Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1801 Submissions

[18] viXra:1801.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-25 11:51:23

A New Perspective on Newtonian Gravity

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton’s theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton’s gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton’s gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton’s gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton’s theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton’s gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton’s theory of universal gravitation is all about.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1801.0291 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-25 15:11:40

Sphere Theory Explains Cosmic Expansion Increase Five Billion Years Ago

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Sphere Theory has shown that Planck Pressure(1) is the gravitational force between two Hubble Universes on Planck Area. This paper shows that the perceived change in acceleration of the universe, at about 5 billion light years, can be explained by the gravity between two universes. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is at 5.27 billion light years from the center of the universe. It is hypothesized here, that if the observed change in the rate of expansion of the universe occurs at exactly 5.27 billion light years from earth, that the earth is near the center of the universe, that there are multiple equal sized universes, and the boundary of the universe is the Hubble sphere at approximately 13.8 billion light years in radius. Since there will be 12 spheres surrounding the one sphere, there should actually be some spherical shape to the appearance of a rate of expansion with dimples and points. It should be pointed out that there should be other mechanisms that are much larger contributors to the appearance of a rate of expansion to the universe, but as more data is gathered the shape of the change in rate of expansion, from the external universes, should become evident.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1801.0290 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-31 04:04:36

Sphere Theory Explains the Prevalence of the Golden Ratio

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages. The Golden Ratio

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is a sphere made of spheres, made of spheres, etc. (1) It was shown by Sphere Theory that Planck Pressure is a pressure of gravitational force between adjacent Hubble Sphere universes. (2) We can use a simple calculation to show why the Golden Ratio is prevalent in our universe. The Golden Ratio can be shown to be produced by the gravity between two, uniform, and symmetrical spheres. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is found to be related to the Golden Ratio.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1801.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-22 06:57:56

Titius-Bode Law as a Quantification of Gravity (In Hungarian)

Authors: Dezső Sarkadi
Comments: 8 Pages. In Hungarian

In today's physics, there is an increased interest in the supposed properties of a future Quantum Gravity in the fields of theoretical foundation and as well as experimental verification. The ultimate goal of this re-search is the creation of a definitive, universally accepted theory of Quantum Gravity. In the present work, the two hundred and fifty years of history Titius-Bode rule is investigated, under the assumption that this empirical fact is a key evidence of the quantized feature of the already long known classical gravity. Keywords: Titius-Bode rule, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, de Broglie matter wave, Quantum Gravity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1801.0264 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-25 11:43:12

Relativistic Equations of Quantum Mechanics in the Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The Dirac equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1801.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-20 00:45:39

Dark Energy and the Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to Canadian Journal of Physics

We revisit the solutions to the nonlinear Bohm-Poisson (BP) equation with relevant cosmological applications. In particular, we obtain an exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density and explain the origins of its repulsive gravitational nature. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime; how Bohm's quantum potential in four-dimensions could be re-interpreted as a gravitational potential in five-dimensions, and which explains why the presence of dark energy/dark matter in our 4D spacetime can only be inferred indirectly, but not be detected/observed directly. Solutions to the novel Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy (repulsive gravity). We proceed with a discussion on Asymptotic safety, matter creation from the vacuum, and Finsler relativistic extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation. Finally, we conclude with some comments about the Dirac-Eddington large numbers coincidences.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1801.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 03:44:09

Quantum Gravity with Entangled Masses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1801.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 08:06:14

Sphere Theory Calculates a Hubble Constant in Line with Average of Wikipedia Summary

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres. Professor Adam Riess, from John Hopkins University states “A mathematical discrepancy in the expansion rate of the Universe is now "pretty serious", and could point the way to a major discovery in physics.” His newly calculated value is 73.24.(1) Sphere Theory calculates the value to be 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc (2) If we look at Evidence for Granulated Space, we that the size of the Hubble Sphere is 13.7659 billion light years(2) If we convert this to a constant Hubble Constant it converts to 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc. This compares to the following Hubble constants calculated from the Wikipedia summary table of 71.027. (km/s)/Mpc.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1801.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-17 09:47:25

On Gravitational Quantum Wavefunctions

Authors: Jean Pierre Rukundo
Comments: 5 Pages.

A gravitational momentum space wavefunction and its inverse spacetime Fourier transformation are constructed from the classical particle Lagrangian. From non-relativistic metric, the momentum space wavefunction gives the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with gravity temperature relation and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Schrodinger equation with a harmonic oscillator potential, leading to the Gauss’s law for gravity with mass density gravity relation. From the special relativity metric, which is shown to set the temperature at about 7.64×10^-12 K and density at about 3.58×10^9 kgm^-3, the momentum space wavefunction gives a relativistic momentum distribution and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Dirac equation with a spacetime potential. Finally, the many identical particles wavefunctions are also constructed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1801.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-25 17:09:45

String Theory

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

String theory is an unrealistic theory because it's based on 11 dimensions, our universe only has 3 dimensions. Those 7 extra dimensions cannot exist in our universe because a dimension is based on the following principle, the next dimension cannot exist in the previous dimension.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1801.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-20 17:57:17

Parametric Validation Reinforcement Loops, and the Cosmological Constant Problem

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Consider how the meridians of gnomonic projected light waves onto vision receptors are similarly distorted. Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4 spacetime is just one phase of this multispace. The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained (Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1801.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 02:13:45

Quantized Gravitational Field

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 100 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Quantized Gravitational Field “I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational field is Gravitons” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books that the gravitational field g is a vector at each point of space and time, a vector pointing directly towards the particle. In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function. Gravitons do not exist in Einstein’s gravitation theory, because General relativity is not a quantum theory. “In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not a vector at each point of space and time, where there are not gravitons there is not gravitational field” Adrian Ferent “In my Gravitation theory the density of flux lines is replaced by graviton flux” Adrian Ferent “Gravitation field lines are gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Each graviton in the gravitational field has a speed v and a negative momentum p = -mv” Adrian Ferent “The graviton flux is defined as the number of gravitons per second per unit area” Adrian Ferent “The power density is the graviton flux multiplied by the energy of a single graviton” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1801.0083 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-14 20:53:15

The Relativity of Time

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1-5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description how consciousness would emerge (as proposed in paper 3 [3]) from time-space. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, while explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s proposal of consciousness emerging from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). Additionally, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space per the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space via which a model of “human” consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the wormholes, red-shift effect, carbon dating, gamma radiation, white holes, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy, will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed, proof not yet proposed by contemporary science.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1801.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-26 03:13:33

Electrical Moonshine

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 7 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the Witten 'moonshine entropy' lnD, with D = 196883 = 59(59²-12²). The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the controversial tabulated one. The monstrous fifth number in the fractional development of pi is clearly involved. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D, implies the string central number 496, very close to the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses, which are connected by an holographic relation, confirming the Eddington tau-proton symmetry and the symmetrical Koide relation. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass, from its approximation 59²me, so directly tied to D, and compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1801.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 09:29:14

General Theory of Relativity in the Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Equations of the general theory of relativity are derived within the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. A new interpretation of gravitation is given. The absence of quantum gravity is predicted.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1801.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 05:27:07

Neutrons Probe Quantum Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1801.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 06:04:25

Dark Decades in Particle Physics and Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Mathematics is the Heaven of physics but at the same time can often be a hell that leads astray. Here we present a list of the twelve most illogical ideas in particle physics and cosmology accepted by the scientific community. One of the items on the list is the Higgs mechanism. We show that in fact the Higgs mechanism does not explain the origin of the gravitating masses or gravitational fields. The Higgs mechanism is a mathematical hocus-pocus because it does not refer to physical phenomena. The superluminal quantum entanglement causes that in reality quantum physics is classical and statistical. Observers claim that the Uncertainty Principle is valid because detectors can not see the superluminal exchanges. What’s more, the detectors see a statistical picture of a large number of consecutive states that are often the same states. Speed of photons in “vacuum” is invariant/the-same only in relation to the systems with which the photons are entangled.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1801.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 23:37:31

Energy in the Three-Dimensional Gravity Chern-Simons.

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 1 Page.

In this variant, the geometry is related to the energy, which is equal to the average langrangian of three-dimensional gravity. The topology of a three-dimensional space generates the energy of a particle
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory