in the paper. The paper explains the known result of Dr. Cooperstock, hereby defending the previous authors (which the Dr. Cooperstock criticizes). I show, that they do not contradict the Dr. Cooperstock result, but very strongly support it. Also presented my attempt to generalize the Dr. Cooperstock result to more nonlinear, more higher precision.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1409.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-24 08:02:48

Elucidation of the Mechanism of Gravitation Based on a Fluid Mechanical Model

Authors: Moses Turkle Bility
Comments: 14 Pages.

The main purpose of this article is to elucidate a mechanical interpretation of the gravitation phenomenon. Additionally, this article unifies Newtonian and general relativity theoretical frameworks using the wave equation, which is the mathematical framework of quantum physics. Here I propose a novel theory, “Equilibrium theory” which asserts that the universe is an infinitesimally large and continuous differential energy density structure - a compressible fluid, as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame. Equilibrium theory asserts that the universe is always at equilibrium and is composed of demarcated “compressed fluid” (i.e. matter – planets, objects) and demarcated “stretched fluid” (i.e. photon) of approximately uniform energy density along with demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density (i.e. space); thus it is accurately represented using the wave equation, which describes the nature and dynamics of non-discrete and continuous structures. Dynamics in weak and strong gravitational field results from the energy exchange within the “compressible fluid”, resulting in the reconfiguration of the differential energy density within the “compressible fluid”, and thus termed motion. Furthermore, dynamics in strong gravitational field (gravitational dynamics) is due to the existence of demarcated surrounding space of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; this differential energy density is induced by the existence of a relatively high energy density structure (i.e matter – planet). Dynamics in weak gravitational field (dynamics in inertial reference frame) is also due to the existence of demarcated surrounding fluid of differential energy density with increasing magnitude in the direction of motion as analyzed from a uniform and constant non-associated (fixed) reference frame; thus it is equivalent to the gravitation phenomenon, albeit transient due to rapid dissipation during perturbations. Equilibrium theory provides a novel framework for elucidating the nature and dynamics of the universe using a fluid mechanical model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1409.0159 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-08 19:06:37

Relations of Energy Density and Its Entropic Density with Temperature Concerning Schwarzschild Black Hole and Holographic Dark Energy

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: Pages.

We consider the relationship between energy density and its entropy density and the temperature of the Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and holographic dark energy (HDE). On the basis of the literature [8], when the distance ε from the film to the horizon and the film thickness δ are constant, we obtain the energy density of the scalar field of SBH proportional to the square of the Hawking-Unruh temperature outside the event horizon. When ε and n are constant, their entropy density is proportional to the Hawking-Unruh temperature. On the basis of [16], we find the gravity energy density equation inside SBH; it is derived that the gravity energy density inside the SBH away from the event horizon is proportional to the square of effective temperature, whether the gravitational field of SBH is Coulomb-like or wavy-like; their entropy density is proportional to the effective temperature. Based on [20-22], we obtain a density of HDE proportional to the square of the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, which is proportional to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. These equations are similar and have a relationship to each other. We suggest these relationships being interesting and important for SBH and HDE.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1409.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-12 02:55:23

Extended Lorentz Transformations in Clifford Space Relativity Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 14 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

Some novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) were explored recently. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations allowed for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, but breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. In this work we analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. A generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra, involving polyvector-valued coordinates and momenta operators, furnishes a realization of an extended Poincare algebra in $C$-spaces. In addition to the Planck constant $\hbar$, one finds that the commutator of the Clifford scalar components of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra requires the introduction of a $dimensionless$ parameter which is expressed in terms of the ratio of two length scales : the Planck and Hubble scales. We finalize by discussing the concept of ``photons", null intervals, effective temporal variables and the addition/subtraction laws of generalized velocities in $C$-space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1409.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-07 15:05:57

Unification of the Structures of Proton and Nucleus of Active Galaxy

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, we unify the weak and strong interactions inside protons with the strong gravitational interactions in active galactic nuclei i.e. we unify particle physics with cosmology. Within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that outside the strong fields the gluons behave as photons. Due to the leaking internal structure of protons and the changing distances between the entangled Einstein-spacetime components, there appear the virtual dark-matter structures with different sizes which mimic the internal structure of protons and the characteristic motions of the entangled part of the Einstein spacetime inside it. The characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime cause that there appear characteristic distribution and advection of the mass inside the nuclei of active galaxies. The core of proton consists of the condensate composed of the confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is the black hole with respect of the weak interactions) surrounded by the torus/charge composed of the carriers of gluons. There as well appear loops composed of entangled Einstein-spacetime components. On the other hand, a nucleus of active galaxy consists of gravitational black hole surrounded by accretion disc and of much bigger opaque torus of neutral gas and dust. Here, due to the characteristic flows in the Einstein spacetime, the advection is the transport mechanism of the mass of a nucleus of active galaxy by the moving entangled part of the Einstein spacetime. There as well appear the two relativistic jets which direction overlaps with the axis of the opaque torus. For their creation are responsible the two baryonic-plasma loops with parallel spins and opposite internal helicities. They appear on the Schwarzschild surface of the gravitational black hole. The obtained results are consistent with observational facts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1409.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-09 05:04:05

Understanding the Universe in 6 Easy, But Controversial, Steps

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Italian scientist Galileo described his experiments mathematically some 400 years ago. Ever since, scientists all over the world seem to distrust articles that don't include mathematics, comparing them to mistakes made by the members of the ancient Greek philosophers who didn't use maths (unless, of course, those articles are the result of Einstein's "thought experiments"). Many famous scientists have said that if you really understand something, you can explain it in plain English or to a young person with no maths training. So, as I normally do, I'll shy away from equations and scientific language (the great Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein used both things, so I think I must use them to some degree if I want to understand the universe) and try to rely on pure logic. Another great scientist of 100 years ago, Niels Bohr, was said to be able to do his work without relying on maths, so perhaps equations are over-rated and are actually the servants of intuitive insights. The early-20th-century's Jules Henri Poincare was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times, but also one of the greatest believers in intuition. This article feels more like doing a 40-year-long jigsaw puzzle than something that required me to be an author. Sure, it took a long time and required a lot of thinking. There were times when the going felt frustrating, or tiring, or like smooth sailing. But I always had the feeling, similar to that of Paul McCartney when he wrote the song “Yesterday” for the Beatles or of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writing his classical music in the 18th century, that all the pieces of the puzzle already exist and I just had to put them together. Sometimes, I even felt as though pieces were being handed to me in the right order … at the right time. The article was written after reading “How the Universe Will End” by Francis Reddy (a senior science writer at NASA) in Astronomy magazine – Sep. 2014, and my article is restricted to the 6 topics which came to mind while reading it. The 6 steps are 1) Space Cannot Expand Faster Than Light, 2) Cosmic Inflation Replaced, 3) Dark Energy and the Big Rip, 4) What Is the Relation Between Gravitation and Black Holes?, 5) What Is Dark Matter?, and 6) The Universe Will Not End. An important point to remember – Einstein’s General Relativity gives a geometrical description of space-time and gravitation. The “Digital String Theory” section, speaking of the Mobius loop etc, doesn’t contradict that description but complements it since the Mobius and Klein bottle belong to a branch of geometry called topology or “rubber-sheet geometry”. String theory has been called “a little piece of the 21st century that dropped into the 20th century” (it’s the 21st century now, so it’s time for string theory to become more than a self-consistent theory and to blossom into the wondrous thing it was destined to be). Combining it with electronics and the above topology into “Digital String Theory” might possibly present an accuracy to description of space-time which simply wasn’t available when Albert Einstein lived (although one of the first papers on topology was mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler's 1736 paper on the Seven Bridges of Königsberg, the digital age was only approx. a decade old when Einstein died).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory