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Any replacements are listed further down

[549] **viXra:1410.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 22:12:24*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Lack of any baryon number in the Eightfold Way model, and its intrinsic presence in the
SU(3)-flavour model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964.
In this paper we show that this is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is
defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation.
This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic
and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong
interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in
Quantum Chromodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[548] **viXra:1410.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 13:34:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Work in progress.

According to the seesaw mechanism, neutrino masses arise from the existence of heavy Majorana neutrinos postulated to emerge near the grand unification scale (GUT) of about 10^16 GeV. Despite its theoretical appeal, this scenario involves either physics at inaccessible scales or tuning the Yukawa couplings to un-naturally low values. Our work sidesteps the seesaw mechanism and shows that neutrino masses follow from placing the Standard Model on a spacetime support equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[547] **viXra:1410.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 14:56:59*

**Authors:** Jaidev B. Parmar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

CPT theorem is reinterpreted in the context of commonly observed phenomenon and
extrapolated to explain the Baryogenesis in the early Universe that has led to the observed
Baryon Asymmetry in the present Universe. Anti-neutron matter is proposed as a suitable
candidate for Dark Matter WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) at the Galactic
centers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[546] **viXra:1410.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:18:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[545] **viXra:1410.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:23:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[544] **viXra:1410.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:13:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The finding that electrons and muons aren’t produced equally in certain particle decays may hint at a crack in the standard model.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[543] **viXra:1410.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 14:32:23*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress

The experimental discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has effectively disqualified all Higgs-less models developed prior to July 2012. Today, despite its conclusive validation, the Higgs sector of the Standard Model (SM) remains a largely uncharted territory. This raises the following question: Are there any hidden insights brought up by Higgs-less models that can still be beneficial for the on-going research in particle physics? Pursuing this thought, we re-examine here Moffat’s scenario based on a finite electroweak Lagrangian built outside the Higgs paradigm. Unlike the original proposal, we place the model on a spacetime support equipped with minimal fractality. In doing so, we find that the theory is perturbatively well-behaved at large scattering cross-sections and that it gracefully connects with the conventional formulation of the SM in the limit of vanishing fractality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[542] **viXra:1410.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 10:19:18*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that in a quantum theory over a Galois field, the famous Dirac's result about antiparticles is generalized such that a particle and its antiparticle are already combined at the level of irreducible representations of the symmetry algebra without assuming the existence of a local covariant
equation. We argue that the very existence of antiparticles is a strong indication that nature is described by a finite field rather than by complex numbers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[541] **viXra:1410.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-03 16:53:32*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The difference between two consecutive prime Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes is defined as the distance between the primes KK modes. We study the statistical properties of the distances and their
increments (the difference between two consecutive distances) for a sequence comprising the first 10^7 prime KK modes. The information entropy production for prime KK modes may open a window for extra dimensions ruled out by experiments.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[540] **viXra:1410.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-02 15:45:02*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A 7.1 keV dark matter fermion in partnership with a 35 GeV scalar WIMP would join the electron, the up quark and their previously hypothesised supersymmetric partners in a spectacular arrangement on the mass levels of the Supersymmetric Planck Model. All three partnerships are arranged symmetrically about the precise centre, at the scale of 16 MeV, of a symmetrical pattern of coincident mass levels that extends over 35 orders of magnitude. The implied dynamical supersymmetry-breaking scale lambda coincides with coincident mass levels at the centre of another symmetrical pattern. The investigation has revealed new evidence of quark-lepton symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[539] **viXra:1410.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 08:13:45*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our universe’s eight permanent matter particles are the: up quark, down quark, electron, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, tau-neutrino, zino, and photino. The zino and photino are dark matter particles. Each of these eight permanent matter particles has an associated supersymmetric Higgs force. The sum of the eight Higgs force energies of these eight permanent matter particles is dark energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[538] **viXra:1409.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 17:55:16*

**Authors:** John R. Springer

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Confirmation of HERA Experiments

Experiments performed at the HERA Ring Accelerator, Hamburg, Germany, have provided “A New View of the Proton as Seen by HERA”1 which shows that the “new” proton contains not just three quarks but a large number of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons. A model is presented here which confirms this. It shows that quarks exist only as triads and anti-triads, not as single isolated quark- antiquark pairs. The triads and anti-triads (TAT) are all paired together with exception of one uud, the valence triad.
The model confirms that precisely 8 gluons exist in each uud and u- u- d- structure. However, in the pairing process, 9 gluons of negative energy are required for each TAT pair.
The model shows that although precise mass cannot be assigned to either quarks or gluons, it can be assigned to each gluon/quark pair and to each (of many) quark triads and anti-triads, which ultimately add up accurately to the proton mass.
Finally, the model has been expanded to include the structure and mass of the neutron and stable mesons. It also proposes a quark (without gluons) structure for the lower leptons. Thus, all particles found in nature may have a quark structure in this model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[537] **viXra:1409.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 12:55:14*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 07pages, 08 references

We propose two kinds of least action principles. The first one is defined in a periodic time, and when applied to creation and annihilation of particle pairs, leads to the formula for the de Broglie frequency. The second one is defined in a double-time’s metric, namely: the longitudinal and transverse (related to the discreteness of the space) times. If applied to a problem dealing with the fluctuations of the metric, this second principle permit us to infer a coherence time. We interpret this as the neutron decay time, where we take the fluctuation in the kinetic energy as being the difference between the mass-energy of the neutron minus the sum of the mass-energies of the proton and electron. The neutron decay time evaluated in this way, does not make any explicit reference to the weak interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[536] **viXra:1409.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 18:27:55*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Work in progress

This brief note points out that fractal spacetimes having minimal deviations from integer dimensionality naturally lead to the emergence of fractional magnetic charges. Although these are un-observable at energy scales significantly lower than the electroweak scale, their cumulative contribution may become relevant for charge quantization according to Dirac’s theory of magnetic monopoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[535] **viXra:1409.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 07:31:22*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is most disconcerting that the Standard Model of particle physics defines, as fundamental a quantity as the electric charge, only conventionally and arbitrarily. We look into the nature of this conventionality
and try to find an underlying structure to it. This brings in the Higgs field in a non-trivial manner, which points as to how the above arbitrariness and conventionality may be avoided.
Next, the same is demonstrated as actually being part of the intrinsic mathematical structure of the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[534] **viXra:1409.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 16:17:38*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[533] **viXra:1409.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 11:35:16*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Starting from first principles and general assumptions based on the energy-momentum relation of the Special Theory of Relativity we present a novel wave equation for ultrarelativistic matter. This wave equation arises when particles satisfy the condition, $p>>m$, i.e, when the energy-momentum relation can be approximated by, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^{2}}{2p}$. Interestingly enough, such as the Dirac equation, it is found that this wave equation includes spin in a natural way. Furthermore, the free solutions of this wave equation contain plane waves that are completely equivalent to those of the theory of neutrino oscillations. Therefore, the theory reproduces some standard results of the Dirac theory in the limit $p>>m$, but offers the possibility of an explicit Lorentz Invariance Violation of order, $\mathcal{O}((mc)^{4}/p^{2})$. As a result, the theory could be useful to test small departures from Dirac equation and Lorentz Invariance at very high energies. On the other hand, the wave equation can also describe particles of spin 1 by a simple substitution of the spin operators, $\boldsymbol{\sigma}\rightarrow\boldsymbol{\alpha}$. In addition, it naturally admits a Lagrangian formulation and a Hamiltonian formalism. We also discuss the associated conservation laws that arise through the symmetry transformations of the Lagrangian.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[532] **viXra:1408.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 06:59:09*

**Authors:** Bakhmetov Sergey Petrovich

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

В теории даны определения для гравитационного, электромагнитного и ядерного взаимодействий, постоянной тонкой структуры, удельной энергии связи, черной дыры. Представлены геометрические модели для электрона, протона, нейтрона, ядра атома дейтерия, п - мезона, м - мезона. Найдены численные значения для постоянной тонкой структуры и отношения массы протона, нейтрона, п - мезона, м - мезона к массе электрона.
In theory, given the definition of the gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear interactions, the fine structure constant, the specific binding energy of the black hole. Shows the geometric model for the electron, proton, neutron, nucleus of an atom of deuterium, n - meson, m - meson. Found numerical values for the fine structure constant and the ratio of the mass of the proton, neutron, n - meson, m - meson to the mass of the electron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[531] **viXra:1408.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 01:11:08*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 52 pages

A new wave equation is proposed to calculate subatomic particle energies, including rest mass, photon absorption and emission, and annihilation properties. It is suggested that this wave equation is the link between classical and quantum equations, and shows the derivation of such equations, including relativity. Evidence in support of a wave equation is presented in this paper by accurately calculating the energy of lepton particles, the hydrogen spectral series and the ionization energies for elements from hydrogen to calcium. This paper also proposes that a fundamental particle is the building block for all other subatomic particles and is validated by the new wave equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[530] **viXra:1408.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 05:38:43*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Yang–Mills Theory coupled to Gravitation is found, using the 6d spaces [1], f-matrices which are doublets of gamma matrices and spin-vectors. Lagrangians for the fermion sector with internal symmetry G=SU(4) coupled to Gravitation, and the scalar sector with quadratic potentials are derived. Calculations given for Higgs bare mass 125.3GeV, Dark matter scalar particle mass 41.8GeV, the cosmological constant 1.15e-52 m-2, Top quark mass 172.7GeV, Higgs VEV 246.2GeV. Inflaton field is a negative complex potential. Electric charges of quarks and leptons are determined. Matter-antimatter asymmetry is resolved. Symmetry breaking of G results in QCD SU(3), QED U(1), and Chiral Electroweak group SU(2)xU(1) is an emergent interaction are the only other gauge groups acting on 3 generations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[529] **viXra:1408.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 11:24:43*

**Authors:** Alejandro Rivero

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Old paper expunged of Koideish references.

A supersymmetric version of Chew's "democratic bootstrap" argument predicts the existence of three generations of particles, with a quark, of type
"up", more massive that the other five.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[528] **viXra:1408.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 07:41:44*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.
Decay modes „elementary particles“

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[527] **viXra:1408.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-24 15:09:43*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper it is demonstrated that all the masses of the standard model particles; including the Higgs boson h; with nonzero rest mass, comply with the equation of energy-momentum. The model Higgs vacuum corresponds to a virtual vacuum, for which the contribution of particles with zero rest mass is null (photon, gluon, graviton) .With the best values of the masses of the particles (Particle Data Group), it is found that axion mass has to be extremely small.
Also the theoretical model Higgs vacuum, a completely new model based on the lattice R8 and sixteen matrix elements of energy; corresponding to the four solutions of the equation of energy-momentum (isomorphism with the four components of the scalar field. One complex doublet ); to be factored into two factors with real and imaginary components of energy.
Of this new model Higgs vacuum; naturally get the beta angle. Stop quark mass is obtained by solving the equation of radiative mass correction Higss boson, h, to one loop. The exact determination of the beta angle, allows calculating the mass of the stop of about 1916 GeV. Similarly, a mass for axion is proposed of around 110 micro eV
.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[526] **viXra:1408.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 11:32:31*

**Authors:** Hironobu Kihara

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper reviews the well-known fact that nilpotent Hermitian operators on physical state spaces are zero, thereby indicating that the supersymmetries and ``Grassmann numbers" are also zero on these spaces.
Next, a positive definite inner product of a Grassmann algebra is demonstrated, constructed using a Hodge dual operator which is similar to that of differential forms.
From this example, it is shown that the Hermitian conjugates of the basis do not anticommute with the basis and,
therefore, the property that ``Grassmann numbers" commute with ``bosonic quantities" and
anticommute with ``fermionic quantities", must be revised.
Hence, the fundamental principles of supersymmetry must be called into question.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[525] **viXra:1408.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 08:00:33*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The research on quasi-luminal neutrinos has sparked several experimental studies for testing the "speed of light limit" hypothesis. Until today, the overall evidence favors the "null" hypothesis, stating that there is no significant difference between the observed velocities of light and neutrinos. Despite numerous theoretical models proposed to explain the neutrinos behavior, no attempt has been undertaken to predict the experimentally produced (v-c)/c results. This paper presents a simple novel extension of Newton's mechanics to the domain of relativistic velocities. For a typical neutrino-velocity experiment, the proposed model is utilized to derive a general expression for (v-c)/c. Comparison of the model's prediction with results of six neutrino-velocity experiments, conducted by five collaborations, reveals that the model predicts all the reported results with striking accuracy. Because in the proposed model, the direction of the neutrino flight matters, the model's impressive success in accounting for all the tested data, indicates a complete collapse of the Lorentz symmetry principle in stringent tests involving quasi-luminal particles, moving in two opposite directions. This conclusion is support by previous studies on the linear Sagnac effect, indicating that the travel-time difference between two counter-propagating light beams, relative to a uniformly moving fiber, is identical one detected in radial motion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[524] **viXra:1408.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 04:29:00*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There are two contributions to the propagator, one from massless field quanta which doesn’t have a running coupling, and one from massive field quanta which generate the logarithmic running contribution to mass above the IR cutoff of about 0.5 Mev, which is utilized in renormalization procedures. In other words, the observed particle mass below 0.5 Mev (where no pair production, vacuum polarization, or running of mass and coupling occur), is predictable from integral of the massless Coulomb field potential Feynman diagram. (This paper further develops the theory discussed in “Mechanism of renormalization can predict particle masses,” N. B. Cook, vixra, 24 July 2014.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[523] **viXra:1408.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 09:00:15*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 09 paged, 18 references

We use a Dirac-like equation with a linear potential in order to evaluate the energy levels of the excited states of the Y-shaped color-electric flux tubes, describing the quarks interactions inside the nucleon. We have neglected the bare-masses of the quarks, and the obtained results reproduce the energy of the centroid of the excited states of the nucleon as well as the possible creation of nucleon-antinucleon pairs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[522] **viXra:1408.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 18:41:10*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[521] **viXra:1408.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 07:24:10*

**Authors:** M. Hafidouni

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The negative binomial distribution is derived as a solution of a linear recurrence equation with an appropriate set of constraints

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[520] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 15:30:45*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress.

Charged Dirac propagators in the deep infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). On sufficiently short distance scales, they acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[519] **viXra:1408.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:08:01*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We will study the gravitational forces acting between static massive sources generated by exchange of massless gravitons within the framework of Quantum Gauge Theory Gravity .The gravitational force will be determined via Wilson loops and Polyakov loop correlation functions. This method will enable us to separate the contribution of the quantum mechanical transverse graviton from that of the classical longitudinal field. It will be the method of choice if one attempts to determine the gravitational static force in simulations of Quantum Gauge Theory Gravity on a Rindler space lattice.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[518] **viXra:1408.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-03 19:06:47*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 20 pages, 3 figures, accepted by the Hadronic Journal

In this work, we upgrade the Inopin-Schmidt quark confinement and baryon-antibaryon duality proof with Santilli's new iso-mathematics. For a baryon-antibaryon pair confined to the six-coloring kagome lattice of the Inopin Holographic Confinement Ring (IHCR), we construct a cutting-edge procedure that iso-topically lifts the antisymmetric wavefunctions and matrices to iso-wavefunctions and iso-matrices, respectively. The initial results support our hypothesis that transitions between the energy and resonance states of the hadronic spectra may be rigorously characterized by properly-calibrated iso-topic liftings. In total, these rich developments suggest a promising future for this emerging iso-confinement framework, which must be subjected to additional scientific inquiry, scrutiny, and exploration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[517] **viXra:1407.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-29 14:03:32*

**Authors:** Lamont Williams

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

ATLAS and CMS, the two principal laboratories operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, have made great strides in clarifying the properties of the newly discovered Higgs boson. In particular, they have tested how the particle decays to other particles, namely photons, Z bosons, W bosons, tau particles, and bottom quarks. Although the decay rates of these particles have been compatible with those determined through the Standard Model, they have not been an exact match. This report shows how data from ATLAS and CMS may already be solving the puzzle of the incongruent decay rate values, while also revealing a potential, and currently unrecognized, proportional relationship at work in the decay mechanisms of the Higgs particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[516] **viXra:1407.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 10:23:58*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

An improved mechanism for understanding the quantum field theory of fundamental particle masses is presented. Yoichiro Nambu, founder of QCD color charge, in 1952 argued in his paper "An Empirical Mass Spectrum of Elementary Particles" (Progress in Theoretical Physics, v7, 1952, pp. 595-6): "It seems to be a general conviction of current physicists that the theory of elementary particles in its ultimate form could or should give the mass spectrum of these particles just in the same way as quantum mechanics has succeeded in accounting for the regularity of atomic spectra. ... it may perhaps be too ambitious and rather unsound to look for an empirical ‘Balmer’s law’. Nevertheless we should like here to present one such attempt because it happens to be extremely simple ..."
Virtual fermions are radially polarized (driven further apart) by the electric field in which they formed. This polarization supplies the virtual fermions energy, at the expense of electric field, which is thus partly “screened.” The energy supplied to virtual fermions by their radial polarization extends their lifetime beyond Heisenberg’s h/E. This supply of extra energy moves “virtual” fermions towards the real mass shell, so they briefly obey Pauli’s principle. The absorbed extra energy increases the virtual fermion pair survival time towards that of onshell particles, so the Pauli exclusion principle begins to apply to those virtual fermions, structuring the vacuum virtual fermions into “shells” by analogy to electron orbits, giving a simple pattern of discrete masses. Different isomers are possible explaining the generations and allowing a variety of weak decay routes, a mechanism for the CKM matrix and neutrino flavor oscillations. Because neutrinos only have weak charges (not electromagnetic charge or color charge), they have weak fields, producing on average little mass due to very occasional pair production, so they weakly interact with gravity (gravity’s charge is mass), thus explaining why neutrinos have so little mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[515] **viXra:1407.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 05:53:33*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We explain the fatal error in quantum chromodynamics. By applying this correction to the dynamics of quarks, we can confine quarks in hadrons. We will show why quarks do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle and why we cannot observe free quarks. In addition, we obtain the correct size of hadrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[514] **viXra:1407.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-05 01:29:06*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The ninth paper based on reality

The mass of neutron is slightly greater than1838 electrons. So it is argued that neutron contains 919 electron-positron pairs and that a positron is slightly heavier than electron. It can be shown that the minimum number of electron-positron pairs required to create a spherical structure with minimum imperfection is 919, thus validating the argument. A similar logic is applied to arrive at the structure of electron/positron. Based on these, it is argued that the natural choice of elementary particles is deterministic, and not random.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[513] **viXra:1407.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-03 02:09:31*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

show the basic structure and properties of Hadrons

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[512] **viXra:1406.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 11:25:30*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Work in progress

We show that the Standard Model (SM) represents a self-contained multifractal set on spacetime having arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensionality. All coupling charges residing on this background (gauge, Higgs and Yukawa) satisfy a closure relationship that a) tightly constrains the flavor and mass content of the SM and b) naturally solves the hierarchy problem, without resorting to new concepts reaching beyond the physics of the SM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[511] **viXra:1406.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-21 00:57:26*

**Authors:** Eui Heung Jeong

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We propose a model of interactions
in which two states of a quark, a colored and electrically charged state and a colorless and electrically neutral state, can transform into each other through the emission or absorption of a colored and electrically charged gauge boson.
A novel feature of the model is that the colorless and electrically neutral quarks carry away the missing energy in decay processes as do neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[510] **viXra:1406.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 20:29:16*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This article has never been submitted in a journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This article consists of 50 questions related to astrophysics, climate, and other issues. These questions were posted in www.researchgate.net since Aug. 24, 2013 until June 16, 2014. Hopefully these questions can motivate further investigations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[509] **viXra:1406.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 04:45:58*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Maiella

**Comments:** Pages 205, 11 figures

The present book is devoted to the construction of a new theory for the elementary particles. This theory was born in order to resolve some open issues of the Standard Model, among which the research of a general equation for the description of all quantum particles in a unique way. Starting from the Pauli equation, two relativistic partial differential equations are obtained, one to the first and other to the second order, which are able to describe particles with arbitrary spin. The analysis of the energetic spectrum concerning such equations puts in evidence that the particles they describe have an imaginary mass. Then, the probability density study of these equations shows the principle of causality is not satisfied. Therefore, these equations characterize the tachyonic universe. We can see such a universe admits spontaneous symmetry breaking. In general terms, we can establish the broken symmetry might be a global characteristic of the tachyonic universe, due to its negative square energy, which made it unstable. Hence, it is possible to assume that after the hot Big-Bang there was another catastrophic cosmological event – said Big-Break – which made to break down the tachyonic universe in a positive square energy one (bradyonic universe), and from which the four fundamental interactions are probably generated. The transition from tachyonic to bradyonic universe transforms the tachyonic equations in bradyonic ones, being then able to describe elementary particles with arbitrary spin. The first order partial differential equation gives asymmetric quantum states, while the second order partial differential equation gives symmetric quantum states and so they describe different theories. In the course of this work, both these theories will be studied. Either way, only one of the two could be the right theory of the elementary particles. Since this theory follows on from the Big-Bang, from the resultant tachyonic universe and from Big-Break, it has been called α-Theory, i.e. the “beginning theory.” The α-Theory may theoretically predict the experimental properties of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos and allows, thanks to the appendix A, to generalize the concepts of the Dirac sea, Pauli exclusion principle and spin-statistics theorem, thus giving rise to “s-matter” and “multi-statistics,” which are able to take an interesting approach for the explanation of the Dark Matter. Furthermore, it expects on large-scale the “double inflation” mechanism, which, without the Dark Energy, could explain the acceleration of our universe (bradyonic universe). From the α-Theory, two string actions can be deduced too, by which new ideas can be developed. Practically, the α-Theory wants to be a GUT, able to describe the quantum particles and our universe in a simple and elegant way.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[508] **viXra:1406.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 07:00:34*

**Authors:** N. Murata, Yoja Panchan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a circuit was conceptually designed which can excite either a positive or a negative mass, using the mass equation derived from the g_equation on the assumption of certain conditions.
This study examined the construction of an element from positive mass in order to establish the above excitation, and how to apply the element.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[507] **viXra:1406.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 21:45:42*

**Authors:** John Frederic Sweeney

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Western nuclear physics contains six types of Quarks, while Vedic Nuclear
Physics accounts for 18 types of Quarks and 18 types of anti – Quarks. The
process of Quark formation is given here, as well as that of Gluons. Moreover,
none of the 89 particles discovered by western physics, including the Higgs
Boson, is a fundamental particle in the sense of the ten fundamental particles
of Vedic Particle Physics. The so – called “God Particle” is a farce of western
physics, since Vishnu resides in every particle. Every particle is a God Particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[506] **viXra:1406.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 08:26:15*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Astrophysical safety assurances in White Dwarf (WD) longevity and Neutron Star (NS) longevity were proposed in the 2008 safety report [1] commissioned at CERN regarding the existential risks to Earth from micro black holes (MBH) created in Proton-Proton (P-P) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the event of hypothetical stable TeV-scale MBH. The WD safety assurance being stated as only applicable to MBH of dimensions D<=8 and at no greater than 14 TeV energy levels, the NS safety assurance was therefore provided as the solitary astrophysical safety assurance (other than Hawking Radiation theory) outside this remit.
Amid suggestion in outsider-debate [2][3][4] that the process of Hawking Radiation (HR) theorised on such TeV-scale MBH may prove less effective in practice than in its mathematical model, a closer look at the NS assurance is reasoned herein. This short paper presents concerns regarding the NS safety assurance as a solitary safety assurance for MBH of greater dimensions, and/or for MBH created at greater energy levels (> 14 TeV) than those which a solid WD safety assurance [3] can provide.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[505] **viXra:1406.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 02:26:56*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the mass can not conservation in the β+ decay of a proton

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[504] **viXra:1406.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-08 13:20:23*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Following up on an earlier, De Broglie-Bohm approach within the framework of quantum gauge theory of gravity, and based on the Schrödinger-Dirac equation for gravitons, we argue that gravitons are effectively massive due to their localized circulatory motion. This motion is analogous to the proposed zitterbewegung (ZB) motion of electrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[503] **viXra:1406.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-07 09:39:52*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this letter we investigate the Left-Right Symmetric Model, in the framework of evolution theory. We calculate the sufficient number of K-meson decays, where heavy Right hand Majorana neutrinos are suppressed. The evolution pattern of Left-Right neutrinos modeling population is also studied. The proposed evolution pattern yields to the possible heavy Right hand Majorana neutrinos observation in single isolated K-meson decay in energy scale of 14 TeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[502] **viXra:1406.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-05 17:59:10*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A special case of the cubic equation is shown to possess
three unusually economical solutions. A minimal case
associated with these solutions is then shown to yield
a congruous set of numbers that
fit the fine structure constant,
the sines squared of the quark and lepton mixing angles,
as well as the Weinberg angle.
Had Renaissance mathematicians probed the cubic equation's
solutions more deeply these numbers
might have formed a well-known part of algebra
from the 16th century.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[444] **viXra:1409.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-20 21:39:58*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Work in progress.

This brief note points out that classical Maxwell equations on fractal distributions can accommodate fractional magnetic charges. Although these fractional objects are un-observable at energy scales significantly lower than the electroweak scale, their cumulative contribution may become relevant for charge quantization in Dirac’s theory of magnetic monopoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[443] **viXra:1409.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 22:57:49*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (the so-called minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[442] **viXra:1409.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-10 15:40:24*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (the so-called minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[441] **viXra:1409.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-12 15:41:06*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Starting from first principles and general assumptions based on the energy-momentum relation of the Special Theory of Relativity we present a novel wave equation for ultrarelativistic matter. This wave equation arises when particles satisfy the condition, $p>>m$, i.e, when the energy-momentum relation can be approximated by, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^{2}}{2p}$. Interestingly enough, such as the Dirac equation, it is found that this wave equation includes spin in a natural way. Furthermore, the free solutions of this wave equation contain plane waves that are completely equivalent to those of the theory of neutrino oscillations. Therefore, the theory reproduces some standard results of the Dirac theory in the limit $p>>m$, but offers the possibility of an explicit Lorentz Invariance Violation of order, $\mathcal{O}((mc)^{4}/p^{2})$. As a result, the theory could be useful to test small departures from Dirac equation and Lorentz Invariance at very high energies. On the other hand, the wave equation can also describe particles of spin 1 by a simple substitution of the spin operators, $\boldsymbol{\sigma}\rightarrow\boldsymbol{\alpha}$. In addition, it naturally admits a Lagrangian formulation and a Hamiltonian formalism. We also discuss the associated conservation laws that arise through the symmetry transformations of the Lagrangian.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[440] **viXra:1408.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 22:20:17*

**Authors:** A. Rivero

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A supersymmetric version of Chew's "democratic bootstrap" argument predicts the existence of three generations of particles, with a quark, of type "up", more massive that the other five.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[439] **viXra:1408.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-26 02:09:30*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper it is demonstrated that all the masses of the standard model particles; including the Higgs boson h; with nonzero rest mass, comply with the equation of energy-momentum. The model Higgs vacuum corresponds to a virtual vacuum, for which the contribution of particles with zero rest mass is null (photon, gluon, graviton) .With the best values of the masses of the particles (Particle Data Group), it is found that axion mass has to be extremely small. Also the theoretical model Higgs vacuum, a completely new model based on the lattice R8 and sixteen matrix elements of energy; corresponding to the four solutions of the equation of energy-momentum (isomorphism with the four components of the scalar field. One complex doublet ); to be factored into two factors with real and imaginary components of energy. Of this new model Higgs vacuum; naturally get the beta angle. Stop quark mass is obtained by solving the equation of radiative mass correction Higss boson, h, to one loop. The exact determination of the beta angle, allows calculating the mass of the stop of about 1916 GeV. Similarly, a mass for axion is proposed of around 110 micro eV

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[438] **viXra:1408.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-22 11:39:11*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 9 Pages. clarified the roles of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian in the conservation and flow of energy.

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[437] **viXra:1408.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 22:28:47*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 9 Pages. fixed more broken links in the references

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[436] **viXra:1408.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 15:41:34*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 9 Pages. fixed broken references (thanks Ralph), other minor changes

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[435] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-17 06:16:35*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress.

In the far infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics, propagators for charged fermions no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on spacetimes having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[434] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-17 02:12:01*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress

In the far infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics, propagators for charged fermions no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on spacetimes having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[433] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 09:50:07*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress.

Propagators for charged fermions do not follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT) in the far infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics. They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[432] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 20:04:12*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress.

In the deep infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics, propagators for charged fermions no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[431] **viXra:1406.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-18 07:34:15*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We show that the Standard Model (SM) represents a self-contained multifractal set on spacetime having arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensionality ( ). All coupling charges residing on this background (gauge, Higgs and Yukawa) satisfy a closure relationship that a) tightly constrains the flavor and mass content of the SM and b) naturally solves the “hierarchy problem”, without resorting to new concepts reaching beyond the physics of the SM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[430] **viXra:1406.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-03 13:34:50*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is the final version for publication

Considering that each quark is composed of two prequarks it is shown that the recently
found Higgs boson belongs to a triplet of neutral bosons, and that there are two quadruplets of charged Higgs-like bosons. The quantum numbers of these bosons are calculated and shown to be associated to a new kind of hypercharge directly linked to quark compositeness. Particularly, the quantum number of the recently found Higgs boson is identified. A chart for quark decays via virtual Higgs-like bosons is proposed. Justifications for quark compositeness
are presented.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[429] **viXra:1406.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-23 19:36:21*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Astrophysical safety assurances based on White Dwarf (WD) longevity and Neutron Star (NS) longevity were proposed by Giddings and Mangano in the 2008 safety report [1] commissioned at CERN regarding the existential risks to Earth from hypothetical micro black holes (MBH) theorised as potentially creatable in Proton-Proton (P-P) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the event that such TeV-scale MBH once produced would be stable. The WD safety assurance being stated as only applicable to MBH of dimensions D<8 and at no greater than 14 TeV energy levels, the NS safety assurance was therefore provided as the main astrophysical safety assurance (besides Hawking Radiation theory, and accretion estimates) outside these limits.
Amid suggestions in outsider-debate [2][3][4] that the process of Hawking Radiation (HR) theorised on such TeV-scale MBH may prove less effective in practice than in its mathematical model, a closer look at the NS assurance is reasoned herein. This short paper presents concerns regarding the NS safety assurance as a solitary safety assurance for MBH of greater dimensions, and/or for MBH created at greater energy levels (> 14 TeV) than of those which a solid WD safety assurance [3] can provide.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[428] **viXra:1406.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-07 20:05:13*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Astrophysical safety assurances in White Dwarf (WD) longevity and Neutron Star (NS) longevity were proposed in the 2008 safety report [1] commissioned at CERN regarding the existential risks to Earth from micro black holes (MBH) created in Proton-Proton (P-P) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the event of hypothetical stable TeV-scale MBH. The WD safety assurance being stated as only applicable to MBH of dimensions D<=8 and at no greater than 14 TeV energy levels, the NS safety assurance was therefore provided as the solitary astrophysical safety assurance (other than Hawking Radiation theory) outside this remit.
Amid suggestion in outsider-debate [2][3][4] that the process of Hawking Radiation (HR) theorised on such TeV-scale MBH may prove less effective in practice than in its mathematical model, a closer look at the NS assurance is reasoned herein. This short paper presents concerns regarding the NS safety assurance as a solitary safety assurance for MBH of greater dimensions, and/or for MBH created at greater energy levels (> 14 TeV) than those which a solid WD safety assurance [3] can provide.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[427] **viXra:1406.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 18:49:55*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Astrophysical safety assurances in White Dwarf (WD) longevity and Neutron Star (NS) longevity were proposed in the 2008 safety report [1] commissioned at CERN regarding the existential risks to Earth from micro black holes (MBH) created in Proton-Proton (P-P) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the event of hypothetical stable TeV-scale MBH. The WD safety assurance being stated as only applicable to MBH of dimensions D<=8 and at no greater than 14 TeV energy levels, the NS safety assurance was therefore provided as the solitary astrophysical safety assurance (other than Hawking Radiation theory) outside this remit.
Amid suggestion in outsider-debate [2][3][4] that the process of Hawking Radiation (HR) theorised on such TeV-scale MBH may prove less effective in practice than in its mathematical model, a closer look at the NS assurance is reasoned herein. This short paper presents concerns regarding the NS safety assurance as a solitary safety assurance for MBH of greater dimensions, and/or for MBH created at greater energy levels (> 14 TeV) than those which a solid WD safety assurance [3] can provide.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[426] **viXra:1406.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-18 08:43:50*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the mass can not conservation in the β+ decay of a proton

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[425] **viXra:1406.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-25 18:03:32*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A special case of the cubic equation is shown to possess
three unusually economical solutions. A minimal case
associated with these solutions is then shown to yield
a congruous set of numbers that
fit the fine structure constant,
the sines squared of the quark and lepton mixing angles,
as well as the Weinberg angle.
Had Renaissance mathematicians probed the cubic equation's
solutions more deeply these numbers
might have formed a well-known part of algebra
from the 16th century.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics