[15] **viXra:1301.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-11 22:27:07*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

(When I wrote each of the previous versions of this article, I was absolutely convinced it was complete. But more and more supportive details and connections keep occurring to me, both in mathematics and physics.)
A paragraph explaining the way this article is written – the great French mathematician Jules Henri Poincare strongly favoured the use of intuition. Albert Einstein also said the most important things in science are intuition, imagination and curiosity. He said that things like logic and mathematical equations are necessary and valuable companions to scientific endeavour. But he was so sorry to see these companions taking the place of intuition and imagination. He thought science would suffer, and lose its way, as a result. Today, his fears seem to have manifested in reality. Modern science believes logic and maths are much more than valuable and necessary – it tends to treat them as the only path to knowledge. At the same time it tends to ridicule intuition and imagination.
The “Pioneer anomaly” compels me to propose a refinement of gravitational physics – which explains dark energy and dark matter, quantum phenomena, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion (no refinement would be necessary if Newton and Einstein could have used the data from today’s experiments and space probes). I redefine warping as 2.3 times General Relativity's value - deflection of starlight by the sun is still at 1.75 arcseconds since 57% of the light is diverted into solar wave packets (my ideas owe part of their inspiration to the MUH or Mathematical Universe Hypothesis formulated by MIT's Professor Max Tegmark).
I didn’t originally intend to write about tides, falling bodies, Earth’s orbit, and Greek philosophers. But if someone is attempting to explain the Pioneer slowdown etc. by a new interpretation of space-time warping (and this warping is what gravitation is), it’s a good idea – even an essential one – to not solely write about General Relativity and the spacecraft launched 40 years ago. Ideas from centuries ago, before General Relativity and Pioneer, must also be analysed – including those of Newton, Kepler, Galileo, Aristotle, Parmenides, Zeno. So must interpretations of the Mobius loop and figure-8 Klein bottle.
Very near its ending, the article mentions the two ways to view both infinity and reality, time travel into the past as well as the future, and the elimination of distances in space (enabling overtaking of the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft – and leaving them in a galaxy far, far away). It actually ends by saying this article is offered as a starting point for humanity’s construction of this universe we live in (that sounds absolutely crazy and totally unscientific but, if it’s possible, try to restrain your emotional reactions and remain open-mindedly objective long enough to absorb the details).
PS The Law of Conservation of Matter-Energy is not overlooked. Using the word “create” or “produce” is simply a matter of convenience, like speaking of “sunrise” and “sunset” when we know the world rotates. And the article points out that 3 items already support the science-fiction-like idea of the electronic binary digits of 1 and 0 being the building blocks of our universe – the Kabbalah, the WMAP space probe’s data, and Einstein’s famous E=mc^2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1301.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-30 14:05:38*

**Authors:** Nige Cook

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A previous paper (http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0111) makes some calculations from a quantum gravity theory and sketches a framework for further predictions. This paper defends in detail the lagrangian for quantum gravity, based on the theory in our earlier paper, by examining the simple physical dynamics behind general relativity and gauge theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1301.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-30 14:51:48*

**Authors:** Nige Cook

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism describe three dimensional electric and magnetic field line divergence and curl (rank 1 tensors, or vector calculus), but were compressed by Einstein by including those rank-1 equations as components of rank 2 tensors. However, Einstein did not express the electromagnetic force in terms of a rank-2 spacetime curvature. In order to unify or even compare the equations for two forces (gravity and electromagnetism), you need first to have them expressed in terms of similarly physical descriptions: either rank-1 field lines for both, or spacetime curvature for both.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1301.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-09 07:58:44*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s gravity field equation, discover the spherical solution of the quantum gravity. The careful point is that this theory is different from the other quantum theory. This theory is made by the Einstein’s field equation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1301.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-25 21:44:30*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Sergei Kopeikin, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Missouri, thinks the previous explanation for the so-called Pioneer Anomaly [1] was only able to account for 15 to 20% of the observed deceleration. He devised a new set of calculations that included the universe's expansion, and the way expansion affects the speed of photons which compose the light and radio waves.
[1] In a paper published on June 12 in Physical Review Letters [“Support for the Thermal Origin of the Pioneer Anomaly” - Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 241101 (2012) [5 pages]; Slava G. Turyshev, Viktor T. Toth, Gary Kinsella, Siu-Chun Lee, Shing M. Lok, and Jordan Ellis write: “We investigate the possibility that the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft is due to the recoil force associated with an anisotropic emission of thermal radiation off the vehicles” and “We ... conclude that, once the thermal recoil force is properly accounted for, no anomalous acceleration remains."
Both the “thermal recoil” and “universal expansion” theories regarding Pioneer are extremely interesting. However, I suspect the emission of thermal radiation doesn’t have a large enough effect, just as Sergei Kopeikin states. I also suspect the speed of photons in the vacuum of space is, as Relativity states, constant and always appears constant - and that universal expansion therefore doesn’t have enough effect either. I'd therefore like to propose a refinement of gravitational physics. I redefine warping as 2.3 times General Relativity's value - deflection of starlight by the sun is still at 1.75 arcseconds since 57% of the light is diverted into solar wave packets (my ideas owe part of their inspiration to the MUH or Mathematical Universe Hypothesis formulated by MIT's Professor Max Tegmark).
I didn’t originally intend to write about tides, falling bodies, Earth’s orbit, and Greek philosophers. But if someone is attempting to explain the Pioneer slowdown by a new interpretation of space-time warping (and this warping is what gravitation is), it’s a good idea – even an essential one – to not solely write about General Relativity and the spacecraft launched 40 years ago. Ideas from centuries ago – including those of Newton, Kepler, Galileo, Aristotle, Parmenides, Zeno – must also be analysed, as must original interpretations of the Mobius loop and figure-8 Klein bottle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1301.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-25 11:38:23*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper explores scientifically, mind-matter interactions by utilising the welldocumented
phenomenon of mind-created psi-lines. Experimentation shows how the
perceived length of a standard yardstick, or an aura of any object, is affected by the
presence of psi-lines. Three distinct effects have been discovered. At a psi-line’s
nodes, the perceived aura of any object, or any attempted measurements of length,
decrease to zero! Measurements increase significantly when taken in the direction of
flow of the psi-line, whilst the same measurements taken against the flow decrease.
In contrast, transverse measurements produce a sine-like curve, but the equation is not
a simple sine wave or a standing wave. The format of the equation involves a square
root and is of the form: L = A * √sin (l * π/d). The conclusions not only demonstrate
that mind-mind, and mind-matter interactions exist; that psi lines and nodes detected
intuitively actually exist, and obey the laws of physics with significant enhancements;
and that the mind interacts with the structure of the universe down to the Planck level.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1301.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-21 18:17:39*

**Authors:** Igor Elkin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is not understanding, why physicists haven’t paid attention to the elementary solution of the question about the
formation of inertia mass and elementary explanation of gravity force till now. As soon as velocity-addition formula has
been received by Einstein, it has become clear that derivative of total velocity of one of velocities gives two summands.
At that it was clear that there can be the situation, when additional speeds would be for some object with plus and with
minus at once. In this case the result for two results of total velocity can be averaged and it would be possible to receive
the summand of concrete figure instead of zero result which depends on the direction of varying velocity. This improvidence
of scholars causes that last one hundred years scholars have been working meaninglessly but not for the development of
science in this sphere.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1301.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-05 08:44:14*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Section 2 rewritten. An Appendix added.

A preon model for standard model particles is proposed based on spin 1/2 fermion and spin 0 boson constituents. The preons are quantum mechanical strings. Implications to the number of generations, heavy boson states, and dark matter are briefly considered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1301.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-17 22:09:09*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I start by pointing out “There is already support for the idea of, as a previous post puts it, "the electronic mechanism of binary digits" - in the Kabbalah (an interpretation of the Scriptures used by some Jews and Christians that seeks to discover mysteries by using special methods of interpretation). (Besides the Kabbalah, my thanks also go to cosmologist Max Tegmark and his MUH or Mathematical Universe Hypothesis.) We proceed to supersymmetry - then proposals of antiphotons, antigravitons and negative quantum spin (ideas that may seem preposterous but turn out to be possible, even logical, in a cosmos based on maths) are mentioned. From there, an original suggestion is proposed regarding the nature of magnetism. At the intended end, I mention that string theory is vital to a mathematical universe – which leads to explaining that the “Pioneer anomaly” is due to the warping of space-time by 2.3 times Einstein’s estimate, as is the “flyby anomaly” measured for several spacecraft. String theory supports the idea that mathematics itself influences the nature of space-time warps spacecraft travel in. We must not make the mistake of assuming maths’ production of matter-forming wave packets is the only way maths influences those travels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1301.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-17 10:45:04*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 94 Pages.

We investigate the spectrum of elementary particles and fields
arising from the superposition of string configurations
weighted according to their entropy in the string phase space.
We find that this superposition describes a universe with
a physical content phenomenologically compatible with the experimental
observations and measurements. Masses and couplings are determined
as functions of the age of the universe,
with no room for freely-adjustable parameters.
They depend on time, with a scaling allowing this scenario to pass
the tests provided by cosmology
and the constraints imposed by the physics of the primordial universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1301.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-09 08:19:24*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Why does time exist? Why does space exist? Why does energy exist? Consider the following conjectures (A), (B), (C):
CONJECTURE (A): Time exists because 2^46 divides the order of the monster group.
CONJECTURE (B): Space exists because 3^20 divides the order of the monster group.
CONJECTURE (C): Energy exists because the monster group and the six pariah groups allow D-brane gravitation and D-brane charge-based force to provide symmetries for a stable, oscillating multiverse that runs on a synchronized big-bang cycle of 81.6 billion years (± 1.7 billion years).
Are the 3 preceding conjectures complete nonsense? If nature is infinite, then the 3 conjectures are wrong. However, my guess is that the following conjectures (D), (E), (F) are valid:
CONJECTURE (D): Each superstring has 24 D-brane charges in a higher-dimensional superfluid with 3 energy-density levels vibrating with respect to 3 distinct copies of the Leech lattice.
CONJECTURE (E): AdS = CFT has a physical interpretation consisting of a 72-ball that undergoes vibrations and oscillations with respect to a nonmeasurable superstring time.
CONJECTURE (F): Nature is finite and digital. (This hypothesis is due to Konrad Zuse and Edward Fredkin.)
Is there a decisive test for conjectures (D), (E), (F)? I claim that the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect is such a test. This hypothetical effect states that the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations should be replaced by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^-5.
Motl has stated, “One may construct infinitely many observables. For each observable, we need a different device to measure it. Quantum mechanics is able to predict the probabilities that we get any result for any variable but these calculations cannot be reduced to any algorithm respecting a classical framework simply because Nature isn’t classical, stupid.” ‘t Hooft replied in part, “The usual objections against my CA theories are based on Bell’s inequalities: these objections are erroneous because of what they say on their page one, line one: their assumptions.”
Is there an empirical test of Motl’s view versus ‘t Hooft’s view? I say that the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect is the decisive test. If nature is infinite, then there are in principle infinitely many quantum observables and, therefore, a cellular automaton simulation of quantum reality is likely to be either wrong or irrelevant. If nature is finite and digital, then the equivalence principle is likely to fail and, also, supersymmetry might be merely an approximation. I suggest that if string theory is empirically valid then the following idea is valid: Nature is finite if and only if supersymmetry is merely an approximation with weirdness that can only result from the failure of supersymmetry due to CA phenomenon. Am I wrong here? Perhaps so, but I suggest that the majority of string theorists are wrong about ‘t Hooft’s CA work. Have string theorists underestimated Milgrom and ‘t Hooft?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1301.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-06 14:42:03*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 1966 Greisen and the team of Zatsepin and Kuzmin independently computed a limit of 5 * 10^19 eV for the energy of extragalactic cosmic rays detected on planet Earth, provided that the cosmic rays travel over 50 megaparsecs from their place of origin. However, there have been reports of the detection of cosmic rays with energies above the GZK limit. What might explain the GZK paradox? Presumably, string theorists hope that the answer might be string theory, provided that the GZK paradox is a true phenomenon. According to Witten, the three most important predictions of string theory are gravity, gauge/gravity duality, and supersymmetry. Of the three preceding predictions, supersymmetry might be the best bet for explaining the GZK paradox. This communication argues that supersymmetry with the infinite nature hypothesis is unlikely to explain the GZK paradox, while supersymmetry with the finite nature hypothesis might explain the GZK paradox within the context of ‘t Hooft’s work on the cellular automaton interpretation of quantum theory. The Milgrom Denial Hypothesis states that the main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect is that the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations should be replaced by -1/2 + dark-compensation-constant. An argument is presented for the hypothesis that ‘t Hooft is correct about the foundations of quantum theory if and only if the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect is empirically valid. If this argument is valid, then there is a decisive test for ‘t Hooft’s ideas.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1301.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-03 14:50:02*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Are the explanations for dark energy and dark matter closely related and highly dependent upon Milgrom’s acceleration law for gravitational accelerations that have a small magnitude? Is superstring determinism the key to understanding Milgrom’s acceleration law? According to ‘t Hooft in his article “Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity”, “The requirement that physical phenomena associated with gravitational collapse should be duly reconciled with the postulates of quantum mechanics implies that at a Planckian scale our world is not 3+1 dimensional. Rather, the observable degrees of freedom can best be described as if they were Boolean observables defined on a two-dimensional lattice, evolving over time.” What might ‘t Hooft’s hypothesis imply in terms of superstring theory? Does the superstring multiverse have two main components: (1) an interior consisting entirely of virtual energy and (2) a boundary consisting of alternate universes that contain real energy and also virtual energy shared with the interior? In this communication, the idea of superstring snapping is considered as an explanation for dark energy (i.e. the space roar profile prediction) and as an explanation for dark matter (i.e. the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect). In addition, the concept of a “combined sfermion” that has spin 1/2 and travels at the speed of light is suggested as the explanation for the GZK paradox. One might say that there are four main ideas presented here:
(1) Milgrom denial hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology.
(2) Nature is finite and digital with superstring determinism running on a cycle of 81.6 billion years (±1.7 billion years). The cycle runs by transferring gravitational energy from the boundary to the interior of the multiverse in the expansion phase of the synchronized big bangs. During the synchronized big stops to the big bangs, all the gravitational energy lost by the boundary is regained. During the synchronized cosmological inflation of the big bangs, all of the cosmological inflation occurs during one Planck time interval.
(3) Dark energy is direct evidence for superstring snapping, i.e., D-brane noise accompanying transfer of gravitational energy from the boundary to the interior of the multiverse. Because superstrings are under enormous tension, they sometimes snap and cool off, thus creating an excess of quantum vacuum and a deficiency of gravitational attraction in each particular universe.
(4) Dark matter is indirect evidence for superstring snapping, i.e., D-brane reinforcement of the gravitational signal in the form of excess gravitational redshift. The dark energy of all the alternate universes causes dark matter to be observed in each particular universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1301.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-01 08:17:11*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The recent progress in the understanding of preferred extremals of Kaehler action leads to the conclusion that they satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equations with cosmological term with Newton's constant and cosmological constant predicted to have a spectrum. One particular implication is that preferred extremals have a constant value of Ricci scalar. The implications of this are expected to be very powerful since it is known that D>2-dimensional manifolds allow a constant curvature metric with volume and other geometric invariants serving as topological invariants. Also the the possibly discrete generalization of Ricci flow playing key role in manifold topology to Maxwell flow is very natural, and the connections with the geometric description of dissipation, self-organization, transition to chaos and also with coupling constant evolution are highly suggestive. A further fascinating possibility inspired by quantum classical correspondence is quantum ergodicity (QE): the statistical geometric properties of preferred extremals code for various correlations functions of zero energy states defined as their superpositions so that any preferred extremal in the superposition would serve as a representative of the zero energy state. QE would make possible to deduce correlation functions and S-matrix from the properties of single preferred extremal.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1301.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-01 08:33:11*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Whether right-handed neutrinos generate a supersymmetry in TGD has been a long standing open question. N=1 SUSY is certainly excluded by fermion number conservation but already N=2 defining a "complexification" of N=1 SUSY is possible and could generate right-handed neutrino and its antiparticle. These states should however possess a non-vanishing light-like momentum since the fully covariantly constant right-handed neutrino generates zero norm states. So called massless extremals (MEs) allow massless solutions of the modified Dirac equation for right-handed neutrino in the interior of space-time surface, and this seems to be case quite generally in Minkowskian signature for preferred extremals. This suggests that particle represented as magnetic flux tube structure with two wormhole contacts sliced between two MEs could serve as a starting point in attempts to understand the role of right handed neutrinos and how N=2 or N=4 SYM emerges at the level of space-time geometry. The following arguments inspired by the article of Nima Arkani-Hamed et al about twistorial scattering amplitudes suggest a more detailed physical interpretation of the possible SUSY associated with the right-handed neutrinos. The fact that right handed neutrinos have only gravitational interaction suggests a radical re-interpretation of SUSY: no SUSY breaking is needed since it is very difficult to distinguish between mass degenerate spartners of ordinary particles. In order to distinguish between different spartners one must be able to compare the gravitomagnetic energies of spartners in slowly varying external gravimagnetic field: this effect is extremely small.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory