[21] **viXra:0911.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-08 13:44:42*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The simple story of the Cosmos is the devolution of light to matter followed by the evolution of matter back to light - as required by Noether's Theorem (the conservation of light's symmetry), and as regulated by the four conservation laws of the "Tetrahedron Model". But the information content of energy considerably complicates this simple ontogeny - the Universe apparently seeks self-awareness, self-knowledge, and self-experience (perhaps as the goal of, or justification for, all the effort involved in manifestation). The negative entropy of gravity and Natural Selection drives the evolutionary mechanism of biological matter, with DNA providing replication and the genetic system providing information conservation through heritable genes. Because of its genetic system, life has become a biological conservation domain of molecular information, with humanity advancing this principle evolutionary axis of the Cosmos (Chardin's view) through abstract thought, symbolic writing, science and technology. Our planet is in her reproductive phase, with humanity as her dispersal agents, seeking new territory in the Galaxy. The natural tendency to evolve complex information systems of planetary size (and beyond) can be seen as the simple outgrowth of matter's search for antimatter (locally employing human intelligence in the quest), and a reprise of the original unity, symmetry, and connectivity of the primordial light Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:0911.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 3 pages

Original solution of gravity motion is curved 4 dimensional cosmic space. Massive objects
move into direction of higher curvature of space. Quantum gravity introduces idea that
cosmic space is made out of grains of Planck size. If space has granular structure one
can consider space also has its density. More mass in given volume of quantum space less
space is dense. Less space is dense more space is curved. Massive objects move always
into direction of lover density in higher curvature of quantum space. Gravitational
motion of massive objects is result of change of density of quantum space. Change of
nsity of quantum space is a physical basis for change of its curvature. In black holes
density of mass is extremely high and density of space is extremely low. In a centre of
black holes mass is transforming in to quanta of space. In outer space density of mass
is extremely low, density of space is extremely high. In outer space quanta of space are
transforming onto elementary particles i.e. cosmic rays.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:0911.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Added Appendix section (and idea for possible experiment?).
Added references related to "quantum graphity"

The objective of this paper is to identify a way to relate entropy with
the synchronization of the input/output power of a system of oscillators.
This view is ultimately reconciled through an examination of the geometric
differences that exist between 2D shell and 3D lattice oscillator
arrangements.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:0911.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 20 pages, to be published in Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras.

A model of Yang-Mills interactions and gravity in terms of the Clifford algebra
Cl_{0,6} is presented. The gravity and Yang-Mills actions are formulated as different order
terms in a generalized action. The feebleness of gravity as well as the smallness
of the cosmological constant and theta terms are discussed at the classical level. The
invariance groups, including the de Sitter and the Pati-Salam SU(4) subgroups, consist
of gauge transformations from either side of an algebraic spinor. Upon symmetry
breaking via the Higgs fields, the remaining symmetries are the Lorentz SO(1,3),
color SU(3), electromagnetic U(1)_{EM}, and an additional U(1). The first generation
leptons and quarks are identified with even and odd parts of spinor idempotent projections.
There are still several shortcomings with the current model. Further research
is needed to fully recover the standard model results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:0911.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-13 18:00:44*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The primordial role of gravitation is to supply sufficient negative energy to balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the Cosmos may be born from a condition of zero net energy. Matter and antimatter are also present in equal amounts, so the Universe is likewise born from a condition of zero net charge. All latter-day gravitational conservation roles are derived from and reflect gravity's primordial energy-conserving role.
Gravity has two primary conservation roles in today's universe: 1) entropy conservation (at all gravitational field strengths), and 2) symmetry conservation (at high gravitational field strengths). Entropy conservation is accomplished by the gravitational annihilation of space, exposing a metrically equivalent temporal residue. The annihilation of space converts the expansive spatial entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic motion of light), to the expansive historical entropy drive of bound energy (the intrinsic motion of time). The implicit temporal drive of spatial expansion (recognized as the time component of "spacetime") is converted to, (and conserved as), the explicit temporal drive of history - via gravity. Symmetry conservation is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in stars, and related astrophysical processes, and ultimately and completely, via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Sunlight indicates the completion of a symmetry conservation cycle: light -> matter -> light, which begins with the conversion of light to matter (free to bound electromagnetic energy) during the "Big Bang", and ends with the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy in stars, black holes, and possibly, the "Big Crunch".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:0911.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Richard Ruquist

**Comments:** 6 pages, Retired physicist, Grafton, Massachusetts, USA

Vafa's (11+1) F theory is extended by means of Bars' 2T holographic theory to yield a 14d
Multiverse theory that permeates the brane of a 12d Universe in which both the Universe and
the Multiverse have (3+1) spacetimes.
Given the 2d toroidal compactification of F theory, we conjecture that the Multiverse has a 4d
Cartesian compactification that is filled with 3D+T spacetime via the standard 6d elliptic
Calabi-Yau compactification, as in both M and F theory. The result is exemplified using supermassive
black hole cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:0911.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid Reza Karimi

**Comments:** 23 pages.

In this paper we present a model in which the time and
length are considered quantized. We try to explain the internal
structure of the elementary particles in a new way. In this model a
super-dimension is defined to separate the beginning and the end of
each time and length quanta from another time and length quanta.
The beginning and the end of the dimension of the elementary
particles are located in this super-dimension. This model can describe
the basic concepts of inertial mass and internal energy of the
Elementary particles in a better way. By applying this model, some
basic calculations mentioned below, can be done in a new way:
1- The charge of elementary particles such as electrons and protons
can be calculated theoretically. This quantity has been measured
experimentally up to now.
2- By using the equation of the particle charge obtained in this model,
the energy of the different layers of atoms such as hydrogen and
helium is calculated. This approach is simpler than using Schrödinger
equation.
3- Calculation of maximum speed of particles such as electrons and
positrons in the accelerators is given.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:0911.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 222 pages, e-book published by Weburbia Press 1998

How much can physics explain? "Event-Symmetric Space-Time" presents a startlingly integrated world
view from the forefront of physics. So often we read about the new quantum paradigm which has replaced
the old mechanistic philosophy of physics, but seldom do we find "what the paradigm is" spelt out so
succinctly. "The universe is made of stories, not of atoms." (Muriel Rukeyser) This is the
storyteller's point of view. Through a literal interpretation of those words we transcend causality
and determinism to see the quantum multiverse as a whole.
Throughout this book, the author returns to the principle of event symmetry - in particle physics,
in cosmology, in superstring theory, in epistemology. Coupled to the storyteller's paradigm this new
idea of philosophy and physics dares to free us from the constraints of our intuition, to reveal
natures truths. We are in the midst of a revolution in our understanding of physics and the universe.
This new interpretation of superstring theory is slowly helping to bring physicists' long search for
the holy grail of knowledge to fruition.
At the debut of the twentieth century Einstein revealed how the laws of nature are independent of any
co-ordinate system. According to general relativity, no matter how a reference frame of space-time is
turned, pulled and stretched, the laws of physics remain the same because gravity keeps track of the
changes. Einstein's only restriction was that he did not allow space-time to tear. You cannot cut out
two pieces of space-time and swap them over expecting the forces of nature to compensate, or can you?
Research attempting to form a theory of quantum gravity suggests that space-time can tear and reconnect
in ways which change its topology. This book suggests that Einstein's symmetry must be extended to allow
space-time to be atomised into space-time events which can be pulled apart and recombined in any
permutation. The unified forces of nature must permit this "event symmetry" just as gravity already
permits the more restricted co-ordinate transformations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:0911.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 16:32:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. adding postscript

Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe: 1) energy conservation (at all gravitational field strengths) for bound forms of energy, via the creation of time, history, and matter's temporal entropy drive; 2) symmetry conservation (at stellar and higher gravitational field strengths) via the conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in stars, supernovas, quasars, and related astrophysical processes, and ultimately and completely, via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. These secondary conservation roles, manifesting as the gravitational conversion of space to time and bound to free energy, are natural consequences of the mode of action of gravity's primary role, which is the creation of negative energy and entropy via the contraction, heating, and destruction of space (creating time), in contradistinction to the creation, expansion, and cooling of space by the positive energy and entropy of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:0911.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Based on a possible solution to the tetron spin problem, a modification of the
standard Big Bang scenario is suggested, where the advent of a spacetime
manifold is connected to the appearance of tetronic bound states. The metric
tensor is constructed from tetron constituents and the reason for cosmic inflation
is elucidated. Furthermore, there are natural dark matter candidates
in the tetron model. The ratio of ordinary to dark matter in the universe is
calculated to be 1:5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:0911.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This article has been submitted to the J. Phys. A : Math.

A Moyal deformation quantization approach to a spherical membrane
(moving in flat target backgrounds) in the light cone gauge is presented.
The physical picture behind this construction relies in viewing the two
spatial membrane coordinates σ_{1}, σ_{2} as the two phase space variables
q, p, and the temporal membrane coordinate τ as time. Solutions to
the Moyal-deformed equations of motion are explicitly constructed in
terms of elliptic functions. A knowledge of the Moyal-deformed light-cone
membrane's Hamiltonian density H(q, p, τ ) allows to construct a timedependent
Wigner function ρ(q, p, τ ) as solutions of the Moyal-Liouville
equation, and from which one can obtain the expectation values of the operator
< H > = Trace (ρH) that define the quantum average values of the
energy density configurations of the membrane at any instant of time. It
is shown how a time-dependent quartic oscillator with q^{4}, p^{4}, q^{2}p^{2} terms
plays a fundamental role in the quantum treatment of membranes and
displays an important p ↔ q duality symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:0911.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Fractal or General Systems models have been extended into the area of human life span development,
by myself, deliberately, and earlier by my father, and others, following their own agendas (not
intentional GS models). A short discussion with both models is presented below.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:0911.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 pages.

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or
the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws. In matter,
light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries
are protected by inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms
of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the
light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a double
conservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the
material system to its original symmetric state, repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts.
Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including:
chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and
proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black
holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and
forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The charges of matter are the
symmetry debts of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:0911.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 27 pages, first published in the October 2007 Issue of the Aperion Journal. Further work on these ideas is underway.

The Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Weak & the Strong force are here
brought together under a single roof via an extension of Reimann geometry to a new
geometry (coined Reimann-Hilbert Space); that unlike Reimann geometry, preserves both
the length and the angle of a vector under parallel transport. The affine connection of this
new geometry - the Reimann-Hilbert Space, is a tensor and this leads us to a geodesic
law that truly upholds the Principle of Relativity. The geodesic law emerging from the
General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is well known to be in contempt of the Principle of
Relativity which is a principle upon which the GTR is founded. The geodesic law for
particles in the GTR must be formulated in special (or privileged) coordinate systems i.e.
gaussian coordinate systems whereas the Principle of Relativity clearly forbids the existence
of special (or privileged) coordinate systems in manner redolent of the way the Special
Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of an absolute (or privileged) frame of reference.
In the low energy regime and low spacetime curvature the unified field equations derived
herein are seen to reduce to the well known Maxwell-Procca equation, the none-abelian
nuclear force field equations, the Lorentz equation of motion for charged particles and the
Dirac Equation. Further, to the already existing four known forces, the theory predicts the
existence of yet another force. We have coined this the super-force and this force obeys
SU(4, 4) gauge invariance. Furthermore, unlike in the GTR, gravitation is here represented
by a single scaler potential, and electromagnetic field and the nuclear forces are described
by the electromagnetic vector potential (A_{μ}) which describes the metric tensor i.e. g_{μν} = A_{μ}A_{ν}.
From this (g_{μν} = A_{μ}A_{ν}), it is seen that gravity waves may not exist in the sense envisaged by
the GTR.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:0911.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-28 12:24:05*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: Currents of Magnetism and Gravity
As magnetism is the invisible, projective, electrically active ("electro-motive") force of the loadstone, so gravity is the invisible, projective, dimensionally active ("inertio-motive") force of the ordinary rock. In the case of magnetism, we trace the force back to the moving (and aligned) electrical charges of electrons in the loadstone; in the case of gravity, we trace the force back to the moving (and one-way) temporal charges of matter in the rock. A moving electric charge creates a magnetic field; a moving temporal charge creates a gravitational field. In both cases the field is produced at right angles to the current. Both relations are reciprocal: moving magnetic and spatial (gravitational) fields create electric and temporal currents. Magnetism and time are both "local gauge symmetry currents", the variable magnetic current protecting the invariance of electric charge in relative motion, the variable temporal current protecting the invariance of causality and velocity c ("Lorentz Invariance"). Finally, time and gravity induce each other endlessly, as do the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic field. This is the analogy between electromagnetism and gravitation which so intrigued Einstein. (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:0911.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-19 17:24:58*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. revising abstract

Abstract
The intrinsic motions of light, time, and gravity are primordial forms ("drives") of entropy, causing: 1) the creation, expansion, and cooling of space; 2) the creation, expansion, and aging of history; 3) the conversion of either entropic domain into the other - space to time or the reverse (and both occur in our Sun). The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), including the conserved "location" charge of gravity, which encodes (in negentropic terms) the lost positive/spatial entropy drive of the free energy (light) which was converted into the bound energy of matter. Alternatively stated: the gravitational "location" charge (Gm) of bound energy is a symmetry debt recording the lost distributional symmetry of the free energy (light) which created the matter, including spacetime location and total amount. Gravity is matter's memory it once was light.
Gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on matter's symmetry debt by creating time from space - giving charge conservation an extended, causal significance in the historic dimension. Light's spatial entropy drive and expansion funds matter's historical entropy drive and expansion, via the gravitational conversion of space to time: cosmic spatial expansion decelerates in consequence. Gravity pays the energy-"principal" of matter's symmetry debt by the conversion of bound to free energy - via the nucleosynthetic pathway in stars and supernovas, via the conversion of gravitational potential energy to radiation in quasars, and via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. The cosmic gravitational energy field is reduced as mass is converted to light; cosmic spatial expansion accelerates in consequence."Dark Energy" is therefore simply the ongoing reduction of the cosmic gravitational field as matter reverts to the light which created it.
In the mathematical terms of Evariste Galois' "Group Theory", the "Tetrahedron Model" is a description of the symmetry group of light, including its destruction by asymmetric weak force decays (producing our matter-only Cosmos), and its on-going restoration in obedience to Noether's Theorem of symmetry conservation (as in the conversion of bound to free energy in stars and other astrophysical processes).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:0911.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-25 13:43:45*

**Authors:** John A Gowan

**Comments:** 27 Pages. paper is in 3 parts due to length

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by inertial/entropic forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a double conservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state (light), repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy (as in supernovas and quasars), and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:0911.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-25 23:11:21*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Revision of abstract

The "Big Bang" origin of the cosmos is the conversion of pure, symmetric electromagnetic energy (light) into asymmetric "information" (our "matter only" universe). "Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice-versa. Hence the symmetry of light (and spacetime) must be conserved. Noether's Theorem provides the key to Einstein's dream of a "Unified Field Theory" through the seminal concept that the symmetry of light, no less than its energy, must be conserved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:0911.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-08 20:30:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Generally speaking, the "Tetrahedron Model" addresses symmetry-breaking and symmetry conservation in the macro-physical "rebound" phase of cosmic evolution (the current era of symmetry restoration, in which we live), while the "establishment's" "Standard Model" addresses symmetry-breaking and symmetry conservation in the microphysical "cascade" phase of cosmic devolution, the period of the "Big Bang" which brings the material Cosmos into being. Noether's Theorem of symmetry conservation provides the theoretical basis for unifying the "Standard Model" and the "Tetrahedron Model", indicating a broad pathway of conservation law leading toward Einstein's dream: the Unified Field Theory of physics. (See: "Table of the Higgs Cascade".)
The Charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem). All forces spontaneously work together to return the asymmetric material system of bound electromagnetic energy to its original state, free electromagnetic energy, or perfectly symmetric light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:0911.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 28 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

A General Systems model of the Universe is presented, based on a fractal paradigm. A 4x3
"metric" or fractal algorithm is proposed as the organizing principle of the Microphysical,
Biophysical, Astrophysical, and Metaphysical realms. The algorithm is expressed through the
conservation laws and forces of physics, symmetry-breaking and the creation of matter during
the "Big Bang", the dimensions of spacetime, the quantum rules of atomic order, the families of
elementary particles, the structure of baryons, alpha particles, carbon atoms, carbon's molecular
and crystal bonds, DNA, the genetic code, the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, gravitation, etc.
The human mind has discovered this order both intuitively and rationally, where it finds
expression in the 4x3 (and 4x4) patterns of mythological, occult, religious, philosophical, and
scientific "world systems" and cosmologies.
A model of the unified field theory is presented as an example of how the fractal algorithm may
be used in system modeling. In its most general form, the 4-part algorithm consists of an input
of energy, followed by two complementary conservation modes, concluding with a restorative
force which either returns the system to its actual original state, or elevates it to a "harmonic
complexion" or resonant analog of the original state.
Introduction

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:0911.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 17:30:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. new abstract, delete "introduction" section, other changes

Abstract
Time and gravity induce each other in an endless entropic cycle. The gravitational collapse of space produces a metrically equivalent temporal residue; the entropic march of this time residue into history (at right angles to all three spatial dimensions) pulls space along with it. But space cannot travel down the one-way and one-dimensional time line, self-annihilating at the point-like entrance to history, leaving behind a metrically equivalent temporal residue - which continues the endless entropic cycle. Gravity vanishes only when its associated mass vanishes, as in particle decays, matter-antimatter annihilations, or the conversion of bound to free energy in stars and other astrophysical processes. A gravitational field is the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory