Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1905 Submissions

[15] viXra:1905.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:10:51

The Complete Theory of Everything: a Proposal

Authors: Rahula T.R. Latchman, Gemma F. Lopez
Comments: 44 Pages.

This paper presents a model that bridges the gap between general relativity and quantum mechanics by providing a new understanding of space and time. The core principle of this formulation is impermanence, the fact that energy is never static, which has non-obvious consequences at the quantum level and leads to a formulation of quantum gravity. The results allow for a new interpretation of black holes and a resolution of the black hole information paradox. The model also presents the causes leading to the Big Bang as well as the Universe evolution, offering a new perspective on galaxy formation and a natural explanation to the origin of dark matter, dark energy and the matter-antimatter asymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1905.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 04:59:02

Disruptive Gravity

Authors: Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO
Comments: 35 Pages. language: English and French

Gravity is currently understood as a space-time curvature. If gravity was a force, it quantization would be much easier. Then what if gravity was a force able to bend space-time? We will see that gravity can be seen as such and what it would imply. We’ll then derive a new space-time bending equation thanks to a new principle equivalent to Einstein’s Equivalence Principle in low intensity fields. Thanks to quantum mechanics studies in curved space-time we can then blend gravity in quantum mechanics in a coherent way. Eventually, we'll see that applying these principles to cosmology, we can explain what we current call Dark Energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1905.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-21 03:59:26

EM Drive Thruster by Anti Maxwell Monopole Tubular Field Reduction Around a Conductor.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 20 Pages.

Abstract. A so called EmDrive ( Electro Magentic Drive) defy classical physics expectations because it shows repellent less or reaction less thruster qualities. According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) however, the magnetic field is build on two monopole rigid string particles in the form of curved radiation trajectories, ( North and South) mostly cooperating opposing each other. Thus, the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped curved monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder pattern loss close to direct currents in a wire, it is postulated, that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel locally parallel to each other inside the vacuum Axion/Higgs field, with a strong field reduction or even fading away as a result. These field reductions (or dipping) are observed to be concentrated in a tubular form around the current in the wire. There are two possible levitation principles, using the field reduction around a current in a conductor. 1: Levitation by dual conductor-magnet interference. 2: Levitation by dual conductor-conductor interference. Ad 1, The Lorentz levitation force will become a non symmetric ( reduced) form, with a one sided reduced reaction force of the Anti Maxwell area around conductor coils on a local magnet ( figure 5) The magnet will create a normal Lorentz force on the electrons in the wire for levitation, but the magnets do not “feel” locally the opposing magnetic Standard Maxwell field around the current in the wire. The EM Drive as the result. Ad 2, The Lorentz levitation force will become a non symmetric ( reduced) form, with a one sided reduced reaction force created by the Anti Maxwell dipping area around the conductor coil with larger diameter conductor tubes, for effective screening of a second conductor coil with smaller diameter tubes conductors. ( figure 6) The configuration of both systems (of 1 and 2) are suggested to most effective in the form of a disc, however the middle disc section of such a disc can be left out for easy manufacturing.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1905.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 05:56:05


Authors: Durgadas Datta.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1905.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 06:03:25

The Monopolar Quantum Relativistic Electron an Extension of the Standard Model and Quantum Field Theory

Authors: A Bermanseder
Comments: 121 Pages. ISSN: 2153-8301

Abstract: Despite the experimental success of the quantum theory and the extension of classical physics in quantum field theory and relativity in special and general application; a synthesis between the classical approach based on Euclidean and Riemann geometries with that of 'modern' theoretical physics based on statistical energy and frequency distributions remains to be a field of active research for the global theoretical and experimental physics community. In this paper a particular attempt for unification shall be indicated in the proposal of a third kind of relativity in a geometric form of quantum relativity, which utilizes the string modular duality of a higher dimensional energy spectrum based on a physics of wormholes directly related to a cosmogony preceding the cosmologies of the thermodynamic universe from inflaton to instanton. In this way, the quantum theory of the microcosm of the outer and inner atom becomes subject to conformal transformations to and from the instanton of a quantum big bang or qbb and therefore enabling a description of the macrocosm of general relativity in terms of the modular T-duality of 11-dimensional supermembrane theory and so incorporating quantum gravity as a geometrical effect of energy transformations at the wormhole scale. Using the linked Feynman lecture at Caltech as a background for the quantum relative approach; this paper shall focus on the way the classical electron with a stipulated electromagnetic mass as a function of its spacial extent exposes the difficulty encountered by quantum field theories to model nature as mathematical point-particles without spacial extent. In particular, a classical size for the proton can be found in an approximation ½Re.X = Rp for a classical electron radius Re and where the factor X represents the symmetry equilibrium for a ß = (v/c} = f(A) velocity ratio distribution for the effective electron rest mass me proportional to the spacial extent of the electron and evolving real solutions for the electron parameters from a quasi-complex space solution for its rest mass meo. Using the ß2 distribution in a unitary interval, then bounded in a function of the electromagnetic fine structure constant alpha; the SI-CODATA value for the rest mass of the electron is derived from first inflaton-based principles in the minimum energy Planck-Oscillator Eo=½hfo in a conformal mapping of the M-Sigma relation applied to the Black Hole Mass to Galactic Bulge ratio for the alpha bound. The M-Sigma ratio so can be considered as a scaling proportion between the interior of a Black Hole mapped holographically and radius-conformally as the internal monopolar volume of the electron as a basic premise of the quantum gravitational approach in quantum relativity and in scaling the Schwarzschild solution onto the electron. A unification condition in a conformal mapping of the alpha fine-structure α onto X described by X ⇔ α in ℵ(Transformation) = {ℵ}3 : X → α{#}3 → # → #3 → (#2)3 → {(#2)3}3 is applied in this context to indicate the relative interaction strengths of the elementary gauge interactions in proportionality: SNI:EMI:WNI:GI = SEWG = #:#3:#18:#54. For the symmetry equilibrium, the electric potential energy and the magnetic action energy are related for an electron velocity of veX = 0.78615138.c and an effective mass energy of mef = γme = mecf = 1.503238892x10-30 kg*. This mass-velocity relationship is supplemented by the Compton constant as: meRe = Compton constant = αh/2πc = lplanck.α.mplanck = mecrec , which proportionalises the quantum relativistic size of the electron with its mass. The Compton constant ensures Lorentz invariance across all reference frames in cancelling the length contraction with the relativistic mass increase in the product of the proper length lo and the proper rest mass mo as lo.mo=loγ.mo/γ in special relativity (SR) in the self-relative reference frame of the monopolar electron. Subsequently then for an electron speed veX and for rec = αh/2πcmecf = 1.71676104x10-15 m* as a decreased self-relative classical electron radius given by the Compton constant, we calculate a relatively negligible monopolar velocity component in (vps/c)2 = 1/{1+rec4/([2πα]2rps4)} = 1.55261006x10-35 and characteristic for any substantial velocity for the electron. The analysis then defines a maximum velocity for the electron with a corresponding quantum relative minimum mass in the form of the electron (anti)neutrino in ve|max = (1 - 3.282806345x10-17) c and m(νe)=m(ντ)2 = 0.00297104794 eV* (0.002963740541 eV) respectively. At this energy then, no coupling between the electron and its anti-neutrino would be possible and the W- weakon could not exist. Subsequently, we shall indicate the effect of the Compton constant and of the quantum relativistic monopolar electron to calculate all of the neutrino masses from first principles in setting mν = mneutrino = me.(rneutrino)/Re and where rv naturally applies at the limit of the electron's dynamical self-interaction as indicated, that is the electron's quantum relativistic mass approaches that of the instanton of the qbb. This leads to: mνElectronc2 = mv(νTauon2)c2 = mν(νMuon2+νHiggs2)c2 = μo{Monopole GUT masses ec}2rps/4πRe2 and where vHiggs is a scalar (anti)neutrino for the mass induction of the (anti)neutrinos in tandem with the mass induction of the scalar Higgs boson in the weak Goldstone interaction. For the electrostatic electron the ß distribution at A=½, the Compton constant gives mecrec = meRe for ß2 = 0 and at A=1, the Compton constant gives mecrec = ½me.2Re for ß2 = X and as the mean for a unitary interval is ½, the electron radius transforms into the protonic radius containing monopolar charge as internal charge distribution in Rp = ½XRe and proportional to the effective electron rest mass me proportional to the spacial extent of the electron. For the proton then, its 'charge distribution' radius becomes averaged as Rproton = 0.85838052x10-15 m* as a reduced classical electron radius and for a speed of the self-interactive or quantum relativistic electron of vps = 1.576125021x10-17 c. This monopolar quantum relativistic speed reaches its quantum relativistic {v/c = 1-} limit and its maximum QR monopolar speed of 0.0458 c at the instanton boundary and defines a minimum quantum monopolar relativistic speed for the electron at vpse = 1.50506548x10-18 c for its electrostatic potential, where Ue=∫{q²/8πεor²}dr = q²/8πεoRe = ½mec2 for a classical velocity of ve=0 in a non-interacting magnetic field B=0. 2Ue = mec2 so implies a halving of the classical electron radius to obtain the electron mass me = 2Ue/c2 and infers an oscillating nature for the electron size to allow a synergy between classical physics and that of quantum mechanics. A reduced classical electron size is equivalent to a decrease of the Compton wavelength of the electron, rendering the electron more ‘muon like’ and indicates the various discrepancies in the measurements of the proton’s charge radius using Rydberg quantum transitions using electron and muon energies. The calibration for the classical electron radius from the electron mass from SI units to star units is (2.81794032x10-15).[1.00167136 m*] = 2.82265011x10-15 m* and differing from Re = 2.777777778x10-15 m* in a factor of (2.82265011/2.777777…) = 1.01615404. A reduction of the classical electron radius from Re = 2.777777778x10-15 m* to (2.777777778x10-15).[0.998331431 m] = 2.77314286x10-15 m, then gives the same factor of (2.81794032/2.77314286) = 1.01615404, when calibrating from star units. The units for the Rydberg constant are 1/m for a Star Unit* – SI calibration [m*/m] = 0.998331431… for a ratio [Re/SI ]/[Re/*] = (2.77314286/2.777777) = (2.81794032/2.82265011) Reducing the classical electron radius Re from 2.81794032 fermi to 2.77314286 fermi in a factor of 1.01615404 then calibrates the effective electron mass me to Re in the Compton constant Re.me = ke2/c2 = (2.77777778x10-15).(9.29052716x10-31) = 2.58070198x10-45 [mkg]* with Re.me = ke2/c2 = (2.81794033x10-15).(9.1093826x10-31) = 2.56696966x10-45 [mkg] with [mkg]* = (1.00167136)(1.00375313)[mkg] = 1.00543076 [mkg]. Using this reduced size of the electron then increases the Rydberg constant by a factor of 1.01615404 Using the Rydberg Constant as a function of Alpha {and including the Alpha variation Alpha|mod = 60πe2/h = 60π(1.6021119x10-19)2/(6.62607004x10-34) = 1/137.047072} as Ry∞ = Alpha3/4πRe = Alpha2.mec/2h = mee4/8εo2h3c = 11.1296973x106 [1/m]* or 11.14829901x106 [1/m] defines variation in the measured CODATA Rydberg constant in a factor 10,973,731.6x(1.01615404).(137.036/137.047072)3 = 11,148,299.0 Subsequently, using the Rydberg energy levels for the electron-muon quantum energy transitions, will result in a discrepancy for the proton's charge radius in a factor of 10,973,731.6/11,148,299.0 = 0.98434134… and reducing a protonic charge radius from 0.8768 fermi to 0.8631 fermi as a mean value between 0.8768 fermi and 0.8494 fermi to mirror the unitary interval from A=½ to A=1 for the electron’s relativistic ß distribution. The local geometry related to the Compton radius h/2πm is shown to manifest in a linearization of the Weyl wormhole wavelength λps = λweyl of the qbb in the photon-mass interaction as a quantum gravitational limit proportional to the mass of the electron in rweyl = λweyl/2π = 2GoMc/c2 = h/2πcmps for a curvature mass Mc = hc/4πGomps conformally transforming Mc = 6445.79 kg* into 2.22..x10-20 kg* quantum gravitationally and in a corresponding increase of a sub Planck length linearization of rcplanck = 2Gomps/c2 = 5.4860785x10-47 m* (star units calibrated to the SI mensuration system) to the wormhole scale of the quantum big bang as a quantum geometric curvature effect. The qbb results from a Planck scale conformal transformation of fundamental parameters in the inflaton, descriptive of energy transformations between five classes of superstrings culminating in the Weyl-Eps wormhole as the final superstring class of heterotic symmetry 8x8 to manifest the supermembrane EpsEss as the wormhole of the 'singularity creation', which is a derivative from a monopolar Planck-Stoney cosmogenesis. Recircularizing the Compton radius into a Compton wavelength in a {photon - gauge photon} interaction labeled as electromagnetic monopolar radiation or {emr - emmr}, then is shown to define the quantum energy of the vacuum per unit volume as a horn toroidal space-time volumar in Vortex-PE = VPEps = ZPEweyl = 4πEps/λps3 and completing the encompassing energy spectrum in integrating the electric-, magnetic- and monopolar field properties in {½melectric + ½mmagnetic(v/c)2 + δmmonopolic}c2 = mc2. The self-interaction of the electron in energy, so crystallizes its monopolar super brane origin in the addition of a quantum self-relative magnetic energy acting as a 'hidden' electromagnetic monopolar field in the volume of spacetime occupied by the electron as a conformal transformation from the inflaton epoch. A Planck-Stoney 'bounce' of the electronic charge quantum established the interaction potential between charge and mass energy to break an inherent supersymmetry to transform string class I into string class IIB in modular conformal self-duality of the monopole supermembrane. Following this initial transformation relating displacement to electric charge in the magneto charge of the monopole; a heterosis between string classes HO(32) and HE(64) enabled the bosonic superstring to bifurcate into fermionic parts in a quark-lepton hierarchy from the HO(32) superstring to the HE(64) superstring of the instanton of the qbb and who is called the Weyl or wormhole boson Eps in this paper. We shall also indicate the reason for the measured variation of the fine structure constant by Webb, Carswell and associates; who have measured a variation in alpha dependent on direction. This variation in alpha is found in the birth of the universe as a 'bounce' or oscillation of the Planck length as a minimum physical displacement and becomes related to the presence of the factor γ3 in the manifestation of relativistic force as the time rate of change of relativistic momentum prel. Furthermore, the mass-charge ratio {e/meo} relation of the electron implies that a precision measurement in either the rest mass moe or the charge quantum e, would affect this ratio and this paper shall show how the electromagnetic mass distribution of the electron crystallizes an effective mass me from its rest mass resulting in meoγ = me'γ2 related to the coupling ratio between the electromagnetic (EMI) and the strong nuclear interaction (SNI), both as a function of alpha and for an asymptotic (not running) SNI constant defined from first principles in an interaction transformation between all of the four fundamental interactions. Since {1-ß2} describes the ß2 distribution of relativistic velocity in the unitary interval from A=0 to A=1, setting the quantum relativistic mass ratio [moe/me]2 = {1-ß2} equal to a cosmological MSigma ratio conformally transformed from the Planck scale, naturally defines a potential oscillatory upper boundary for any displacement in the unit interval of A. An increase or decrease in the 'bare' electron mass, here denoted as moe can then result in a directional measurement variation due to the fluctuating uncertainty in the position of the electron in the unitary interval mirroring the natural absence or presence of an external magnetic field to either decrease or increase the monopolar part of the electron mass in its partitioning: melectric + mmagnetic + δmmonopolar = mec{½+½[v/c]²} + δpsmec = mec with mec2√{1 + v2γ2/c2} = mec2γ = mecc2 for m = mec from the energy-momentum relation E2 = Eo2 + p2c2 of classical and quantum theory. The cosmic or universal value of alpha so remains constant in all cosmological time frames; with the fluctuation found to depend on a constant #= α in a strong interaction constant as a function of alpha. At the core of physical consciousness lies quantum consciousness; but there it is called selfinteraction of a particle or dynamical system in motion relative to its charge distribution. We shall indicate, that it is indeed the charge distribution within such a system and quantized in the fundamental nature of the electron and the proton as the base constituent of atomic hydrogen and so matter; that defines an internal monopolar charge distribution as a quantum geometric formation minimized in the classical size of the electron and the energy scale explored at that displacement scale. Finally we describe the particles of the Standard Model and including a quantum geometric explanation for the CP violation of the weak interaction, from their genesis in the inflaton and a grand unification symmetry in a transformation of supermembranes and cosmic strings appearing today in a spectrum of cosmic rays: SEWG------------------------SEWg--------SEW.G---------SeW.G--------S.EW.G------------S.E.W.G Planck Unification I----------IIB----------HO32------------IIA-----------HE64---------Bosonic Unification
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1905.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 03:28:49

Gravitational Waves Leave Mark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

"But we've seen a lot of exciting things already with gravitational waves, and we will see a lot more. There are even plans to put a gravitational wave detector in space that would be sensitive to different sources than LIGO," Flanagan said. [27] Researchers hoping to better interpret data from the detection of gravitational waves generated by the collision of binary black holes are turning to the public for help. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1905.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 09:23:51

Noether’s Symmetry in Bosonic String σ-Model of (P=1)-Brane Polyakov Action Under Poincare Transformation

Authors: Divyansh Mansukhani
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown using very few steps that under Poincare transformation, the Polyakov action is invariant and thus, globally symmetric. It is only over this argument that the local symmetries of bosonic strings such as diffeomorphism and Weyl symmetry can be discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1905.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 20:12:22

The Mass, Size, and Equilibrium Density of the Universe in a Rotating Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Big Bang theory basically states that the universe is expanding and that there is point that there could be a critical density at which the universe could go on expanding forever or crunch. The theory of a rotating universe can also have a red shift, but the equations are different and the critical density is different for rotating universe. In fact, the particular rotating universe that this theory deals with is that our universe may be in equilibrium with neither contraction or expansion but with kinetic and potential energy. In Sphere Theory of the Universe, the universe is rotating. This rotating universe has mass where parts of it are moving at familiar velocities and some are moving at relativistic velocities. Size itself is confused, in that nothing really travels in a straight line, and therefore we are trying to weed out these problems in calculating the size of the universe. It appears that light itself travels in a spiral, which is controlled by gravitational forces. The observed quantities of particles are further complicated in that the relativistic velocities make the quantities of particles look higher. The concentrations of particles are highest at the center of the sphere, but the rotation imparts energy that makes things look like the concentration is mostly uniform. This paper tries to sort out these problems and present a Mass, Size, and Equilibrium Density of the Universe. The mass of the universe, which would include matter, dark matter, and dark energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1905.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 06:28:22

The Conscious Undivided Multiverse

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 53 Pages.

A Semi Classical Theory of Everything, based on Long Distance Multiverse Entangled Rigid String Topology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1905.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 11:09:48

Why is Fundamental Physics in a Big Crisis?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Many physicists claim that physics is in crisis but the followers of the dominant theories in physics still accept the unreal/pseudoscientific ideas because they were introduced by great physicists. It is time to give up ideas that contradict common sense.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1905.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-13 00:13:47

The Golden Ratio Time Algorithm

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 16 Pages.

The idea that time is concordant to our perception in our frame of temporal reference yet different to another person’s frame dependent on motion, as Einstein outlined in his work of general and special relativity, is essentially stating that we are conscious according to the parameters of space-time and how that flows dependent on what our reference of relative motion is. Yet is there a scientific mathematical link between frames of time as a relativity of time in space? Surely in not considering how each frame of time reference can be linked mathematically, all the facets of physical reality in time as “equations” of time will not match up, such as most basically gravity and electromagnetism? This paper, a follow-on from seven previous papers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] will present firstly the historical notions we have of time in science, as applied to scientific congress, and then discuss those problems that have been presented to us in using that axiom of time definition, most importantly that not knitting together those temporal notions presents us with a mathematics of space and mass and energy that are never knitted as mathematical equations in time yet only in using Einstein’s equation of e = mc2. So, a new axiom for time is presented as an algorithm that can knit together much of what we know of physical scientific data, including Einstein’s well-known equation. The quest of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to marry up electromagnetism with gravity using a common mathematical “function” for time universal in space, as temporal relativity, despite it offering a new set of equations for known physical data. Then finally a process of “proof” is offered for this new regard for time, as gravity emerging from electrodynamics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1905.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 03:17:40

Unified E/m Waves Theory

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 7 Pages.

The accelerated electron creates the inductive-inertial phenomenon, whose the forces act on the electric units of dynamic space, forming the grouping units, namely the electric charges or forms of the electric field. This phenomenon is the precondition to construct E/M waves, while the cause for the generation of E/M formations is the spin oscillations of the electron.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1905.0048 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-08 15:09:20

On an Equality Between Space-Time Curvature and Quantum Entropy

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 16 Pages.

We introduce the quantum statistical physics of space-time events. Quantum statistical physics connects a microscopic/quantum description to a macroscopic/bulk state by the use of statistical priors and under the principle of maximum entropy. As the main result, we show that the statistical distribution of events in space-time, quantified by entropy, is a microscopic equivalent to the bulk curvature of space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1905.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 12:49:25

Modeling the Interior of Black Holes Utilizing a 4-D Spatial Blackbody Radiation Model with an Exponential Distribution

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 31 Pages.

This is a second follow up paper on a model, which treats the black hole as a 4-D spatial ball filled with blackbody radiation. For the interior radiative mass distribution, we employ a new type of truncated probability distribution function, the exponential distribution. We find that this distribution comes closest to reproducing a singularity at the center, and yet it is finite at 4-D radius, r=0. This distribution will give a constant gravitational acceleration for a test particle throughout the black hole, irrespective of radius. The 4-D gravitational acceleration is given by the expression, g^((4))=-.1c^2 λ=-.2λ GM_R/R , where R is the radius of the black hole, M_R is its mass, and λ is the exponential shape parameter, which depends only on the mass, or radius, of the black hole. We calculate the gravitational force, and the entropy within the black hole interior, as well as on its surface, the event horizon, which separates 3-D from 4-D space. Similar to a truncated Gaussian distribution, the gravitational force increases discontinuously, and dramatically, upon entry into the 4-D black hole from the 3-D side. It is also radius dependent within the 4-D black hole. Moreover, the total entropy is shown to be much less than the Bekenstein result, similar to the truncated Gaussian. For the gravitational force, we obtain, F_(G,r)^((4))=-.1c^2 λ〖 M〗_r , where M_r is the radiative mass enclosed within a 4-D volume of radius r. This unusual force law indicates that the gravitational force acting upon a layer of blackbody photons at radius r is strictly proportional to the enclosed radiative energy, M_r c^2, contained within that radius, with .1 λ being the constant of proportionality. For the entropy at radius, r, and on the surface, we obtain an expression which is order of magnitude comparable to the truncated Normal distribution. Tables are presented for three black holes, one having a mass equal to that of the sun. The other two have masses, which are ten times that of the sun, and 〖10〗^6 solar masses. The corresponding λ parameters are found to equal, (λ_A,λ_B,λ_C )=(.039569,.0037996,3.01229*〖10〗^(-8)), respectively. We compare these results to the truncated Gaussian distribution, which were worked out in another paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1905.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 04:23:57

Quantum Gravimeter into the Hills

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicists in California have loaded a bunch of ultracold caesium atoms into the back of a van and driven them up a hill to demonstrate how quantum interference can be used to measure gravity outside the laboratory. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory