[20] **viXra:1805.0530 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-30 20:54:09*

**Authors:** BingZhuo Liu, DongZe Liu, XiangHua Liu, WeiDong

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Four basic forces; Dimensionless number; Neutrino; Dark matter; Cosmic quantization; Microwave background radiation

Through the study of the natural constants, mainly the fundamental physical constants. This paper found the mathematical relations between the universal gravitational constant, Fermi weak force constant and fine structure constant. The mathematical expressions of the mass of the dark matter and all elementary particles, such as neutron, proton, electron, neutrinos, quarks, W^±, Z^0 bosons and Higgs boson are also found. Besides that, we also noticed and applied a series of the cosmic quantization laws, worked out the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the two mass limits of the compact star, namely Chandrasekhar Limit and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit. Thus, a breakthrough has been made for the completion of the ultimate grand unification theory. And unintentionally, also in order to solve Hilbert's sixth problem made a breakthrough.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1805.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-21 15:40:17*

**Authors:** Thomas J. Buckholtz

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We address four physics opportunities. First, suggest new elementary particles and forces. Second, explain phenomena such as dark matter. Third, augment and unite physics theories and models. Fourth, point to opportunities for further research.

We use models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators.

First, we show solutions that match the known elementary particles. We propose that other solutions correlate with elementary particles that people have yet to detect and with dark energy forces leading to three known eras - early acceleration, subsequent deceleration, and current acceleration - pertaining to the rate of expansion of the universe.

Second, we extend solutions to encompass known conservation-law symmetries. Extended solutions correlate with known kinematics. We suggest that extended solutions describe dark matter, explain ratios of density of dark matter to density of ordinary matter, correlate with dark energy density, and explain other phenomena.

Third, we propose that our work unites, suggests details regarding, extends, suggests complements to, and suggests limits regarding aspects of traditional physics theory. Those aspects include classical physics, special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the elementary particle Standard Model, the cosmology timeline, and galaxy evolution scenarios. The work provides possible insight regarding foundation of physics topics.

Fourth, we suggest opportunities for people. We suggest opportunities for observational, experimental, and theoretical physics research. We suggest quantum field theory that features few interaction vertices, sums of few terms as alternatives to conditionally convergent sums of infinite numbers of terms, and no needs to deal with some infinities. We point to possible opportunities to further develop and apply modeling and math we use.

[18] **viXra:1805.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-22 12:59:23*

**Authors:** Satwik Choudhury

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

It will be showed based on the ground of pure reasoning, that classical space-time as derived from Einstein’s Field Equation(s) is not in conformity with an exact relativistic theory of Gravitation (surprisingly!), contrary to usual belief. Also it signs for a distance-scale, for which the exact nature of space-time, and as found from Field-Equations must have a significant discrepancy between them. And most importantly, this will be showed WITHOUT using any ad-hoc basis assumption or hypothesis or untested theories. Only known and unambiguous laws of Physics will be used in a coherent and consistent manner to arrive at this conclusion. The author strongly believes in the fact that all deep and beautiful things in nature must be simple enough! Therefore simplicity has been tried at best to preserve everywhere. First this conjecture will be proved for Schwarzschild space-time, one of the simplest solutions of Einstein’s Field Equation(s). Later same will be shown for other known space-times, pointing to the fact that the trouble is not inherent in solution(s), but in the key-equation (EFE) itself. Finally experimental support towards this proposition will also be presented; it will be showed that, the key-ingredient (of a relativistic-theory of gravity) which is proposed to be missing in General Relativity, if we include its effect correctly to the solutions of the field-equations, it can properly describe some gravitational anomaly quantitatively (not describable by GR), long been superseded from Scientific Community.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1805.0378 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-04 15:46:27*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Update for the purpose of being a physics source document for 2 articles in Marcel Grossman 15, and 2 articles in DICE 2018, plus a description of gravity to be cherry picked and used in experimental gravity, Marcel Grossman 15

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization”. In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion. While showing its relevance to early universe production of black holes, and the volume of space producing 100 black holes of say 10^2 times Planck Mass. Initially in radii of 10^3 Planck length, of space-time for say entropy of about 1000 initially speaking.
Key words: Inflaton, action integral, Cosmological Constant, Penrose cyclic cosmology, black holes, massive gravitons, enhanced quantization

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1805.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-18 08:10:39*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 35 Pages. Cite: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6214049.v4

General Relativity says gravity is a push caused by space-time's curvature. Combining it with E=mc2 results in distances being totally deleted from space-time/gravity by future technology, and in expansion or contraction of the universe as a whole being eliminated. The road to these conclusions has branches shining light on supersymmetry and superconductivity.
Advanced waves are usually discarded by most scientists because they're thought to be detectable before even being emitted, and thus to violate causality. Richard Feynman found that adding the contributions of advanced and retarded waves creates a consistent quantum theory called Quantum Electrodynamics in which the terms that might violate causality cancel precisely. Here, causality's violation is viewed through Isaac Newton's idea of gravity and the modern idea of entanglement. Just as advanced waves are usually discarded, few physicists or mathematicians will venture to ascribe a physical meaning to Wick rotation and "imaginary" time. Here, that maths (when joined with Mobius-strip and Klein-bottle topology) unifies space and time into one space-time, and allows construction of what may be called "imaginary computers".
Starting with the previous version of this article (Matter, Antimatter, Dark Matter and Space-Time Travel in an Infinite and Eternal Universe with Extra Dimensions), this gained an Altmetric Score of 1: high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received as research output. From start to finish, this article consists of the best parts of my layman-style ORCID and paperback contributions over the last 12 years and includes a reference to those contributions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1805.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-19 00:02:59*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

a summary essay about a hybrid unification framework

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1805.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 09:02:16*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** Pages. Advances in Astrophys-ics, 2019, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp 1-6

The model of low-energy quantum gravity leads to small additional
effects having essential cosmological consequences: redshifts of
remote objects and the additional dimming of them may be
interpreted without any expansion of the Universe and without dark
energy. The theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits the
observational Hubble diagrams with high confidence levels. In the
model, the ratio H(z)/(1+z) should be equal to the Hubble
constant. The constancy of this ratio is confirmed with high
probabilities by fitting the compilation of H(z) observations. A
deceleration of massive bodies due to forehead and backhead
collisions with gravitons is re-computed here.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1805.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 12:37:42*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs, Ball Lightning and even sandy ground pipes called fulgurites, as the result of x-ray lightning bolt linear heating and splitting or evaporation, often found in large numbers at sandy beaches. Fulgurites according to Quantum FFF Theory, are assumed to be the result of the splitting and evaporation of smallest form of “electric dark matter black hole” or rigid string based quantum knots. nuclei.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1805.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-14 02:46:24*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Maxwell's equations are obtained within the framework of the model of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1805.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 16:04:13*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 150 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Starting from STR, it is not possible to find a Quantum Gravity theory”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein was on the wrong way: from STR to GTR”
Adrian Ferent
“Starting from STR, Einstein was not able to explain Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
“Starting from STR, Einstein was not able to explain Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy.”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong, Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong.”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong, LQG, String theory…are wrong theories”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field!”
Adrian Ferent
“I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is a discrete function”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
In STR and GTR there are continuous functions.
This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud.
The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything because Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist.
The same fraud was in 2013 with the Higgs Boson, the so-called “God particle”.
They obtained Higgs bosons as a pairs of photons with a combined energy of 750 gigaelectronvolts.
After they received the Nobel Prize there are not anymore gravitational waves in the universe.
“Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
As a consequence of Einstein wrong gravitation theory, the physicists explained how they can travel trough a black hole, trough a wormhole.
Alice and Bob thought experiments:
Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon.
Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon.
You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes!
“Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature”
Adrian Ferent
Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes.
That is why:
“The holographic principle is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon.
“Einstein started from Special Theory of Relativity to explain Gravitation and he discovered a wrong gravitation theory the General Theory of Relativity.”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1805.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 21:22:19*

**Authors:** Andrew Cox

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as one stand-alone spatial dimension.
In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart.
This deductive quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to: (1) define black holes as wormholes into the fourth spatial dimension; (2) explain dark matter as photons which traveled through black holes and into the fourth spatial dimension; (3) predict dark energy to be the warping of the fourth spatial dimension in the presence of dark matter photons; and (4) establish the big bang as the beginning of three flat spatial dimensions in a cyclic universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1805.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 12:43:33*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, Schrodinger equation is established for the non-spin Solar QM {N,n} structure model. Solving the Schrodinger equation gives the orbit energy En = -3.81E+11 *(m / n^2), where m is the orbital moving object's mass (in kg), and n is the total n of the orbit using Sun core {0,1} as r1. Combining r^2*|R(nl)|^2 to the deduced Sun's interior mass density formula D = 1.26E+23 / r^2.33, a plot of {N,n} QM calculated (that is close to the true) mass density vs. r (within Sun ball {0,2}) has been made.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1805.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-07 17:14:10*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A general form of Planck constant has been discovered as h(general) = h(m/m'), where m is the mass of object we are studying (like electron, Earth, etc.), and m' is part of the scaling factor that scales h up or down. Although it is suitable for both micro- and macro- world's QM, as well as the EM- and G-forced QM, h(general) is not constant at all. h(general) is a variable unit (named H-C unit), which make us able to use the same QM formula for hydrogen atom to calculate the orbit movement for all kinds of attractive central-force system. The orbital energy can be written as E(n-orbit) = -Hmf(n-orbit) , where H=h/m' is a quasi constant (for all objects on all different orbits with same r1, and for both G-force and EM-force simultaneously). A new concept of high-frequency multiplier quantum number n' has been proposed. A new concept of RF (rotation diffusion, or rotafusion) has been proposed. It is the complete randomization of unit vector L/|L| at n=1 ground state. A new concept of interior {N,n} QM analysis has been proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1805.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 00:02:56*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The Solar QM {N,n//6} model is so successful in describing the QM of Sun-planet system, that inevitably it has to be able to describe the QM of planet-moon system. In this paper, I used {N,n} QM model to analyze all eight planets. The result revealed that Jupiter has a p{N,n//5} QM structure, Earth has a p{N,n//2} QM structure. Neptune possibly has a p{N,n//2} or p{N,n//4} QM structure, Saturn possibly has a mixture of p{N,n//2} and p{N,n//3} QM structure. The rest planets have no clear p{N,n} QM structure. Through a global data analysis, I discovered that all eight planets were originally formed in p{N,n//2} QM structure, with an atmosphere at p{1,1//2}, a Earth-sized core at p{0,1//2}, and a inner core at p{-1,1//2}. Then after the (hydrogen fusion generated) ice-evap-line expanded and passed {1,6}, all {1,n=3..6}o orbit planets' p{1,1//2} atmosphere mass was stripped off (like the current Earth), and even part of Earth-sized core was stripped off (like the current Mars). Jupiter captured most part of the stripped off mass (which grew its mass from originally 10% to today's 100%) and transformed its p{N,n} from p{N,1//2} to today's p{N,n//5}. Saturn captured small part of the stripped off mass (which grew its mass from originally 20% to today's 100%) and transformed its p{N,n} from p{N,1//2} to today's mixture of p{N,1//2} and p{N,n//3}. Among eight planets, only Uranus and Neptune still keep the original p{N,1//2} QM structure with almost intact p{1,1//2} atmosphere, p{0,1//2} Earth-sized core, and p{-1,1//2} inner core. The limitation of p{N,n} QM analysis for meter-sized objects has been discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1805.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-04 13:34:08*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Solar QM {N,n//6} structure has been successful not only for modeling the Solar system from Sun core to Oort cloud, but also in matching the size of white dwarf, neutron star and even black hole. In this paper, I have used this model to further scan down (and up) in our world. It is interesting to find that on the small end, the r(s) of hydrogen atom, proton and quark match {-12,1}, {-15,1} and {-17,1} respectively. On the large end, our Milky way galaxy, the Virgo super cluster have their r(s) match {8,1}, and {10,1} respectively. In a second estimation, some elementary particles like electron, up quark, down quark, … may have their {N,n} QM structures match {-17,1}, {-17,2}, {-17,3} … respectively. In a third estimation, the r(s) of super-massive black hole of Andromeda galaxy and Milky way galaxy match {2,1} and {1,1} respectively. However, so far the Solar QM {N,n} structure has not been re-produced in other exoplanetary systems (like TRAPPIST-1, HD 10180, Kepler-90, Kelper-11, 55-Cacri). So I propose that our Sun was formed from a single large seed (with size of Jupiter or even a red dwarf) and so that it has the almost perfect {N,n} QM structure. Therefore it reflects the true G-force (and F4-degenerated-force) formed QM in our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1805.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-04 14:27:15*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper I study the evolution and dynamics of the Solar QM {N,n} structure. After discovered the Solar QM {N,n} structure, I immediately realized that the formation of our current Solar system was through a series of quantum collapse of pre-Sun ball's N super-shell from {6,1} to {0,1}. However, it took me quite a while to figure out what is the driving force for the quantized collapse: the collapse of {N,n=1..5}o super-shell increases the thermal pressure of {N-1,n=1..5}o super-shell and prevent it from immediate collapse. Then after some time the heat (and mass) losing in {N-1,n=1..5}o super-shell decreased its thermal pressure and trigged a new round of collapse. A switch from the cold-G r-track for N=4 and 3 super-shells to the hot-G r-track for N=1 and 0 super-shells caused a 26% of r length increase. This r-track change revealed that the Hydrogen fusion started right after {2,1}RF pre-Sun ball had formed. (The Hydrogen fusion's heat formed) ice-evap-line expended and passed Mars orbit {1,6}, and evaporated all ice mass within {1,6}RF ball and excited them to orbit {2,2}o and {2,3}o orbits. Therefore it formed the extraordinary large (ice) mass of Jupiter, and very large mass of Saturn. The original mass density as the function of r has been modeled out as D = 4.37E+28 / r^3.279 (kg/m^3). From it, I estimated that the original (ice) mass of Venus, Earth, Mars were 34x, 25x, 19x of the current Earth's mass. The original mass of Jupiter was only 10% of current one. So 90% of Jupiter's current (ice) mass was obtained from the original Venus, Earth, and Mars's orbit shells! The same model also predicted that the four undiscovered {3,n=2..5}o planets/belts will have mass around 12x, 7x, 5x, and 3x of Earth's mass. Asteroid belt is assigned to be at {1,8}o orbit. It is also interesting to see that the mass QM {N,n} structure collapse is accompanied by a heat QM {N,n} structure expansion in the Solar QM {N,n} structure dynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1805.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-23 14:54:43*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Finally, I find a way to extend Bohr's atom model (which was inspired by the Solar system structure) to our Solar system structure. In this paper, I present that how I decoded the quantum mechanics for our Solar system by introduce a {N,n//6} QM structure model. In the newly established Solar QM {N,n} structure, Sun core has a size of {0,1}, Sun surface has a size of {0,2}, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are at {1,n=3..6}o orbits. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper belt are at {2,n=2..6}o orbits. Oort cloud is at {4,n=1..5}o orbits. There are four undiscovered planets/belts at orbits of {3,n=2..5}o. More interestingly, white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole are assigned to {-1,1}, {-3,2} and {-3,1} in the same model. From these results, I constructed a Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic table (similar as the chemical element’s periodic table). A Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic plot is also presented here which shows some more detailed (and visualized) information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1805.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-02 17:53:23*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Schrodinger equation has been established and solved for the non-spin Solar QM {N,n} structure model in paper SunQM-3. In current paper, the 1st order spin-perturbation problem has been solved for the spinning Sun's {N,n} QM structure. The result shows that the spin-perturbation causes nLL orbit to have the lowest orbit energy (or highest probability density), and it is named as "nLL effect". This study suggests that the nLL effect is the driving force for the Sun's (and all other celestial bodies') flattening, disk-lyzation, ring formation. It is mass occupancy that determines whether the outer shell of a pre-Sun ball goes to flattening or disk-lyzation. The nL0 effect (which is the companion effect of nLL effect) is the driving force for the bipolar outflow and astronomic jet. Additionally, a central G-force caused spherical spin frame theory is established, and our Sun's reference-spin-frame model is expected to be ω(n-spin) = ω(1-spin) / n^x, with x≈3.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1805.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-03 01:28:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 85 Pages.

A brief tour of the developments of the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces ($C$-space) is presented. These include : (i) Novel physical consequences like generalized dispersion relations, energy-dependent speed of light propagation, extended Lorentz transformations,
relative locality, generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and uncertainty relations, tensionless branes, superluminality, generalized velocities. (ii) Generalized areal, volume, $\cdots$ metrics and gravitational field equations in $C$-space. (iii) A unified description of particles, strings and branes. (iv) Clifford gravity based cosmology and dark energy. (v) Moyal deformations of Clifford gauge theories of gravity. (vi) N-ary algebras. We conclude with a brief discussion on symplectic Clifford algebras and generalized geometries.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1805.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-01 17:20:29*

**Authors:** Yi Cao

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Using p{N,n} QM model with QM induced mass peaking/depleting effect, plus the spin frame of ω(n-spin) ≈ ω(1-spin) / n^3, plus the multiplier n', I successfully explained the origin of Jupiter surface cloud bands as the |544> zonal bands embedded in the background |400> belt bands. We can even calculate out how deep the convection starts below the atmosphere surface. The Earth's atmospheric circulation is also caused by the same QM peaking/depleting effect of |211> state on top (not embedded) of |100> state, which generates a major upwelling band at equator and two minor upwelling bands at ±60° latitude, and two down welling bands at ≈ ±35° latitude. The same QM theory is applicable to all other planets' atmosphere, even for the Sun's surface atmosphere.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory