[13] **viXra:1403.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-12 11:52:46*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere,
Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many
spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of
smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See image below for an
example of a sphere made of spheres.
The calculations, herein, imply space to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is
transferred to the Continuous Discrete Space that is activated by the appropriate
environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations
developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same
spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in
section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some
Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for
the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in
section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete
Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron,
vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in
section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1403.0501 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-29 04:10:36*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, on base of the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the production of the E- and B-modes in the CMB. The obtained result 0.22 for the ratio of amplitudes of the B-modes to E-modes (i.e. the tensor-to-scalar ratio) for the beginning of expansion of the very early Universe, for multipole moment equal to 384, is close to the central value in the BICEP2 data. The tensor-to-scalar ratio depends on density of the Einstein-spacetime and is higher for higher densities. The calculated energies carried by the Einstein-spacetime components the spreading condensates were built of (such condensates produced the B-modes in the CMB), were in approximation the sixteen powers of ten of GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1403.0315 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-13 07:58:49*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 09 Pages.

With the current global human population surpassing the 7 billon mark, energy requirements exponentially rise (shift) with demographics. Living in a planetary system of finite natural resources the Biosphere in turn overstretched. Humanity has to think outside the box to satisfy / quench this first for energy within our technology means. I herein apply the notion of harnessing the energy of the sun (star using green Biomass as the only efficient means that not only ‘cleans’ our planet of a biotic factors upsetting the planet’s climate, but provide sustainable energy to power the rising population while also promoting biodiversity but providing all life forms on planet suitable Biomes for we all need one another for successful co-existence. The reader of this work is left with the meditative task of answering on where we lie on the cosmic energy scale (Kardashev scale) our obligations, where we should be. The leader should derive methods which he/she can personal apply in life making the best out of the scenarios within, with the ultimate goal making the planet for all life (not only humans) with one foot on earth and the other in the heavens(Cosmos) we set forth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1403.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-19 01:04:07*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to Physics Letters B

We improve our earlier work in [14] and derive the minimal length
string/membrane uncertainty relations by imposing momentum slices in flat Clifford spaces. The Jacobi identities associated with the modified Weyl-Heisenberg algebra require noncommuting spacetime coordinates, but commuting momenta, and which is compatible with the notion of curved momentum space. Clifford Phase Space Relativity requires the introduction of a maximal scale which can be identified with the Hubble scale and is a consequence of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Principle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1403.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-18 08:24:35*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** Replaced because I left out about 5 pages that try to answer questions.

What do you think of today's attention to so-called echoes of the big bang (imprints of gravitational waves from the time of the big bang that have left their trace in the cosmic microwave background)? It's obviously an amazing discovery but my fear is that it's going to be used more for alleged confirmation of present theories than for investigation of the questions it raises (especially in the short term). A starting point for these questions is, "If the universe expanded to about the size of a football in 10^-36 second, what was outside the football?" Many people will say this is an invalid question because no space or time existed outside the football. But I think that's mere evasion of the question (understandable if there are no other ideas to fall back on).
There's a simple alternative which says there was space and time outside the football, and this alternative is supported by the modern idea of a multiverse. I'll take a lazy approach to the last sentence and copy/paste relevant sections from a couple of my recent vixra articles - "Defining Division by Zero (Making it not Just Possible, But Essential) and Relating Zero to Infinity" (http://vixra.org/abs/1402.0087) and "Connecting Bioscience, Atoms, Gravitation, Black Holes, and Strings” (http://vixra.org/abs/1403.0149). I heard a short talk with Dr. Lawrence Krauss, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University in the US (http://www.abc.net.au/newsradio/content/s3965819.htm), whose comments about gravity being a quantum theory and the universe originating from “absolutely nothing” are addressed by my articles. If the binary digits of 1 and 0 are the basis for manufacturing space-time (whose curves and warps are gravity), this is in firm agreement with gravity being a quantum theory. And electronic bits could easily avoid Dr. Krauss’s “supernatural shenanigans” by being a product of human technology – we know this much to be true – that is recycled to 13.8 billion years ago by our future discovery of how to time travel into the past (a hypothesis explaining this is presented).
It seems unfortunate that no science journal is interested in my ideas (maybe it’s the way I write?) because I’m certain I’m correct, even if my ideas sound too strange to be true. I don’t think I’ll bother sending these thoughts to Dr. Krauss (professional scientists don’t answer my emails) – but I just might, if I get impulsive.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1403.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-17 14:24:42*

**Authors:** Piyush M. Singhal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concept of super-symmetry in terms of the measurements made by an observer with finite capability is discussed. It is suggested that the symmetry establishing the correct definition of the origin in observer's measurement space, should be the symmetry to which other known symmetries must converge to.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1403.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-14 12:26:59*

**Authors:** Nikolay Samofatov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we examine mathematical properties of discrete universe models in their most general form and propose a special technique (universe self-programming with recursive self-virtualization) which can be used to guide evolution within the model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1403.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-24 16:43:40*

**Authors:** Rodolfo Sergio González Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages. hal.archives-ouvertes.fr:hal-00947254

In this paper I derive an equation relating the gravitational acceleration with the gravitational wavelength corresponding to the “gravitational energy” density at a point in space and with the speed of light, without using the gravitational constant of Newton (G), derive an equation of the Energy-Momentum of Einstein suppressing this constant, and further I set the foundations for new theory of gravity “Energy-Wave”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1403.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-15 08:53:33*

**Authors:** Vitaly Kuyukov Petrovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article reviews the evolution of the future of the Universe with a cosmological constant. When restricting the event horizon of the Universe, there exists a nonzero temperature of the Hawking. This effect leads to the reduction of the cosmological event horizon after a stage of expansion of the Universe with constant density of dark energy. Time compression in this Universe is determined only cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1403.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-10 08:20:29*

**Authors:** Richard S. Morse

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Lines of Particle Transport (LOPT) are proposed as the means by which energy is transferred between objects. Particles of energy move through connected Lines of Particles (LOP) of various energy states (or perceived energy states) with more open particle patterns (low frequency of particle generation) allowing higher energy compressed particles (high frequency of particle generation) to transfer through their respective interconnected LOP, thus forming Lines of Particle Transport (LOPT). This allows the lower energy object to receive energy and thereby increase the object’s energy level until both objects are of the same energy level or state. When both objects are of the same energy level, they have identical particle patterns, and at that point transfer stabilizes along the interconnected LOPT.
The proposed LOPT theory is supported by current observation and resolves the conundrum of the duality of light by eliminating the issue of wave interference, therefore eliminating support for wave theory. The constancy of the speed of light is resolved through LOPT regardless of the speed of the source relative to the observer. This solution opens areas for revised thinking on a number of energy transfer and force issues and thus places particle movement and LOPT theory in a position to solve and resolve numerous physics issues, leading to a quantum explanation for gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1403.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-08 01:53:57*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

This paper presents a proof of the fundamental connection between the zeros of the Riemann function and quantum mechanics. Two results that unify gravity and electromagnetism, by exact calculation, both the elementary electric charge and mass of the electron. These two results depend directly on the sum of the imaginary parts of the zeros of the Riemann function, exactly following the Hilbert-Polya conjecture. This summatory, is the exponential sums of all the negative values of the imaginary part of all zeros of the Riemann function.The main consequences are: scales of the Planck length gravity becomes repulsive, through the interaction of the gravitinos. Special relativity is a special case of a generalization, in which the geometry of a wormhole (hyperbolic geometry) implies that the energy of the tachyon states is zero, only if the velocity at the outer surface of the wormhole is infinite, or what is the same: an observer at rest can not distinguish an infinite speed of zero velocity, both are equivalent. There is not mere speculation; since only under this assumption the mass of the electron as a function of the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function is calculated. Time ceases to exist, takes the value zero. These wormholes would explain the quantum entanglement, as well as resolve the paradox of information loss in black holes. Fundamental constants used in this calculation are: elementary charge, gravitational Newton constant, Planck mass, mass of the electron, and fine structure constant for zero momentum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1403.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-10 02:25:14*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Modern Physics Letters A

Recently, novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) were explored and which provided a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. An elegant $nonlinear$ momentum-addition law was derived that tackled the ``soccer-ball'' problem in DSR. Generalized photon dispersion relations allowed also for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, but breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. This does $not$ occur in DSR nor in other approaches, like the presence of quantum spacetime foam. In this work we show why a $minimal$ length (say the Planck scale) follows naturally from the Extended Relativity principle in Clifford Spaces. Our argument relies entirely on the Physics behind the extended notion of Lorentz transformations in $ C$-space, and $does ~not$ invoke quantum gravity arguments, nor quantum group deformations of Lorentz/Poincare algebras, nor other prior arguments displayed in the Physics literature. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford $Phase$ Spaces requires also the introduction of a $maximal$ scale which can be identified with the Hubble scale. It is found also that $ C$-space physics favors a choice of signature $ ( -, +, +, .... , + ) $.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1403.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-05 21:05:47*

**Authors:** Blazej Kot

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Previously published in Prespacetime Journal, January 2014, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 8-18

I suggest we treat causality, not matter, as the fundamental constituent of reality. I introduce a unit of causality named toma and outline how the resulting framework leads naturally to general relativity, quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics. This novel framework is the first to show how to derive GR, QED and QCD from first principles and as such holds promise for being a Grand Unified Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory