[18] **viXra:1612.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 13:16:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that due to the needed very high resolution of a computer simulating the initial big bang and next the evolution of our Cosmos, we and our Cosmos cannot be a computer simulation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1612.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 10:09:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the big bang (the superluminal inflation) was separated in time from the “soft” big bang of the Universe. During the inflation (it lasted about 67 powers of ten times shorter than a second) there was no time for the three Standard-Model interactions i.e. electromagnetism, weak interactions, and the nuclear strong interactions - such interactions need much longer time. During the inflation baryons were not created. There were created only the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are the components of the Einstein spacetime (ES). It was because the interactions of the entanglons the neutrinos consist of were due to the inflation field i.e. due to the non-gravitating tachyons moving with speed about 97 powers of ten m/s. It means that the time of interactions of the ES components in distance equal to the Planck length is about 132 powers of ten times shorter than a second. SST shows that first baryons were created at the end of the inflation because of the collapse of the external layer of the ES - there was created more baryons than antibaryons because initially the inflation field had the left-handed helicity. Due to the return shock wave, there were created additional baryons in the centre of the Cosmos.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1612.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-20 08:30:42*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Published version: OALibJ, 4: e3342. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103342

I consider the standard model, together with a preon version of it, to search for unifying principles between quantum particles and general relativity. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions alone. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Conformal symmetry is seen to improve quantization in loop quantum gravity. The Einstein-Cartan theory with torsion is analyzed suggesting structure in spacetime below the Cartan scale. A toy model for black hole constituents is proposed. Higgs metastability hints at cyclic conformal cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1612.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 01:37:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), visible mass (or baryonic mass) of most massive disc galaxies is about 0.85 multiplied by both 12 powers of ten and the solar mass. Calculated within SST the mean baryonic mass of discs of dwarf galaxies produced by such massive galaxies is 5.2 multiplied by both 7 powers of ten and the solar mass. The calculated within SST mean orbital speed of stars in such dwarf galaxies, which results from the interactions of stars with the dark-matter (DM) structures, is about 37 km/s. SST shows that the total number of dwarf galaxies in the early Universe should be about 2.2 multiplied by 12 powers of ten and should decrease with time because of their mergers and due to their absorption by the nearby massive galaxies (massive galaxies have mass higher than about 11 powers of ten multiplied by the solar mass and there should be a massive black hole in their centre). In the early Universe there should be about 1000 times more the dwarf galaxies than the massive galaxies. Contrary to the mainstream cosmology, SST shows that number of massive galaxies in the observed Universe should not depend on time i.e. it is an invariant. SST shows that we should not observe a smooth field of first stars or smooth field of first dwarf galaxies free from the massive galaxies. Moreover, reionization is an illusory phenomenon which follows from the “transition” of galaxies from the unseen period of evolution to the observed period - it took place in the time distance about 13.8 Gyr. All theoretical results obtained in this paper are consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1612.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-27 17:44:54*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

There is a high tension finest-filament-thread particle field in space .

Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing).

A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual thread lengths are approximately one Ångström).

Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web. If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a finest filament thread particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field threads have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is. If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1612.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-09 11:23:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the von Klitzing constant. The von Klitzing constant is simply the Planck constant divided by the elementary charge squared. This value, according to CODATA to a very high accuracy. This value in CODATA is 25812.8074555(59) . This paper uses the equations developed in “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime”(1), “Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure”(2), “Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron”(3), and ” An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron”(4) to predict a value for the von Klitzing constant. The value predicted in this paper is 25812.8074479 ohms, which is within 1.3 sigma of the CODATA value listed above. It is predicted, that as these measurements become more precise that the CODATA value will converge around 25812.8074479 ohms.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1612.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 15:02:25*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We look at two action integrals for the early universe. One action integral as specified by Ambjorn, et.al, 2010 is part of a quantum gravity as a sum over space-time results and another is by Padmanabhan, in 2005 gives an action integral in terms of the Cosmological Constant prominently in, as a way to obtain the Einstein Equations in general relativity. The procedure in our derivation is to say that both first integrals in the Pre-Planckian space-time are giving the same ‘information’ and from there to utilize an equivalence between these two first integrals as to interpret what the Lagrangian multiplier in the Abjorn et.al. first integral is saying. In addition we interpret the Ricci scalar, in the Padmabhan first integral in terms of a treatment given by Majumbdar, 2015, which has the value of being rendered in terms of scalar factors a(t). In doing so, we utilize the physical interpretation of a Lagrangian multiplier, as given by Karrabulet which is in terms of minimum conditions needed for affecting the physics (of cosmological expansion of the universe) from first principles
Key words, Ricci tensor, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1612.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 19:46:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron. The value predicted is calculated from calculations for the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron(1) and the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron(2). The predicted value for the mass ratio of the proton to the electron is 1836.15267393 compared to the Codata value of 1836.15267389(17)
These values predicted are a continuation of Michael John Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory of Everything.
He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the electron and proposes a value that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1612.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 14:04:46*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

With the help of general relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The formula includes the speed of light. The gravitational field of two bodies changes the metric, it describes the general relativity. According to Einstein, the speed of light in a small local area in a gravitational field - there is a function of distance. Therefore, according to the formula interaction force on the repulsion of the particles (like charge) is less than the force approached exactly the same particles (charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and therefore always attract. From this is derived the inertia of a body.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1612.0318 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-12 18:22:10*

**Authors:** Julian williams

**Comments:** 50 Pages. Feedback is welcome for both Part I & Part II of these papers as they overlap

Continuing Part 1 covering the building of fundamental Standard Model particles from infinite superpositions. The borrowed energy for cosmic wavelength gravitons requires the universe to expand and spacetime to warp around mass concentrations. We used a simplified approach initially which agreed with an infinitesimally modified General Relativity. In this paper we address those simplifications and find a mass/radius squared term (in Planck units) in the metric, which appears to raise some tension with General Relativity but only very close to the horizon of black holes. This may relate with the possibility of echoes in the Gravitational Waves at merger recently speculated. We also address the Kerr metric (which is also slightly modified) and briefly look at Gravitational Waves in this paper

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1612.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 18:47:07*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When charged particles travel faster than light, they emit Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the nucleons. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1612.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 09:13:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that physical vibrations/rotations/translations cannot be separated from a physical volume i.e. from at least an inertial mass or from the Principle-of-Equivalence (PoE) matter. It should concern the photons and gluons as well. On the other hand, it is argued that a mass of photon causes that its speed is lower than the speed of light in “vacuum” c and depends on its frequency, causes that the Coulomb law is modified, that gauge invariance and charge conservation are not valid, and so on. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the listed above arguments against a massive photon are unfounded. The PoE mass of the present-day photons calculated within SST is about 27 orders of magnitude lower than the rest mass of electron and is invariant (the c is the natural speed of the massive photons in spacetime and is invariant as well) so this result is below the upper limit for photon mass that results from experimental data. We show also that relativistic mass is a real physical quantity, not an artefact/unreal-thing. SST shows that the inner momentum associated with spin and the spin itself, not the rest mass, are the invariants for all frames of reference assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime (SST shows that contrary to the gravitational fields associated with the non-gravitating Higgs field, the Einstein spacetime associated with the PoE matter is indeed flat and dominates over the Higgs field). It leads to conclusion that the energy-momentum relation is still valid but it fails when we consider the structural changes in the bare fermions dependent on their speed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1612.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 02:14:53*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

What determines the mass of particles like the muon and tauon? No, reasonable, mainstream model, has been predictive the mass of particles. Michael John Sarnowski’s empirical equations for the proton and electron use an equation that shows that a resonant frequency created by a resonance between bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov like radiation and the ratio of orbital energy ratios.(1) In those two papers the masses of the electron and proton are due one of the solutions the resonances. In addition a small fraction of the proton mass is due to relativistic effects of most of the electron, a small fraction of the electron is due to relativistic effects of the second solution to the mass equation of the proton. In “Evidence for Granular Granulated Spacetime it is shown that charge is directly dependent on the mass ratio of the electron to neutron and the proton to the neutron(2). These empirical equations are accurate to the CODATA values for the mass ratios of the electron to the neutron and the proton to the neutron. Also this equations are also predictive for the value for elementary charge. The following paper shows that the mass ratios of the muon to the neutron and the tauon to the neutron can be calculated from both solutions to resonant equation of a Cherenkov like radiation and Bremsstrahlung type radiation. These mass ratios are also accurate to the CODATA values for these two particles and are likely predictive of more accurate measurements of these particles in the future.
What is unique for the muon-neutron and tauon-neutron is that the mass ratios of the use the same resonance and use one of the solutions for the resonance of the proton to the neutron mass ratio. The consistent use of resonances, consistent use of mass ratios to the neutron, and consistent interdependence of the mass ratios of particles indicates that the developing model is consistent and hints at underlying structure to space-time.
When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of both the muon and tauon to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(4), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1612.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-24 23:18:33*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages. corrected typos in equations

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1612.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 08:49:11*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** 7 pages - An updated version of this paper may be found at viXra:1701.0676

The well-proven principles of general relativity are permitting the derivation of the answer to the eighty-year-old question how general relativity may harmonize with quantum mechanics.
The key to the solution is a retrieval of the twofold nature of time, that is an absolute time concept on the one hand which is underlying the relative, observer-dependent concept of spacetime on the other hand.
The attempts to quantize spacetime revealed to imply big difficulties. We will show that the reason for these problems is the structure of space and time, and that quantum gravity must happen on particle level.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1612.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-02 09:56:16*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** Pages.

The non-relativistic regime of quantum gravity, as shown in this paper, can be found in the assumption of the existence of Fundamental length L. See Page 14 IN THIS PAPER.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1612.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 06:48:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I assume that the readers of this article have read the Wikipedia article entitled “Aether theories”: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aether¬_theories. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the speed of light in “vacuum” c and speed of quantum entanglement from the beginning (ab initio). The derivation shows that the mainstream interpretation of the invariant c is incomplete and that the Michelson-Morley experiment cannot be considered to be the first strong evidence against the aether theory. We still cannot calculate the half-integral spin of proton within the 3-valence-quarks model - it is the “proton spin crisis”. Experiments suggest that the total proton spin carried by quarks can be consistent with almost zero. Is the quark model of proton partially incorrect? Here we show the origin of the spin asymmetry in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering that leads to the proton spin crisis. SST shows that inside baryons there are produced the quark-antiquark pairs but there are not single valence quarks because contrary to the electric charges of proton and electron, the electric charges of quarks are highly unstable. SST shows that spin of proton is carried by orbital angular momentums of the carriers of gluons. The third main absurd idea is that pure/massless energy (for example vibrations) can propagate without some aether composed of physical/non-zero-volume particles. In reality, elementary energies are carried by the components of the Planck scale and by the components of the two scales below it.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1612.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-03 01:36:05*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory