Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1705 Submissions

[13] viXra:1705.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 08:47:15

We Are Living in a Computer Simulation

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 18 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2016, 7, 1210-1227

This paper posits that we are living in a computer simulation to simulate physical reality which has the same computer simulation process as virtual reality (computer-simulated reality). The computer simulation process involves the digital representation of data, the mathematical computation of the digitized data in geometric formation and transformation in space-time, and the selective retention of events in a narrative. Conventional physics cannot explain physical reality clearly, while computer-simulated physics can explain physical reality clearly by using the computer simulation process consisting of the digital representation component, the mathematical computation component, and the selective retention component. For the digital representation component, the three intrinsic data (properties) are rest mass-kinetic energy, electric charge, and spin which are represented by the digital space structure, the digital spin, and the digital electric charge, respectively. The digital representations of rest mass and kinetic energy are 1 as attachment space for the space of matter and 0 as detachment space for the zero-space of matter, respectively, to explain the Higgs field, the reverse Higgs field, quantum mechanics, special relativity, force fields, dark matter, and baryonic matter. The digital representations of the exclusive and the inclusive occupations of positions are ½ spin fermion and integer spin boson, respectively, to explain spatial translation by supersymmetry transformation and dark energy. The digital representations of the allowance and the disallowance of irreversible kinetic energy are integral electric charges and fractional electric charges, respectively, to explain the confinements of quarks and quasiparticles. For the mathematical computation component, the mathematical computation involves the reversible multiverse and oscillating M-theory as oscillating membrane-string-particle whose space-time dimension (D) number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D to explain cosmology. For the selective retention component, gravity, the strong force, electromagnetism, and the weak force are the retained events during the reversible four-stage evolution of our universe, and are unified by the common narrative of the evolution.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1705.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 08:58:46

The Unified Theory of Physics: Symmetry Physics and Yinyang Physics

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 13 Pages.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and yinyang physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional yinyang physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of opposite physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1705.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 19:45:25

How a Setting of the Vacuum Energy Density, to Today’s Value in the Early Universe, Leads to an Initial Hubble Radius for the Early Universe. I.e. How the Early Universe Partly Mimics a Black Hole.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

First we review what was done by Klauber, in his quantum field theory calculation of the Vacuum energy density, and in doing so, use, instead of Planck Mass, which has 10^19 GeV, which leads to an answer 10 ^ 122 times too large, a cut off value of instead, a number, N, of gravitons , times graviton mass (assumed to be about 10^-43 GeV) to get a number, N, count of about 10^31 if the vacuum energy is to avoid an overshoot of 10^122, and instead have a vacuum energy 10^-47GeV^4. Afterwards, we use the results of Mueller and Lousto, to compare the number N, of 10^31, assumed to be entropy using Ng’ infinite quantum statistics , to the ratio of the square of (the Hubble (observational ) radius over a calculated grid size which we call a) . Here, a ~ a minimum time step we call delta t, times the speed of light. Now in doing so we use a root finder procedure to obtain were we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1705.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 07:42:57

Gravitational Theory of Entropy

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract:From Einstein,we knowed the relation between gravity and time.We know time and entropy have a relation from thermodynamics.So gravity must have a relation with entropy.In fact,some experments have proved it.So I write this paper to describe this relation between gravity and entropy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1705.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-22 20:56:40

A Tetrahedral Model of a "Theory of Everything"

Authors: John A. Gowan, August T. Jaccaci
Comments: 1 Page. revision of some text in diagram

A semiotic model of a "Theory of Everything" in the general form of a tetrahedron is presented, with a short explanatory text.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1705.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 20:50:38

How a Minimum Time Step and Formation of Initial Causal Structure in Space-Time May Void the Penrose Singularity Theorem, as in Hawkings and Ellis’s 1973 Write Ups

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 8 Pages.

Analyzing a potential violation of a Penrose singularity theorem, via root finders, and other means.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1705.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 07:08:17

Gravity Stretching Quantum Objects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Now, new research in the American Physical Society's journal Physical Review Letters brings aspects of the two together in an experiment that shows, for the first time, that gravity stretches and squeezes quantum objects through tidal forces. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1705.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 16:11:03

Isenthalpic Quantum Gravity

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1705.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-11 00:50:39

In Theory of Everything Simplicity Does Not Compete with Accuracy

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Can we guess the initial conditions for the Theory of Everything (ToE)? We understand such initial conditions as a set of all parameters, initial symmetries, and initial equations. Initial symmetries and initial equations can point possible phase transitions which can lead to additional symmetries and additional equations called here the additional conditions. Such additional conditions result from initial conditions so they do not decrease consistency of theory. On the other hand, appearing anomalies in a theory that cannot be explained within initial and additional conditions, always lead to new/free parameters. Free parameters need ad hoc hypotheses (i.e. some corrections that do not result from initial and additional conditions) which always weaken the theories. Elimination of ad-hoc/free parameters by increasing number of initial conditions causes Occam’s razor to be a determinant of the consistency of theories describing the same phenomena. The Occam’s razor is defined as follows: “Among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected” [1]. It means that consistency of a theory can be defined as the inverse of the number which is the sum of all parameters, initial symmetries and initial equations (the sum of elements of the three different groups of initial conditions). New symmetries and new equations, which in a natural way appear on higher levels of ToE (the Standard Model (SM) and General Relativity (GR) are the higher levels of ToE), if we know the lowest levels of ToE, do not decrease the consistency of the theory. Authors of theories add the ad hoc hypotheses to prevent them from being falsified. Such non-scientific method causes that theories become more and more complex so their consistency is lower and lower. In physics, naturalness means that the dimensionless ratios between parameters take values of order 1. Parameters varying by many orders of magnitude need so called fine-tuning symmetries. It suggests that fine-tuned theories should be more complex i.e. their consistency should be lower. But Nature shows that it is the vice versa. It leads to conclusion that fine-tuned theories are closer to ToE. Here we guessed the initial conditions for ToE, we explained why consistency of presented here ToE is highest and why it is the fine-tuned theory. The consistency factor of presented here ToE is 1/(7+5+4)=0.0625 and it is the highest possible value for ToE-like theories. Consistency factor of SM is much lower so it is the incomplete theory sometimes leading to incorrect results.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1705.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 11:33:22

The time prior to the Big-Bang

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 23 Pages.

Abstract The law that states: ‘’Matter can be converted to Energy and vice versa’’ Needs also incorporate that: ‘’Anti-Matter can be converted to Anti-Energy and vice versa’’ With this assumption, the Universe can be modelled with precisely equal amount of Energy and Anti-Energy prior to the Big-Bang which can cause the formation of a single particle that would be the building block of the entire Universe from matter to forces of nature in different manifestation. Hence could be calculated and identified as the quantum gravity. This particle has the values of Planck [1] mass, time frequency and distance. In this paper the calculation and the different manifestation of this particle has shown to be precisely in agreement with theory of the Hot Big-Bang and in accordance with the observations in particle physics, cosmology and the laws of nature. The quantum gravity particle is the force behind the expansion of the universe [2], the unification of the forces of nature [3] and Wave, Particle and Luminiferous aether trinity of the light [4]. This particle is made of energy encapsulating precisely equal amount of anti-energy in the form of perfect sphere or the most symmetrical shape in the Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1705.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-06 14:40:55

Coordinate Free Non Abelian Geometry I: the Quantum Case of Simplicial Manifolds.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We study the geometry of a simplicial complexes from an algebraic point of view and devise general quantization rules; the rules emerging in spin foam theory are shown to comprise a particular subcase.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1705.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-06 18:11:11

Gravitational Shape the Quantum Topology

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper addresses the problem of the hierarchy on the basis of quantum gravity and topology
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1705.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 08:45:41

The Rulers of Fermi and Planck in Two Entangled Universes

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 06 pages and 12 references

The Holographic Principle is applied in 3-D and 2-D universes described by volume and surface of a sphere having a radius in the scale of the cosmological constant. Making the equality between the degrees of freedom furnished by the holographic description of them, we find the radius of the observable universe. While doing this, weak interaction coupling and quantum gravity play their role.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory