Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1804 Submissions

[9] viXra:1804.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 14:40:18

Refutation of the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation for Spatial Dimension © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The Clausius-Clapeyron equation as implemented is not confirmed as tautologous.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1804.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 16:28:14

A New Type of Phase Transition Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron Relation Involving a Change in Spatial Dimension

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 19 Pages.

Using a space filled with radiation, we derive a generalization for the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to account for a phase transition, which involves a change in spatial dimension. We consider phase transitions from dimension of space, n, to dimension of space, (n-1), and vice versa, from (n-1) to n-dimensional space. For the former we can calculate a specific release of latent heat, a decrease in entropy and a change in volume; for the latter we derive an expression for the absorption of heat, the increase in entropy, and the difference in volume. Total energy is conserved in this transformation process. We apply this model to radiation in the early universe and find that for a transition from n = 4 to (n-1) = 3, there is an immense decrease in entropy accompanied by a tremendous change in volume, much like condensation. However, unlike condensation, this volume change is not three-dimensional. The volume changes from V4, a four-dimensional construct, to V3, a three-dimensional entity, which can be considered a subspace of V4. As a specific example of how the equation works, we assume a transition temperature of 3*1027 degrees Kelvin, and assume, furthermore, that the latent heat release in three-dimensional space is 1.8*1094 Joules. We find that for this transition, the energy densities, the entropy densities, and the volumes assume the following values (photons only). In four-dimensional space, we obtain u4 = 1.15*10125 J m-4, s4 = 4.81*1097 J m-4 K-1, and V4 = 2.14*10-31 m4. In three-dimensional space, we have u3 = 6.13*1094 J m-3, s3 = 2.72*1067 J m-3 K-1, and V3 = .267 m3. The subscripts 3 and 4 refer to three-dimensional and four-dimensional quantities, respectively. We speculate, based on the tremendous change in volume, the explosive release of latent heat, and the magnitudes of the other quantities calculated, that this type of transition might have a connection to inflation. With this work, we prove that space, in and of itself, has an energy content and vice versa, that energy is equivalent to space. This is so because giving up space releases latent heat, and buying space costs latent heat, which we can quantify. This is in addition to the energy contained within that space due to radiation. We can determine the specific amount of heat exchanged in transitioning between different spatial dimensions with our generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1804.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 03:01:38

Black Holes are Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 133 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Black Holes are Dark Matter. Information is lost in Black Holes. “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Information is lost in black holes” Adrian Ferent “Our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes” Adrian Ferent How Matter is change in Dark Matter by Gravitons: Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction, photon absorption by a Black Hole: E = h × f + a × f + a × ν where a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton. I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than: E = 4.14559 × 105 GeV After n interactions the energy of the photon is: where f is the initial frequency of the photon. Because graviton’s frequency νk > fk the energy E of the photon is higher after each photon-graviton interaction, this means photon’s frequency is much higher and this is the process how Matter is change in Dark Matter inside a Black Hole. “Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Information is lost in Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right. Wrong things what you learned about Black Holes, because Gravitons are not present in Einstein’s wrong Gravitation theory! That is why in my view Gerard 't Hooft, Leonard Susskind, Stephen Hawking, Jacob Bekenstein… are wrong regarding Black Holes: Bekenstein and Hawking conjectured that the black hole entropy is directly proportional to the area of the event horizon divided by the Planck area. From the entropy it is possible to use the usual thermodynamic relations to calculate the temperature of black holes. The entropy measures how many such squares, whose side is a Planck length, are there on the surface of a black hole. From here Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind suggested that the information is in fact preserved and is stored on the boundary of a system. After the “The Black Hole War” Gerard 't Hooft, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind agreed that the information is not lost inside a black hole; Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind discovered the holographic principle, the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. They considered a photon falling in a black hole, that will increase the black hole entropy and surface area; the black hole’s mass increases and the photon information is stored on the event horizon. Alice and Bob thought experiments: Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon. Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes. That is why: “The holographic principle is wrong” Adrian Ferent “My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons” Adrian Ferent That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. What happens when we fall in a Black Hole? “When we fall in a Black Hole, the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon” Adrian Ferent That is why: Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon. You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes! “Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with the density greater than Planck density” Adrian Ferent I discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter, I discovered that the Information is lost in Black Holes, I discovered what is the Event Horizon, I explained that the holographic principle is wrong and I discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole. 51. I am the first who explained Gravitation 52. I am the first who discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole: the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon 53. I am the first who explained that the holographic principle is wrong 54. I am the first who discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter 55. I am the first who explained that Information is lost in black holes 56. I am the first who explained what is the event horizon: the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons 57. I am the first who explained that our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes 58. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole 59. I am the first who discovered that Black Holes do not have temperature, because Black Holes are Dark Matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1804.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 03:45:11

Extended Quantum Mechanic (Earth is Also the Quantum of Electromagnetic Field)

Authors: Mahesh Khati
Comments: 38 Pages.

Quantum mechanics can be applied to big masses also. This will solve many problems of modern physics like dark matter. This is the big problem of physics for so many years. This solves problem of dual nature of quantum like interference by single photon. This theory will start new relativity other than Einstein relativity which balances relativity of small particles & big masses by similar consideration. It is just found that some galaxies do not contain dark matter & some have abundant dark matter. Means, dark matter is real & different than known matter. This theory gives require explanation to this problem.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1804.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 05:33:42

Dark Matter Black Hole Galaxy Hierarchy According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content. Mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons as a collision product, between mass less ring shaped oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or dipole Emergent Gravity. More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit. Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field.. So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us. Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption. Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1804.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 19:09:42

On a Quantum Theory of Relativity: Re-Defining the Fourth Spatial Dimension to Solve the Theory of Everything

Authors: Andrew Cox
Comments: 14 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as (4-3=) one stand-alone spatial dimension . In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart. This quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to fully explain black hole mechanics, which solves dark matter, which predicts dark energy, which explains the big bang in a cyclic universe -- which completes the "theory of everything."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1804.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 21:37:22

The Structure of the String in Mathematical Principle of Nature Philosophy

Authors: D.h
Comments: 48 Pages.

If string theory unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity, the applicable objects of string theory should include microscopic particles and the macrocosm. The greater time span of the universe phenomenon, the more probability that phenomenon contains geometrical symbol that can show the string structure. By certain geometrical change rules of the space in nature philosophical theory, the article arise the solution to observe the string. In the article it build the structure mold in 2-D expression by projected high dimensions (three and above dimension). Compare the mold there is an obvious structure of B-mold polarization transfer and rotation in Cosmos Microwave Background radiation. It proofed the existence reality of the string in space geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1804.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 20:58:24

The Answer to the Universe, the Life and Everything is Still 42

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42. The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57014*10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from. We find that this Sphere Theory may be related to a Bremsstrahlung type of radiation and an Entangled Universe
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1804.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 02:30:37

Proton Electron Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 14 Pages.

I Abstract This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See images below for an example of a sphere made of spheres. The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III. Charge appears to come from electron sized Charge. Gravity appears to come from Proton sized mass
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory