[14] **viXra:1412.0261 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-02 10:39:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the quantum entanglement fixes the speed of light in “vacuum” ‘c’ as the relative radial speed of photons in relation to their sources or a last-interaction object (it can be a detector) - such is the correct interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment. It causes that in cosmology, generally, the spatial distances to galaxies differ from time distances concerning the speed c - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity causes that there appear the two different Hubble constants, i.e. the real Hubble constant that is 45.24 and the Special-Relativity Hubble constant that is 70.52. Moreover, at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared the cascades of protuberances of the dark matter and dark energy carrying the protogalaxies. The dampened protuberances led to the redshift higher and much higher than the mean redshift z = 0.6415 characteristic for the front of the expanding baryonic matter. SST shows that the protuberant redshift behaves similar to the gravitational redshift. Notice as well that the protuberances led to the observed untypical radial motions of groups of protogalaxies that we can observe - they do not follow from a gravitational attraction by some mass external to the expanding Universe. SST shows that spacetime does not expand - there expand the dark matter and dark energy. The acceleration of expansion of the Universe is an illusion that follows from the duality of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1412.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-27 15:29:14*

**Authors:** Klee Irwin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A first principles theory of everything has never been achieved. An E8 derived code of quantized spacetime could meet the following suggested requirements: (1) First principles explanation of time dilation, inertia, the magnitude of the Planck constant and the speed of light (2) First principles explanation of conservation laws and gauge transformation symmetry. (2) Must be fundamentally relativistic with nothing that is invariant being absolute. (4) Pursuant to the deduction that reality is fundamentally information-theoretic, all information must be generated by observation/measurement at the simplest Planck scale of the code/language. (5) Must be non-deterministic. (6) Must be computationally efficient. (7) Must be a code describing “jagged” (quantized) waveform – a waveform language. (8) Must have a first principles explanation for preferred chirality in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1412.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-31 05:28:32*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper is a sequel to ``Doppler Boosting a de Broglie Electron from a Free Fall Grid Into a Stationary Field of Gravity''. We Doppler boost a de Broglie particle from a free fall grid onto a stationary field of gravity. This results in an identification of the two Doppler boost options with an electron energy double-valueness similar to electron spin. It seems that, within the limitations of our approach to gravity, we found a bottom up version of a possible theory of Quantum Gravity, on that connects the de Broglie hypothesis to gravity. This paper finishes and adapts ``Towards a 4-D Extension of the Quantum Helicity Rotator with a Hyperbolic Rotation Angle of Gravitational Nature'' for the quantum gravity part. We try to boost the de Broglie particle's quantum wave equation from the free fall grid to the stationary grid. We find that this is impossible on the Klein-Gordon level, the Pauli level and the Dirac level. But when we double the Dirac level and thus realize a kind of a Yang-Mills doublet level, we can formulate a doublet version of the Weyl-Dirac equation that can be Doppler boosted from the free fall grid into the stationary grid in a central field of gravity. In the end we add a quantitative prediction for the gravitational Doppler shift of the matter wave or probability density of an electron positron pair. Our free fall grid to stationary grid approach is ad-hoc and does not present a fundamental theory, but is a pragmatic attempt to formulate quantum mechanics outside the Poincaré group environment and beyond Lorentz symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1412.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 23:07:16*

**Authors:** Jia Dong, Jia Xiangyun

**Comments:** 72 Pages.

In the article titled On the formation of the Earth's gravitational field, the concepts of magneton line field and gravitational line field of primitive earth and the process of closure of bending are explained. The gravitational space of the astral body is transformed into a realistic linear mass system. This provides the basis for substantial mass field to address the problem of universal gravitation. In this situation, the concepts of graviton line and gravitational line field are proposed. Because of the cutting of the moving gravitational lines and magneton lines of other astral bodies, the precession of the graviton line and magneton link in a zigzag contraction manner occurs. From the perspective of quantization of gravity, the source of universal gravitation is given. Thus, the universal gravitation is related to the mass and movement of substance. This article proposes the method for theoretical calculation of universal gravitational constant. The theoretical quantized value of the Earth's universal gravitational constant calculated by this method is ΔG =2.281853214×10-30kg m/s2. The square principle of distance is explained in terms of the efficiency of quantized momentum, and the ratio of effective and ineffective transmission amount. Compared with the Kepler's theorem, it is essentially the ratio of area swept by each magnetic line due to cutting to the area swept by progression converted from such movement after the amplification over the distance. We compare the universal gravitation with Coulomb's force for the first time in essence. The universal gravitation and Coulomb's force are unified. We find some convincing proof that universal gravitation and Coulomb's force have identical principle of action.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1412.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-22 14:58:01*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper is a sequel to ``Frequency Gauged Clocks on a Free Fall Grid and Some Gravitational Phenomena''. We Doppler boost a de Broglie particle from a free fall grid onto a stationary field of gravity. First we do this for a photon and then for a particle with non-zero rest-mass. This results in an identification of the two Doppler boost options with electron spin or with electron energy double-valueness. It seems that, within the limitations of our approach to gravity, we found a bottom up version of a possible theory of Quantum Gravity, on that connects the de Broglie hypothesis to gravity. This paper realizes the connection between our papers ``Frequency Gauged Clocks on a Free Fall Grid and Some Gravitational Phenomena'' and ``Towards a 4-D Extension of the Quantum Helicity Rotator with a Hyperbolic Rotation Angle of Gravitational Nature''.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1412.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-22 11:21:32*

**Authors:** Aref Yazdani

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This article published in the Advances in High Energy Physics Vol. 2014, 349659, 9

We study a noncommutative theory of gravity in the framework of torsional spacetime. This theory is based on a Lagrangian obtained by applying the technique of dimensional reduction of noncommutative gauge theory and that the yielded diffeomorphism invariant field theory can be made equivalent to a teleparallel formulation of gravity. Field equations are derived in the framework of teleparallel gravity through Weitzenbock geometry. We solve these field equations by considering a mass that is distributed spherically symmetrically in a stationary static spacetime in order to obtain a noncommutative line element.This new line element interestingly reaffirms the coherent state theory for a noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole. For the first time, we derive the Newtonian gravitational force equation in the commutative relativity framework, and this result could provide the possibility to investigate examples in various topics in quantum and ordinary theories of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1412.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 12:00:58*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the very early Universe was the double loop composed of protogalaxies built of the neutron black holes. Due to the succeeding inflows of the dark matter and dark energy, there was the exit of the double loop from the black-hole state and the loop transformed into the expanding sphere. The correct interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment leads to conclusion that we cannot see directly the first stage of evolution of the early Universe. But due to some phenomena, the early binary systems and clusters of protogalaxies are imprinted on the CMB. Due to the mergers of the protogalaxies during the unseen period of evolution, the number of observed today clusters of galaxies should be smaller than it follows from the CMB and such conclusion is consistent with the observational facts. Here, we answered following question: Why we cannot see directly the evolution of the early Universe whereas we can see the CMB with coded initial number of clusters of protogalaxies?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1412.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-24 17:26:46*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller nested Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure.
In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe. In “New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe” 2 It was shown that the number of particles of mass in the Hubble Sphere Universe was related to the number of particles of mass in the Planck Spinning Sphere. This relationship, if extended all the way down through the layers of the universe yields the basic unit of the universe, which is a unit cuboctahedron. This paper will go through the math to show how this is possible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1412.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 06:23:13*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based upon the space roar and speculative ideas of Fredkin and Wolfram, I have suggested that the Big Bang recurs every (81.6 ± 1.7) billion years. (81.6 billion years)/(Planck time) = 4.773 * 10^61 where Fredkin-Wolfram-constant * (Planck time) is approximately 81.6 billion years. G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.165 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.773 * 10^61, where G is Newton’s gravitational constant. Note that in Milgrom’s MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics) the fundamental MOND acceleration constant a0 is 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. Newtonian-Einstein string theory needs to be replaced by Milgromian string theory. Why? There are 2 basic alternatives: Alternative (1). Milgrom is the greatest astrophysicist of his generation. Alternative (2). Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically wrong. Alternative (2) is not a real possibility, because if MOND were wrong then Milgrom could never have convinced McGaugh and Kroupa. This brief communication considers ideas concerning Milgromian string theory and Wolframian string theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1412.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 06:53:46*

**Authors:** Aloysius Sebastian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance of the object. Still we are following the Newtonian concepts of gravity to measure the gravity of objects. Albert Einstein has made a great work on the concept of gravity, after Newton. But still we are trying to know more about gravity. According to me gravity is the property of energy. One must have to explain gravity on the basis of energy. I am agreeing that mass is also a form of energy. But I prefer to find gravity in accordance with the total energy of a system. Here I am making an attempt on this field. I am sure that I am on the right track. I am not placing any new equations here. I am using the existing equations in physics to find the gravity through my thoughts. The way which I am using these equations are may be strange. Sometimes I am thinking in reverse order, first I have found the gravity with the concept of energy. For that I am applying a constant ‘’A’’ and I am getting the value of ‘’A’’ from the last part of equations. Because the value of gravity is still with Newtonian concepts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1412.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 11:50:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Ludwig et al. derived solar ages from 1.7 to 22.3 Gyr (2009). The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the mainstream-cosmology age of the Universe, about 13.8 Gyr. The upper limit is very close to the age of the Universe obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), about 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr. G. Hasinger et al. (2002) obtained that the Fe/O abundance in a high-redshift quasar is significantly higher than solar (Fe/O = 2 - 5). This result as well is inconsistent with mainstream cosmology and suggests that age of the Universe is longer than assumed or that there is an unknown mechanism for production of iron in the very early Universe. The incorrect age of the expanding Universe follows from the fact that the front of the CMB has radial speed equal to the speed of light, c, whereas the front of the baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy (the dark matter of the Universe is entangled with the baryonic matter) has radial speed equal to 0.6415c i.e. the most distant galaxies are already 7.75 Gyr old. The calculated within SST time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. Due to the cascade protuberances of the dark matter at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe, there appeared protogalaxies with redshift higher than z = 1 but such protuberances were very quickly dampened. Due to the last-scattering spheres, we can see spectrums of “superluminal” galaxies. In reality, the era of quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the end of this era i.e. the last 2.5 Gyr.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1412.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 06:58:45*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

To eliminate the useless mathematical expressions from the perturbative string theory, we must assume that spacetime is 10-dimensional (the 9 spatial dimensions and 1 time dimension). Why string theory is still fruitless? To describe position, shape and motions of spinning physical circle/closed-string (it has thickness not equal to zero), we need 10 degrees of freedom. Six of the ten degrees of freedom lead to circles i.e. to the “compactified” spatial degrees-of-freedom/dimensions. In an effective theory, the ten-degrees-of-freedom spacetime transforms into 4-dimensional spacetime (physical circle transforms into mathematical point). To describe within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) position, internal structure and motions of a neutrino (it is torus and condensate in its centre both composed of the spinning physical circles), we need 26 degrees of freedom. In the SST, stability of the neutrinos follows from the interactions (due to the dynamic viscosity) of the closed strings with the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field. Such Higgs field is the radion field and it is the six-degrees-of-freedom subspacetime. On the other hand, in M-theory there appears the extra eleventh compact dimension associated with a radion field. Due to the succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs fields, there appear more and more complex structures and number of degrees of freedom increases - there is following series: 6, 10, 26, 58 and 122. There as well appear new radion/scalar fields with very different properties. This causes that a complete description of Nature within one equation is impossible. We can partially unify all the main partial theories only via the theory of the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field and it is the lacking part of the Theory of Everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1412.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-05 12:05:55*

**Authors:** Akhmat Gemuev

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

My research includes study of time as a physical phenomenon, management of time and possibility of physical impact on living and nonliving objects remotely and through the time. Also, my research provides understanding of general structure of the world in a philosophical and physical senses, identification and explanation of hidden processes occurring in the world.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1412.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-12 14:38:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the correct interpretation of the Kaluza-Klein theory (KK theory) is presented. In SST, the charges are the spinning tori whereas in KK theory they are the masses moving along circle-like fifth dimension. The most incredible fact is that when we abandon the international system of units then the product of the mass of the torus/charge of proton in SST and speed of light (i.e. the fifth momentum) is very close to the value of the electric charge of proton or electron i.e. there is possible the interpretation that electric charge is the motion of mass in the fifth dimension. Moreover, the fifth momentums for the quantum entanglement and electric charge of proton have the same values but physical meanings and densities of adequate radion fields are different. Spinning torus collapses to spinning circle. In reality, the fifth dimension is the additional degree of freedom which follows from the real structure of charges. The fifth-dimension simplification causes that we lose information about internal structure of charges i.e. the KK theory is an effective theory of the SST. Radions are the components of the fifth dimensions. The SST shows that gravitational radions are superluminal whereas electromagnetic radions are luminal i.e. we cannot unify the two different radion fields within the same methods and it concerns the generalizations of the KK theory also (for example, the Yang-Mills theories). The SST shows that the cylinder condition in the KK theory follows from the fact that there are the spinning tori/charges and spinning loops. The luminal electromagnetic radion field leads to photons but the superluminal gravitational radion field does not lead to gravitons and gravitational waves. Emission of gravitational energy, i.e. a decrease in inertial-mass density of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field, is due to increase in gravitational-mass density of a system or due to emission of gravitational mass which carries non-gravitating gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory