[17] **viXra:1407.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 14:34:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the origin of the UV-photon underproduction crisis. The observational facts lead to conclusion that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate for the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest should be larger than the predicted value. The Scale-Symmetric Theory shows that it is directly associated with the ratio of the present-day radius of the Universe to its initial radius.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1407.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-28 04:51:35*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal.

The present reading is part of our on-going attempt at the foremost endeavour of physics since man began to comprehend the heavens and the earth. We present a much more improved unified field theory of all the Forces of Nature i.e. the gravitational, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces. The proposed theory is a radical improvement of Professor Herman Weyl's supposed failed attempt at a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. As is the case with Professor Weyl's theory, unit vectors in the resulting/proposed theory vary from one point to the next, albeit, in a manner such that they are compelled to yield tensorial affinities. In a separate reading, the Dirac equation is shown to emerge as part of the description of the these variable unit vectors. The nuclear force fields -- i.e., electromagnetic, weak and the strong -- together with the gravitational force field are seen to be described by a four vector field, which forms part of the body of the variable unit vectors and hence the metric of spacetime. The resulting theory very strongly appears to be a logically consistent and coherent unification of classical and quantum physics and at the same time a grand unity of all the forces of Nature. Unlike most unification theories, the present proposal is unique in that it achieves unification on a four dimensional continuum of spacetime without the need for extra-dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1407.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 21:53:24*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1407.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 18:47:09*

**Authors:** Yong Bao

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Unruh temperature, entropy and entropy force on the Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) can be modified. The generalized modified mean energy method (ELOE) is proposed to obtain the modified Unruh temperature and its quantization on the event horizon. And the modified entropy and entropy force are derived. These are important for solving the black hole correction problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1407.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-21 12:22:31*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** Pages.

In this Article I lay down the Theory of Relativistic Quantum Chemistry which unify Radiation Chemistry of Curie, Quantum Radiation of Planck, Cosmic Background Radiation of Friedmann, Alpha Radiation of Rutherford and Nuclear Radiation of Einstein

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1407.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 08:53:03*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1407.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-24 22:05:07*

**Authors:** Eytan Suchard

**Comments:** 48 Pages. Corrections in Planck area explanation.

In De Sitter / Anti De Sitter space-time and in other geometries, reference sub-manifolds from which proper time is measured along integral curves, are described as events. We introduce here a foliation with the help of a scalar field. The scalar field need not be unique but from the gradient of the scalar field, an intrinsic Reeb vector of the foliations perpendicular to the gradient vector is calculated. The Reeb vector describes the acceleration of a physical particle that moves along the integral curves that are formed by the gradient of the scalar field. The Reeb vector appears as a component of an anti-symmetric matrix which is a part of a rank-2, 2-Form. The 2-form is extended into a non-degenerate 4-form and into rank-4 matrix of a 2-form, which when multiplied by a velocity of a particle, becomes the acceleration of the particle. The matrix has one U(1) degree of freedom and an additional SU(2) degrees of freedom in two vectors that span the plane perpendicular to the gradient of the scalar field and to the Reeb vector. In total, there are U(1) x SU(2) degrees of freedom. SU(3) degrees of freedom arise from three dimensional foliations but require an additional symmetry to exist in order to have a valid covariant meaning. The model aims at Causal Sets, that when not aligned along geodesic curves, force material clocks of different types, not to move geodetically, thus meaning forces and matter. This paper mostly deals with U(1) type clocks but also discusses SU(2) and SU(3) and in a more detailed way in appendix C.
Matter in the Einstein Grossmann equation is replaced by the action of the acceleration field, i.e. by a geometric action which is not anticipated by the metric alone. This idea leads to a new formalism that replaces the conventional stress-energy-momentum-tensor. The formalism will be mainly developed for classical physics but will also be discussed for quantized physics based on events instead of particles. The result is that a positive charge manifests small attracting gravity and a stronger but small repelling acceleration field that repels even uncharged particles that have a rest mass. Negative charge manifests a repelling anti-gravity but also a stronger acceleration field that attracts even uncharged particles that have rest mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1407.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-15 19:15:27*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) implies that the Lambda-Cold-Dark-Matter (Lambda-CDM) model is significantly wrong. Based upon a speculative, MOND-based theory of quantum gravity, this brief communication describes a Lambda-Virtual-Dark-Matter (Lambda-VDM) model that allows for precise testing of the speculative theory of quantum gravity. There are 2 basic new ideas: Idea 1 is to replace the -1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s field equations by -1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4)) * 10^‐5. Idea 2 is that dark matter has positive gravitational mass-energy and zero inertial mass-energy and that the universe converts ordinary matter into dark matter over cosmological time; the % of ordinary matter monotonically decreases over time according to a precise formula; when the % of ordinary matter is sufficiently close to zero the entire universe undergoes an instantaneous quantum collapse. Part of Idea 2 is that dark matter is always virtual mass-energy and can never be directly measured. The Lambda-VDM model might provide a resolution of the Photon Underproduction Crisis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1407.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-22 00:42:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

About "Black hole realities" by David J. Eicher (Astronomy magazine - August 2014) -
We just need to look at black holes in an original way to see that the reservations expressed by Astronomy's Editor concerning the "Cosmos" TV series' episode about black holes can be answered in a scientific way. There's no need to refer to science fiction at all - but only to Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and quantum mechanics.
Reason for replacement of previous version – to add a subsection proposing 1) that time travel can account for ordinary atomic matter being the basis of ALL dark matter, 2) that the Sun is centuries younger then we think, 3) that the anthropic principle restricts the amount of time travel.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1407.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 14:30:26*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, the origin and nature of the extreme-energy cosmic rays exceeding the GZK limit have to be explained. It follows from the four-particle symmetry and the phenomena which take place in collapsing to neutron star a big star. There are produced the binary systems of discs composed of the W or Z bosons. They decay to two tagged photons moving in opposite directions. There also are possible the other channels of decay so the decays to two tagged photons are very rare. The discs have strictly determined mass so the photons have strictly determined energy. The obtained results are consistent with the energy of the Oh-My-God particle seen in the detector operated by the University of Utah. The lowest mass/energy of such discs/photons should be detected in CERN. Here as well is explained why the energy distribution of cosmic rays should peak at approximately 0.32 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1407.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 12:08:55*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A recent study entitled “The Photon Underproduction Crisis” claims that there are two surprising possibilities: the first possibility is that galaxies and quasars contribute far more photons than astronomers now believe; the second possibility is that the ΛCDM model of the low-redshift universe is significantly wrong. Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) implies that the ΛCDM model is significantly wrong. This brief communications makes a Photon Underproduction Profile Prediction based upon a speculative MOND-based theory of string theory with the Finite Nature Hypothesis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1407.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 14:26:36*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, evolution of the Milky Way (and similar massive galaxies) has to be explained descriptively and partially quantitatively. There is described production of the protoarms of the massive spiral galaxies, production of the Fermi Bubbles, and dwarf galaxies. Due to the two succeeding transformations of groups of the binary systems of electron-positron pairs via the electromagnetic-type weak condensates inside the bare electrons, there are emitted the gamma-rays with central values of energy in approximation equal to: 1.3 GeV, 2.6 GeV, 5.3 GeV, 10.6 GeV, 21 GeV, 42 GeV and 85 GeV. For muon-antimuon pair we obtain about 137 GeV, whereas for kaon-antikaon pair is 639 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1407.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 04:53:19*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We study the mechanism by which the particle-antiparticle entangled state collapses instantaneously at a distance. By making two key assumptions, we are able to show not only that instantaneous collapse of a wave function at a distance is possible but also that it is an invariant quantity under Lorentz transformation and compatible with relativity. In addition, we will be able to detect in which situation a many-body entangled system exhibits the maximum collapse speed among its entangled particles. Finally we suggest that every force in nature acts via entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1407.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 09:18:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1407.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-10 13:44:08*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author, the ratio ${H(z) / (1+z)}$ should be equal to the Hubble constant. Here, the weighted average value of the Hubble constant has been
found using 29 observed values of the Hubble parameter $H(z)$:
$

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1407.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-09 09:31:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1407.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-04 11:31:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we proved that the unidentified emission line approximately 3.56 keV follows from the weak and electromagnetic interactions in plasma composed of fully ionized atoms of iron (the atomic nuclei of iron) and of free electrons. Temperature of the plasma is adequate for the captures of the free electrons by the ions in their n = 1 state, where n is the principal quantum number. Next, there are the transitions of the emitted X-rays/photons into electromagnetic-type or weak-type weak condensates inside protons. The energy of the weak condensates leaks from protons and again transforms into electromagnetic energy. Such two succeeding transitions via the electromagnetic-type weak condensate decrease the initial energy to 3.5566 keV - it is some analogy to the phenomenon dominating in a LASER, i.e. the wave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The obtained theoretical result (3.5566 keV) is consistent with the MOS and PN (they are the two different CCD detectors on XMM-Newton) observations. Probability of creation of the weak-type weak condensates is very low - their production decreases the initial energy to 3.5157 keV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory