[10] **viXra:1408.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-06 08:52:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Due to the mergers of the binary systems of protogalaxies, there were created the elliptical protogalaxies whereas evolution of the binary systems of protogalaxies leads to the spiral protogalaxies. Due to evolution of the disc-sphere structures described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, some elliptical protogalaxies transformed into lenticular galaxies whereas some spiral protogalaxies transformed into peculiar galaxies. Some of the peculiar galaxies again transformed into spiral galaxies. For distant massive galaxies we obtain following abundances: for elliptical is 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 30.4% and for peculiar 50.7%. On the other hand, for the local massive galaxies we obtain: for elliptical 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 71.0% and for peculiar 10.1%. The theoretical results obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Theory are consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1408.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 20:44:02*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Email: newphysics@safe-mail.net

This is a conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of Spacetime, Strings and Branes. Taking this conception through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology. A form of inflation and positive cosmological constant naturally flows from this model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1408.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-06 08:46:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The hierarchy problem follows from the very big energetic gap between the Planck scale and the masses of the most massive known particles. This problem is solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory. This theory starts from the four succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field composed of pieces-of-space/tachyons (due to the size of our Cosmos, there are possible four transitions only). There appear the very different scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale, electric-charges scale and cosmological scale. Due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are the stable particles. The observed oscillations follow from the decays or creations of the unstable tau “neutrinos” that consist of three different stable neutrinos and from the exchanges of the free neutrinos (they interact gravitationally only) for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-21 18:11:15*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-24 16:16:43*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. adding new bottom section

Time and gravity are intimately linked, in that gravity creates time from space to form an alternative, causal entropic domain (history) for massive objects (bound forms of electromagnetic energy - atomic matter), the temporal analog of the spatial, a-causal entropic domain of free (massless) forms of electromagnetic energy - light. Expanding, cooling space is the entropic conservation domain of free electromagnetic energy; expanding, aging history is the analogous temporal entropic conservation domain for bound forms of electromagnetic energy. These two entropic conservation domains are connected by gravity, which converts either into the other, giving us historic spacetime, a composite entropic conservation domain in which both free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy can find their conservations needs met in an appropriately expanding metric.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 16:01:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described phenomena that lead to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe for z > 0.45 and of deceleration for z > 0.60. We cannot neglect both the perturbant/”gravitational” redshift for z > = 0.53 and the duality of relativity. The derived formulae for time distance between source and observer, give the time distances greater than calculated within the mainstream cosmology (for z = 0.45 is about 30%). On the other hand, the distances of the Type Ia supernovae were, on average, 10% to 15% farther than expected. This means that the Type Ia supernovae are fainter than they should be not due to an acceleration of expansion but due to inaccurate formula for time distance applied in the mainstream cosmology. Correctness of the new formula follows from the fact that calculated maximum redshift is z = 11.9. This value is consistent with the present-day observational facts (the maximum is z = 11.8 +- 0.3 for the candidate protogalaxy UDFj-39546284). Due to the duality of relativity and due to the perturbant/”gravitational” redshift for compact cosmological objects, it is very difficult to calculate within the mainstream cosmology the exact time distances to the Type Ia supernovae. The uncertainty is much higher than the assumed about 5%.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1408.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 14:39:29*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Planck CMB data lead to conclusion that there should be about two times more galaxy clusters than we observe. Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we show that the discrepancy follows from the collisions/mergers of protogalaxy clusters at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. The time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.866 ± 0.096 Gyr but they are already 7.75 Gyr old so we cannot see the collisions of protogalaxy clusters. It is a wrong assumption that creation of galaxies can last a few hundred million years only. For 8 times more spiral galaxies than elliptical galaxies, we obtain that there should be observed about 1.8 times less galaxy clusters than it follows from the Planck CMB data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1408.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:36:12*

**Authors:** Robert E S Watson

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Kaluza’s 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach
is presented that includes torsion, unifying gravity and electromagnetism
in a Kaluza-Cartan theory. Emphasis is placed on admitting important
electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza’s original theory, and on a
Lorentz force law. This is investigated via a non-Maxwellian kinetic def-
inition of charge related to Maxwellian charge and 5D momentum. Two
connections are used. General covariance and global properties are inves-
tigated via a reduced non-maximal atlas. Conserved super-energy is used
in place of the energy conditions for 5D causality. Explanatory relation-
ships between matter, charge and spin are present.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1408.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 03:44:27*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Formulae for the electron's charge, electron's mass, fine structure constant, proton's radius, proton's mass, gravitational coupling constant and proton-to-electron mass ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1408.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 04:59:49*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Simple formulae showing how the electron's mass is linked to the Golden ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory