Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1107 Submissions

[3] viXra:1107.0046 [pdf] submitted on 24 Jul 2011

MCS Physics Article 4: Energy

Authors: Meir Amiram
Comments: 8 pages

I deduce that the interaction between EMPs and space “units” (hereinafter spacents) is the origin of Energy and that mass is nothing more or less than “amount of kinetic energy”. This allows me to conclude that dark energy does not exist. I further deduce that the EMP is the minimal photon in nature and that EMPs move through space in the speed of light, not only when participating in photon constructions but also as constituents of fermionic matter. Fermionic matter does not exhibit, however, motion at the speed of light in the macroscopic scale of reality due to the spherical symmetry arrangement of the EMPs from which it is constructed. In the microscopic realm, however, fermionic matter is frenetically joggling at the speed of light. Accordingly, all universal matter is of zero rest mass. What we actually measure as the Mass of particles and bodies, is their light speed mass. Photons exhibit C in the macroscopic world due to their open non spherical structure. I postulate that statistically speaking, due to the relatively long idleness interval T2, elementary particle interactions are taken against a standing still universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1107.0009 [pdf] submitted on 5 Jul 2011

MCS Physics Article 3: Hubble Expansion

Authors: Meir Amiram
Comments: 10 pages

Based on Richard Feynman’s argument in rejection of Fatio/Le-Sage’s gravity, I indicate that dark energy, or the “something” that pushes galaxies apart must do its magic without killing inertia of the galactic matter rotational motion. I then turn to investigate the Hubble expansion: independent studies from different areas of physics reveal that the age of the universe is closely 13.7Gy. This substantially corresponds to the inverse of the Hubble parameter H0. I suggest that our era is not unique: the age of the universe at any given time ATB is equal to the inverse of the Hubble parameter at the given time. I propose to substitute the conventional Hubble parameter H0 which relates to expansion of distances, by a volumetric form of the same, vH0, corresponding to the volumetric expansion of space. A formula is derived accordingly, which connects between the volumetric Hubble parameter at any given age of the universe, the volumetric Hubble parameter at any other given age, and the time separation between these two ages. Logical study of the formula reveals that the Hubble expansion is analogous to, and may actually result from, an addition of constant amount of space “units” per a unit of time, into the universe. I postulate that space itself possesses the peculiar property of interacting with matter in a selective manner which on the one hand results with a drag thereby producing the universal expansion, and on the other complies with Feynman’s argument and does not result with an inertia killing drag. In the initiation of the bang, the first constant amount entered a zero volume gravity free universe, since gravity depends on the presence of space, and was able to occur only after a time delay T2 (see Article 2) each EMP must experience before it builds up its field and before it can respond to fields generated by others. In the absence of gravity, no energy nor inflaton were required for initiating the bang and for dragging the elementary particles apart merely by space units entering in between. I further postulate that as a phenomenon of space, gravity is distributed volumetrically. Consequently, for cosmological distances the propagation of gravity becomes slower than the expansion of space, thus receding galaxies are gravitationally unbounded. It follows that the Hubble expansion does not require any sort of energy, since there is no gravitational attraction to defeat, nor inertia to produce.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1107.0004 [pdf] submitted on 3 Jul 2011

Born’s Reciprocal Gravity in Curved Phase-Spaces and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 23 pages, submitted to Foundations of Physics

The main features of how to build a Born’s Reciprocal Gravitational theory in curved phase-spaces are developed. The scalar curvature of the 8D cotangent bundle (phase space) is explicitly evaluated and a generalized gravitational action in 8D is constructed that yields the observed value of the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke-Jordan Gravity action in 4D as two special cases. It is found that the geometry of the momentum space can be linked to the observed value of the cosmological constant when the curvature in momentum space is very large, namely the small size of P is of the order of (1/RHubble). More general 8D actions can be developed that involve sums of 5 distinct types of torsion squared terms and 3 distinct curvature scalars R,P, S. Finally we develop a Born’s reciprocal complex gravitational theory as a local gauge theory in 8D of the deformed Quaplectic group that is given by the semi-direct product of U(1, 3) with the deformed (noncommutative) Weyl-Heisenberg group involving four noncommutative coordinates and momenta. The metric is complex with symmetric real components and antisymmetric imaginary ones. An action in 8D involving 2 curvature scalars and torsion squared terms is presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory