# Quantum Gravity and String Theory

## 1112 Submissions

 viXra:1112.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2011-12-28 19:13:34

### Avogadro Number the 11 Dimensions Alternative

Authors: U.V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana
Comments: 15 Pages. Role of Avogadro number in grand unification. Hadronic Journal. Vol-33, No 5, 2010 Oct. p513.

It is very clear that, to unify 2 interactions if 5 dimensions are required, for unifying 4 interactions 10 dimensions are required. For 3+1 dimensions if there exists 4 (observed) interactions, for 10 dimensions there may exist 10 (observable) interactions. To unify 10 interactions 20 dimensions are required. From this idea it can be suggested that- with n' new dimensions unification' problem can not be resolved. By implementing the gravitational constant in atomic and nuclear physics, independent of the CGS and SI units, Avogadro number can be obtained very easily and its order of magnitude is $\cong N \cong 6 \times 10^{23}$ but not $6 \times 10^{26}.$ If $M_P$ is the Planck mass and $m_e$ is the rest mass of electron, semi empirically it is observed that, $M_g \cong N^{\frac{2}{3}}\cdot \sqrt{M_Pm_e} \cong 1.0044118 \times 10^{-3} \; Kg.$ If $m_{p}$ is the rest mass of proton it is noticed that $\ln \sqrt{\frac{e^{2} }{4\pi \varepsilon _{0} Gm_{P}^{2} } } \cong \sqrt{\frac{m_{p} }{m_{e} } -\ln \left(N^{2} \right)}.$ Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit $\left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. For mole number of particles, if strength of gravity is $\left(N.G\right),$ any one particle's weak force magnitude is $F_{W} \cong \frac{1}{N} \cdot \left(\frac{c^{4} }{N.G} \right)\cong \frac{c^{4} }{N^{2} G}$. Ratio of classical force limit' and weak force magnitude' is $N^{2}$. Assumed relation for strong force and weak force magnitudes is $\sqrt{\frac{F_{S} }{F_{W} } } \cong 2\pi \ln \left(N^{2} \right)$. From SUSY point of view, integral charge quark fermion' and integral charge quark boson' mass ratio is $\Psi=2.262218404$ but not unity. With these advanced concepts an alternative" to the standard model' can be developed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0064 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-28 03:18:01

### 3 Dimensional String Theory

Authors: George Rajna

This paper examines the possibility to origin the spontaneously broken symmetries from the Planck distribution law. In this way we get for example a unification of the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-19 20:22:00

### Units Independent Avogadro Number and Its Applications in Unification

Authors: U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

By implementing the gravitational constant in atomic and nuclear physics, independent of the CGS and SI units, Avogadro number can be obtained very easily. It is observed that, either in SI system of units or in CGS system of units, value of the order of magnitude of Avogadro number $\cong N \cong 6 \times 10^{23}$ but not $6 \times 10^{26}.$ Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit $\left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. For mole number of particles, if strength of gravity is $\left(N.G\right),$ any one particle's weak force magnitude is $F_{W} \cong \frac{1}{N} \cdot \left(\frac{c^{4} }{N.G} \right)\cong \frac{c^{4} }{N^{2} G}$. Ratio of classical force limit' and weak force magnitude' is $N^{2}$. This may be the beginning of unification of gravitational and non-gravitational interactions'.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-17 07:34:27

### Gravitational Constant in Nuclear Interactions

Authors: U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana
Comments: 13 Pages. Strange relations can not be ignored.

Till today no atomic principle implemented the gravitational constant in nuclear physics. Considering the electromagnetic and gravitational force ratio of electron and proton a simple semi empirical relation is proposed for estimating the strong coupling constant. Obtained value is $\alpha_s \cong 0.117378409.$ It is also noticed that $\alpha_s\cong \ln\left(r_Ur_D\right)$ where $r_U$ and $r_D$ are the geometric ratios of Up and Down quark series respectively. It is noticed that proton rest mass is equal to $\left(\frac{1}{\alpha}+\frac{1}{\alpha_s}\right)\sqrt{UD}.$ With reference to the the electromagnetic and gravitational force ratio of electron, 137 can be fitted at $r_U$ and 128 can be fitted at $r_D.$ Finally semi empirical mass formula energy constants are fitted.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-16 07:59:35

### A Proposed New Model

Authors: Paul Karl Hoiland

I examine a slight modification to the so-called Higgless models that allows for a real Higg’s particle and some cosmological constant that varies over time via vacuum decay. In this Model you find Dark Matter as a Higg's decay mode, and a variable cosmological constant resulting from dark matters uncoupling from the EW scale.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-15 14:18:05

### A 10-Dimensional and 11-Dimensional Hidden Variables Duality Model of a ‘D-brane and Type I String Structure’

Authors: Gary Heen

In this paper a 'hidden variables' interpretation of the quantum world is presented. A hidden variables explanation assumes current quantum mechanical theories are imperfect in that they do not incorporate a physical reality to the quantum world. At the Solvay conference of 1927, Louis De Broglie presented a hypothesis which was to be the forerunner to hidden variables theory: at the quantum level, a 'matter wave' steered particles. Under the powerful influence of Neils Bohr, Louis De Broglie's matter wave was disregarded in favor of the 'Copenhagen Interpretation' championed by Bohr himself, and the Copenhagen interpretation became the de facto accepted theory of quantum mechanics. In 1932, John Von Neumann presented a supposed "proof" that no hidden variables theory could properly describe the quantum world. He was first shown to be wrong by Grete Hermann, but she was largely ignored do to Neumann's immense stature as a mathematician. Later in 1966, John Bell further established that the proof was flawed, and the hidden variables interpretation has since seen a renewal of interest amongst researchers. The model presented in this paper incorporates d-branes and Type I strings into a hidden variables quantum structure; this physical structure can be interpreted as both 10-dimensional and 11- dimensional, and is designated: the D-string.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-12 11:16:13

### The Physical Interpretation of the Energy-Momentum Transport Wave Function for the Gravitational and Electrostatic Interactions

Authors: Mirosław J. Kubiak

In the paper  we have presented simple model of the energy-momentum transport wave function (EMTWF). In this paper we will discuss the physical interpretation of the EMTWF for the elementary quanta of action connected with the gravitational and electrostatic interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-08 09:40:32

### Gews Interactions in Strong Nuclear Gravity

Authors: U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

In the atomic or nuclear space, till today no one measured the value of the gravitational constant. To bring down the planck mass scale to the observed elementary particles mass scale a large scale factor is required. Ratio of planck mass and electron mass is close to $\textrm{Avogadro number}/8 \pi\cong N/8 \pi$. The idea of strong gravity originally referred specifically to mathematical approach of Abdus Salam of unification of gravity and quantum chromo-dynamics, but is now often used for any particle level gravity approach. In this connection it is suggested that, key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit $\left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. For mole number of particles, if strength of gravity is $\left(N.G\right),$ any one particle's weak force magnitude is $F_{W} \cong \frac{1}{N} \cdot \left(\frac{c^{4} }{N.G} \right)\cong \frac{c^{4} }{N^{2} G}$. Ratio of classical force limit' and weak force magnitude' is $N^{2}$. This is another significance of Avogadro number. If $R_0\cong 1.21$ fermi is the nuclear charge radius, to a very good accuracy it is noticed that in Hydrogen atom, ratio of total energy of electron and nuclear potential is equal to the electromagnetic and gravitational force ratio of electron where the operating gravitational constant is $N^2G_C$ but not $G_C.$ Square root of ratio of strong and weak force magnitudes can be expressed as $2 \pi \ln\left(N^2\right).$ With the defined strong and weak force magnitudes observed elementary particles masses and their magnetic moments can be generated. Interesting application is that: characteristic building block of the cosmological ‘dark matter’ can be quantified in terms of fundamental physical constants. No extra dimensions are required in this new approach.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-07 18:45:14

### Nuclear Mass Density in Strong Gravity and Grand Unification

Authors: U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana
Comments: 5 Pages. Poster presentation in the 3rd Galileo - Xu Guangqi meeting, Beijing, China, October, 2011.

It is noticed that, when the black hole mass density reaches the nuclear mass density, mass of the black hole approaches to $1.81\times 10^{31} \rm{\;Kg\;} \cong 9.1M_\odot.$ This characteristic mass can be called as the Fermi black hole mass. This proposed mass unit plays an interesting role in grand unification and primordial black holes. Mass ratio of Fermi black hole mass and Chandrasekhar's mass limit is $2\pi.$ Mass ratio of Fermi black hole mass and neutron star mass limit is $\sqrt{2\pi}.$ Considering strong nuclear gravity, Fermi black hole mass can be obtained in a grand unified approach.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-08 00:58:34

### Strong Nuclear Gravity a Very Brief Report

Authors: U V Satya Seshavatharam, S Lakshminarayana
Comments: 2 Pages. Full paper to be published in the Hadronic journal.

Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit $\left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)$. For mole number of particles, if strength of gravity is $\left(N.G\right),$ any one particle's weak force magnitude is $F_{W} \cong \frac{1}{N} \cdot \left(\frac{c^{4} }{N.G} \right)\cong \frac{c^{4} }{N^{2} G}$. Ratio of classical force limit' and weak force magnitude' is $N^{2}$. This can be considered as the beginning of strong nuclear gravity'. Assumed relation for strong force and weak force magnitudes is $\sqrt{\frac{F_{S} }{F_{W} } } \cong 2\pi \ln \left(N^{2} \right)$. If $m_{p}$ is the rest mass of proton it is noticed that $\ln \sqrt{\frac{e^{2} }{4\pi \varepsilon _{0} Gm_{P}^{2} } } \cong \sqrt{\frac{m_{p} }{m_{e} } -\ln \left(N^{2} \right)}.$ From SUSY point of view, integral charge quark fermion' and integral charge quark boson' mass ratio is $\Psi=2.262218404$ but not unity. With these advanced concepts starting from nuclear stability to charged leptons, quarks, electroweak bosons and charged Higgs boson's origin can be understood. Finally an alternative" to the standard model' can be developed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-08 01:12:56

### Nucleus in Strong Nuclear Gravity

Authors: U V Satya Seshavatharam, S Lakshminarayana
Comments: 2 Pages. DAE Symposium on Nuclear Physics, December 26-30, 2011, India.

Based on strong nuclear gravity, $N$ being the Avogadro number and $\left(\frac{c^4}{N^2G}\right)$ being the weak force magnitude, electrons gravitational mass generator $= X_{E} \cong m_{e} c^{2} \div \sqrt{\frac{e^{2} }{4\pi \varepsilon _{0} } \left(\frac{c^4}{N^2G}\right) } \cong 295.0606338$. Weak coupling angle is $\sin \theta _{W} \cong \frac{1}{\alpha X_{E} } \cong 0.464433353\cong \frac{{\rm Up}\; {\rm quark}\; {\rm mass}}{{\rm Down}\; {\rm quark}\; {\rm mass}}$. $X_{S} \cong \ln \left(X_{E}^{2} \sqrt{\alpha } \right)\cong 8.91424\cong \frac{1}{\alpha _{s} }$ can be considered as inverse of the strong coupling constant'.The proton-nucleon stability relation is $A_{S} \cong 2Z+\frac{Z^{2} }{S_{f} }$ where $S_{f} \cong X_{E} -\frac{1}{\alpha } -1\cong 157.0246441$. With reference to proton rest energy, semi empirical mass formula coulombic energy constant is $E_{c} \cong \frac{\alpha }{X_{S} } \cdot m_{p} c^{2} \cong \alpha \cdot \alpha _{s} \cdot m_{p} c^{2} \cong {\rm 0}.7681\; MeV.$ Pairing energy constant is $E_{p} \cong \frac{m_{p} c^{2} +m_{n} c^{2} }{S_{f} } \cong 11.959\; {\rm M}eV$ and asymmetry energy constant is $E_{a} \cong 2E_{p} \cong 23.918\; {\rm M}eV$. It is also noticed that, $\frac{E_{a} }{E_{v} } \cong 1+\sin \theta _{W}$ and $\frac{E_{a} }{E_{s} } \cong 1+\mathop{\sin }\nolimits^{2} \theta _{W}$. Thus $E_{v} \cong 16.332$ MeV and $E_{s} \cong 19.674\; {\rm M}eV.$ Nuclear binding energy can be fitted with 2 terms. In scattering experiments minimum distance between electron and the nucleus is $R_0 \cong \left(\frac{\hbar c}{\left(N.G\right)m_e^2}\right)^2 \frac{2Gm_e}{c^2}.$
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-08 01:23:49

### Integral Charge Susy in Strong Nuclear Gravity

Authors: U V Satya Seshavatharam, S Lakshminarayana
Comments: 2 Pages. Poster presentation in DAE Symposium on Nuclear Physics, December 26-30, 2011, India.

‘Quark flavor’ is a property of ‘strong interaction charge’ and nowhere connected with ‘fermions’ or ‘bosons’. There exists nature friendly ‘integral charge quark flavors’. If a ‘charged quark flavor’ rests in a ‘fermionic container’ it is a ‘quark fermion’. Similarly if a ‘charged quark flavor’ rests in a ‘bosonic container’ it is a ‘quark boson’. Strong interaction charge contains ‘multiple flavors’ and can be called as the ‘hybrid charge quark’. No 3 quark fermions couples together to form a baryon and no 2 quark fermions couples together to form a meson. In super symmetry, quark fermion and quark boson mass ratio is $\Psi \cong 2.262218404$ but not unity. Quark fermions convert into quark baryons and effective quark fermions convert into effective quark baryons. Similarly quark bosons convert into quark mesons. Effective quark baryons generates charged and unstable multi flavor baryons and light quark bosons couples with these charged baryons and generates doublets or triplets. Any two oppositely charged quark mesons generates neutral and unstable mesons. <br> Based on strong nuclear gravity and super symmetry it is suggested that: charged $W$ boson is the super symmetric boson of top quark fermion and charged Higgs boson pair generates the neutralized $Z$ boson. Rest energy of Higgs charged boson is 45586 MeV. It is noticed that charged SUSY Higgs fermion, and nuclear charge radius play a crucial role in the emission of electron in Beta decay. Recently discovered neutral boson of rest energy 120 to 160 MeV seems to be composed of Higgs charged boson and W boson. Its obtained mass is 126 GeV}.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-07 10:24:55

### Understanding The Particle Mass Spectrum (100 - 1860 MeV)

Authors: Robert L. Oldershaw

The goal of the research presented below is to provide a basic and general first approximation explanation for the unique patterns of masses and stabilities found at the lower end of the subatomic particle mass spectrum, where the patterns are most restricted, unique and diagnostic. The Standard Model of particle physics has achieved limited success in this effort, but only by resorting to putting the hypothetical “quark” masses and numerous other parameters into the analysis “by hand”. This way of doing science is ad hoc “model-building”, at best, and possibly borders on Ptolemaic pseudo-science. Discrete Scale Relativity, on the other hand, may offer a more realistic potential for understanding how nature actually works in the Atomic Scale domain, and how the unique particle mass spectrum is the product of fundamental physics: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Discrete Cosmological Self-Similarity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-07 08:08:44

### Nuclear Binding Energy in Strong Nuclear Gravity

Authors: U V Satya Seshavatharam, S Lakshminarayana
Comments: 26 Pages. Journal of Vectorial Relativity, JVR 6 (2011) 3 . (To be published online)

It is noticed that ratio of coulombic energy coefficient and proton rest energy is close to the product of fine structure ratio and the strong coupling constant. Strong coupling constant plays a crucial role in binding energy saturation. Based on strong nuclear gravity, semi empirical mass formula and with reference to the gravitational mass generator,$X_E \cong 295.0606338,$ an expression is proposed for neutron and proton rest masses at quantum numbers n =1 and 2. Nuclear binding energy can be fitted with 2 terms and one energy constant. For these 2 terms, coulombic energy constant $E_c \cong0.7681$ MeV is applied. Another attempt is made to fit the nuclear binding energy with a product of 5 factors with 0.7681 MeV. At Z = 2 and A = 4 obtained binding energy is 28.8 MeV. For any Z error in binding energy is very small near the stable mass number and increasing above and below the stable mass number. In these two methods new nuclear stability factor $S_f \cong 157.025$ plays a crucial role in proton-neutron stability.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-04 14:43:55

### Speculation on the Higg's

Authors: Paul Karl Hoiland

I take a look at the rumored Higg’s at 125 GeV and abstract a bit with a Non-Standard decay of a metastable vacuum state. In this model you end up with a Cold Dark Matter state that while appearing as the Neutralino, is actually more a decayed Higg’s resultant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

 viXra:1112.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-03 12:20:22