[12] **viXra:1601.0357 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-02 11:50:24*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The observed and theoretical results for the perihelion precession of planets are very close except for the planet Venus - observed value is about 204 arc seconds per century whereas theoretical value is more than 5 times higher. It is assumed that the main reason for this is that Venus has an unusually low eccentricity (e = 0.0068) so its perihelion point is very sensitive to small perturbations. But such an explanation is not convincing because eccentricities of Neptune (e = 0.0086) and Earth (e = 0.0167) are very low as well whereas theoretical results are much better. Within the mainstream theories, we cannot show the origin of the precession rate for Venus. The Scale-Symmetric Theory provides a different explanation for the discrepancy for Venus and leads to the value about 204.5 arc seconds per century. The correct solution follows from the origin of the Titius-Bode law for the modified black holes and solar system. We showed also that there is a resonance between the two values obtained by applying the two very different methods in calculating the precession rate of Mercury i.e. the Newtonian Mechanics plus the General-Relativity (GR) correction and the Scale-Symmetric Theory plus the PPN-formalism perihelion shift. In both methods, the central value is 574.6 arc seconds per century and is consistent with observational data. But we can calculate the total precession rates for Mercury and Venus within the Scale-Symmetric Theory without the participation of the PPN formalism or other theories. Then we obtain 574.36 arcsec/century for Mercury (this result is closer to the observational-data central value 574.10 +- 0.65 arcsec/century) and 204.44 arcsec/century for Venus.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1601.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-28 09:20:23*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Poster presentation, PMS_003, Andhra Pradesh Academi of Sciences, 1st Science Congress, Tirupati, AP, India. (27/29-Jan-2016)

Till today, there is no single model available that fully incorporates the standard model of nuclear physics, quantum mechanics and general relativity. In this context, by considering the strength of Schwarzschild interaction as ‘unity’, it is possible to show that, 1) There exists an elementary charge connected with strong interaction, (es); 2) Strong coupling constant is equal to the squared ratio of electromagnetic elementary charge and strong interaction elementary charge. 3) Electromagnetic interaction and the strong interaction both associated with two different gravitational constants (Ge,Gs,). 4) Quantum mechanical constants are secondary physical constants. 5) Currently believed average binding per nucleon is equal to the gravitational self energy of proton. 6) Proton’s magnetic moment is equal to {(es.hbar)/(2mp)} and neutron’s magnetic moment is equal to {(es.hbar)/(2mp)}-{ (ee.hbar)/(2mn)}. 7) Nuclear charge radius is equal to (2Gsmp/c2). 8) Root mean square radius of proton is equal to (√2.Gsmp/c2). Proceeding further, nuclear stability, nuclear binding energy and magic numbers can be understood in a very simplified manner.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1601.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-26 13:51:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, all bodies in a vacuum regardless of their properties are accelerated by the Earth's gravity at the same rate. This principle of equivalence applies to stones, feathers and atoms alike. Under the conditions of microgravity very long and precise measurements can be carried out to determine whether different atoms of different mass actually "fall equally fast". [5]
We can show that the Equivalence Principle is based on the Electromagnetic Force. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1601.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-22 07:42:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1601.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-04 11:35:05*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 15 Pages. proton mass related to gravity

Originally. I had worked on an equation for charge and gravity. I had found that charge was mostly related to the electron mass, I since found out that gravity is most related to the proton mass. The realization came when I was working on “The Answer to the Universe, the Life and Everything is Still 42” I had an extra term for the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. To get rid of that term, I came to the realization that Gravity was related to the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. This paper is then an up dated version of “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”, which are the previous versions of this update.
This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza).
The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1601.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 11:34:46*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The empirical successes of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) suggest that there is a serious problem with Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory. Could dark matter have positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy? Einstein wrote (“The Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 57) that “A little reflection will show that the law of the equality of the inert and the gravitational mass is equivalent to the assertion that the acceleration imparted to a body by a gravitational field is independent of the nature of the body. For Newton's equation of motion in a gravitational field, written out in full, is (Inert mass) * (Acceleration) = (Intensity of the gravitational field) * (Gravitational mass). It is only when there is numerical equality between the inert and gravitational mass that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body.” Is it necessarily true that IT IS ONLY WHEN THERE IS NUMERICAL EQUALITY between inertial mass-energy and gravitational mass-energy that THE ACCELERATION IS INDEPENDENT OF THE NATURE OF THE BODY? There is a possibility that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body but THERE IS A SYSTEMATIC DEVIATION between the inertial mass-energy and gravitational mass-energy. Consider Einstein’s field equations: R(mu,nu) + (-1/2) * g(mu,nu) * R = - κ * T(mu,nu) - Λ * g(mu,nu) — what might be wrong? Consider the possible correction R(mu,nu) + (-1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant) * g(mu,nu) * R = - κ * (T(mu,nu) / equivalence-principle-failure-factor) - Λ * g(mu,nu), where equivalence-principle-failure-factor = (1 - (T(mu,nu)/T(max))^2)^(1/2) — if dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 and T(max) = +∞ then Einstein’s field equations are recovered. Empirical evidence shows that black holes exist. The event horizons of black holes might be figments of the imagination caused by believing in Einstein’s equivalence principle. John P. Lestone’s ideas might suggest that something is wrong with Einstein’s field equations. This brief communication argues that relativistic MOND is the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1601.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-13 09:50:33*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Using the principles of CQI and E8 charge space-qubit entanglement mentioned above, it is possible to represent various particle creations and particle-particle interactions using creation, rotation and other qubit operators. Discussed here are formulations, procedures and examples of the same.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1601.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-10 11:56:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Sabine Hossenfelder states, “The Holographic Principle requires that the number of different states inside a volume is bounded by the surface of the volume. That sounds like a rather innocuous and academic constraint, but once you start thinking about it it’s totally mindboggling.”(2)This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. It gives a mechanism of why the Holographic Principle is true.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1601.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 13:57:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The curved space-time around current loops and solenoids carrying arbitrarily large steady electric currents is obtained from the numerical resolution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations in cylindrical symmetry. The artificial gravitational field associated to the generation of a magnetic field produces gravitational redshift of photons and deviation of light. Null geodesics in the curved space-time of current loops and solenoids are also presented. We finally propose an experimental setup, achievable with current technology of superconducting coils, that produces a phase shift of light of the same order of magnitude than astrophysical signals in ground-based gravitational wave observatories. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1601.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-07 11:35:21*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Some 2D and 3D black hole exterior solutions for Quantum Graphity are briefly presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1601.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-04 07:49:22*

**Authors:** Sudhanva Joshi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

For many centuries now, scientists have been trying to find the origin of time.Perhaps,on more deeper thoughts what is TIME itself? Some think it as some sort of cymatic matter,some think that it is the result of uniform flow of space-time continuum while others think it as quantitative term for ‘existence’. But nobody knows till now what exactly is time?what does it stand for?will it ever end? Etc.In this paper,I have simply tried some tricks with einsteins field equations to get an exact low energy solution for possible physical properties of TIME.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1601.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-01 14:16:42*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Matter cannot be fat, round, bulging, bulbous or anything other than stringlike.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory