[26] **viXra:1701.0687 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-31 13:31:27*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Does string theory with the infinite nature hypothesis imply supersymmetry while string theory with the finite nature hypothesis implies Wolframian pseudo-symmetry? I conjecture the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is the Koide formula merely a coincidence with little or no significance for physics? Does reality consist of a string landscape with many different string vacua? Consider two approximations: (muon mass)/(electron mass) = 206.7683 and
exp(pi * squareroot(72/25)) – (mass muon)/(mass electron) = –.0288 — so what? Is spacetime 4-dimensional? Is spacetime 26-dimensional? Measurements of spacetime using clocks and surveying instruments demonstrate that spacetime is 4-dimensional. I say that, from one point of view, spacetime is 26-dimensional. 26 dimensions = 1 dimension of matter time + 1 dimension of antimatter time + 24 dimensions of (±, ±, ± )-space. What is (±, ±, ±)-space? For the measurement of space, employ 6 particle beams consisting of 3 electron beams and 3 positron beams. For each dimension of space, employ all 3-tuples of beams selected from the 6 beams. By definition, (±, ±, ±)-space consists of 3 dimensions of ordinary space, each of which is measured in 8 different ways by using all of the possible 3-tuples of the 6 beams. The 24 dimensions of (±, ±, ±)-space reduce to the 3 dimensions of ordinary space because quantum field theory is empirically valid — however, (±, ±, ±)-space might be useful for representational redundancy (because of the role that the Leech lattice plays in the foundations of physics.) This brief communication offers speculations concerning Wolframian pseudo-symmetry and the Koide formula.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] **viXra:1701.0676 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 02:35:29*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** Pages. An updated version of this paper may be found at viXra:1709.0224

The well-proven principles of special and general relativity are permitting the derivation of the answer to the eighty-year-old question how general relativity may harmonize with quantum mechanics.
The solution is mainly found in a physical theory where it was not expected: Special relativity does neither discuss gravity nor quantum phenomena. However, it is the relative spacetime concept of special relativity which is considered to be incompatible with the absolute concepts of quantum mechanics for space and time.
The new approach is based on the discovery that the postulates of special relativity impose not only the relative concept of spacetime, but also absolute concepts for time and for space which are underlying relative spacetime. These absolute concepts reveal to be compatible with the absolute space and time concepts of quantum mechanics, and they are indicating the way how to apply the gravity concept of the Schwarzschild metric within quantum mechanics: Quantum gravity happens on particle level, not by quantization of spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:1701.0672 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-01 03:20:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the Halton Arp “quantized” inherent redshift results from shifted luminosity of quasars with some redshifts, not from higher abundances of quasars with such redshifts. The two functions describing dependence of the cosmological and inherent light travel time (LTT) on redshift are continuous but for the inherent LTT there are some increases in luminosity for 15 different redshifts: 0.061, 0.30, 0.60, 0.96, 1.41, 1.96, 2.63, 3.46, 4.48, 5.73, and so on - we obtained perfect consistency with observational facts. It leads to an illusion that the quasars with shifted luminosity are more numerous. SST shows that the quasars are the very distant objects because due to the inherent LTT, even quasars with very low redshift are already in LTT equal to 6.8 Gyr. Here we described the mechanism leading to the shifted luminosities. The cosmological and inherent LTTs result from different mechanisms of emission of photons by cosmic objects because of annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs into two photons. The inherent LTT is produced by accretion discs whereas the cosmological LTT concerns the supernovae. Contrary to SST, within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we cannot explain the origin of the shifted luminosity of quasars with strictly defined redshifts so the GR cosmology is only an approximate description of the expanding Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1701.0660 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-24 01:32:44*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric metric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. These solutions require the introduction of non-trivial
areal-radial functions and are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the fire wall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. This construction allows to borrow the results over the past two decades pertaining the study of the Renormalization Group (RG) improvement of Einstein's equations which was based on the possibility that Quantum Einstein Gravity might be non-perturbatively renormalizable and asymptotically safe due to the presence of interacting (non-Gaussian) ultraviolet fixed points. The particular areal-radial function that eliminates the interior of a black hole, and furnishes a truly static metric solution everywhere, is used to establish the desired energy-scale relation $ k = k (r) $ which is obtained from the $k$ (energy) dependent modifications to the running Newtonian coupling $G (k) $, cosmological constant $\Lambda (k) $ and spacetime metric $g_{ij, (k) } (x)$. (Anti) de Sitter-Schwarzschild metrics are also explored as examples. We conclude with a discussion of the role that Asymptotic Safety might have in the geometry of phase spaces (cotangent bundles of spacetime); i.e. namely, in establishing a quantum spacetime geometry/classical phase geometry correspondence $g_{ij, (k) } (x) \leftrightarrow g_{ij} (x, E) $.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1701.0656 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-31 05:57:33*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Fate has me doing the reverse of what "viXra Info" says (http://vixra.org/info). It states, "Acceptance onto viXra is just a first step which needs to be followed up by submitting to a journal …" I first sent this article to a couple of journals, got rejected, then – to secure my place as the first submitter of these ideas (as far as I know) - I adapted it for "The founders of viXra (who) believe that the universal right of free speech applies to all works of science and all researchers should be allowed to place their ideas in public view for scrutiny."
For decades, I've had an unshakeable belief in physics' Unification of everything in space and time. This caused me to decide that topological materials on Earth, and topological fields surrounding some astronomical bodies, must co-exist with a universal topology. This leads to a non-expanding universe. Edwin Hubble, the astronomer credited with discovery of cosmic expansion, always believed "expanding models are a forced interpretation of the observational results." A topological cosmology allows us to, in his words, "find ourselves in the presence of one of the principles of nature that is still unknown to us today". (see "Effects of Red Shifts on the Distribution of Nebulae" by E. Hubble, Ap. J., 84, 517, 1936). The subjects of unification and topology should be of interest to nonspecialists because a) the trend of modern physics is towards finding a unified theory (new physics) that explains everything – matter from the subatomic to the cosmic scale, all forces, quantum mechanics, relativity, and b) the subject of topology won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2016.
Also included is a subsection proposing the existence of zero compactified dimensions with 8 macroscopic dimensions (5 of space, 3 of time), and solution of the dark energy and dark matter problems by reference to gravitation and the Complex Number Plane made physical. Finally, this updated version includes a few lines responding to "From Planck Data to Planck Era: Observational Tests of Holographic Cosmology" by Niayesh Afshordi, Claudio Corianò, Luigi Delle Rose, Elizabeth Gould, and Kostas Skenderis: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 041301 (2017) - Published 27 January 2017 (http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.041301)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:1701.0644 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 05:05:24*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 55 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I discovered a new Gravitation theory after I realized that Einstein Gravitation theory is a wrong theory!
“Mass does not bend space”
Adrian Ferent
“The gravitons emitted by a black hole do not follow the curvature created by the black hole, because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because Einstein field equations are wrong.
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because Mass does not bend space.
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because Gravitational waves are NOT ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves with the speed of light.
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because Einstein equivalence principle is wrong.
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because is limited to the speed of light.
Because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong, these pictures are wrong!
All physicists did not understand Gravitation; they followed Einstein Gravitation theory in the last 100 years.
Physicists discovered wrong theories like String theory, LQG…they tried to unify the forces of nature with Einstein Gravitation theory, a wrong theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1701.0639 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-27 13:45:38*

**Authors:** Gerhard Jan Smit, Jelle Ebel van der Schoot

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this article a particle will be presented through which all forces are explained in a satisfactory way. It concerns the so-called dimensional basic (db). After much reflection, Gerhard Jan Smit and Jelle Ebel van der Schoot are of the opinion that with this theory, the foundation of the observed particles and forces has been found.
The accompanying formula is:
In the formula Kr = curvature, x,y,z are coordinates in space/time.
Implications:
- The observed cosmic redshift is a gravitational redshift;
- the cosmic background is formed through the mutual interactions of the 1-db-particles;
- neutron consists -notwithstanding the current insights- of a foursome of quarks (2 quarks up, 2 quarks down);
- complex particles -rationalized from the basis- can be mathematically determined and simulated;
- the entanglement of particles is caused by curvatures, changes that one of the “partner-particles” experiences will instantaneously be transmitted to the other “partner-particle”;
- electromagnetic fields around energized wires are being caused by aspirating 1-db particles. By winding of an energized wire in a coil the electromagnetic fields are being cumulated, this resulting in the fields as observed around an energized coil.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1701.0622 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-26 11:03:48*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Is F-theory somehow related to the fact that 5^9 divides the order of the monster group? Is Milgrom underestimated by most astrophysicists? Does the Koide formula suggest that string vibrations are confined to 3 copies of the Leech lattice? Is Lestone’s heuristic string theory somehow related to the fact that 7^6 divides the order of the monster group? I say that my 3 most important ideas are: (1) Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. (2) The Koide formula is essential for understanding the foundations of physics. (3) Lestone’s heuristic string theory is essential for understanding the foundations of physics. Do most physicists agree with me concerning the preceding 3 ideas? No, but the passage of time should settle the status of each of the 3 ideas. For the sake of argument, let us assume that Milgrom’s MOND is empirically valid and that conventional physics cannot explain MOND. I have speculated that MOND is explained by the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect and by string theory with the finite nature hypothesis. It seems to me that my previous attempts at explaining a multiverse model for MOND are somewhat unsatisfactory. In this communication I speculate on how the geometry of strings and branes might be a smoothing of a Wolframian model involving the monster group and the 6 pariah groups. I also attempt to clarify my speculation on how the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect might explain the flyby anomaly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1701.0619 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-25 17:22:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived formula that converts the SST spatial distance to the SST light travel time that for redshift up to 0.6415 is about 14 - 17% longer than the General Relativity (GR) light travel time. It causes that the Type Ia supernovae are fainter than they should be - it leads to an illusion of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe about 6 - 7 Gyr ago. SST shows that in reality, to describe correctly the expansion of the Universe, we must take into account the initial conditions for the expansion, the mechanisms of creation of photons and the quantum entanglement of photons in pairs of them. We showed that there is a stepwise change in the light travel time for redshift about 0.64 - it suggests that there is not a smooth transition from the near Universe to distant Universe - it is inconsistent with GR. The GR formula correctly describes galaxies in the same spatial distance moving with different recessional velocities i.e. concerns the distant Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1701.0599 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 17:17:05*

**Authors:** Furkan Semih Dündar, Barış Tamer Tonguç

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A model universe is analyzed with N protons and electrons where there are electromagnetic and spin interactions in the Hamiltonian is investigated in the context of quantum shape kinematics. We have found that quantum shape space exists for N≥4 particles and has 2N−7 functional degrees of freedom in the case of spin-1/2 particles. The emergence of space is associated with non-vanishing expectation value ⟨L^2⟩. We have shown that for odd N space always emerges, and for large even N space almost always emerges because ⟨L^2⟩≠0 for almost all states. In the limit N→∞ the density of states that yields ⟨L^2⟩=0 vanishes. Therefore we conclude that the space is almost always emergent in quantum shape kinematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1701.0580 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-23 11:48:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1701.0566 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-22 00:43:19*

**Authors:** Tufail Abbas

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Keywords: Space, Time, Energy, Charge, Perception of Vision, Dimensions, Rest Velocity, Cubic Lattice.

This paper proposes an introductory conceptual framework for developing explanation about the Universe based upon stationery cubic lattice structure arranged as infinite matrix of infinitesimal cubes. The space and time moves through this lattice resulting into all mass, charge and energy that we see. It is envisioned that through developing of this model based upon base lattice structure it would be possible to express all physical properties (i.e. space, time, energy, charge, momentum, temperature, velocity, force etc.) , in terms of the geometric parameters (i.e. length, surface area, volume, angle, orientation, cycles) of the base structure. Physical reality being a function of perception, the paper discusses our general understanding of perception (of vision in particular), to make interpretations regarding the nature of observable reality and understanding about dimensions, based upon reasoning. Based upon these interpretation, concept of “velocity at rest”is introduced, which is envisioned to provide an explanation about rest mass and gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1701.0560 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 14:57:21*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Colin James III

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The possible presence of further dimensions hidden in our three-dimensional-plus time world might help to elucidate countless physical and biological systems’ behaviors, from quantum entanglement to brain function. Nevertheless, suggestions concerning multidimensional arrangement of physical and biological systems do not deserve the role of scientific claims, unless the suggested additional dimensions can be verified via empirically testable hypotheses and through experimental apparatus. Here we suggest that the widespread nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of physical and biological collective systems might mirror further dimensions hidden in our world. Indeed, bringing together disparate knowledge from seemingly unrelated fields (brane cosmology, fluid dynamics, algebraic topology, computational topology, dynamic systems theory, logic and statistical mechanics), we show how, in logistic maps derived from nonlinear dynamical equations, the typical bifurcation diagrams might arise from linear flow paths, that intersect large-sized hidden dimensions at the canonical phase parameter’s values between three and four. Therefore, chaotic dynamics suggests the existence of a further hidden dimension in our Universe. We also provide a thermodynamic framework which suggests that the cosmic entropy is encompassed in a multidimensional manifold.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1701.0545 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-04 14:05:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Cleaned up version which has been accepted by JHEPGC for publishing later

We examine the role of particle nucleation in the initial universe, and argue that there is a small effect due to particle nucleation in terms of lowering initial temperature, in tandem with energy density and scale factor contributions. If such scaling exists as a major order effect, then quenching of temperature proportional to a vacuum nucleation at or before the electro weak era is heavily influenced by a number, n, which is either a quantum number (quantum cosmology) or a ‘particle count before the electro weak era. If the supposition is for a particle count, say of gravitons from a prior universe to today's universe, initially, we can compare via a thermodynamic argument compared as to a modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to what this says about particle count information, we have a richer cosmological picture to contend with. We close with a speculation as to how a quantum teleportation picture for Pre- Planckian space-time physics may influence our physics discussion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1701.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 04:12:19*

**Authors:** Terrence J. McMahon

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Unification of the physical constants is announced, where gravity, quantum theory, and general relativity are linked via new physics. Unification involves a new, combined ‘gravito-electromagnetic’ constant, linked via Pi and Phi (the golden mean). All constants, most of which are found to run at high energies, are related via this expression. Energy, mass, and the gravitational constant are explained in those terms. The photon constant runs inversely to the gravitational constant, while both are united via a running fine-structure constant. Mass is not conserved, running with energy. Energy however is conserved. Space is a superconductor, where photons have mass. The Hubble constant is redefined, providing an alternative cause for red-shifting of photon wavelengths. A brief discussion of these findings offers an explanation via a new cosmological model that does not require inflation, singularities, dark energy, exotic dark matter, or supersymmetry. Anomalies in the Standard Model are explained. Suitable candidates are described for the cosmological constant, and mass density parameter. The Universe is found to be closed. Planck units run, and the Planck constant is calculated from theory, differing by 0.2%, as is the von Klitzing constant. Magnetic permeability, electric permittivity, and wave impedance are calculated from theory here, differing from accepted values (defined by convention) by just 0.2%. The fine structure, gravitational, and Hubble constants are defined, with accuracy for the latter two improved to 10 significant figures. These data described are all in excellent agreement with the Planck survey (2015) results. New, related constants are discussed. A novel explanation is introduced to explain the mass ratio between an electron and a proton. Predictions are made for future values of the principal running constants. These discoveries have substantial consequences for the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1701.0513 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-16 06:25:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to the IJGMMP.

Starting with the study of the geometry on the cotangent bundle (phase space), it is shown that the maximal proper force condition, in the case of a uniformly accelerated observer of mass $m$ along the $x$ axis, leads to a minimum value of $x$ lying $inside$ the Rindler wedge and given by the black hole horizon radius $ 2Gm$. Whereas in the uniform circular motion case, we find that the maximal proper force condition implies that the radius of the circle cannot exceed the value of the horizon radius $2Gm$. A correspondence is found between the black hole horizon radius and a singularity in the curvature of momentum space. The fact that the geometry (metric) in phase spaces is observer dependent (on the momentum of the massive particle/observer) indicates further that the matter stress energy tensor and vacuum energy in the underlying spacetime may admit an interpretation in terms of the curvature in momentum spaces. Consequently, phase space geometry seems to be the proper arena for a space-time-matter unification.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1701.0498 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-19 10:50:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the quantum entanglement fixes the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to its source or a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). It causes that the spatial distances to galaxies differ from the time distances (the light travel time) - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity leads to the running time Hubble constant that creates an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe. According to SST, for the nearest Universe, the time Hubble constant is 70.52. SST gives for mean time Hubble constant 64.01 - it should be the mean observed Hubble constant when we apply the General Relativity (GR) to the whole observed Universe. If we neglect some part of distant Universe then the GR/observed time Hubble constant should be defined by following interval <64.01, 70.52>. But emphasize that the real mean spatial Hubble constant calculated within SST is 45.24. It leads to the age of Universe 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but time distance to most distant observed Universe cannot be longer than 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. SST shows that evolution of galaxies accelerated about 13.1 Gyr ago - it leads to an illusion that cosmic objects are not older than 13.1 Gyr.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1701.0494 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-15 00:36:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith, Stepan Moshkaliuk

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Last version of a paper cleared by referees in the Ukranian Journal of Physics. Subsequently accepted for Publication, after 1 year of vetting

We examine conditions for which energy flows in the early universe are modeled as a quantum Hamilton-Jacobi set of equations. Subsequently, we manage to use the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle for metric tensors based upon are Geometrodynamics treatment of our problem

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1701.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-13 09:35:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Magnetic field for relic graviton production linked to strength, initially, of inflaton

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1701.0465 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 01:44:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we answered following question: What is the origin of the cosmic reionization? Presented here scenario differs radically from that described within the mainstream cosmology. Most important are masses of massive galaxies/quasars and the decays of large cosmic structures due to the stepwise decays of the earliest photons (such decays of photons mimic an acceleration of expansion of the Universe). Highest rate of reionization of hydrogen should be for redshift z(H,start) = 11.18 whereas complete reionization should occur at z(H,end) = 7.10. For reionization of helium we obtain respectively z(He,start) = 3.63 and z(He,end) = 2.70. Theoretical results are consistent with observational data. It leads to conclusion that the General Theory of Relativity (GR) correctly describes the regions of reionization. We showed that number and energy of created photons were sufficient to ionize the intergalactic medium. We answered as well the second very important question: Why there appeared the supermassive black holes so quickly? We showed here also that there was an acceleration of evolution of clusters of galaxies (not an acceleration of expansion of spacetime!) about 13.8 down to 13 Gyr and 6.5 down to 5 Gyr ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1701.0335 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-26 17:39:30*

**Authors:** Jérémy Kerneis

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

We use three postulates P1, P2a/b and P3 :
Combining P1 and P2a with "Sommerfeld's quantum rules"; correspond to the original quan-
tum theory of Hydrogen, which produces the correct relativistic energy levels for atoms (Sommerfeld's and Dirac's theories of matter produces the same energy levels, and Schrodinger's theory produces the approximation of those energy levels). P3 can be found in Schrodinger's famous paper introducing his equation, P3 being his first assumption (a second assumption, suppressed here, is required to deduce his equation). P3 implies that the wavefunction solution of both Schrodinger's and Klein-Gordon's equations in the non interacting case while, in the interacting case, it immediatly implies "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" : P1, P2a,
and P3 then produce the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms, and we check that the required degeneracy is justied by pure deduction, without any other assumption (Schrodinger's theory only justies one half of the degeneracy).
We observe that the introduction of an interaction in P1 is equivalent to a
modication of the metric inside the wavefunction in P3, such that the equation of motion of a system can be
deduced with two dierent methods, with or without the metric. Replacing the electromagnetic potential P2a by the suggested gravitationnal potential P2b, the equation of motion (deduced in two ways) is equivalent to the equation of motion of General Relativity in the low field approximation (with accuracy 10-6 at the surface of the Sun). We have no coordinate singularity inside the metric. Other motions can be obtained by modifying P2b, the theory is adaptable.
First of all, we discuss classical Kepler problems (Newtonian motion of the Earth around the Sun), explain the link between Kelpler law of periods (1619) and Plank's law (1900) and observe the links between all historical models of atoms (Bohr, Sommerfeld, Pauli, Schrodinger, Dirac, Fock). This being done, we introduce P1, P2a/b, and P3 to then describe electromagnetism
and gravitation in the same formalism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1701.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 22:27:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We are looking at what if the initial cosmological constant is due to if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. This assumes as an initial inflaton value, as well as employing NonLinear Electrodynamics to the scale factor in ,the upshot is an expression for as an initial inflaton value / squared which supports Corda’s assumptions in the ‘Gravity’s breath Electronic Journal of theoretical physics article. We close with an idea to be worked in further detail as to density matrices and how it may relate to gravitons traversing from a Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time regime. An idea we will write up in far greater detail in a future publication

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1701.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-07 10:21:42*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 51 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“Dark Energy is Gravitational Waves”
Adrian Ferent
“The momentum of the graviton is negative p = - m × v ”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the momentum is negative, the relativistic mass -m of the graviton is negative!”
Adrian Ferent
The causes of Planck universe to expand faster:
-The Ferent universe with supermassive black holes is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe.
-The negative pressure created by gravitons inside the Planck universe, is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe.
-Not the Dark energy is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe, because Dark energy does not exist.
“Dark Energy is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
The title is ‘Dark Energy is Gravitational Waves, Dark Energy is Gravitons’ because my Gravitation theory is completely different than Einstein’s Gravitation theory where
Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves with the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1701.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 10:03:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1701.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 11:55:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that there were the 133.27 e-folds of the smooth SST inflation. On the other hand, SST leads to conclusion that the inflation of the Cosmos, which is about 4 orders of magnitude bigger than the present-day Universe, was separated in time from the expansion of the Universe. The CMB was produced when there dominated the electromagnetic and weak interactions - it leads to the SST CMB spectral index of 0.96666 which is consistent with the index that results from the Planck-satellite 2015 data (0.968 +- 0.006). But the SST CMB spectral index is 3 orders of magnitude more accurate so future more accurate observational data should show whether the SST cosmology is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1701.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 06:26:26*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 117 Pages.

1) Using the partition function for a system in thermodynamic equilibrium; and replacing the energy-Beta factor (Beta = 1/[Boltzmann constant x temperature]) by the imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros Riemann's zeta function; It is obtained, a function that equals the value of elementary electric charge and the square root of the product of the Planck mass, the electron mass, and the constant of universal gravitation.
2) Using this same partition function (thermodynamic equilibrium) the Planck constant (Planck mass squared, multiplied by the constant of universal gravitation) is calculated with complete accuracy; As a direct function of the square of the quantized constant elementary electric charge.
These two fundamental equations imply the existence of a repulsive acceleration of the quantum vacuum. As a direct consequence of this repulsive acceleration of the quantum vacuum; The repulsive energy of the quantum vacuum is directly derived from the general relativity equation for critical density.
As a consequence of this repulsive acceleration, we establish provisional equations that allow us to calculate with enough approximation the speed of rotation within the galaxies; As well as the diameter of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
To obtain this results, completely accurate; several initial hypotheses are established. These hypotheses could say, that become physical-mathematical theorems, when they are demonstrated by empirical data. Among others, it is calculated accurately baryon density as well as the mass density.
Hypothesis-axioms are demonstrated by their practical application for the empirical calculation of baryon density, antimatter-matter asymmetry factor, Higgs vacuum value, Higgs boson mass (mh1), and mass prediction of Quark stop, about 745-750 GeV. This boson would not have been discovered because its decay would be hidden by the almost equal masses of the particles involved in the decay. We think that this type of hidden decay is a general feature of supersymmetry.
The physico-mathematical concept of quantum entropy (entropy of information) acquires a fundamental relevance in the axiomatization of the theories of unification.
Another fundamental consequence is that time would be an emergent dimension in the part of the universe called real (finite limit velocities). In the part of the virtual universe and not observable; The time would be canceled, would acquire the value t = 0.This property would explain the instantaneity of the change of correlated observables of interlaced particles; And the instantaneous collapse of the wave function, once it is disturbed (measured, observed with energy transmission to the observed or measured system).
To get a zero time, special relativity must be extended to hyperbolic geometries (virtual quantum wormholes). This natural generalization implies the existence of infinite speeds, on the strict condition of zero energy and zero time (canceled). This has a direct relationship with soft photons and soft gravitons with zero energy, from the radiation of a black hole; And that they would solve the problem of the loss of information of the black holes.
The main equation of unification of electromagnetism and gravitation; It seems necessarily imply the existence of wormholes, as geometrical manifestation of hyperboloid of one sheet, and two sheets. In the concluding chapter we discuss this point; and others highly relevants.
The relativistic invariance of elementary quantized electric charge is automatically derived.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory