**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(7) - 0703(6) - 0704(2) - 0706(4) - 0708(1) - 0710(1) - 0712(1)

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2009 - 0904(1) - 0907(10) - 0908(5) - 0909(4) - 0910(7) - 0911(10) - 0912(4)

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2012 - 1201(12) - 1202(6) - 1203(7) - 1204(5) - 1205(4) - 1206(8) - 1207(6) - 1208(15) - 1209(4) - 1210(13) - 1211(6) - 1212(15)

2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(16) - 1303(8) - 1304(7) - 1305(9) - 1306(11) - 1307(11) - 1308(11) - 1309(19) - 1310(12) - 1311(7) - 1312(13)

2014 - 1401(14) - 1402(20) - 1403(10) - 1404(17)

Any replacements are listed further down

[485] **viXra:1404.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 12:45:37*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In two recent articles I have shown that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle, termed Complete Relativity, conforms to quantum mechanics and cosmology. Here I demonstrate that it also conforms to the Standard Model. Using the energy expression derived from the theory, I demonstrate that the theory predicts the recently reported mass (≈125 GeV) of the Higgs boson.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[484] **viXra:1404.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 08:30:46*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I calculated mass (4423 MeV), quantum numbers (unitary spin and positive parity) and estimated the full width (about 100 MeV; such mesons have the resonant character) of the negative resonance Z(4430). It is not a new form of matter called a tetraquark.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[483] **viXra:1404.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:31:59*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The article is ready for publication.

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, electron . leptons, neutrino.
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[482] **viXra:1404.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:58:50*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton (D,He 3 or alpha particle respectively ).Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles. Higgs Boson.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, potential energy. leptons. hyperons, mesons, quarks
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[481] **viXra:1404.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:09:57*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 35 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are small. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Accurate electron speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα.
Comparison the official and of the author´s results.
Theory of particles, waves and heat. Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission medium are waves.
Neutron, β electron , gamma rays – calculations. Discussion to Cobalt-60 decay.
Stable electrons moving with speeds (0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z (= β electrons). Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons (μ−, τ−) = ( particles = electrons different speeds), neutrinos νe, νμ, ντ (= waves) , bosons W +, W-, Z (= particles = β electrons moving at nearly the speed of light ) and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >1019 Hz ).
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[480] **viXra:1404.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:16:15*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 25 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the paper „ Physics is easy“ we showed, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton.
Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles. We show, that neutron is source β rays - β electrons ( bosons Zo, W+- too) , γ rays, electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, tauon neutrinos.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, β rays, bosons Zo, W+- , γ rays, wave–particle duality.
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60., 14.65., 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[479] **viXra:1404.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:23:08*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 29 Pages. The article is ready for publication

. In the present paper we show, that accurate measurement kinetical energy in high-energy physics will use to determine the exact value of the speed of particles. The exact value of the speed of particles allows us to establish the precise momentum of particles.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, potential energy. neutron, proton, electron, leptons, quarks
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[478] **viXra:1404.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:47:42*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 23 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[477] **viXra:1404.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:53:01*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 72 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[476] **viXra:1404.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:03:33*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 40 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In this article are the 5 tables for calculating the average translational velocities of all milisecond pulsars and others fast spinning bodies and shift the center of gravity due to the rotation. Corrections theory ideal spining circle for real bodies. Extreme values for neutron stars. Summary values for neutron stars. A new perspective on neutronization and nuclear fusion. Consent theory with the real Universe.
Keywords: stars: kinematics, pulsars: general, stellar dynamics, , stars: neutron,
PACS number: 97.60.Gb, 97.60.Jd,

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[475] **viXra:1404.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:43:54*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . When four protons fuse to become one helium nucleus, two of which must be converted into neutrons, and each such transition depends on the penetration of the two electrons from the Universe, to the interior of the star . Penetration 1038 to 1058 of high energy electrons from the Universe to the interior of the star, transferred huge amounts of energy from the Universe into a small space of the star. This huge cosmic energy is responsible for thermonuclear fusion. Currently prevailing opinion that the star itself is the source of the nuclear fusion powering the star. In fact, without a high-energy electrons from other stars of the Universe, single star can not be able to a nuclear fusion, because without a high-energy electrons from other stars, her stellar protons cannot be transform into her neutrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[474] **viXra:1404.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-13 11:30:05*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 13 Pages. several charts

Western nuclear physics contains six types of Quarks, while Vedic Nuclear Physics accounts for 18 types of Quarks and 18 types of anti – Quarks. In addition, Vedic Nuclear Physics posits three types of matter, which carries implications for Quark charges. Vedic Nuclear Physics posits Giant Quarks, something unknown in Western Physics. This paper describes the concept of Hyper – Circles, which are essential to Vedic Nuclear Physics and which may resemble Octonions, Sedenions or Exceptional Lie Algebras such as E7 and E8.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[473] **viXra:1404.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 07:42:28*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** The work contain 60 pages

Since, at RHIC and LHC heavy-ion colliders the classical color field play an important role to study production of quark-gluon plasma, we propose a theory to describe strong-field inside the nucleons based on Dual Ginzburg-Landau-Pitaevski (DGL) theory .
We provide a detailed analysis of physically important quantities as regarding the nucleons substructure as: the uniform chromoelectric field (vortex) strength inside a nucleon, the mass of monopole viewed as gluons which are the propagators of the QCD and carry colour and anti-colour, with an hedgehog-like configuration, or as a results of interaction of spin-orbit of the monopole current , or of Rashba field interaction, all giving the same result; the quantification of the interaction energies of one vortex ( ) and of a giant vortex ( ), as to be encapsulated by the Abrikosov triangular lattice generated by the coalescence of the flux lines. Therefore, it is proved for the first time, that in the nucleon exist sufficiently high electromagnetic fields that permit to continue extract (with a rate of pair) from vacuum of pairs (virtual) of high energy electrons, of , Higgs bosons, quarks, by a Schwinger effect, etc, to transform its into real one of very short time life, just like in a veritable laboratory. Thus, it was discovered for the first time that is in fact the Schwinger critical field for the pair creation from vacuum. These pairs decay or annihilate into electrons, which passes the monopole condensate barrier as beta-electrons by quantum tunneling due of the phase slip with and of a energy release, the entire model is proved for a free neutron decay life-time.
Equally, the same Schwinger pairs-production rates are enhanced by a thermal Boltzmann factor in place of quantum tunneling, when this thermalization due of the incidence of an high thermal spike of a photon with nucleons destroys the superconductivity.
This effect is proved in the case of , through its β-decay to 1.809 MeV γ-ray, when at high temperatures ( ) equilibrium is reached between and which is relevant to some high temperature astrophysical events such as novae.
In the applications, as based on these data, there are calculated: the Higgs boson energy release due of two gluons fusion during the collision at LHC, gluon pair production from space-time dependent chromoﬁeld due of the collision of and of heavy nuclei; the pairs creation due of the thermally-induced vacuum instability as induced by a laser pulse in a crossed field of a single plane wave generated by a single high energy photon.
A proposal to use a laser pulse to reduce the half life of beta decay nuclides is discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[472] **viXra:1404.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 10:16:04*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Bosons come in positive, negative and zero charges, W+, W− and Z, but western science to date fails to explain why this is so. The W+, W−, and Z0 bosons, together with the photon (γ), comprise the four gauge bosons of the electroweak interaction..Vedic Physics offers the genuine explanation of why bosons have three distinct types of charge and this paper definitively explains the reason, which has to do with the three types of matter in the Universe. The paper concludes with a new typology of bosons based on the three different types of matter found in the universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[471] **viXra:1404.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 13:43:39*

**Authors:** Björn Schemmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The current version of the text is in German

The author is showing a memory hook to calculate the traces of products of Dirac matrices which might be useful for the average student of physics during his QED-class. Further the author proves the universal validity of this technique applied to an arbitrary even number of gamma matrices using complete induction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[470] **viXra:1404.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 02:38:30*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In the Planck Model, broken symmetries are manifested on the mass levels of the three Planck sequences. Superpartners, resulting from the breaking of supersymmetry, are arranged symmetrically about superlevels within each sequence. There are two types of superlevel: every third level in each sequence (Type 1) and every fifth level in each sequence (Type 2). The superpartners of each charged lepton and quark are identified; the superpartnerships are centred on superlevels of Type 1. The electron, the up quark and, intriguingly, the proton participate in superpartnerships that are symmetrically arranged about coincident superlevels of Type 1. The W and Z weak gauge bosons and the 126 GeV Higgs boson participate in a trio of superpartnerships about three coincident superlevels of Type 2. Coincident superlevels are rare, concentrated at known particle mass scales, and lie in a symmetric pattern that results from the interplay of the Planck sequences. The pattern of coincident superlevels extends from the GUT scale to meV scale, forming the background to the see-saw mechanism of neutrino mass generation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[469] **viXra:1404.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-01 09:51:19*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In material world matter provides substance to all real entities. Hence, it is logical to conceive development-hierarchy of various matter-particles, starting from unstructured matter, rather than bifurcating superior matter-particles into inferior ones on the basis of noticed properties. Diverse properties of various matter-particles are derived from immediate inferior matter-particles and depend on their physical structures. Very brief account of development of various matter-particles, from unstructured matter, as conceived in alternative concept presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, is presented in this article.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[468] **viXra:1403.0971 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-30 08:46:50*

**Authors:** Keith Maxwell Hardy

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

All forces emerge from a simple field based on the analogy of waves rippling out from a source. New ideas are applied to this field such as plus and minus space and time, an absolute reference frame of nothingness, and origins of influence. This approach results in a basic unified field theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[467] **viXra:1403.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-19 12:55:30*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

B-mode CMB polarization observed by BICEP2 is consistent with the Octonionic Inflation of E8 Physics that does not use a conventional inflaton field but instead uses NonAssociative Non-Unitary Octonionic Quantum Processes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[466] **viXra:1403.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-17 00:05:24*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 85 Pages.

We develop in detail, the classical magnetic monopoles of non-abelian Yang-Mills gauge theory, and show how these classical monopoles, when analyzed using Gauss’ / Stokes’ theorem, appear to confine their gauge fields, and also, appear to be composite objects. Of course, baryons, which include the protons and neutrons at the heart of nuclear physics, also confine their gauge fields and are similarly-composite objects. This raises the question whether the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills theory are in some fashion related to the observed physical baryons. After developing inverse solutions for the non-abelian electric charge densities while carefully examining uniqueness and gauge fixing, we use these solutions together with Dirac theory to “populate” these classical monopoles with fermions. Applying the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle to these fermions forces the selection of a rank-3 gauge group initially chosen to be SU(3). We then find that these non-abelian magnetic monopoles have the exact chromodynamic symmetries of baryons and interact via colored magnetic fields with the exact chromodynamic symmetries of mesons. We show that these monopoles are also topologically stable, and that a required U(1) factor which ensures this stability also “flavors” these monopole as protons and neutrons. Because this exposition is classical, we also discuss the extent to which classical field theory can be used to effectively analyze baryons and confinement. We finally point out how a recursive aspect of the non-abelian electric charge solution may be used to perform an analytically-exact quantum path integration for Yang-Mills theory, proving the existence of a non-trivial quantum Yang–Mills theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[465] **viXra:1403.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-15 20:58:17*

**Authors:** Michael Snyder

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This document is an update to my paper "Photonic Dipole Contours of Ferrofluid Hele-Shaw Cell" arXiv:0805.4364v2 . Photographs are the primary datasets and makeup the majority of the document. The overall argument is that the ferrofluid cells are basically spin based radar systems that show photon scatter off of electron flows inside of the
ferrofluid cell; induced by external magnetic fields. In other words, we are watching sparks cascading through an irregular lattice like lighting jumping cloud to cloud. They build up static electricity like a solar cell.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[464] **viXra:1403.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-13 06:54:12*

**Authors:** Hideki Mutoh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The electromagnetic field model including Nakanishi-Lautrup (NL) field of quantum electrodynamics (QED) can easily treat creation and annihilation of positive and negative charge pairs, although it is difficult for Maxwell's equations to treat them. However, the model does not directly satisfy the charge conservation equation and permits single charge creation and annihilation. It is shown that the potential energy of NL field for a pair of charge creation and annihilation centers is proportional to their distance. It causes the confinement of charge creation and annihilation centers, which means the charge conservation for this model. The quark confinement might be also explained by the energy of NL field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[463] **viXra:1403.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-11 17:04:04*

**Authors:** Ray Fleming

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Ernest Sternglass determined that a neutral meson, the π0 could be modeled as a relativistic electron-positron pair, and later determined that the muon could be modeled as an electron rotating around a similar electron-positron pair. The author noticed that there is a second higher-energy orbital solution not previously published by Sternglass where the electron-positron pair orbits around the electron’s center. A simple computation shows that the mass-energy of this second solution is consistent with the tau particle. Based on these models the mu and tau leptons are not fundamental particles as described in currently popular theories but are instead two excited meta-stable states of an electron and an electron-positron pair.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[462] **viXra:1403.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-10 18:38:18*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The concepts of a proposed Modified Standard Model are applied to explain the charged pion and muon decays along with an analysis of the nuclear reactions involved in major neutrino detection experiments.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[461] **viXra:1403.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-03 15:15:57*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Many thanks to Vixra for providing this service as a means for those exploring particle physics to publish their work. I look forward to when future revisions of this paper are peer-reviewed, but did not wish to delay sharing it in an open forum.

We introduce an expansion of the Rishon Model to cover generations,
(including a previously undiscovered one), a brief explanation for
how T and V exist at all, and explain particle decay in terms of
simple "phase transform" rules. We identify all current particles
(with the exception of "Top") including the gluon, the Bosons and the
Higgs, purely in terms of the underlying mechanism which topologically
can be considered to be Rishons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[460] **viXra:1403.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-03 15:53:20*

**Authors:** LIU Changli, GE Fengjun

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Why massless particles, for example photons, can only have two helicity one-particle states is the main subject of this work. As we know, the little group which describes massive particle one-particle states' transformations under the Lorentz transformation is SO(3), while the little group describing massless states is ISO(2). In this paper, a new method is proposed to contract SO(3) group to ISO(2) group. We use this contraction method to prove that the particle can only have two helicity one-particle states from the perspective of \emph{kinematics}, when the particle mass trends to zero. Our proof is different from the dynamic explanation in the existing theories.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[459] **viXra:1403.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-03 13:39:30*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that the hypothesis of an inflationary universe to solve the horizon and flatness problem can be avoided by Lorentzian relativity assuming the existence of a preferred reference system at rest with the zero point vacuum energy cut off at the Planck energy. Under this assumption there will be a “firewall” at the event horizon of an expanding universe where all matter disintegrates into radiation having everywhere the Unruh black body radiation temperature. The replacement of the Einsteinian relativity by the Lorentzian relativity to solve the problem of quantum gravity was suggested to the author by Heisenberg.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[458] **viXra:1402.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-28 14:42:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unimodular SL(n,R) Gravity in n-dimensional SpaceTime is related to E8 Physics in two ways: to 8-dim SpaceTime and to 4-dim Physical Minkowski M4 SpaceTime. The Unimodular SL(8,R) represents 8-dim SpaceTime as a generalized checkerboard of SpaceTime HyperVolume Elements. The Unimodular SL(4,R) has conformal structure effectively equivalent to that of MacDowell-Mansouri SU(2,2) Conformal Gravity and, further, is useful in resolving the strong CP problem.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[457] **viXra:1402.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-26 23:02:38*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 24 pages, 148 equations, 10 references

We review the fundamental rules for constructing the regular and the gauge-invariant quantum field action both in the divergence-free approach and in the cutoff approach. Loop computations in quantum electrodynamics of fermionic spinor matter, and also in quantum gravity of fermionic spinor matter, are presented in both approaches. We explain how the results of the divergence-free method correspond to those of the cutoff method. We argue that in a fundamental theory that contains quantum gravity, the cutoff framework might be necessary, whereby the cutoff parameter and the gravitational coupling could be related to each other quite consistently.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[456] **viXra:1402.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-25 07:59:50*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We present an alternative type of sixteen-component hypercomplex scalar-vector values named "space-time sedenions", generating associative noncommutative space-time Clifford algebra. The generalization of relativistic quantum mechanics and field theory on the basis of sedenionic space-time operators and hypercomplex wave functions is discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[455] **viXra:1402.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-23 10:30:53*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A proposed modification of the Standard Model, when applied to the Solar Proton-Proton Cycle, provides a more in-depth explanation of the nuclear reactions within each step of the process.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[454] **viXra:1402.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-22 06:41:58*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a rough outline of the minimal math structure needed for my E8 Physics model. It makes clear that a major barrier to understanding it is the amount of not-well-known mathematics of Real Clifford Algebras, Lie Algebras, Bounded Complex Domains, etc. ... No details are given here as they can be found in viXra 1312.0036 and my other viXra papers and my web sites at tony5m17h.net and valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ As to why anyone should expend the effort to understand the necessary math, the payoff is the substantially realistic results of E8 Physics calculations set out at the end of this paper. The calculations are mostly tree-level with a few first-order results so further calculation work might bring even closer correspondence with observations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[453] **viXra:1402.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-21 06:36:26*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 22 pages, 208 equations, 11 references

An SU3 unification theory with the electron, the positron, and the neutrino is reviewed. A 10-spacetime gravidynamic unification of the internal charges and the spin is formulated, with a 16-component Majorana-Weyl fermion that consolidates the foregoing three Weyl particles with the antineutrino, and their Dirac conjugates. Vector bosons and scalar (Higgs) particles are consolidated in an antisymmetric tensor of 3rd rank, being the only tensor, apart from the graviton of 10-spacetime, that can couple to the unifying fermion. We write the Lorentz algebra of 10-spacetime in terms of the 4-spacetime Lorentz algebra and the internal O6 factor, the latter expressed via its U3 subalgebra, and construct the pertinent operator representations. We exhibit the complete structure of the unified gauge-Higgs couplings, indicating the source terms of particle masses. On the basis of this simple unification model, we propose the radical idea that all observed bosonic and fermionic particles, whether leptonic or hadronic, may be composed of just the underlying four fundamental fermions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[452] **viXra:1402.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-20 11:21:36*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this letter we present a new wave equation for ultra-relativistic matter, matter whose energy can be approximated by the relation, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^2}{2p}$. We discuss in detail the implications of this wave equation and analyse their possible solutions, such as the plane-wave, which is completely consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillations.The non-trivial dispersion relation it is also derived from the wave equation, allowing to obtain the phase and group velocities of the ultra-relativistic waves; while the phase velocity of these waves is always greater than $c$, the associated group velocity can never surpass the speed of light. In addition, we introduce the Hamiltonian form of the wave equation, and discuss another aspects such as the equation of the probability conservation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[451] **viXra:1402.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 15:11:59*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We develop in detail, the classical magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory, and show how these classical monopoles, when analyzed using Gauss’ / Stokes’ theorem, appear to confine their gauge fields, and also, appear to be composite objects. Of course, baryons, which include the protons and neutrons at the heart of nuclear physics, also confine their gauge fields and are similarly-composite objects. This raises the question whether the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills theory are in some fashion related to the observed physical baryons. Because this exposition is classical, we also discuss the extent to which classical field theory can be used to effectively analyze baryons and confinement, and what would need to also be considered in a complete quantum field development.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[450] **viXra:1402.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 09:44:21*

**Authors:** Malcolm H, Mac Gregor

**Comments:** 19 pages

Elementary particles can be represented as localized concentrations of energy, which act as Higgs energy spheres S. The sphere radius specifies its energy, and hence its coupling to the scalar Higgs field. Massless photon energy spheres are defined by the Planck equation E = hν. Massive particle energy spheres are defined by the fine structure electrostatic energy equation and the fine structure inertial mass equation, which are derived from the fine structure constant α~1/137. Higgs particle generation occurs in two steps: (1) an electrostatic-energy sphere is created; (2) it adiabatically expands radially by a factor of 137 and transforms into a Compton-sized inertial-mass sphere, which represents a Higgs unit energy quantum. Four Higgs energy channels (electron, boson, fermion and gauge boson) accurately reproduce lepton, constituent-quark, hadron, and average-gauge-boson masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[449] **viXra:1402.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 05:56:39*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is well known that a quark manifests its current-character and simultaneously its
constituent-character, depending upon what energy scale or length scale one is
interested in for a particular phenomenon. Here we show that there is a fundamental conflict
between these two concepts, when one looks carefully as to how the electric charge
for a quark is defined in these two, current and constituent, structures. This is a crisis for
quantum chromodynamics.
We show then that the topological Skyrme Model comes to the rescue. We prove in this paper as to how unambiguously and uniquely, it is the Skyrme Model which solves this conundrum in
Quantum Chromodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[448] **viXra:1402.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-12 23:03:50*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 11 pages, 8 references, 408 KB

We present the Feynman graphs and the corresponding expressions, up to 4th loop order, for a generic effective quantum field theory action. Whereas there are 2 graphs in the 2-loop order, and 8 graphs in the 3-loop order, we obtain 43 irreducible graphs in the 4-loop order. These results are obtained using Mathematica programming, where the underlying code is capable of generating graphs and expressions to any desired loop order. We explain the associated programming strategy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[388] **viXra:1403.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-24 11:01:31*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

B-mode CMB polarization observed by BICEP2 is consistent with the Octonionic Inflation of E8 Physics that does not use a conventional inflaton field but instead uses NonAssociative Non-Unitary Octonionic Quantum Processes. V2 adds details such as inflation producing a matter-dominated Universe. V3 corrects and expands material about matter-antimatter and generation-antigeneration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[387] **viXra:1403.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-24 00:22:43*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

B-mode CMB polarization observed by BICEP2 is consistent with the Octonionic Inflation of E8 Physics that does not use a conventional inflaton field but instead uses NonAssociative Non-Unitary Octonionic Quantum Processes. V2 adds details such as inflation producing a matter-dominated Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[386] **viXra:1403.0272 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-01 22:03:34*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 101 Pages. Revision 2 adds two new sections 12 and 13

We develop in detail, the classical magnetic monopoles of non-abelian Yang-Mills gauge theory and show how these monopoles, when analyzed using Gauss’ / Stokes’ theorem, appear to confine their gauge fields, and also, appear to be composite objects. Of course, baryons, which include the protons and neutrons at the heart of nuclear physics, also confine their gauge fields and are similarly-composite objects. This raises the question whether the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills theory are in some fashion related to the observed physical baryons. After developing inverse solutions for the non-abelian electric charge densities while carefully examining uniqueness and gauge fixing, we use these solutions together with Dirac theory to “populate” these classical monopoles with fermions. Applying the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle to these fermions forces the selection of a rank-3 gauge group initially chosen to be SU(3). We then find that these non-abelian magnetic monopoles have the exact chromodynamic symmetries of baryons and interact via colored magnetic fields with the exact chromodynamic symmetries of mesons. We show that a required U(1) factor ensures that these monopoles are topologically stable, and also “flavors” these monopole as protons and neutrons. Because this exposition is classical, we also discuss the extent to which classical field theory can be used to effectively analyze baryons and confinement. We finally point out how a recursive aspect of the non-abelian electric charge solution may be used to perform an analytically-exact quantum path integration for Yang-Mills theory, proving the existence of a non-trivial quantum Yang–Mills theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[385] **viXra:1403.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-09 15:55:35*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We introduce an expansion of the Rishon Model to cover quark generations,
(including a previously unnoticed one), provide an explanation for T and V
as a topologically convenient moniker representing aspects of phase and
polarity within knots (of for example String Theory), and explain particle
decay in terms of simple ``phase transform" rules. We identify all current
particles (with the exception of ``Top") including the gluon, the Bosons and
the Higgs, purely in terms of the underlying mechanism which topologically
can be considered to be Rishons. All this is predicated on the simple
assumption that all particles in effect photons phase-locked in a
repeating pattern inherently obeying Maxwell's equations, in symbiotic support
of their own outwardly-propagating electro-magnetic synchotronic radiation, and that Rishons represent a phase ``measurement" (real or
imaginary) at key strategic points on the photon's path.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[384] **viXra:1403.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-04 11:32:13*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that the hypothesis of an inflationary universe to solve the horizon and flatness problem can be avoided by Lorentzian relativity assuming the existence of a preferred reference system at rest with the zero point vacuum energy cut off at the Planck energy. Under this assumption there will be a “firewall” at the event horizon of an expanding universe where all matter disintegrates into radiation having everywhere the Unruh black body radiation temperature. The replacement of the Einsteinian relativity by the Lorentzian relativity to solve the problem of quantum gravity was suggested to the author by Heisenberg.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[383] **viXra:1402.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-05 08:56:46*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a rough outline of the minimal math structure needed for my E8 Physics model. It makes clear that a major barrier to understanding it is the amount of not-well-known mathematics of Real Clifford Algebras, Lie Algebras, Bounded Complex Domains, etc. ... No details are given here as they can be found in viXra 1312.0036 and my other viXra papers and my web sites at tony5m17h.net and valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ As to why anyone should expend the effort to understand the necessary math, the payoff is the substantially realistic results of E8 Physics calculations set out at the end of this paper. The calculations are mostly tree-level with a few first-order results so further calculation work might bring even closer correspondence with observations. V2 and V3 correct and clarify some typography re gauge groups and spinor fermions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[382] **viXra:1402.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-24 13:51:46*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a rough outline of the minimal math structure needed for my E8 Physics model. It makes clear that a major barrier to understanding it is the amount of not-well-known mathematics of Real Clifford Algebras, Lie Algebras, Bounded Complex Domains, etc. ... No details are given here as they can be found in viXra 1312.0036 and my other viXra papers and my web sites at tony5m17h.net and valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ As to why anyone should expend the effort to understand the necessary math, the payoff is the substantially realistic results of E8 Physics calculations set out at the end of this paper. The calculations are mostly tree-level with a few first-order results so further calculation work might bring even closer correspondence with observations. V2 corrects and clarifies some typography re gauge groups.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[381] **viXra:1402.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-19 07:28:52*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this letter we present a novel wave equation for ultra-relativistic matter, particles that satisfy $p>>m$, and whose energy-momentum relation can therefore be approximated by $E\simeq p+\frac{m^2}{2p}$. We discuss in detail the implications of this wave equation and analyse their possible solutions, such as the plane-wave, which is completely consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillations. On the other hand,we introduce the Hamiltonian form of the wave equation, and discuss another aspects, such as a conservation law analogue to the continuity equation. In addition,when the wave equation is solved for an infinite potential well, it is found not only the quantization of the energy, but also the quantization of the mass. Finally, we point out that in the electron case, the energy regime to test the model is $E\sim 500 $GeV, accessible at the next generation lepton collider (ILC).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[380] **viXra:1402.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-16 11:42:31*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this letter we present a new wave equation for ultra-relativistic matter, particles that satisfy $p>>m$, and whose energy-momentum relation can therefore be approximated by $E\simeq p+\frac{m^2}{2p}$. We discuss in detail the implications of this wave equation and analyse their possible solutions, such as the plane-wave, which is completely consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillations.The non-trivial dispersion relation is also derived from the wave equation, allowing to obtain the phase and group velocities of the ultra-relativistic waves; while the phase velocity of these waves satisfies $V_{ph}\geq c$, the associated group velocity can never surpass the speed of light. On the other hand,we introduce the Hamiltonian form of the wave equation, and discuss another aspects, such as a conservation law analogue to the continuity equation. In addition,when the wave equation is solved for an infinite potential well, it is found not only the quantization of the energy, but also the quantization of the mass. Finally, we point out that in the electron case, the energy regime to test the model is $E\sim 500 $GeV, accessible at the next generation lepton collider (ILC).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[379] **viXra:1402.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-14 13:04:10*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this letter we present a new wave equation for ultra-relativistic matter, matter whose energy can be approximated by the relation, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^2}{2p}$. We discuss in detail the implications of this wave equation and analyse their possible solutions, such as the plane-wave, which is completely consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillations.The non-trivial dispersion relation it is also derived from the wave equation, allowing to obtain the phase and group velocities of the ultra-relativistic waves; while the phase velocity of these waves is always greater than $c$, the associated group velocity can never surpass the speed of light. On the other hand,we introduce the Hamiltonian form of the wave equation, and discuss another aspects, such as a conservation law analogue to the continuity equation.In addition,when the wave equation is solved for an infinite potential well, it is found not only the quantization of the energy, but also the quantization of the mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[378] **viXra:1402.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-12 18:07:03*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this letter we present a new wave equation for ultra-relativistic matter, matter whose energy can be approximated by the relation, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^2}{2p}$. We discuss in detail the implications of this wave equation and analyse their possible solutions, such as the plane-wave, which is completely consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillations.The non-trivial dispersion relation it is also derived from the wave equation, allowing to obtain the phase and group velocities of the ultra-relativistic waves; while the phase velocity of these waves is always greater than $c$, the associated group velocity can never surpass the speed of light. On the other hand,we introduce the Hamiltonian form of the wave equation, and discuss another aspects, such as a conservation law analogue to the continuity equation.In addition,when the wave equation is solved for an infinite potential well, it is found not only the quantization of the energy, but also the quantization of the mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[377] **viXra:1402.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-10 13:40:25*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this letter we present a new wave equation for ultra-relativistic matter, matter whose energy can be approximated by the relation, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^2}{2p}$. We discuss in detail the implications of this wave equation and analyse their possible solutions, such as the plane-wave, which is completely consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillations.The non-trivial dispersion relation it is also derived from the wave equation, allowing to obtain the phase and group velocities of the ultra-relativistic waves; while the phase velocity of these waves is always greater than $c$, the associated group velocity can never surpass the speed of light. On the other hand,we introduce the Hamiltonian form of the wave equation, and discuss another aspects, such as a conservation law analogue to the continuity equation.In addition,when the wave equation is solved for an infinite potential well, it is found not only the quantization of the energy, but also the quantization of the mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[376] **viXra:1402.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-09 17:22:15*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this letter we present a new wave equation for ultra-relativistic matter, matter whose energy can be approximated by the relation, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^2}{2p}$. We discuss in detail the implications of this wave equation and analyse their possible solutions, such as the plane-wave, which is completely consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillations.The non-trivial dispersion relation it is also derived from the wave equation, allowing to obtain the phase and group velocities of the ultra-relativistic waves; while the phase velocity of these waves is always greater than $c$, the associated group velocity can never surpass the speed of light. On the other hand,we introduce the Hamiltonian form of the wave equation, and discuss another aspects, such as a conservation law analogue to the probability conservation theorem.In addition,when the wave equation is solved for an infinite potential well, it is found not only the quantization of the energy, but also the quantization of the mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[375] **viXra:1402.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-04 00:34:23*

**Authors:** Ginés R.Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this letter we present a new wave equation for ultra-relativistic matter, matter whose energy can be approximated by the relation, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^2}{2p}$. We discuss in detail the implications of this wave equation and analyse their possible solutions, such as the plane-wave, which is completely consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillations.The non-trivial dispersion relation it is also derived from the wave equation, allowing to obtain the phase and group velocities of the ultra-relativistic waves; while the phase velocity of these waves is always greater than $c$, the associated group velocity can never surpass the speed of light. In addition, we introduce the Hamiltonian form of the wave equation, and discuss another aspects such as the equation of the probability conservation. When the wave equation is solved for an infinite potential well, it is found that not only the energy in quantized, but also the rest mass of the particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[374] **viXra:1402.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-22 07:28:57*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We develop in detail, the classical magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory, and show how these classical monopoles, when analyzed using Gauss’ / Stokes’ theorem, appear to confine their gauge fields, and also, appear to be composite objects. Of course, baryons, which include the protons and neutrons at the heart of nuclear physics, also confine their gauge fields and are similarly-composite objects. This raises the question whether the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills theory are in some fashion related to the observed physical baryons. Because this exposition is classical, we also discuss the extent to which classical field theory can be used to effectively analyze baryons and confinement, and what would need to also be considered in a complete quantum field development.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[373] **viXra:1402.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-21 15:58:32*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We develop in detail, the classical magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory, and show how these classical monopoles, when analyzed using Gauss’ / Stokes’ theorem, appear to confine their gauge fields, and also, appear to be composite objects. Of course, baryons, which include the protons and neutrons at the heart of nuclear physics, also confine their gauge fields and are similarly-composite objects. This raises the question whether the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills theory are in some fashion related to the observed physical baryons. Because this exposition is classical, we also discuss the extent to which classical field theory can be used to effectively analyze baryons and confinement, and what would need to also be considered in a complete quantum field development.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[372] **viXra:1402.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-17 17:21:12*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[371] **viXra:1402.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-16 16:02:31*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics