[7] **viXra:1105.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Mark A. Newstead, Stephen C. Newstead

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper we investigate whether an electromagnetic wave can have mass,
whilst also still having a maximum velocity equal to the speed of light. We find
that their mass is inversely proportional to their velocity, such that they have
no mass when travelling at the speed of light. This proportionality may also
help explain the duality of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1105.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 May 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 pages

The intrinsic motions of light and time are metric equivalents; they are the primordial entropy drives of free
and bound energy, creating space and history. The dimensions are entropic conservation domains allowing
the simultaneous use, transformation, and conservation of free and bound electromagnetic energy. (See:
"The Time Train"; see also: "The Paradox of the Traveling Twin".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1105.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-09 13:20:57*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. expansion of "resonance" mechanism understanding

Noether's theorem applies generally only to continuous parameters, such as space and time, and only in particular cases to discontinuous parameters, such as charge. Nevertheless, since charge conservation is well established both observationally and experimentally, it is very likely that the theorem applies also in the particular case of charge. If nothing else, this is the hypothesis to be advanced, and we make the case with numerous arguments throughout this and other papers on the website.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1105.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** Pages. Journal of High Energy Physics Volume 2011, Number 8, 101

The physical interpretation of black hole's quasinormal modes is
fundamental for realizing unitary quantum gravity theory as black holes are
considered theoretical laboratories for testing models of such an ultimate
theory and their quasinormal modes are natural candidates for an
interpretation in terms of quantum levels.
The spectrum of black hole's quasinormal modes can be re-analysed by
introducing a black hole's effective temperature which takes into account
the fact that, as shown by Parikh and Wilczek, the radiation spectrum
cannot be strictly thermal. This issue changes in a fundamental way the
physical understanding of such a spectrum and enables a re-examination
of various results in the literature which realizes important modifies on
quantum physics of black holes. In particular, the formula of the
horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area result modified
becoming functions of the quantum "overtone" number n. Consequently,
the famous formula of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its sub-leading
corrections and the number of microstates are also modified. Black hole's
entropy results a function of the quantum overtone number too.
We emphasize that this is the first time that black hole's entropy is
directly connected with a quantum number.
Previous results in the literature are re-obtained in the limit n → ∞.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1105.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 pages, submitted to the Int. J. Mod. Phys. A

A ternary gauge field theory is explicitly constructed based on a totally
antisymmetric ternary-bracket structure associated with a 3-Lie algebra.
It is shown that the ternary infinitesimal gauge transformations do obey
the key closure relations [δ_{1}, δ_{2}] = δ_{3}.
Invariant actions for the 3-Lie
algebra-valued gauge fields and scalar fields are displayed. We analyze
and point out the difficulties in formulating a nonassociative Octonionic
ternary gauge field theory based on a ternary-bracket associated with the
octonion algebra and defined earlier by Yamazaki. It is shown that a
Yang-Mills-like quadratic action is invariant under global (rigid) transformations
involving the Yamazaki ternary octonionic bracket, and that
there is closure of these global (rigid) transformations based on constant
antisymmetric parameters Λ^{ab} = -Λ^{ba}. Promoting the latter parameters
to spacetime dependent ones Λ^{ab}(x^{μ}) allows to build an octonionic ternary
gauge field theory when one imposes gauge covariant constraints on the
latter gauge parameters leading to field-dependent gauge parameters and
nonlinear gauge transformations. In this fashion one does not spoil the
gauge invariance of the quadratic action under this restricted set of gauge
transformations and which are tantamount to spacetime-dependent scalings
(homothecy) of the gauge fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1105.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 May 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 11 pages, submitted to Physics Letters B

A novel (to our knowledge) nonassociative Octonionic ternary gauge
field theory is explicitly constructed based on a ternary-bracket structure
involving the octonion algebra. The ternary bracket was defined earlier
by Yamazaki. The antisymmetric rank-two field strength F_{μν} is defined in
terms of the ternary-bracket (... see paper) involving an auxiliary octonionicvalued
coupling (...) . The ternary bracket cannot be rewritten
in terms of 2-brackets, [A,B,C] ≠ 1/4[[A,B],C]. It is found that gaugeinvariant
matter kinetic terms for an octonionic-valued scalar field can be
introduced in the action if one starts instead with an octonionic-valued
rank-three antisymmetric field strength (...)
permutations, which is defined in terms of an antisymmetric tensor field
of rank two (...) and (...) We conclude with some
preliminary steps towards the construction of generalized ternary gauge
field theories involving both 3-Lie algebras and octonions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1105.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 May 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 pages.

"Local gauge symmetry currents" are forces that maintain the local invariance of universal constants,
charges, and other conserved parameters (such as causality and the "Interval") despite the hostile
environment of a variable gravitational (or inertial) metric, relative rather than absolute motion, entropy,
partial charges, etc. These compensatory forces are due to the activity of the field vectors of the four forces,
which not only act (in the long term) to return these asymmetric material systems to their original symmetric
state (light), but also act (in the short term) to protect and maintain the invariant values of their symmetry
debts (charges), while awaiting a final repayment via antimatter annihilation, proton decay, the "quantum
radiance" of black holes, or a universal "Big Crunch". Gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the symmetry
debt of matter by creating matter's time dimension via the annihilation of space, providing a historical
domain within which charge conservation can have significance, and the repayment of symmetry debts can
be indefinitely deferred. Gravitation eventually also pays the energy-"principle" on matter's symmetry debt,
converting bound energy to free energy in stars and via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes,
completely vanishing mass and its associated gravitational field. Section B

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory