Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1903 Submissions

[37] viXra:1903.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 20:30:12

Cosmological Considerations in the Quantum Theory of Relativity: An Observationally Verifiable Quantum Theory of Gravity that Defines Black Holes, Explains Dark Matter, Predicts Dark Energy, and Establishes the Big Bang

Authors: Andrew Cox
Comments: 14 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as one stand-alone spatial dimension. In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart. This deductive quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to: (1) define black holes as wormholes into the fourth spatial dimension; (2) explain dark matter as photons which traveled through black holes and into the fourth spatial dimension; (3) predict dark energy to be the warping of the fourth spatial dimension in the presence of dark matter photons; and (4) establish the big bang as the beginning of three flat spatial dimensions in a cyclic universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[36] viXra:1903.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 09:56:21

New Dark Matter Discoveries

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 27 Pages.

At SIAII labs, a long suspected theory has now been confirmed with data from SIAII's latest experiment; Dark matter doesn't just exist on the surface of space-time. It exists within it. This is the official report of the data. This paper also includes particle sandbox observations of quantum pixels, how space-time behaves in a true vacuum, how the universe existed as of it's immediate birth, and the forever elusive mechanics of the quantum realm and quantum extra-dimensions. The paper also goes on to describe how and why creating a wormhole across the entire universe would be unbelievably catastrophic if balloon inflation theory is right about universe pressure and spatial stress(i.e, tear in space-time fabric, "Universe leak", or even the destruction of the universe).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[35] viXra:1903.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 22:36:00

Determination of the Fundamental Impedance of Free Space due to Radiation Energy from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Information Horizons

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 10 Pages.

Here, the fundamental constants namely vacuum permeability and permittivity, which comprise the numerical definition of the speed of light in vacuum, are determined. They are found to be composites correlated to Planck’s constant, Wien’s constant and the mass energy of the cosmic microwave background. Derivations for both a new fundamental composite speed of light in vacuum and vacuum impedance are performed. Furthermore, this newly suggested definition is correlated to a confined quantized radiation spectrum of the cosmic particle horizon.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] viXra:1903.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 10:25:50

The Gravitational Quantum Limit of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Kurt L. Becker
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper attempts to give a theoretical foundation for the Modified Newtonian Dynamics equations developed by M. Milgrom Ref.1. It will show that there is a cross sectional limit, below which 1/r2 asymptotically changes to 1/r. When the cross section of a distant star falls below the minimum cross section of the geodesics of the paths of gravitons, then the inverse square law is no longer valid. Gravitational attraction then depends on the distance travelled by the gravitons and will result in the force of gravity varying as 1/r. Also, the mass, GM, used in Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation will change to √0. This is due to multiple paths of gravitons merging into one path. Geodesics have very small cross sections which resonate and continuously adjust to changes in space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33] viXra:1903.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 19:52:12

A New Type of Phase Transition Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron Relation Involving a Change in Spatial Dimension

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 20 Pages. already published:Pilot,C, 2019, A New Type of Phase Transition Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron Relation Involving a Change in Spatial Dimension, Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) Vol 5, No 2, 291-309

Using a space filled with black-body radiation, we derive a generalization for the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to account for a phase transition, which involves a change in spatial dimension. We consider phase transitions from dimension of space, , to dimension of space, (−1), and vice versa, from (−1) to -dimensional space. For the former we can calculate a specific release of latent heat, a decrease in entropy, and a change in volume. For the latter, we derive an expression for the absorption of heat, the increase in entropy, and the difference in volume. Total energy is conserved in this transformation process. We apply this model to black-body radiation in the early universe and find that for a transition from = 4 to (−1) = 3, there is an immense decrease in entropy accompanied by a tremendous change in volume, much like condensation. However, unlike condensation, the volume change is not three-dimensional. The volume changes from 4, a four-dimensional construct, to 3, a three-dimensional entity, which can be considered a subspace of 4. As a specific example of how the equation works, we consider a transition temperature of 3∗1027 , and assume, furthermore, that the latent heat release in three-dimensional space is 1.8∗1094 . We find that for this transition, the energy densities, the entropy densities, and the volumes assume the following values (photons only). In four-dimensional space, we obtain, 4=1.15∗10125 −4, 4 = 4.81∗1097 −4 −1, and 4 = 2.14∗10−31 4. In three-dimensional space, we have 3 = 6.13∗1094 −3, 3 = 2.72∗1067 −3 −1, and 3 = .267 3. The subscripts 3 and 4 refer to three-dimensional and four-dimensional quantities, respectively. We speculate, based on the tremendous change in volume, the explosive release of latent heat, and the magnitudes of the other quantities calculated, that this type of transition might have a connection to inflation. With this work, we prove that space, in and of itself, has an inherent energy content. This is so because giving up space releases latent heat, and buying space costs latent heat, which we can quantify. This is in addition to the energy contained within that space due to radiation. We can determine the specific amount of heat exchanged in transitioning between different spatial dimensions with our generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] viXra:1903.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 19:56:52

Proof that Spatial Transitions Release/Absorb Energy and that Compactification Necessarily Leads to Changes in Volume, Energy and Entropy

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 13 Pages. already published:Pilot, C, 2019, Proof That Spatial Transitions Release/Absorb Energy and That Compactification Necessarily Leads to Changes in Volume, Energy and Entropy, Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) Vol 5, No

Using simple box quantization, we demonstrate explicitly that a spatial transition will release or absorb energy, and that compactification releases latent heat with an attendant change in volume and entropy. Increasing spatial dimension for a given number of particles costs energy while decreasing dimensions supplies energy, which can be quantified, using a generalized version of the Clausius-Clapyeron relation. We show this explicitly for massive particles trapped in a box. Compactification from -dimensional space to (−1) spatial dimensions is also simply demonstrated and the correct limit to achieve a lower energy result is to take the limit,  0 , where is the compactification length parameter. Higher dimensional space has more energy and more entropy, all other things being equal, for a given cutoff in energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] viXra:1903.0452 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-01 18:31:42

Are Black Holes 4-D Spatial Balls Filled with Black Body Radiation? Generalization of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Young-Laplace Relation for Spatial Radiative Transfers

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 40 Pages. This is a revised version of viXra:19030452

This is the first paper in a two part series on black holes. In this work, we concern ourselves with the event horizon. A second follow-up paper will deal with its internal structure. We hypothesize that black holes are spatial 4-dimensional, steady state, self-contained spheres filled with black-body radiation. As such, the event horizon marks the boundary between two adjacent spaces, 4-D and 3-D, and there, we consider the radiative transfers involving black-body photons. We generalize the Stefan-Boltzmann law assuming that photons can transition between different dimensional spaces, and we can show how for a 3-D/4-D interface, one can only have zero, or net positive, transfer of radiative energy into the black hole. We find that we can predict the temperature just inside the event horizon, on the 4-D side, given the mass, or radius, of the black hole. For an isolated black hole with no radiative heat inflow, we will assume that the temperature, on the outside, is the CMB temperature, T_2=2.725 K. We take into account the full complement of radiative energy, which for a black body will consist of internal energy density, radiative pressure, and entropy density. It is specifically the entropy density which is responsible for the heat flowing in. We also generalize the Young-Laplace equation for a 4-D/3-D interface. We derive an expression for the surface tension, and prove that it is necessarily positive, and finite, for a 4-D/3-D membrane. This is important as it will lead to an inherently positively curved object, which a black hole is. With this surface tension, we can determine the work needed to expand the black hole. We give two formulations, one involving the surface tension directly, and the other involving the coefficient of surface tension. Because two surfaces are expanding, the 4-D and the 3-D surfaces, there are two radiative contributions to the work done, one positive, which assists expansion, and the other negative, which will resist the expansion. The 4-D side promotes expansion whereas the 3-D side hinders it. At the surface itself, we also have gravity, which is the major contribution to the finite surface tension in almost all situations, which we calculate in the second paper. The surface tension depends not only on the size, or mass, of the black hole, but also on the outside surface temperature, quantities which are accessible observationally. Outside surface temperature will also determine inflow. Finally, we develop a “waterfall model” for a black hole, based on what happens at the event horizon. There we find a sharp discontinuity in temperature upon entering the event horizon, from the 3-D side. This is due to the increased surface area in 4-D space, A_R^((4))=2π^2 R^3, versus the 3-D surface area, A_R^((3))=4πR^2. This leads to much reduced radiative pressures, internal energy densities, and total energy densities just inside the event horizon. All quantities are explicitly calculated in terms of the outside surface temperature, and size of a black hole. Any net radiative heat inflow into the black hole, if it is non-zero, is restricted by the condition that, 0<1/c dQ/dt<4 F_R^((3)), where, F_R^((3)), is the 3-D radiative force applied to the event horizon, pushing it in. We argue throughout this paper that a 3-D/3-D interface would not have the same desirable characteristics as a 4-D/3-D interface. This includes allowing for only zero or net positive heat inflow into the black hole, an inherently positive finite radiative surface tension, much reduced temperatures just inside the event horizon, and limits on inflow.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] viXra:1903.0451 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-03 11:42:46

On the Internal Structure of a Black Hole Utilizing a 4-D Spatial Blackbody Radiation Model

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 54 Pages. This is a revised version of viXra:19030451

A black hole is treated as a self-contained, steady state, spherically symmetric, 4-dimensional spatial ball filled with blackbody radiation, which is embedded in 3-D space. To model the interior distribution of radiation, we invoke two stellar-like equations, generalized to 4-D space, and a probability distribution function (pdf) for the actual radiative mass distribution within its interior. For our purposes we choose a truncated Gaussian distribution, although other pdf’s with support, r ϵ [0,R], are possible. The variable, r=r^((4)), refers to the 4-D radius within the black hole. To fix the coefficients, (μ,σ), associated with this distribution, we choose the mode to equal zero, which will give maximum energy density at the center of the black hole. This fixes the parameter, μ=0. Our black hole does not have a singularity at the center, and, moreover, it is well-behaved within its volume. The rip or tear in the space-time continuum occurs at the event horizon, as shown in a previous work, because it is there that we transition from 3-D space to 4-D space. For the shape parameter, σ, we make use of the temperature just inside the event horizon, which is determined by the mass, or radius, of the black hole. The amount of radiative heat inflow depends on mass, or radius, and temperature, T_2≥2.725 K, where, T_2 , is the temperature just outside the event horizon. Among the interesting consequences of this model is that the entropy, S^((4)), can be calculated as an extrinsic, versus intrinsic, variable, albeit in 4-D space. It is found that S^((4)) is much less than the comparable Bekenstein result. It also scales not as, R^2, where R is the radius of the black hole. Rather, it is given by an expression involving the lower incomplete gamma function, γ(s,x), and interestingly, scales with a more complicated function of radius. Thus, within our framework, the black hole is a highly-ordered state, in sharp contrast to current consensus. Moreover, the model-dependent gravitational “constant” in 4-D space, G_r^((4)), can be determined, and this will depend on radius. For the specific pdf chosen, G_r^((4)) M_r=.1〖 c〗^2 (r^4/σ^2), where M_r is the enclosed radiative mass of the black hole, up to, and including, radius r. At the event horizon, where, r=R, this reduces to G_R^((4))=.2 G〖 R〗^3/σ^2, due to the Schwarzschild relation between mass and radius. The quantity, G, is Newton’s constant. There is a sharp discontinuity in gravitational strength at the 3-D/4-D interface, identified as the event horizon, which we show. The 3-D and 4-D gravitational potentials, however, can be made to match at the interface. This lines up with previous work done by the author where a discontinuity between 3-D and 4-D quantities is required in order to properly define a positive-definite radiative surface tension at the event horizon. We generalize Gauss’ law in 4-D space as this will enable us to find the strength of gravity at any radius within the spherically symmetric, 4-D black hole. For the pdf chosen, g_r^((4))=G_r^((4)) M_r/r^3=.1 c^2 r/σ^2, a remarkably simple and elegant result. Finally, we show that the work required to assemble the black hole against radiative pressure, which pushes out, is equal to, .1 M_R c^2. This factor of .1 is specific to 4-D space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29] viXra:1903.0447 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-09 03:47:22

Black Hole Creation and Destruction of the Cyclic Conscious Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 43 Pages.

Quantum FFF Theory is based on a new string particle model called “rigid transformable string”, which is able to generate topologies of all possible sub quantum particles, needed to fill a supersymmetric standard model and beyond. The mother particle is called “Axion Higgs” and has the form of a ring, able to rotate internally by three hinges into electron and positron propeller shapes, into 1x Graviton, 5x monopole Photons or Gluons and 6x Neutrinos. The Axion Higgs ring particle is assumed to fill all space with an oscillating chiral tetrahedral Planck lattice, inside all Universal bubbles of the raspberry shaped multiverse. Most Leptons and Quarks are assumed to be complex knots of one or more propeller electron/positrons combined with one or more Gluon/Photons. Black hole nuclei are assumed to be complex particle knots with the 123.5 to 375 GeV Higgs bosons as unstable base adding up to stable nuclei of Super Massive Black Holes located in the Galaxy centers and at the end adding up to the Big Crunch black hole nucleus. At all black hole horizon shells, the oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum is forced by collision to create Electron Positron pairs. The chirality of the vacuum lattice seems to be the origin of the natural creation of positive charged Quark knots leaving the negative singular Electrons apart in an external shell, which is assumed to be the reason that all black holes ( inside our material universe) are negative charged.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] viXra:1903.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-23 21:57:40

Thought Experiment On General Relativity

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase
Comments: 2 Pages.

We will discuss the gravitational force between two black holes by using the fundamental concept of general relativity and test whether it is correct or not. This discussion is based on two black holes. We will check the validity of the concept of space-time curvature.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] viXra:1903.0386 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-25 22:39:31

On Thermal Relativity, Modified Hawking Radiation, and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 11 Pages. Submitted to Phys. Letts. B

After a brief review of the thermal relativistic $corrections$ to the Schwarzschild black hole entropy, it is shown how the Stefan-Boltzman law furnishes large modifications to the evaporation times of Planck-size mini-black holes, and which might furnish important clues to the nature of dark matter and dark energy since one of the novel consequences of thermal relativity is that black holes do $not$ completely evaporate but leave a Planck size remnant. Equating the expression for the modified entropy (due to thermal relativity corrections) with Wald's entropy should in principle determine the functional form of the modified gravitational Lagrangian $ {\cal L } (R_{abcd}) $. We proceed to derive the generalized uncertainty relation which corresponds to the effective temperature $ T_{eff} = T_H ( 1 - { T^2_H \over T^2_P } )^{ - 1/2} $ associated with thermal relativity and given in terms of the Hawking ($T_H$) and Planck ($T_P$) temperature, respectively. Such modified uncertainty relation agrees with the one provided by string theory up to first order in the expansion in powers of $ { (\delta p)^2 \over M^2_P} $. Both lead to a minimal length (Planck size) uncertainty. Finally, an explicit analytical expression is found for the modifications to the purely thermal spectrum of Hawking radiation which could cast some light into the resolution of the black hole information paradox.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] viXra:1903.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 23:44:33

An Introduction to the Theory of Everything Using Energy Gradients and Information Horizons

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 11 Pages.

The quest to unify the four fundamental forces has been sought after for decades but has remained elusive to all physicists. The first clues to unification were given when information horizons were associated to radiation by Unruh and Hawking. This was then extended to be a discrete spectrum in nature by McCulloch. Here, it is suggested that the limitation, or confinement, of an allowed spectrum is relevant in order to compute all the fundamental forces. The maximum spectrum is defined by the size of the cosmic particle horizon and the Planck length. Notably, all fundamental forces can be computed by using the same core equation and can be extended to reflect the different information horizons and particle interaction scenarios. This result suggests that for unification the radiation spectrum provides alterations of the momentum space to generate energy gradients. The force derivatives of the energy fields indicate numerical convergence to the observed fundamental forces.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] viXra:1903.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 03:15:28

Lagrangian of General Relativity Over Three Dimensional Subspace

Authors: Malik Al Matwi
Comments: 9 Pages.

We restrict the Einstein-Hamiltonian Lagrangian to $3D$ surface $S^3(\sigma _1, \sigma _2, \sigma _3)$, we let this surface be immersed in arbitrary $4D$ spacetime manifold $M$ at constant time $x^0$. The gauge theory of general relativity asserts that the Einstein-Hamiltonian Lagrangian is invariant under infinitesimal variation of that surface, this determines the surface. By that we get continuity equation in arbitrary $4D$ spacetime, then we search for Lagrangian and equation of motion that give same continuity equation according to canonical field theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] viXra:1903.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 05:08:22

Visualizing Subatomic Particles as Building Blocks of the Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 23 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The resulting model is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model could be extended with changes for supersymmetric Monopole Photons also acting as Gluons at subatomic distances and series of alternative Monopole Photonic bosons called Higgs particle of different masses (recent LHC measurements with bumps at 123.5GeV- 126 GeV , 350 GeV etcetera) based on different geometrical structures as a base for unstable- and stable black holes.. At the same time there seems to open a new field of physics around quantum gravity, interpreted as the result of dipole opposing pressure forcers between the oscillatory pressure of the massless Axion Higgs vacuum field and the fermion created graviton pressure. The planetary mass related local lightspeed drag, and a pyrochlore topological superconductive vacuum. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles to form Quarks quantum knots and all other particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] viXra:1903.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-18 11:13:51

Linking Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity Together ? Reflections and Propositions

Authors: Bernard GUY
Comments: 48 Pages.

We examine the possible relations between general relativity and quantum mechanics, from the point of view of their representations of space and time, which are different. We refer to our own understanding of space and time, built in opposition to each other from the physical phenomena, and not constituting an a priori external frame. Within a relation-based thinking, we can only compare the phenomena to the other phenomena, and, from this confrontation, space-time frames arise, as drawn by the trajectories of certain phenomena arbitrarily considered in a privileged way. It is within this framework that one must think the possible association of general relativity (which has not the monopoly of space and time) and quantum mechanics (which has not the monopoly of quantization, to be understood from the comparison of two classes of phenomena within a probabilistic approach). The general question to ask is that of possible exchanges between the different points of views, supported by the various possible phenomena, that is to say those on which space and time are defined, and the others. Space and time do not disappear, the points of views are exchanged. These exchanges are made possible by representing space and time, like the other phenomena, by a pair of fields (r, t); r and t are vectors in a three-dimensional space (time is marked by the position of a moving point in the same space as that defining the positions of the ordinary points), as opposed to field pairs (f, g) associated with the other phenomena (such as the pair of the electric and magnetic fields). One may ultimately envisage quantization of space and time; one may also envisage the definition of time and space solely by quantum mechanics. A preliminary and qualitative framework is presented as a basis for future quantitative research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] viXra:1903.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 04:24:05

Quantum Reality.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 10 Pages. THE ILLUSION OF REALITY.

THE PILOT WAVES IN QUANTUM PHYSICS AND AN EMERGENT GRAVITY FROM GRAVITOETHERTONS .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] viXra:1903.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-17 08:27:41

"Sacramental" Space-Time Moments of Modern Physics (In Russian)

Authors: V.A. Kasimov.
Comments: 9 Pages. in Russian

Statement of questions: Dualism as a principle of physical description. "Ontologization" of space-time relations as the embodiment of the dualism principle. Anthropic principle. Out-of-space-time aspect of the Universe. Size and age of the Universe. Multidimensional as a way of uniting interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] viXra:1903.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 19:30:59

The Wave Function of the Universe near the Big-Bang Singularity and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Tatsuyuki Sugawa
Comments: 19 Pages.

We investigate the Friedmann equations and the Wheeler-DeWitt equations in three dimensional pure gravity under the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) effects. In addition we study the wave functions near the Big-Bang singularity as the solutions of the deformed Wheeler-DeWitt equation in momentum space. The resulting wave functions are represented as the Mathieu functions. The GUP is considered in the context of the Snyder non-commutative space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] viXra:1903.0253 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-17 15:32:46

Predicting the Gravitational Constant from the New Physics of a Rotating Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 11 Pages. Corrected location of equal sign.

Granular Spacetime Sphere Theory predicts that our universe is a sphere made of spheres. This theory is taken down to its roots and shows that the universe starts with what could be labeled a quasi-point particle and builds it up to a multiverse. The theory can now be used to predict a gravitational constant of G=6.674379282299*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}This is in line with the low sigma measurements of 6.674184 *10^{-11} [6]6.674484*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}[6] 6.67433*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2}[7] and the UZur-06 measurement of 6.67425*10^{-11}{m^3}/{kg*s^2} This value obtained in this paper affirms the values shown in the Nature Article “Measurements of the gravitational constant using two independent methods” and it affirms that there really was no big bang and the universe is actually rotating and the size is limited by the outer edge not being able to move faster than the speed of light.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] viXra:1903.0252 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-17 15:35:37

The Big Bang Disproved

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 10 Pages.

Granular Spacetime Sphere Theory predicts that our universe is a sphere made of spheres. This theory is taken down to its roots and shows that the universe starts with what could be labeled a quasi-point particle and builds it up to a multiverse. This paper shows that the gravitational constant can be predicted by a rotating universe and thus disproves the Big Bang Theory. This paper shows that the size of the universe is limited by the speed of light.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1903.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 10:37:14

AdS/CFT in the Mandelbrot Set

Authors: Jonathan J. Dickau
Comments: 5 Pages. Essay written for 2019 Gravity Research Foundation Awards for Essays on Gravitation – submitted March 5, 2019

The AdS/CFT conjecture of Juan Maldacena is a cornerstone of Modern Physics, but why it works remains a mystery. The appearance of Cartan’s rolling-ball analogy for G2 symmetries in the Mandelbrot Set offers a window on correspondences between interactions in the higher-d precursor and 4-d spacetime implied by AdS/CFT. Recent theories suggest a literal embodiment of AdS/CFT in a black hole in 5-d → 4-d white hole/bubble on the holographic boundary. This transition is represented in the Mandelbrot Set at (-0.75,0i) where the boundary folds back on itself and we see a pseudo-symmetric mirroring of features in the cardioid, depicting 5-d evolution, with features in the circular region representing 4-d spacetime. This shows how the force of fermionic mass in the outward-pressing hypersurface of the early universe becomes the inward-facing pull of gravity toward the center of massive objects, in the present-day cosmos, which explains the weakness of gravity, and accelerating expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1903.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 02:16:10

David Gross. String Theory (In Russian)

Authors: David Gross
Comments: 18 Pages. in Russian

David Gross presents the motivation for such a bold attempt to tie together all the forces of nature, discusses the basic structure of string theory, the surprises it presents, the successes it has achieved and the promises it has not yet fulfilled. And, finally, discusses the coming revolutions in fundamental physics implied by string theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1903.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-29 21:45:38

Universal and Unified Field Theory

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 220 Pages.

For the first time in mankind, Universal and Unified Field Theory is philosophically, mathematically and empirically revealed the workings of Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. The nature of the universe has its Event Operations ontologically and systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric commutations progressively at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

  1. Principles of Natural Philosophy and Universal Topology
  2. Framework of Contravariant and Covariant Manifolds
  3. World Equations and Universal Field Equations
  4. Boost Transform and Torque Transport Generators
  5. Horizon Hierarchy of World Plane and Spacetime 
  6. Gauge Invariance and Quantum Chromodynamics
  7. Fluxions of Symmetric Scalar and Vector Potentials
  8. Thermodynamics, Dark Energy and Blackbody Radiation
  9. Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Gravitation
  10. Fundamentals of Weak, Strong and Spontaneous Forces
  11. Asymmetric Dynamics and General Relativity 
  12. Cosmological Field Equations 
  13. Superphase Evolutions of Ontology

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from Newtonian to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Reality.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary, this manuscript completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics. 


Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1903.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 14:17:11

False Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why do not we receive correct answers to fundamental questions in orthodox physics?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1903.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 19:43:36

The Hand of God, an Equation, Calculating the Size of the Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

What is the mathematical basis for the construction of the universe? This paper calculates the size of the universe, which it looks like the speed of light is the limiting factor. It turns out that light takes a curved path, which may be a form of a Golden Ratio spiral.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1903.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-08 20:40:30

The Hand of God, Building the Universe and Multiverse

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

What is the mathematical basis for the construction of the universe? This paper intends to show a start of how the universe is constructed. It also answers the question, did the hand of God build the universe? This paper shows how, mathematically, the universe could start from a single point and then is built up into the universe and the multiverse.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1903.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-06 09:23:45

Refutation of White's Model for Creation

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

From the introduction, we evaluate a system of four postulates (P1, P2, P3, P4). P1 implies P2; P4 implies P3; but (P1 implies P2) does not imply (P4 implies P3). Hence the system is not tautologous. Two subsequent postulates (P5, P6) are not examined.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1903.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-07 05:07:57

A Physicist’s Physicist Ponders the Nature of Reality.russian Translation from Edward Witten, Natalie Wolchover, November 28, 2017 by V.a. Kasimov

Authors: Касимов В.
Comments: 6 Pages. In Russian

Edward Witten reflects on the meaning of dualities in physics and math, emergent space-time, and the pursuit of a complete description of nature.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1903.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-12 11:52:48

What Is Wrong With Physics?

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages.

What is wrong with Physics according to Quantum FFF Theory? 1: Gravity is a dual Pressure Force. ( Dipole repeller) 2: The Vacuum has resistance for ALL motion. 3: Lorentz polarization of propeller shaped Rigid String Fermions is the compensation to keep the original motion in space. 4: Fermion Inertia is the transition process for Lorentz polarization. 5: Black Holes Repel ALL Fermions. 6: the lightspeed is variable by gravity influence of the vacuum frame. 7: The Raspberry Multiverse has 8 or 12 symmetric anti- copy universes, which is the origin of uncertainty, Human Consciousness and Lorentz polarization memory. (inertia) How could we test this new physics? According to Quantum FFF Theory, (Function Follows Form) the process of wave function collapse of two entangled particles into mirror symmetrical states, is the basic process for all created particles. As a consequence, we should live inside one part of a mirror Charge-Parity-symmetrical entangled copy MULTIVERSE with one central origin the big bang. We will give it the name: Raspberry Multiverse. Even human choice making should be subjected to this mirror symmetrical process. Benjamin Libet described a choice experiment, which we could use to measure how many copy universes there should be. At the smaller scale however, we observe also entanglement effects between particles. Einstein called them “spooky action at a distance”, which he did not like and suggested a different explanation called “Hidden Variables”. However I present here a support for the spooky faster than light entanglement explanation, based on an extended Stern Gerlach experiment, in line with J.S Bell’s arguments about a strange aspect of the original experiment. That even the lightspeed constancy theory should be adapted, by a different Michelson Morley experiment seems to be a logic result of the Quantum FFF Model..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1903.0085 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-14 03:12:00

A Model for Creation: Part II

Authors: Paul Bernard White
Comments: 59 Pages.

In Part I we developed a model, called system P, for constructing the physical universe. In the present paper (Part II) we explore the hypothesis that something exists prior to the physical universe; i.e. we suppose that there exists a sequence of projections (and levels) that is prior to the sequence that constructs the physical universe itself. To avoid an infinite regress, this prior sequence must be finite, meaning that the whole chain of creative projections must begin at some primal level which is itself uncreated. So, from this primal level emanates a primal sequence of projections, which yields a first-created system; by definition, there is no creation prior to this first system. Proceeding from this basis, we use the template of our previous work in constructing entities in the physical universe to outline the construction of entities in this first-created system. Next, we seek an interpretation of this first system and its entities. Since our "primal level" is an uncreated state of being from which all creation springs, it draws obvious allusions to the concept of "God". So at this point the model bumps head-on into theology, and we are forced to ask: Is there some metaphysically- or theologically-related work that can help us to interpret this first-created system and its entities? Indeed, such a work, and consequent interpretations, will be put forth --- from which much more then follows.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1903.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-13 18:01:53

A Model for Creation: Part I

Authors: Paul Bernard White
Comments: 47 Pages.

Four initial postulates are presented (with two more added later), which state that construction of the physical universe proceeds from a sequence of discrete steps or "projections" --- a process that yields a sequence of discrete levels (labeled 0, 1, 2, 3, 4). At or above level 2 the model yields a (3+1)-dimensional structure, which is interpreted as ordinary space and time. As a result, time does not exist below level 2 of the system, and thus the quantum of action, h, which depends on time (since its unit is time•energy), also does not exist below level 2. This implies that the quantum of action is not fundamental, and thus e.g. that the physical universe cannot have originated from a quantum fluctuation. When the gravitational interaction for the model is developed, it is seen that the basic ingredient for gravity is already operating at level 1 of the system, which implies that gravity, too, is not fundamentally quantum mechanical (since, as stated, h only kicks in at level 2) --- perhaps obviating the need for a quantum theory of gravity. Further arguments along this line lead to the conclusion that quantum fluctuations cannot be a source of gravity, and thus cannot contribute to the cosmological constant --- thereby averting the cosmological constant problem. Along the way, the model also provides explanations for dark energy, the beginning and ending of inflation, quark confinement, and more. Although the model dethrones the quantum, it nevertheless elevates an idea in physics that was engendered by quantum mechanics: the necessary role of "observers" in constructing the world.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1903.0083 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-13 17:39:29

A Derivation of Space and Time

Authors: Paul Bernard White
Comments: 10 pages. Publication: Progress in Physics 15 (2).

Four simple postulates are presented, from which we derive a (3+1)‑dimensional structure, interpreted as ordinary space and time. We then derive further properties of space: isotropy and homogeneity; a rapid expansion within the first instant of time (i.e. inflation); and a continual and uniform expansionary pressure, due to a continual influx of (non-zero-point) energy that is uniformly distributed (i.e. dark energy). In addition, the time dimension is shown to have an "arrow". These results suggest that the four postulates may be fundamental to the construction of the physical universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1903.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-04 05:56:35

Force Of Quantum Gravity Between Two Bodies

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase
Comments: 4 Pages.

force of quantum gravity between two bodies has been derived using shell theorem of quantum gravity developed by me.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1903.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-03 18:58:33

Supersymmetry Entière: Preons, Particles and Inflation

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 26 Pages.

A scenario of particles with unbroken supersymmetry has been proposed recently, a supersymmetric preon model. It offers an economic basis for constructing the standard model particles and going beyond it to supergravity. The model predicts that the standard model's superpartners do not exist in nature. The article is largely a review of selected papers. The model is tentatively explored towards quark and lepton structure. The supersymmetric Wess-Zumino and Starobinsky type of models of inflation are discussed. Both are found to agree well with the Plank 2018 CMB data, thus giving experimental support to supersymmetry on an energy scale of $10^{13}$ GeV. Some future directions are hinted.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1903.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-04 01:19:21

The Mesocosmos: the Success/failure System

Authors: Dong-Yih Bau
Comments: 9 Pages.

Einstein developed the concepts of principle theory and the cosmos. The principle theory approach is a scientific method that guides scientists to define the structure of the (empirical) universe in logical unity, with the final product called a principle theory. The cosmos is understood as a single logical system that includes three harmonious cosmic views: the microcosmos, macrocosmos, and mesocosmos. These may be respectively considered as the components of the universe defined by quantum mechanics, general relativity, and success/failure system. Herein, we elucidate the concepts of principle theory and the cosmos to explain the mesocosmos, the success/failure system, and the latter’s significance for science and humanity. The success/failure system, a principle theory that we recently developed to reflect the mesocosmos, is a twenty-first century scientific discovery. Through the present work, we invite the scientific community to research the mesocosmos and the cosmos on the scale of the universe, in addition to all disciplines of science and final theory currently investigated.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1903.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-02 11:51:35

Stochastic Causality and Quantization of Gravity

Authors: Masamichi Sato
Comments: 8 Pages. v1, no figures.

Causality is the fundamental principle in the Einstein's theory of general relativity. We consider the theory of broken causality by the assumptions of stochastic nature to causal process. We see that the causality breaking of stochastic property brings the general relativity of broken causality, and this is equivalent to the theory of quantum gravity. We investigate some properties of quantum gravity in relation to the holographic principle. We calculate Shannon's entropy. In those investigations, we see the appearance of holographic principle at the first order in expansion of perturbation theory. The result indicates that the theory of stochastic causality, that we established, is the non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1903.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-01 10:44:55

Surface Integral and Holographic Information

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 1 Page.

Holograhic bound the space-time and suface integrals
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory