[6] **viXra:1306.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-28 12:59:28*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Submitted to 2013 FQXi essay contest, "It from bit or bit from it"

In recent years, the notion that information may be the basis for reality, rather than the other way around, has become more popular. Here we consider the issue within the context of a general relation between the role of physical objects against the background in shaping the pattern of distinctions that can
then be translated into information. It is found that from this perspective, in classical physics substance
is more fundamental than information, while in general relativity they are on an equal footing. Quantum
superposition and collapse, on the other hand, introduce new considerations. A foundational principle is
introduced to give an explanation for quantum superposition, and from this principle it becomes evident
that to the extent that one frames the nature of quantum objects in terms of this dichotomy, in quantum
theory information is more fundamental. This implies that the description of quantum objects in a
superposition is dependent on features of the background, as these features set boundary conditions
on such manifestations. Thus, if this principle really does underlie quantum mechanics, it means that
the term "background independent quantum theory" has to be considered a contradiction, which has
implications for the search for a quantum theory of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1306.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-27 21:14:52*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted to the FQXi essay contest 2013, an abridged version of a three-part paper

Quantum theory treats rigorously of observables while the term “observer” is hardly itself a rigorous notion. We argue that the uncertainty principle must be understood in the Gödel sense that: any given observer constitutes own practical definition of “the unobservable” (if superposition) or namely length scale, phase space, fundamental frequency etc. Conversely, the observable is definable strictly only in inverse-observer values as, that is, the “wave function collapse” or respectively, inverse-length, phase-point, harmonics. One has thus a picture of the observer that in being participant is also non-local as in Gödel’s “consistency-is-undecidable” or Planck’s “the-constant-is-the-uncertainty” or indeed Einstein’s “speed-of-light-is-information-speed-limit”. Definitive of these three cases, we assert, is Peano’s (and Noether’s?) notion of the constant (our “observer”) as being for any gamut of events the meta-state (“conserved current”). Meaning now, it is the observer per se, and not his observables, which should constitute violation of Bell’s inequality—say, as the infinitesimal/imaginary axis or as the dimensionless/infinite-dimensional etc. We posit: any given observer signifies the virtual exchange of standard model or space-time of GR or just the metric (norm)—defined by the singular trait that it is the de facto “superposition” i.e. natural unit and natural limit of physical information. Observables emerge quite directly thus as the perturbations if “decoherence” or “spontaneous symmetry breaking” of the observer. Now this status of/or the observer we call rather the entity as against hitherto the uncertainty; difference is that we have an ontic as the uncertainty per se. For a prediction we show here an exact value demonstrating man as the entity or “natural unit” for quantum gravity. The idea is that in being to ourselves the most authentic sample of the term observer we should also represent to ourselves the purest sample possible of the term wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1306.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-28 04:34:43*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 21 Pages. This article can also be viewed by going to http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1606 or https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rodney_Bartlett/?ev=pub_int_doc_dlext

This article had its start with another article, concerned with measuring the speed of gravitational waves - "The Measurement of the Light Deflection from Jupiter: Experimental Results" by Ed Fomalont and Sergei Kopeikin (2003) - The Astrophysical Journal 598 (1): 704–711. This starting-point led to many other topics that required explanation or naturally seemed to follow on – Unification of gravity with electromagnetism and the 2 nuclear forces, Speed of electromagnetic waves, Energy of cosmic rays and UHECRs, Digital string theory, Isolation is an illusion, Dark energy + gravity + binary digits, Cosmic strings and wormholes from Figure-8 Klein bottles, Massless and massive photons and gravitons, Inverse square + quantum entanglement = God + evolution, Binary digits projected to make Prof. Greene’s cosmic holographic movie, Renormalization of infinity, Physically infinite universe, Colliding subuniverses, Unifying cosmic inflation, Theory Of Everything (emphasizing “EVERYthing”) = Bose-Einstein renormalized. The text also addresses (in a nonmathematical way) the wavelength of electromagnetic waves, the frequency of gravitational waves, gravitational and electromagnetic waves having identical speed, the gamma-ray burst designated GRB 090510, the smoothness of space, Self-influence and ESP caused by quantum entanglement in time, and Human involvement in the retrocausality of gravity, electromagnetism and matter. Topics in this article’s PS and PPS include – Gravitational waves actually have a much shorter wavelength than gamma rays, but are extraordinarily weak because almost all that energy goes into the formation of matter – How the Law of Conservation works – Mathematicians, physicists and Richard Feynman – Time travel to the past – Interstellar and intergalactic travel – Nonsupernatural God – 5th dimensional hyperspace – Dark Matter - Variable Speed of Light – Trillions of millennia in the distant future.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1306.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 17:57:25*

**Authors:** Juan Ramón González Álvarez

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Entry for 5th FQXi Essay Contest "It From Bit or Bit From It?"

It is broadly believed that everything in the universe is found to be made from a few basic building blocks called fundamental particles, governed by four fundamental forces. However, physicists such as John Archibald Wheeler suggested that information is fundamental to the physics of the universe. According to this it from bit doctrine, all things physical are information-theoretic in origin. This doctrine is based in the old Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics; an interpretation which is internally inconsistent and no applicable to the cosmos as a whole. Modern consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics eliminate the old myths about measurement processes and observers' consciousness and reintroduce the idea of a wholly physical reality, invalidating the it from bit doctrine. Utilizing a new phase space formulation of quantum mechanics developed recently by the author, the concepts of bit and it are reconsidered. We introduce the new states D as quantum bits and the new Hamiltonians H as quantum its. The new concepts of it and bit introduced in this work have a well-defined and rigorous definition, unlike Wheeler's concepts. Moreover, the new concepts apply on situations where the traditional wavefunction theory does not work. The it H is not derivable from the bit D and, as a consequence, the old it from bit doctrine gets substituted by the new it and bit. After showing why the physical entropy used in the science of thermodynamics is not a measure of the ignorance of human observers, the final part of this Essay is devoted to emphasize the importance that the bit acquires in modern science when confronted to the delicious multiplicity of the far-from-equilibrium regimes, where the certainty of Newtonian and Schrödinger motion begin to fade in favour of a complex non-geometrical, 'living', conception of Nature: an it and bit conception.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1306.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-16 00:10:10*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Will be seriously improved upon. This is a preliminary document

We represent how an off diagonal representation of stress energy in GR as given by Dodelson can be affected by an axion style domain wall treatment of a stress energy tensor in GR, as given by Kolb and Turner.We argue that this is a way of presenting how domain wall physics may impact graviton production which in turn has, through Dodelson and his off diagonal stress energy terms consequences as to non uniform evolution of space time cosmology. We close with a treatment of axions (a candidate for DM) as impacting GW, and through Dodelson having consequences which we outline at the end of this document. The off diagonal terms of the stress energy tensor alluded to are allegedly for large scale space-time evolution, but the transition for space-time from the big bang to the Electroweak regime is many thousands of times larger than Planckian space-time, so we argue that the off diagonal relation so used still holds

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1306.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-06 17:13:08*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 pages English (traslation); 4 pages Spanish (original)

This article is a summary of the development
of the possibility that the time is quantized
further given, along with the graviton and
angular momentum, for links between particles
and stars. It further believes that all
orbits orbit at the same speed, which is the
highest for phenomena thermodynamic.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory