[16] **viXra:1410.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 13:17:08*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is an intuitive but general conviction that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity. Here we show that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture, discussing a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. Our model has important implications on the BH information puzzle and on the non-strictly random character of Hawking radiation. It is also in perfect agreement with existing results in the literature, starting from the famous result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
This paper improves, clarifies and finalizes some recent results that, also together with collaborators, we published in various peer reviewed journals.
Preliminary results on the model in this paper have been recently discussed in an Invited Lecture at the 12th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1410.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 00:24:19*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Consider the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is it possible that Milgrom’s acceleration law is wrong? No, because Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski have elaborated too much empirical evidence in its favor. There are only 2 possibilities: (1) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is 100% correct but appears to be significantly wrong for some unknown reason. (2) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory really is slightly wrong. Where did Newton go wrong? Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. To every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction: in other words, the actions of two bodies in relation to each other are always equal and directed in contrary parts. Within the universe to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction. Newton’s Third Law should perhaps be: Within the multiverse to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction provided that the action and the reaction are both confined to one particular universe. In other words, I suggest that Newton and Einstein made the mistake of assuming that gravitational energy is conserved. Start with Kepler’s laws and follow Newton’s reasoning with the removal of the assumption that gravitational energy is conserved. The result is not F = G * m1 * m2 / r^2 but instead F = ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * G * m1 * m2 / r^2 , where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 if gravitational energy is conserved, > 0 if gravitational energy is unexpectedly large, and < 0 if gravitational energy in unexpectedly small. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximated sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1410.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-18 07:25:28*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this article, the formal definition for the construction of the participator model is given. This is the major participator aspect for the generation of universes via GGU-model schemes. It is shown to be representable as a finite meet semi-lattice with lower unit.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1410.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-30 06:33:14*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity, General Relativity and E=mc^2 confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1410.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:17:15*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Added more to the conclusion. Fixed error in title, plus typos and added a formula and additional comments / formula to the conclusion

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1410.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 11:45:36*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What are the tests of string theory? What is Milgromian string theory, and how might Milgromian string theory be tested? If the string theorists are correct about string theory and if Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically valid when gravitational accelerations are low, then what might be the meaning of “Milgromian string theory”? What might be the physical basis of MOND? Consider 3 ideas: (1) Fernández-Rañada and Tiemblo-Ramos suggested that atomic time might be different from astronomical time. (2) Dark matter has zero inertial mass-energy and positive gravitational mass-energy. (3) Dark energy has zero inertial mass-energy and negative gravitational mass-energy. My guess is that the preceding ideas combined with Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) plausibly imply the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect. Replace the –1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s gravitational field equations by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^-5 . Designate this constant by D-M-C-C. In the “Meaning of Relativity” 5th edition page 87, the formula (101) should have – κ/(2π) replaced by (–κ/(4π)) * (1/2 – D-M-C-C)^-1 on the hypothesis of the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-31 21:06:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1410.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 01:11:42*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Newton's inverse square law of gravity is very accurate in predicting the mutual gravitational responses of bodies within galaxies. Its predictions fail however in the outskirts of many galaxies and in cosmological scale analyses of the universe. Dark entities can be hypothesized for maintaining the law intact, yet the possibility that something is faulty not with our qualifications to sense dark constituents of the universe but with the law itself, cannot be ruled out. Through algebraic discussion I show that Newton equations can be interpreted in a new way at least as legitimate as their conventional way of interpretation. According to this new interpretation of Newton equations it comes out that the laws of gravity alter when the ratio between the mass of a gravitational source and the distance from it is smaller from a predetermined value. I indicate that gravitational fields may have a cutoff border at some mass dependent distance, i.e. possibly the influence of gravity is restricted in range and galaxies receding from one another according to Hubble law are gravitationally disconnected. My conclusion is that the common use of GR for cosmological scale analysis of the universe is very speculative and lacks any observational support.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1410.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 07:29:16*

**Authors:** Piyush Mohan Singhal

**Comments:** 13 Pages. A peer review is requested.

The formation of a trefoil knot in a measurement space with entropy is described. It is shown that for a given prime knot, invariants with the characteristics of Laurent polynomials can be developed in 2+1 dimensional measurement space. These polynomials distinguish chiral property and uniquely address charge, parity and time symmetries.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1410.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 21:44:39*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists have long suggested that the four observed fundamental forces of nature are separate manifestations of what was once a single force at times close to the Big Bang. If so, magnitude of the unified force can be assumed to be equal to . Strength of any interaction can be defined as the ratio of the operating force magnitude and the magnitude of . Let the gravitational interaction at black holes be called as ‘Schwarzschild interaction’. If strength of Schwarzschild interaction is unity, then weak interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction and strong interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction. Based on these concepts and considering the Avogadro number as an absolute and discrete number, basics of final unification can be understood.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1410.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-08 13:54:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) leads to the atom-like structure of baryons containing the core (it is composed of entangled or/and confined Einstein-spacetime components) that is the modified black hole in respect of the nuclear strong interactions. The structure of the core leads to conclusion that at high energy proton-proton collisions we should detect 25% more electrons than muons. On the other hand, at the LHC Physics conference in New York City (June 2014), the LHCb collaboration announced that probably there appear 25% more electrons than muons. In the Standard Model the electrons and muons (in the SST as well) are the particles of the same type so number of electrons and muons should be the same. The 25 percent excess of electrons follows from the internal structure of the core of baryons described within SST whereas within the Standard Model such excess is incomprehensible i.e. suggests existence of new physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-22 00:00:01*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the
universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about E=mc^2, Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding the Unified Field, speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1410.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 06:30:38*

**Authors:** J. Foukzon, S.A. Podosenov, A.A. Potapov, E. Men’kova

**Comments:** 83 Pages. ISBN 978-5-9710-2456-9

Quantum cosmology in space-time with a negative fractal dimension and quantum-perturbative model of Einstein-Gliner-Zel'dovich vacuum and Sakharov induced gravity in a Riemannian space-time with a negative fractal dimension developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1410.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-08 13:21:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, the resonant substructure of strange B meson is studied. The study is based on the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) i.e. the lacking part of Theory of Everything. The Kasner solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations via the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field lead to the structure of the core of baryons and next to the atom-like structure of baryons. Here, within the phenomena characteristic for the core of baryons, we calculated the masses of the spin-1 and spin-3 charmed, strange D resonances with a mass of 2860 MeV. The calculated masses are respectively 2858.5 MeV and 2860.8 MeV (they are very close to the experimental central values) whereas to obtain the exact spins equal to 1 and 3 we need a broadening of masses respectively about +- 5.3 MeV and +- 0.9 MeV and it is as well consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1410.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-22 14:13:44*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space refers first to the structure of the isotropic space, based on the electrical and dynamic antithesis (opposition) of positive and negative elementary units. This antithesis emerges as the unique principle of the Cosmos structure, which is the «union of opposites» of Heraclitus that we observe in all natural phenomena as pairs of opposites.
If the isotropic space were infinite, then the attractive and repulsive forces of space elementary units would be at balance, in the form of a cubic grid of infinite dimensions as a sole existence.
The physical space (the Universe), though, is not infinite. It has been created by the spherical deformity of the isotropic space, as its first deformation. At space limits, the vacuum (non units-non space) attracts the space-existence, because of the antithesis (opposition) principle between existence and nonexistence.
Τhe above first space deformation creates the cohesive forces, which cause the chaotic (huge) cohesive pressure (see chapter B, paragraph 2). In this vast storehouse of energy (see chapter A, paragraph 4), the unique unseen force is the electric one between positive and negative elementary units. The two evident Nature forces (antigravity, gravity) are supplemented by the three evident Nature forces, namely by the cortex forces (see http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097), the nuclear and the electric forces (see http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0210). These five evident Nature forces derive from the above unique electric force.
The first grand Cosmic event is the Genesis of matter, with the creation of the primordial neutron in the Universe center, as a second (local) space deformation (hole-bubble of empty space).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1410.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-18 10:58:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the dark-matter mechanism which leads to the equality of orbital speeds of stars outside the central stellar bulge of spiral galaxy. The obtained results are consistent with the observational facts for the Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy, Triangular Galaxy and SBO-a NGC 4984. The equality of orbital speeds of stars for defined spiral galaxy follows from the weak interactions, via leptons, of the baryonic matter with the virtual dark-matter loops in the Einstein spacetime - the loops mimic the motions in fermions. The ordered motions of matter along the jets of quasars produce flows in the Einstein spacetime. Such motions decrease local dynamic pressure in the spacetime i.e. there are produced pressure holes. To increase the lowered dynamic pressure, there are inflows of additional Einstein-spacetime components into the pressure holes but mass density is still to low to produce real particles. Such regions with higher local mass density of the Einstein spacetime mimic gravitational attraction so there appears the gravitational lensing. During the initial period of evolution of quasars, the iron-plus-nickel lumps from the explosions of the Population III supernovae (the first-generation big stars) mainly collected in the regions with higher local mass density of the Einstein spacetime so there appeared the ferromagnetic filaments between the quasars. We do not need some exotic matter to explain the origin of dark matter and dark energy - they both are the additional entangled or free neutrino-antineutrino pairs (the free pairs interact gravitationally only). We calculated as well the “mass ratio” of the dark matter and visible matter for galaxies, dwarf-galaxies and ultra-faint galaxies (dSphs). For the dwarf galaxies with active dark-matter mechanism, the ratio is up to 1000 and more.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory