[19] **viXra:1507.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 03:58:15*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Model, Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1507.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 20:44:29*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Units of length, time and energy calculated by applying the Holographic Principle to the cosmological Event Horizon are concordant with the properties of the atomic nucleus, and remain so over the history of the universe from CMB decoupling into the infinite future. Such units differ from the Planck units by 20 orders of magnitude. The link between cosmology and particle physics is a non-zero cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1507.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 05:14:41*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

temporal physics, multitempal physics

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1507.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 17:30:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Explicit deformations of the Lorentz (Conformal) algebra are performed by recurring to Clifford algebras. In particular, deformations of the boosts generators are possible which still retain the form of the Lorentz algebra. In this case there is an invariant value of the energy that is set to be equal to the Planck energy. A discussion of Clifford-Hopf $\kappa$-deformed quantum Poincare algebra follows. To finalize we provide further deformations of the Clifford geometric product based on Moyal star products associated with noncommutative spacetime coordinates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1507.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-05 14:58:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to highlight the deep connection between Einstein's relativistic kinetic
energy formula and two quantum gravity laws' governing their respective domains: black holes and
particle physics. It seems this connection leads to a deeper understanding of the nature of the
intervening processes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1507.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 17:33:14*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a continuation of this conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the
Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of
Spacetime, Strings and Branes and in the forming of a new concept called the Probability of
Geometry. Further taking these concepts through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology
concerning possible physics and cosmology beyond the Planck scale. With the added feature
of testability, and expansion of how to conceptually marry General Relativity, Quantum
Mechanics, M-Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity into one complete theory of Line Space.
With a more full understanding of Black Holes and how the modern concepts fails.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1507.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 04:10:32*

**Authors:** Yevgeniy Kutanov

**Comments:** 8 pages in English and 9 pages in Russian

This paper describes a model of gravity where gravitational pull is created by accelerating flow of space which is absorbed by mass. Proposed model of gravity is used to define the size of a zone of gravitational influence of mass and to explain the value of the rest mass energy and the phenomenon of time dilation. This model suggests that the gravitational influence of mass squeezes space cells and accelerates them towards the mass until a certain critical speed is reached at which the space cells collapse. The critical speed of the space cells is the mass’s space absorption speed which sets an absolute speed limit for a movement in space for any object. The total energy of mass is equal to the sum of its gravitational and kinetic energies. Stationary object with uniform space absorption from all directions has the highest gravitational energy for its mass but no kinetic energy. When an object is moving with the speed of light absorbing space from one direction it completely loses its gravitational influence but gains the highest possible kinetic energy. The last case defines the value of the total energy of mass as equal to its highest kinetic energy. Time for the particle of matter is measured in the acts of space cells absorption. Duration of the quantum of time is a function of the size of the space cells when they reach a particle of matter. The gravitational influence of mass is weakening when an object is moving in space. Lower gravity means bigger size of the space cells on the surface of the matter and therefore slower time for the moving mass. This model of mass shows that even moving with the speed of light particles experience time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1507.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 05:35:44*

**Authors:** Klimets Alexander

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We discuss the gravitational collapse of a photon. It is shown that when the photon gets Planck energy, it turns into a black hole (as a result of interaction with the object to be measured). It is shown that three-dimensional space is a consequence of energy advantage in the formation of the Planck black holes. New uncertainty relations established on the basis of Einstein’s equations. It is shown that the curvature of space-time is quantized.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1507.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 14:09:17*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recent observations suggest that the models of synchronized co-evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies in the early Universe are partially incorrect - Trakhtenbrot et al. (10 July 2015). They found in the galaxy CID-947, which is placed in time distance about 12 Gyr (z = 3.328), a black hole with a mass of about 10 % of the total galactic mass. On the other hand, the SMBH in such a normal-size galaxy achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5 % of the host galaxy mass in the present day i.e. their mass is about 20 to 50 times smaller (!). This observational fact is consistent with the cosmology described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Here we present a revised scenario for the evolution of galaxies. We can see all galaxies but we cannot see the initial period 7.75 Gyr of their 21.61 Gyr evolution (the Ludwig et al. data (2009) suggest that the Universe is about 22 Gyr old but within the Scale-Symmetric Theory we showed that we can see only the last period about 13.8 Gyr). During the unseen period, due to the inflows of dark matter and next of the turbulent inflows of dark energy, evolution of the initial protogalaxies had been differentiated. The SST shows that in the visible period of evolution of the Universe, the ratio of mass of the central black hole to total mass of galaxy (it concerns the quasars also) should be equal to or lower than 0.583 and this result is consistent with new data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1507.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-06 12:03:08*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The second and third deformation of space are its manifestations that we perceive as matter (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 and http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097). In this paper it is described that motion is a form of space deformation, by deduction of forces from the space as motion forces, which are accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonia (oscillators), as quantum forces, causing harmonic change of cohesive pressure in proximal space (see http://viXra.org/abs/1505.0211).
It is described, here, the motion dynamics and the change that is installed on the gravitational field of the particle, resulting to the ability of detection of the uniform motion. Besides, the motion should be absolute, since the intervals are referring to the absolute dynamic space of the Universe. The maintaining of the accumulated forces, due to the particle speed, is the cause for change of the dynamics of the uniform motion and, hence, of the Physics Laws in inertial systems. Moreover, with the new concept of absolute motion it is considered a natural consequence the contribution of the two parts of monochromatic light in Michelson-Morley’s experiment (see http://viXra.org/abs/1602.0220), without the arbitrariness of the constant light speed in inertial systems.
Also, it is defined the timeless speed, at which happen all the phenomena of the Universe. The gravitational red shift of the stars spectrum and the chaotic motion of galactic systems are interpreted, without the assumption of dark matter and energy.
Finally, it is communicated the forecast of Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space, that refers to the research of the observatory (Magic telescope on La Palma), in which it is recorded (October 2007) a 4 min delay in high-energy photons (gamma rays) from galaxy Markarian 501. This observation proves that the space contains unsung forces, which are evident in our senses as deformations of space, as the above theory describes.
Accordingly, for the great problem of Physics and Philosophy, «What is the space», there is the answer-solution: «The dynamic space».

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1507.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 15:30:18*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In “Calculation of the Planck Constant” (1), an alternative method for calculating the Planck constant was derived using the Rydberg constant. In table 2, the Planck Constant is calculated for each year of the Codata publication of the fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1507.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 09:04:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we argue for the tower of the Chandrasekhar limits as the origin of the helium-rich hot subdwarfs in omega Centauri cluster. The structure of bare muons described within SST leads to the hot blue stars with a mass of 0.465 solar masses. Previously we showed that stars with masses of 1.395, 11.20 and 0.891 solar masses should behave as the Type Ia supernovae i.e. after the explosion of such stars there should not be created a neutron star as a remnant. Stars with a mass of 0.465 solar masses are the untypical supernovae. They are the remnants of the exploding stars with a mass of 0.891 solar masses which lose their outer hydrogen layers. Their mass is too small to cause a collapse and next explosion as it is for higher Chandrasekhar limits. But the 3-component weak mass (a ball/condensate composed of the confined Einstein-spacetime components that is entangled with two rotating neutrinos) in muons (for mass equal to 0.465 solar masses there appears a maximum for number density of such 3-component systems and each component carries energy equal to 17.61 MeV) is a catalyst for fusions of three alpha particles into carbon-12 (the last experimental data show that any nonzero amount of coherence in a system can be converted into an equal amount of entanglement between that system and another initially incoherent one). Due to such fusions, surfaces of the untypical supernovae are very hot (a narrow temperature range from 35,000 K to 40,000 K). They are the extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1507.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-24 14:52:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Added background from Codata

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine-structure constant constant. This constant is found to depend only on pi and the dimensionless relations of the rest masses of the electron, neutron, and proton. The following paper shows a predicted fine-structure constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969. The fine-structure constant found is accurate to the measured fine-structure constant within less than one sigma. As the data for the fundamental physical constants has become more accurate, the prediction for the fine-structure constant has been trending for a precise number difference. Some, like John D. Barrow, Richard Feynman, and Sir Arthur Eddington knew that the fine-structures existence is embarrassingly elusive to grasp. Is its value to be found in string theory or quantum foam? Is pi a value incorporated in the fine-structure constant? John D. Barrow wrote;“If the deep logic of what determines the value of the fine-structure constant also played a significant role in our understanding of all the physical processes in which the fine-structure constant enters, then we would be stymied. Fortunately, we do not need to know everything before we can know something.” ― John D. Barrow, New Theories of Everything(4) Why does, this Equation 2.2, below predict a value for the fine-structure constant within the limits of the Quantum Hall method of measuring the fine-structure constant? We do not know, but we also touch a forever that we do not yet understand, yet are allowed to exist in the “ moment an instant lasted forever and be destined for the leading edge of Eternity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1507.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 11:33:22*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 40 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

As long as humans have been trying to understand the laws of objective reality, they have been proposing theories. In contrast to the well-known quantum theory, the most fundamental theory of matter currently available, Laplace's demon and Einstein's Weltformel are related more widely at least by standing out against the indeterminacy as stipulated by today’s quantum theory. Randomness as such does not exclude a deterministic relationship between cause and effect, since every random event has its own cause. The purpose of this publication is to provide a satisfactory description of the microstructure of space-time by mathematising the deterministic relationship between cause and effect at quantum level in the form of a mathematical formula of the causal relationship k.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1507.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 14:47:51*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 2, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a potentially more accurate value of Planck’s constant. The following paper shows a predicted range of Planck’s constant at one sigma for Planck’s constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1507.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-04 04:47:37*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Partly rewritten for clarity with some new material.

To extend the standard model to Planck scale energies I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that inside any black hole there is a core object of length scale L_Planck. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of general relativity. A simple phenomenological schematic model is presented for the core as quantum fields of SO(10) grand unified theory. A survey is made of calculational models that could support or supplement the present scheme and of theoretical frameworks for future developments.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1507.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 04:14:17*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Will be brought up in Marcel Grossman Meeting, Rome

We initially look at a non singular universe representation as given by Rovelli and Vidotto, in terms of a quantum bounce, via quark stars, as a start of how to estimate of entropy and also of the number of operations of an expanding universe. The bench mark used is, to after considering a quark star, to look at the mass of a universe, estimated, and from there, we can obtain the entropy if we look at the Schwartzshield radii of a universe, and then the radii of the universe about 380,000 years after the big bang. In the latter, we show how to get the number of operations as akin to the reasoning used by Seth Lloyd , in 2001, and also from there close with a few comments as to the ‘naturalness’ of heavy Gravity from this formulation of entropy, which is based upon a start of considering what is a Planck star, as far as minimum quantum effects in Black hole physics, and by extension early universe cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1507.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 11:44:43*

**Authors:** R. Born

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is not the best paper, it's pieces of a larger work that didn't fit the constraints of an essay I have many more details, references, I was not able to include, but will provide in other works. The important part here is that it helps preserve your free will by showing how it is important to gravity, a universal truth, law. The observer scales up in the far future, which astronomers can't see in telescopes. You don't need a crystal ball to use logic, follow trends like evolution another 85 billion years...

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1507.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 08:58:57*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here we present the new structure of the Theory of Everything (ToE or SQUARE Theory). The time problem that concerns the General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) (contrary to QM, in GR is not a distinguished physical time) suggests that the irreversible separation of GR and QM during the inflation is the good idea - just there was created the two-component spacetime with very different properties of the two components. One component is directly associated with gravitational fields whereas the second with the Standard-Model interactions and particles. It causes that unification of GR and QM within the same methods is impossible. The separation of GR and QM follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field that existence results from the extended GR (the phase transitions are described within the unique Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST)). The SST shows that both theories, i.e. GR and QM, start from correct but incomplete sets of initial conditions. It causes that, generally, they lead to experimental data so both are the correct theories but due to the incompleteness, there appear as well the not numerous incorrect solutions i.e. solutions that cannot be realized by Nature. The Scale-Symmetric Theory limits the GR and QM in such a way that there do not appear infinities, indeterminate mathematical forms, approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. Nature on lower and lower levels should be simpler and simpler, not more and more complex as it is in the not unique Loop Quantum Gravity or the not unique string/M-theory. We do not need new differential equations to solve the tremendous number of unsolved basic problems - we need a very simple theory that limits the GR and QM and describes the scales below the Planck scale and solves all problems above this scale - SST is such a theory. In the RHIC experiment we can test the SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory