[13] **viXra:0910.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The "Tetrahedron Model" is a model of the devolution (asymmetric transformation) of light (free
electromagnetic energy) into matter (bound electromagnetic energy), that is, of the relationship between the
two forms of electromagnetic energy which constitute our Universe. The "Tetrahedron Model" revolves
around the conversion of light into matter and vice versa, as regulated by four conservation laws: the
Conservation of Energy, Entropy, Symmetry, and Causality. These four conservation laws underlie the
formulation of any Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:0910.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-26 13:31:33*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. adding an introduction section

The primordial conservation role of gravity is to provide negative energy sufficient to exactly balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the universe can be born from a state of zero net energy as well as zero net charge (the latter due to the equal admixture of matter with antimatter). All subsequent conservation roles of gravity are secondary to and derived from this original creation-role.
Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe: 1) conserving the spatial entropy drive of light; 2) conserving the non-local distributional symmetry of light. In its entropy conservation role, gravity converts the intrinsic motion of light to the intrinsic motion of time - via the annihilation of space and the extraction of a metrically equivalent temporal residue. In its symmetry conservation role, gravity converts bound to free energy in stars and via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. These two conservation roles derive from the double gauge role of "velocity c", which regulates both light's intrinsic motion (the entropy drive of free electromagnetic energy), and light's non-local distributional symmetry (vanishing time and distance). Conserving light's non-local energy state via "location" charge, gravity simultaneously conserves light's entropy drive, since time itself is the active principle of "location" charge. Hence gravity's entropy conservation role is by default brought under the mantle of Noether's symmetry conservation theorem, revealing a pathway to the unification of gravitation with the other forces of physics: all charges of matter are symmetry debts of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:0910.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 23 pages, More details and the version in German language can be found on the authors web site (named inside the pdf)

From the constancy of light speed as demanded by the theory of special relativity (SRT) the time
dilatation, the length contraction and the unsynchronisation of time arises. These three quantities (values)
are not to be applied only to matter but also to the space as such, which is contained by matter. Due to this it
yields that space areas can be distinguished from other space areas by these three quantities (values). Since
these space areas, which are burdened with SRT values, must be in space again, too, it results that these
space areas (burdened with SRT values) can move in space as objects. When these space areas meet then
they overlap each other three-dimensionally and by doing this they build overlap areas (OA) with new SRT
values. In this way these space areas burdened with SRT values can interact with each other, what for they
are named space objects (SOs). It turns out that the SOs are able to interact with each other in the most
various ways. How this happens is shown among others in this work. Due to their interactions the SOs are
able to form highly complex structures, which we know as matter. Matter in its turn interacts by emitting
and absorbing grate numbers of SOs in a field like manner. The great importance of the SOs in our world is
underpinned in this work with several interesting examples; with that it is shown how the concept of the
definition of the SOs can be used, and that it makes sense to use it. The SOs are the elements upon which all
things are based and simultaneous they are the most basic of all elements also (in the time burdened threedimensional
space). The "Theory of Space Objects" represents a link between different sections of physics
such as gravitation, quantum theory, relativity, electromagnetism, building-up of matter, and much more.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:0910.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 3 pages

Original solution of gravity motion is curved 4 dimensional cosmic space. Massive objects move into
direction of higher curvature of space. Quantum gravity introduces idea that cosmic space is made out of
grains of Planck size. If space has granular structure one can consider space also has its density.
According to the second low of thermodynamics in the universe distribution of energy tends to be
homogeneous. More mass in given volume of quantum space less space is dense. Less space is dense
more space is curved. Massive objects move always into direction of lover density in higher curvature of
quantum space. Gravitational motion of massive objects is result of change of density of quantum space.
Change of density of quantum space is a physical basis for change of its curvature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:0910.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 May 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory as presented in these pages is summarized below:
"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric
field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light's
(broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by
inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light;
matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it. The charges of
matter are the symmetry debts of light. Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its
original symmetric state, paying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Payment is exampled by annihilation
reactions (electromagnetic force); radioactivity (fission), fusion, particle and proton decay (weak and strong
nuclear forces); the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes
(gravitational force). Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and
forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification.
The conservation of energy, symmetry, entropy, and causality, plus the requirement of primordial
symmetry-breaking followed by the maintenance of charge invariance (including the phenomena of "local
gauge symmetry"), are all key conceptual elements in the formulation of a Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:0910.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** B N Sreenath

**Comments:** 71 pages.

Quantum-Gravity (QG) is limited to bodies, which have attained their 'gravitational
radius' like Black holes (BH) and Quasars. QG has been explained and solved on entirely new
concepts and laws so as to bring within its scope not only unification of all physical interactions
including gravitation in its 'distorted' form and electro-magnetism but also other cosmological
problems which involve high energy existence like the BH dynamics, dark-energy, etc. This
becomes obvious once we go through the BH Chart and the Interaction-Table (IT). In BH Chart
and the IT, gravitational radius and the interaction-range are identified thus unifying the
phenomena occurring in BH with those of the micro-world. The two laws of QG enunciated
give rise to two fundamental constants in physics whose values are reciprocal to the values of
'C'and 'G'. The Quantum-Gravity field is identified with the "Exponentially Varying
Accelerated (or Gravity) Field" so that in it both test masses of classical size and micro-particles
of quantum size, describe the same 'Logarithmic Spiral Path'. Micro-particles can also describe
'Conical Spiral Path'. Thus QG field is an 'inward spinning field' which involves 'Torsion' and
'Curvature' varying. 'Spinors', which are used to describe the "Logarithmic Spiral Path" in BH,
give rise to "Immirzi Parameter". From the concept of 'unitary change in acceleration', atomic
transitions are explained and 'Heisenberg's Principle of Indeterminacy' is derived.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:0910.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-17 09:10:41*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The rationale for gravity begins with the creation of the Cosmos - the negative energy of gravity is necessary to balance the positive energy of the "Big Bang", so that the "Creation Event" requires zero net energy. In a similar fashion, antimatter is also required to balance the charges of matter so that creation occurs from a state of zero net charge. Beginning in such a state of complete neutrality (perhaps as a giant quantum fluctuation of the vacuum, an "inflationary bubble", or by Divine Fiat), the Universe must subsequently evolve into a state of complete conservation.
The gravitational rationale extends beyond the Creation Event to the creation of matter's time dimension and the conservation of the entropy drive and symmetric energy state of free electromagnetic energy (light). These secondary conservation roles (which manifest as the gravitational conversion of space to time, the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy via the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, the conversion of in-falling matter's potential gravitational energy to light in quasars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes), are natural consequences of the mode of action of gravity's primary role, which is the creation of negative energy and a negative entropy drive via the contraction and destruction of space (creating time), in contradistinction to the creation and expansion of space by the positive energy and entropy drive of light.
Both roles hinge upon the gravitational conservation of light's "non-local" distributional symmetry, yet they work in essentially opposite directions. The non-local symmetric energy state of light is a consequence of light's intrinsic motion, "velocity c", which gauges both the distributional symmetry and the symmetric, "all-way" spatial entropy drive of free energy. In these conservation roles gravity, like inertia and charge, enforces the conservation of free energy's symmetric energy state, as required by "Noether's Theorem". (See: "The Double Conservation Role of Gravitation".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:0910.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Jakob Petelin

**Comments:** 1 Page

A recent paper came to our attention in which the author makes a striking conclusion
about the properties of space. This paper investigates it in detail and demonstrates that
upon such conclusion either the General Theory of Relativity is wrong or the mentioned
author made some mistakes which have yet to be identified.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:0910.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-20 15:46:35*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Einstein's "Equivalence Principle" asserts that a gravitational field cannot be distinguished from a suitably chosen accelerated reference frame - essentially because we cannot distinguish between the reciprocal cases of spacetime accelerating through us (gravity), or our own acceleration through spacetime (as in a rocket ship). Hence the equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass - classically recognized by Newton as the equivalence between inertial resistance and gravitational "weight", but not understood.
Co-movers with a gravitational field (in free fall or orbit) experience no "weight" - the field apparently vanishes. This seminal observation allowed Einstein to equate gravitational and inertial fields in his General Theory of Relativity. Because there is another way to "vanish" a gravitational field, the possibility of extending Einstein's "Equivalence Principle" beyond inertial force is raised. The conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in many spontaneous astrophysical processes, such as stars (partially) and black holes (completely), "vanishes" the gravitational field that had been associated with the converted mass. This suggests a heuristic conceptual pathway for the unification of forces through Noether's symmetry conservation theorem via the equivalence of all charges and forces (including gravity) as symmetry debts of light: the charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.
In this view gravity is seen as arising from a "location" charge which records the symmetry debt carried by any immobile massive particle, the debt arising from the loss of the non-local distributional symmetry of the light which created the particle or otherwise contributed to its mass. The active principle of this "location" charge is time, whose intrinsic motion also produces the historical entropy drive of matter. (See: "Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part I"; "Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics"; "The Double Conservation Role of Gravitation: Entropy vs Symmetry".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:0910.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-24 15:40:23*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The primordial conservation role of gravity is to provide negative energy sufficient to exactly balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the universe can be born from a state of zero net energy as well as zero net charge (the latter due to the equal admixture of matter with antimatter). All subsequent conservation roles of gravity are secondary to and derived from this original creation-role. (Negative energy is created by the collapse (rather than expansion) of spacetime and by the explicit presence of the time dimension.)
Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe:
1) Conserving light's spatial entropy drive (light's intrinsic motion), which is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of space to time - converting light's intrinsic motion to time's intrinsic motion. (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time".)
2) Conserving the non-local distributional symmetry of light's energy, which is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy in stars (partially), and (completely) in Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes (see: "Extending Einstein's "Equivalence Principle").
This double role is consequent upon Noether's Theorem and the double gauge role of "velocity c", which simultaneously regulates the entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic spatial motion of light), and the non-local distributional symmetry of light's energy (vanishing time and the x (distance) spatial dimension). The entropy conservation role operates at all gravitational energy levels, while the symmetry conservation role must reach an energetic threshold before nuclear fusion can begin (in stellar interiors).
Noether's Theorem requires the conservation of light's various symmetries: the charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. Charge conservation = symmetry conservation. All massive, immobile particles (bound electromagnetic energy) bear a gravitational "location" charge (-Gm) which represents the "non-local" distributional, metric, and entropic symmetry debt of the freely moving light (free electromagnetic energy) which created them. (See: "The Connection Between Gravitation, Time, Entropy, and Symmetry".)
At all energies, gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the symmetry debt of matter by converting space to time, thus providing an alternative entropic domain in which charge conservation can have a deferred historical and causal meaning. At high energy levels (as in stars), gravity also begins to pay the "principle" on matter's symmetry debt, converting bound to free energy (vanishing the gravitational field as mass is vanished). The universal spatial expansion is reduced by the initial entropic conversion, as space is converted to time; the original expansion is restored, however, when mass is converted to light, reducing the total gravitational field energy and producing the impression of an "accelerating" universe. "Dark energy" is therefore simply the reduction of the cosmic gravitational field by the conversion of bound to free energy in stars or by any symmetry conservation/restoration process (which may also be operating in "dark matter").

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:0910.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 1 pages

Quantization of the cosmic space allows introduction of density of cosmic space. Medium that has
granular structure can also have density. More mass is in a given volume of quantum space, less space
is dense. In General Theory of Relativity gravity is generated by change of curvature of cosmic space,
here by change of density. The basis for curvature of space is its density. Einstein curvature tensor in a
form 1/G is Density tensor of quantum space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:0910.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 5 pages

Clocks measure a frequency, velocity and numerical order of change. Experimental date confirms that
changes and clocks do not run time; they run in quantum space only. Time is not a part of quantum
space. Quantum space itself is timeless. In the universe as a whole amount of matter energy and
amount of quantum space energy is constant. Density of mass and density of quantum space in a given
volume of quantum space tends to be constant. Mass here is considered as a compressed energy of
quantum space. Presence of mass in a given volume of quantum space diminishes its density. Massive
objects move always into direction of lover density of quantum space. Gravitational motion of massive
objects is result of change of density of quantum space. In space with no change of density massive
object will not have gravitational motion as in centre of stellar objects or in a flat quantum space where
massive objects are far away. Change of density of quantum space corresponds in General Theory of
Relativity to the change of the curvature of space. Lower is density of quantum space bigger is its
curvature. Here is introduced density/curvature of quantum space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:0910.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 4 pages

The universe is in a continuous change. A change n gets transformed into a change n+1, the change
n+1 into a change n+2 and so on. Clocks measure a frequency, velocity and numerical order of change.
Experimental date confirms that changes and clocks do not run time; they run in quantum space only.
Time is not a part of quantum space. Quantum space itself is timeless. Physical time that is clocks run is
man created physical reality. Space-time is a math model merely. Fundamental arena of the universe is
timeless quantum space. In the timeless quantum space into which massive bodies and elementary
particles move there is no past and no future. Past and future belong to the inner neuronal space-time
that is a result of neuronal activity of the brain.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory