Quantum Gravity and String Theory


Are Black Holes 4-D Spatial Balls Filled with Black Body Radiation? Generalization of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Young-Laplace Relation for Spatial Radiative Transfers

Authors: Christopher Pilot

This is the first paper in a two part series on black holes. In this work, we concern ourselves with the event horizon. A second follow-up paper will deal with its internal structure. We hypothesize that black holes are spatial 4-dimensional, steady state, self-contained spheres filled with black-body radiation. As such, the event horizon marks the boundary between two adjacent spaces, 4-D and 3-D, and there, we consider the radiative transfers involving black-body photons. We generalize the Stefan-Boltzmann law assuming that photons can transition between different dimensional spaces, and we can show how for a 3-D/4-D interface, one can only have zero, or net positive, transfer of radiative energy into the black hole. We find that we can predict the temperature just inside the event horizon, on the 4-D side, given the mass, or radius, of the black hole. For an isolated black hole with no radiative heat inflow, we will assume that the temperature, on the outside, is the CMB temperature, T_2=2.725 K. We take into account the full complement of radiative energy, which for a black body will consist of internal energy density, radiative pressure, and entropy density. It is specifically the entropy density which is responsible for the heat flowing in. We also generalize the Young-Laplace equation for a 4-D/3-D interface. We derive an expression for the surface tension, and prove that it is necessarily positive, and finite, for a 4-D/3-D membrane. This is important as it will lead to an inherently positively curved object, which a black hole is. With this surface tension, we can determine the work needed to expand the black hole. We give two formulations, one involving the surface tension directly, and the other involving the coefficient of surface tension. Because two surfaces are expanding, the 4-D and the 3-D surfaces, there are two radiative contributions to the work done, one positive, which assists expansion, and the other negative, which will resist the expansion. The 4-D side promotes expansion whereas the 3-D side hinders it. At the surface itself, we also have gravity, which is the major contribution to the finite surface tension in almost all situations, which we calculate in the second paper. The surface tension depends not only on the size, or mass, of the black hole, but also on the outside surface temperature, quantities which are accessible observationally. Outside surface temperature will also determine inflow. Finally, we develop a “waterfall model” for a black hole, based on what happens at the event horizon. There we find a sharp discontinuity in temperature upon entering the event horizon, from the 3-D side. This is due to the increased surface area in 4-D space, A_R^((4))=2π^2 R^3, versus the 3-D surface area, A_R^((3))=4πR^2. This leads to much reduced radiative pressures, internal energy densities, and total energy densities just inside the event horizon. All quantities are explicitly calculated in terms of the outside surface temperature, and size of a black hole. Any net radiative heat inflow into the black hole, if it is non-zero, is restricted by the condition that, 0<1/c dQ/dt<4 F_R^((3)), where, F_R^((3)), is the 3-D radiative force applied to the event horizon, pushing it in. We argue throughout this paper that a 3-D/3-D interface would not have the same desirable characteristics as a 4-D/3-D interface. This includes allowing for only zero or net positive heat inflow into the black hole, an inherently positive finite radiative surface tension, much reduced temperatures just inside the event horizon, and limits on inflow.

Comments: 40 Pages. This is a revised version of viXra:19030452

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Submission history

[v1] 2019-03-25 22:45:39
[v2] 2019-04-01 18:31:42

Unique-IP document downloads: 28 times

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