[25] **viXra:1608.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-29 08:47:17*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our Universe could either lie on a spatial three-dimensional brane embedded in a higher dimensional bulk, or could be flanked by one or more multi-dimensional branes of different possible sizes and shapes. Here we demonstrate, based on novel topological findings, that disconnected strings with matching descriptions moving on a 4-brane (or more) project to a single string on a 3-brane. This means that strings travelling on the bulk or on higher dimensional branes necessarily display a counterpart in our 3D world, and vice versa. Furthermore, based on the concept of homotopy equivalence, we show how it is possible for branes to stitch together to become condensed branes. Our framework allows a topological duality among different brane theories, because it holds for all the types of branes, independent of their hypothetical shape, curvature, size and boundaries. Furthermore, a topological approach allow branes assessment in the general terms of particle trajectories taking place on donut-like manifolds. Indeed, every high-dimensional brane, independent on the subtending cosmological model, can be described in terms of multi-dimensional toruses mapping to branes with lower spatial dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:1608.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 13:02:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin and the spectra of the gamma-ray bursts (the exploding objects/progenitors we will call the GRBs). The GRBs explode due to the inflows of the dark energy into the associations of neutron black holes that are the constituents of the black holes in centres of galaxies. The GRBs should be placed near the Schwarzschild surface in the plane of the accretion discs. The bursts should be correlated with an increase in activity of the central-black-hole jet and accretion disc because it causes more dense flows of the dark energy. Such flows cause that the neutron black holes swell so their associations can transform into iron object. The increase in gravitational energy of the iron object is compensated by the decrease of the gravitational energy of the black holes as a whole, i.e. the central black holes become the more compact objects. A half of radiation energy is absorbed by the central black hole so the escaping energy looks as an analog to the Hawking radiation. The bursts are volumetric, not directional. Calculated here the typical emitted energy is equivalent to 1.9 solar masses. Most important are the fusions of nucleons mostly into iron-56 via helium-4, the beta decays of neutrons, and emission of photons with energy about 188 MeV that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. According to SST, the radius of the observed Universe increased 46.55 times so the spectra of most distant GRBs (SST shows that galaxies with redshift higher than 0.6 all are in time distance about 13 – 13.8 Gyr) should peak near 17 keV, 150 keV, 190 keV, and 4 MeV. The spectra of GBRs placed, for example, in distance 1.2 Gyr should peak near 190 keV, 1.7 MeV, 2.2 MeV, and 46 MeV. But there can be other lower peaks as well. Most important are two results i.e. the released typical energy 1.9 solar masses and the peak for 150 keV or 190 keV for very distant GRBs because number density of photons emitted during the iron production from nucleons via helium-4 should be highest and because abundance of the gamma-ray bursts should be highest for the distant Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1608.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 15:05:17*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain the disappearance of high mass photon pairs that are the two-stage resonances. Their creation follows from the quantum entanglement. We suggest that the observed decrease in standard deviations results from increase in integral luminosity. Due to the four-object symmetry, instead production of, for example, the Higgs-like bosons with a mass of 750 GeV, due to the increase in the integral luminosity from 3.3 [1/fb] in 2015 to 12.9 [1/fb] in 2016, there are produced the Higgs-like bosons with a mass eight times higher. But such mass (about 6 TeV) lies outside the range of the CMS experiment. Moreover, probability of creation of the two-stage resonances is very, very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1608.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 01:06:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We look at Viutilli (1999) write up of a generalized schrodinger equation with its Ricci scalar inclusion, in curved space-time. This has a simplified version in Pre Planckian regime, which leads to comparing a resultant admissible wave function with Bohmian reformulations of quantum physics. As was done earlier, we compare this result with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from Poissons and Will from 2014, and then use inflaton physics . The resuting inflaton is then compared to the wavefunctional in the first part of this document.
Key words, Ricci tensor, Schrodinger equation, Modified Poisson Equation , massive gravity, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:1608.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-25 00:10:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. In addition we also obtain GW of amplitude as low as five meters above the Tokamak center such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1608.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-25 00:13:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We are reviewing Freeman Dyson’s paper which alleged that detection of gravitons via LIGO, or by outer space experiments (due to probabilistic calculations which we review in the document), an impossibility. The disagreement we have with Dr. Dyson is that his probability calculations are taking place in almost infinite spatial domains, which renders the detection protocols, using his probability scheme, impossible. After we summarize the Dyson outer space arguments, and how Dyson got them, we will refer the reader to the very strain calculation done in the referenced PRD article, so cited, as to how a nuclear weapon could generate GW, and then afterwards, refer the reader to a 2nd paper, of how Tokamaks could detect GW/ Gravitons, as detectable by the 3DSR effect. Nowhere are we suggesting DETONITION of a nuclear device to generate GW! The reader is referred to another Li et.al. PRD article, 2008, as to 3DSR, as to how detection of GW/Gravitons could occur due to something other than the Gertenshehtein effect, in this paper, i.e. they can look it up, and then in a 2nd follow up paper learn how a Tokamak could be utilized to have a finite sized geometry, for using the 3DSR effect for GW generation. The first paper highlights how if one assumes that only by use of infinite spatial geometry, and by using only the Gertenshehtein effect, that indeed one can convince oneself as to not bothering with the very real prospects of earthbound generation of Gravitons and GW, and that in doing so, GW research will be strictly limited, even with the outstanding results of LIGO, which in no way should be criticized. The entire analysis makes the case that foundational research as to the nature of GRAVITY means moving beyond the mental limitations place on GW/ Graviton research by Dyson’s 2009 paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1608.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 04:07:25*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 20 Pages. CITE: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Tomorrow's Computer Science Makes Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe.docx. figshare. - https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3544994.v2 - Retrieved: 08 36, Aug 23, 2016 (GMT)

uter Science Builds Today's, and Yesterday's, Universe
Author – Rodney Bartlett
Abstract -
Listening to Brian Cox and Dr. Karl talking on triple j (http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/media/s4513719.htm), the thing that most interested me was the subject "the opposite of gravity". By viewing reality as entanglement with the topological extension of a computer-simulated universe, comments can be made about: 1) the nature of gravity, and so-called antigravity being a result of the Complex Number Plane; 2) how this explanation of antigravity could explain dark energy and dark matter; 3) universal expansion being replaced by the closely related, though more precise, extension into space-time of binary digits and Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles; 4) a non-supernatural, humanistic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1608.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-12 11:24:12*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Minor changes. Published in Open Access Library Journal, 3:e3032.- http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103032

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on constituents defined by mass, spin and charge. The preons form a finite combinatorial system for the standard model fermions. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the preon bound states. By applying the area eigenvalues of loop quantum gravity to black hole preons one gets a preon mass spectrum starting from zero. Gravitational baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained. Argument is given for unified field theory be based only on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions of preons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1608.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-23 11:04:55*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper combines space - time and the Hilbert space in one invariant interval

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1608.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-21 06:34:30*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We nalize the project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10] by studying
graviton theory in our setting. Given the results in [1, 3, 9, 10], there is not
so much left to accomplish and we start by deepening our understanding
of some points left open in [1, 10]. Perturbative niteness of the theory
follows ad-verbatim from the analysis in [3, 9] and we do not bother here
about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a
couple of new physical and mathematical insights regarding the genesis
of the structure of the quantal graviton theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1608.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 07:19:51*

**Authors:** Alexey N. Bulyuk

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new approach to the theory of gravity is proposed. A second-rank tensor field is chosen to be the potential of the gravitational field. The gravitational field is related to the metric tensor of space--time, and all phenomena occur in curved space--time. A variational principle is established, and the gravitational field equations are derived. The energy--momentum density tensor of the gravitational field and its conservation law are obtained. The source of the gravitational field is the energy--momentum density of all kinds of matter, including the gravitational field itself. A Lagrangian of the gravitational field is proposed that correctly describes local observable gravitational phenomena in the second-order approximation. The energy density of the gravitational field is positive.
Estimates are obtained for the gravitational energy defect, the difference between the inertial and gravitational masses of a body, and the effect of the external gravitational field on the mass of a body.
The new approach to the description of the gravitational field and its energy provides additional incentives search possibilities of experimental verification of the phenomena of gravitation in strong fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1608.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 05:03:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here is a brief summary of the issues relating to the formulation of Theory of Everything (ToE). To formulate ToE, we must answer following questions and calculate following quantities from some more fundamental initial conditions applying much less parameters than the tens parameters that appear in the two fundamental theories i.e. in the General Theory of Relativity (GR) and the Standard Model (SM). Are the GR and SM the complete and mathematically coherent theories? Can we unify GR and SM within the same methods? If not, then what is the cause and why gravitational constant is about 42 powers of ten times lower than electromagnetic constant for electron-positron pair (it is not the fine-structure constant)? We must calculate masses of all fundamental fermions (i.e. neutrinos, electron, muon, tauon, quarks, proton and neutron) and mixing angles that appear in the PMNS neutrino-mixing matrix and in the CKM quark-mixing matrix. We must calculate fundamental physical constants and coupling constants. We must define the dark-matter (DM) particle and the dark-energy (DE) particle. There as well should appear a formula that ties masses/energies responsible for all interactions. We must solve many other fundamental problems in particle physics and cosmology unsolved within GR and SM. For example, why hyperons are created due to the nuclear strong interactions whereas they decay due to the electroweak interactions (the answer that it is due to the properties of the strange quark does not solve the problem)? All listed problems are solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), therefore, we believe that SST is missing part of the ToE.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1608.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-17 21:43:43*

**Authors:** John Faust

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Abstract:
Mass and the amp meter are equivalent. As a result of this I will demonstrate that gravity is a result of magnetism due to the magnetic fields of the particles associated with matter(protons, neutrons, and electrons). Their magnetic fields, particularly the one of the electron since it is much larger than the other two gives a value when plugged into the proper magnetic field equation that matches the acceleration of gravity at Earth's surface. Objections that magnetism is responsible for gravity are expected. Therefore, I will deal with the two main objections raised that seem to imply that magnetism couldn't be responsible for gravity immediately after the calculated result. The first objection deals with the inverse square law and the second deals with the monopole nature of gravity. After answering the objections, I will demonstrate the meaning of the gravitational constant as it relates to magnetic units and further support that mass and the amp meter are equivalent.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1608.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-07 01:44:01*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamics model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamics model. We then discuss on the (1+3) forces, the gravity force and an additional three pseudo-forces that are described by force carrier particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1608.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-18 14:28:24*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Gravitational Motor is a type of motor which converts Gravitational Energy directly into Rotational Kinetic Energy. Its fuel is therefore the Gravitational Energy (no needs gasoline, oil, etc). An example of Gravitational Motor is the turbines of the hydroelectric plants. However, they are not mobile i.e., they cannot be transported from one place to another as the combustion motors or the electric motors. Mobiles Gravitational Motor can be developed starting from the devices of gravity control, such as the Quantum Controller of Gravity (QCG) [1]. The form of the QCG originally proposed is spherical. Here, it is described a Gravitational Motor which uses a QCG with spherical cylindrical form. This Gravitational Motor can have very-high power, and it can be used in order to generate electrical energy at large scale or traction to move cars, ships, tankers, aircraft carrier, trains, etc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1608.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-17 06:40:59*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We further investigate the new project initiated in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9]
by generalizing non-abelian gauge theory to our setting. Given the results
in [3, 9], there is not much left to do and we shall deepen our understanding of some points left open in [1] regarding the nature and presence of
ghosts. Perturbative niteness of the theory follows ad-verbatim from the
analysis in [3, 9] and we shall not bother here about writing it down explicitly. Rather, our aim is to provide for a couple of new physical and
mathematical insights regarding the genesis of the structure of quantal
non-abelian gauge theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1608.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-16 09:29:12*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This is what you get when you Google "imaginary time" and stumble across a Christian website by a postdoctoral researcher studying quantum gravity and black hole thermodynamics. The site is called UNDIVIDED LOOKING – COMMENTS ON PHYSICS AND THEOLOGY, and the page I first found is at http://www.wall.org/~aron/blog/did-the-universe-begin-viii-the-no-boundary-proposal/. The website owner's comment policy advises readers "Do not simply copy and paste a large amount of text …" which almost made me decide not to comment. But I finally did. Even though I have copied and pasted parts inbetween parts written today, I think the choosing of the widely separated lines of pasted text makes this what he calls "an individualized response". Anyway, my comment seems to have been eaten by a black hole. Instead of letting half a day of work go to waste, I'll post my thoughts here.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1608.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-17 10:07:27*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The masses and mixings of quarks have the origin in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). They arise from the nuclear interactions of the source of them - it is the charge of the core of baryons (mass of the charge is 318.2955 MeV). There are the three dominating bosons: the loop with a mass of 67.54441 MeV (the neutral pions consist of two such loops), the boson that creates the Titius-Bode states for the nuclear strong-weak interactions (its mass is 750.28 MeV), and a Higgs-boson-type condensate with a mass of the bottom quark (its mass is 4190 MeV). The ratios of masses of these bosons to the mass of the source define the three mixing angles that lead to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Here we show that the SST interactions of the source of the nuclear strong interactions determine the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Notice that contrary to SST, within the Standard Model we cannot calculate masses of quarks and the CKM-matrix mixing angles, Q(ij), from initial conditions. Within SST we obtain: Q(12) = 13.164, Q(13) = 0.212, and Q(23) = 2.357 degrees - obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1608.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 09:07:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata (PMNS) neutrino-mixing matrix is in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the unitary mixing matrix which contains information on states of neutrinos when they collide with the neutrinos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB). Since in SST there are only 3 Dirac neutrino flavours (there are not in existence Majorana neutrinos) and because the CP phase is equal to 180 degrees, the PMNS matrix is parameterized by three mixing angles only that are calculated from three fundamental weak phenomena that took place in the nuclear plasma at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe - it fixed the abundances of different flavours in CNB. Calculated mixing angles A(ij) are A(13) = 8.2654, A(12) = 33.0616 and A(23) = 41.3250 degrees. We showed that the mixing angle A(13) follows from internal structure of pions and from the atom-like structure of baryons. The ratios of the mixing angles are as 1 : 4 : 5 and they represent respectively one stable flavour (i.e. electron- or muon-neutrino), two entangled flavours (i.e. electron- or muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. four entangled stable neutrinos), and three entangled flavours (i.e. electron- plus muon- plus tau-neutrino i.e. five entangled stable neutrinos). We as well calculated the degenerate masses of the three different neutrinos - calculated sum is 0.287 eV (it is consistent with experimental data). We calculated mass of tauon (1777.2 MeV), which is an analog to muon. We answered following question: Why neutrinos are left-handed whereas antineutrinos are right-handed? SST shows that sterile neutrinos are not in existence. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from the left-handedness of the Higgs-field components.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1608.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 09:55:02*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We continue our investigation of the new project launched in [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8] by generalizing Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of elec- trons and photons, to our setting. At ﬁrst, we deal with the respective two point functions, deﬁne the correct interaction theory as a series of connected Feynman diagrams and ﬁnally, we show that for a certain class of spacetime metrics, each diagram is ﬁnite and a modiﬁed perturbation series is analytic.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1608.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-06 11:05:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We do not reject the mainstream theory of the creation of the Solar System saying that its formation was due to the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud about 4.6 Gyr ago. Indeed, the Sun and the outer shells of planets appeared due to such processes. But applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that initially there was a modified black hole composed of neutron black holes that due to the inflows of the dark energy, via a supernova (there appeared other stars as well), transformed into the large molecular cloud and next into the Sun and outer shells of planets and dwarf planets. Moreover, we showed that the initial modified black hole created the planetary rings defined by the Titius-Bode Law (TBL) for the gravitational interactions - they transformed into the seeds of planets – this happened in the a few Gyr old Universe. The TBL for the gravitational interactions cannot be discredited due to the fact that it does not predict the Neptune orbit. The complete TBL for the nuclear strong interactions described within SST (SST shows that the core of baryons is a modified black hole in respect of the strong interactions), which is an analog to the TBL for the gravitational interactions, leads to an orbit that corresponds to the orbit of the planet Neptune. Both TBLs follow from the virtual processes near modified black holes of the same strength - it is because involved masses in gravitational TBL are about 61 powers of ten times higher than in nuclear-strong TBL. Deviations from predicted semi-major axes are from -5.6% for Mercury up to +5.3% for Neptune. According to gravitational TBL derived within SST, there are following planets or (dwarf planets): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, (Ceres), Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and (Pluto) (theory of prime numbers leads to 10 planets/dwarf-planets defined by TBL). Because of high probability of destruction of the Titius-Bode orbits during the evolution of the modified black holes, the Solar System is unique in the Universe. Here we calculated the semi-major axes of listed planets/dwarf-planets from the initial conditions (for Earth we obtain 0.971 AU).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1608.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-06 03:15:46*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the light of a recent novel deﬁnition of a relativistic quantum theory [1, 3, 4], we ask ourselves the question what it would mean to make the gravitational ﬁeld itself dynamical. This could lead to a couple of diﬀerent viewpoints upon quantum gravity which we shall explain carefully; this paper expands upon some ideas in [2] and again conﬁrms ones thought that we are still far removed from a (type one) theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1608.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 01:36:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This document reviews the Landau – Liftshifts reformulation of General relativity with a representation of the available mass of a graviton. From looking at a conservation law, using the Landau-Liftshifs formulation, we obtain conditions for initial mass, in the Pre Planckian regime of space-time. In doing so, we also indicate a metric tensor and metric pseudo tensor delineation of causal discontinuity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1608.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-04 12:20:35*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the two-stage explosions of the hydrogen-poor Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). We calculated their quantized masses: 3.14, 6.28, 12.55 and 25.10 solar masses, maximum absolute magnitudes for the initial and main explosions and we solved the ejecta-velocity problem. The derived light curves are consistent with observational data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1608.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-13 09:53:44*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1] building upon insights reached in [2], we constructed the free theory on a rather general curved spacetime for spin-0, 1/2,1 particles and we wrote down the most general interaction vertices for the latter leading to the principle of local gauge invariance. In this paper, we further deﬁne the interacting theory and study the behavior of modiﬁed particle propagators, leading to a ﬁnite theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory