**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(7) - 0703(6) - 0704(2) - 0706(4) - 0708(1) - 0710(1) - 0712(1)

2008 - 0802(2) - 0803(1) - 0809(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)

2009 - 0904(1) - 0907(10) - 0908(5) - 0909(4) - 0910(7) - 0911(10) - 0912(5)

2010 - 1001(4) - 1002(3) - 1003(13) - 1004(4) - 1005(4) - 1006(2) - 1007(3) - 1008(7) - 1009(5) - 1010(5) - 1011(5) - 1012(8)

2011 - 1102(5) - 1103(16) - 1104(4) - 1105(3) - 1106(2) - 1107(3) - 1108(6) - 1109(8) - 1110(10) - 1111(12) - 1112(6)

2012 - 1201(12) - 1202(6) - 1203(7) - 1204(5) - 1205(4) - 1206(8) - 1207(6) - 1208(15) - 1209(4) - 1210(13) - 1211(6) - 1212(15)

2013 - 1301(14) - 1302(16) - 1303(7) - 1304(7) - 1305(9) - 1306(11) - 1307(11) - 1308(11) - 1309(19) - 1310(12) - 1311(7) - 1312(13)

2014 - 1401(14) - 1402(20) - 1403(10) - 1404(21) - 1405(16) - 1406(14) - 1407(3)

Any replacements are listed further down

[519] **viXra:1407.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-12 05:53:33*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We explain the fatal error in quantum chromodynamics. By applying this correction to the dynamics of quarks, we can confine quarks in hadrons. We will show why quarks do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle and why we cannot observe free quarks. In addition, we obtain the correct size of hadrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[518] **viXra:1407.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-05 01:29:06*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The ninth paper based on reality

The mass of neutron is slightly greater than1838 electrons. So it is argued that neutron contains 919 electron-positron pairs and that a positron is slightly heavier than electron. It can be shown that the minimum number of electron-positron pairs required to create a spherical structure with minimum imperfection is 919, thus validating the argument. A similar logic is applied to arrive at the structure of electron/positron. Based on these, it is argued that the natural choice of elementary particles is deterministic, and not random.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[517] **viXra:1407.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-03 02:09:31*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

show the basic structure and properties of Hadrons

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[516] **viXra:1406.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 11:25:30*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Work in progress

We show that the Standard Model (SM) represents a self-contained multifractal set on spacetime having arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensionality. All coupling charges residing on this background (gauge, Higgs and Yukawa) satisfy a closure relationship that a) tightly constrains the flavor and mass content of the SM and b) naturally solves the hierarchy problem, without resorting to new concepts reaching beyond the physics of the SM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[515] **viXra:1406.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-21 00:57:26*

**Authors:** Eui Heung Jeong

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We propose a model of interactions
in which two states of a quark, a colored and electrically charged state and a colorless and electrically neutral state, can transform into each other through the emission or absorption of a colored and electrically charged gauge boson.
A novel feature of the model is that the colorless and electrically neutral quarks carry away the missing energy in decay processes as do neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[514] **viXra:1406.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-20 11:59:55*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Presented as a talk at Rencontres de Moriondes 2014, La Thuile, Italy

Considering that each quark is composed of two prequarks it is shown that the recently found Higgs boson belongs to a triplet of neutral bosons, and that there are two quadruplets of
charged Higgs-like bosons. The quantum numbers of these bosons are calculated and shown to be associated to a new kind of hypercharge directly linked to quark compositeness. Particularly,
the quantum number of the recently found Higgs boson is identified. A chart for quark decays
via virtual Higgs-like bosons is proposed. Justifications for quark compositeness are presented.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[513] **viXra:1406.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 20:29:16*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This article has never been submitted in a journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This article consists of 50 questions related to astrophysics, climate, and other issues. These questions were posted in www.researchgate.net since Aug. 24, 2013 until June 16, 2014. Hopefully these questions can motivate further investigations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[512] **viXra:1406.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-15 04:45:58*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Maiella

**Comments:** Pages 205, 11 figures

The present book is devoted to the construction of a new theory for the elementary particles. This theory was born in order to resolve some open issues of the Standard Model, among which the research of a general equation for the description of all quantum particles in a unique way. Starting from the Pauli equation, two relativistic partial differential equations are obtained, one to the first and other to the second order, which are able to describe particles with arbitrary spin. The analysis of the energetic spectrum concerning such equations puts in evidence that the particles they describe have an imaginary mass. Then, the probability density study of these equations shows the principle of causality is not satisfied. Therefore, these equations characterize the tachyonic universe. We can see such a universe admits spontaneous symmetry breaking. In general terms, we can establish the broken symmetry might be a global characteristic of the tachyonic universe, due to its negative square energy, which made it unstable. Hence, it is possible to assume that after the hot Big-Bang there was another catastrophic cosmological event – said Big-Break – which made to break down the tachyonic universe in a positive square energy one (bradyonic universe), and from which the four fundamental interactions are probably generated. The transition from tachyonic to bradyonic universe transforms the tachyonic equations in bradyonic ones, being then able to describe elementary particles with arbitrary spin. The first order partial differential equation gives asymmetric quantum states, while the second order partial differential equation gives symmetric quantum states and so they describe different theories. In the course of this work, both these theories will be studied. Either way, only one of the two could be the right theory of the elementary particles. Since this theory follows on from the Big-Bang, from the resultant tachyonic universe and from Big-Break, it has been called α-Theory, i.e. the “beginning theory.” The α-Theory may theoretically predict the experimental properties of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos and allows, thanks to the appendix A, to generalize the concepts of the Dirac sea, Pauli exclusion principle and spin-statistics theorem, thus giving rise to “s-matter” and “multi-statistics,” which are able to take an interesting approach for the explanation of the Dark Matter. Furthermore, it expects on large-scale the “double inflation” mechanism, which, without the Dark Energy, could explain the acceleration of our universe (bradyonic universe). From the α-Theory, two string actions can be deduced too, by which new ideas can be developed. Practically, the α-Theory wants to be a GUT, able to describe the quantum particles and our universe in a simple and elegant way.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[511] **viXra:1406.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-14 07:00:34*

**Authors:** N. Murata, Yoja Panchan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a circuit was conceptually designed which can excite either a positive or a negative mass, using the mass equation derived from the g_equation on the assumption of certain conditions.
This study examined the construction of an element from positive mass in order to establish the above excitation, and how to apply the element.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[510] **viXra:1406.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 21:45:42*

**Authors:** John Frederic Sweeney

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Western nuclear physics contains six types of Quarks, while Vedic Nuclear
Physics accounts for 18 types of Quarks and 18 types of anti – Quarks. The
process of Quark formation is given here, as well as that of Gluons. Moreover,
none of the 89 particles discovered by western physics, including the Higgs
Boson, is a fundamental particle in the sense of the ten fundamental particles
of Vedic Particle Physics. The so – called “God Particle” is a farce of western
physics, since Vishnu resides in every particle. Every particle is a God Particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[509] **viXra:1406.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 08:26:15*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Astrophysical safety assurances in White Dwarf (WD) longevity and Neutron Star (NS) longevity were proposed in the 2008 safety report [1] commissioned at CERN regarding the existential risks to Earth from micro black holes (MBH) created in Proton-Proton (P-P) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the event of hypothetical stable TeV-scale MBH. The WD safety assurance being stated as only applicable to MBH of dimensions D<=8 and at no greater than 14 TeV energy levels, the NS safety assurance was therefore provided as the solitary astrophysical safety assurance (other than Hawking Radiation theory) outside this remit.
Amid suggestion in outsider-debate [2][3][4] that the process of Hawking Radiation (HR) theorised on such TeV-scale MBH may prove less effective in practice than in its mathematical model, a closer look at the NS assurance is reasoned herein. This short paper presents concerns regarding the NS safety assurance as a solitary safety assurance for MBH of greater dimensions, and/or for MBH created at greater energy levels (> 14 TeV) than those which a solid WD safety assurance [3] can provide.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[508] **viXra:1406.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 02:26:56*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the mass can not conservation in the β+ decay of a proton

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[507] **viXra:1406.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-08 13:20:23*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Following up on an earlier, De Broglie-Bohm approach within the framework of quantum gauge theory of gravity, and based on the Schrödinger-Dirac equation for gravitons, we argue that gravitons are effectively massive due to their localized circulatory motion. This motion is analogous to the proposed zitterbewegung (ZB) motion of electrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[506] **viXra:1406.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-07 09:39:52*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this letter we investigate the Left-Right Symmetric Model, in the framework of evolution theory. We calculate the sufficient number of K-meson decays, where heavy Right hand Majorana neutrinos are suppressed. The evolution pattern of Left-Right neutrinos modeling population is also studied. The proposed evolution pattern yields to the possible heavy Right hand Majorana neutrinos observation in single isolated K-meson decay in energy scale of 14 TeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[505] **viXra:1406.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-05 17:59:10*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A special case of the cubic equation is shown to possess
three unusually economical solutions. A minimal case
associated with these solutions is then shown to yield
a congruous set of numbers that
fit the fine structure constant,
the sines squared of the quark and lepton mixing angles,
as well as the Weinberg angle.
Had Renaissance mathematicians probed the cubic equation's
solutions more deeply these numbers
might have formed a well-known part of algebra
from the 16th century.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[504] **viXra:1406.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-03 03:19:22*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

In recent papers a microscopic model for the SM Higgs mechanism has been proposed, and an idea how to determine the 24 quark and lepton masses of all 3 generations has emerged in that framework. This idea is worked out in detail here by accommodating the fermion masses and mixings to microscopic parameters. The top quark mass turns out to be $m_t\approx 170$GeV and can be given in terms of the weak boson masses and of certain exchange couplings of isospin vectors obeying a tetrahedral symmetry. The observed hierarchy in the family spectrum is attributed to a natural hierarchy in the microscopic couplings. The neutrinos will be shown to vibrate within the potential valleys of the system, thus retaining very tiny masses. This is related to a Goldstone effect inside the internal dynamics. A discussion of the quark and lepton mixing matrices is also included. The mixing angles of the PMNS matrix are calculated for an example set of parameters, and a value for the CP violating phase is given.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[503] **viXra:1406.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-01 10:20:35*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

So far all theoretical models claiming to explain the Fractional Quantum
Hall Effect are macroscopic in nature. In this paper we suggest a truly microscopic structure of this phenomenon. At the base is how electron charge is
defined in the group SU(N) for arbitrary values of integer N. It is shown how
all discovered charges in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect are accounted
for in this model. We show how Greenberg Parafermions, obeying parastatistics,
are fundamentally required within this picture to explain the Fractional
Quantum Hall Effect. We also show how both the Fractional Quantum Hall
Effect and the Integral Quantum Hall Effect are explained in a common
unified description in this microscopic model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[502] **viXra:1405.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-31 09:01:32*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the relationship between Neutrinos and Gamma rays

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[501] **viXra:1405.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-30 11:36:00*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

A parallel construction exists in Vedic Nuclear Physics which appears to be the Exceptional Lie Algebra E8 and the Hopf Fibration. This paper describes the key sphere H7 in Vedic Physics and then attempts to draw isomorphic relationships between the structures. In this way, this paper attempts to explain the relationship between E8 and the Hopf Fibration, which is not well understood generally, in the hope that Vedic Nuclear Physics may provide a heuristic model. Hypothesis about Exceptional Lie Algebras and related Hopf Fibrations, gives numerical values for Exceptional Lie Algebras and spheres.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[500] **viXra:1405.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 16:07:44*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Status: With editors in Physical Review Letters

Relationship Lorentz derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, that is we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation, fictional by Maxwell and not to be derived.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which creates charge in transmision medium.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[499] **viXra:1405.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 07:12:53*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Determine the mass of a π-meson and a neutrino

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[498] **viXra:1405.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-25 01:57:30*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Status: With editors in Physical Review Letters

Two energies, which are measured in opposite directions, and we consider them as quarks are actually two different kinetic energy of a single proton, the first in the direction of its movement, and the second in the opposite direction.
Quarks are actually locked (confinement) in proton, as is clear from the individual tables.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[497] **viXra:1405.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-20 13:30:52*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Please see paper for detailed abstract. In brief, this paper uses existing non-speculative QFT to provide a model for predicting particle masses. This paper develops further the arguments and justifies the extensive results given in our 30 November 2011 vixra paper, http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0111

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[496] **viXra:1405.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-17 09:01:29*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

S.M. Phillips has articulated a fairly good model of the E8×E8 heterotic superstring, yet nevertheless has missed a few key aspects. This paper informs his model from the perspective of Vedic Nuclear Physics, as derived from the Rig Veda and two of the Upanishads. In addition, the author hypothesizes an extension of the Exceptional Lie Algebra Series beyond E8 to another 12 places or more, which correspond with a series of 20 Hyper - Circles in Vedic Nuclear Physics, the values for which are given here.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[495] **viXra:1405.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-16 08:53:48*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Particles occupy mass levels within three geometric sequences that descend from the Planck Mass. Every third level in each sequence is a superlevel of type 1. Every fifth level in each sequence is a superlevel of type 2. The charged leptons in partnership with pseudoscalar mesons are arranged symmetrically about closely coincident superlevels of type 1. The quarks, in weak isospin doublets, are arranged symmetrically about closely coincident superlevels of type 2. A symmetrical pattern of three-sequence coincident superlevels of type 1 extends over many orders of magnitude. The electron and the up quark both participate in partnerships with pseudoscalar mesons that are arranged symmetrically about the centre of the pattern. The model admits of the partnership of an electron neutrino of mass of 10.9 meV with a scalar of mass ~2x10^7 GeV, and of the partnership of a 15.9 keV fermion, conjectured to be the sterile right-handed electron neutrino, with a scalar of mass ~16 GeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[494] **viXra:1405.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-16 02:43:57*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The time dilation predicted by Special Relativity Theory is completely determined by the Lorentz Factor. The Invariance Principle, expressed in γ, puts two categorical constraints on the velocity β: 1. β< 1, and 2. γ(β) = γ(-β). The findings of recent neutrino velocity experiments, which tested the first constraint, reveal that the velocity of neutrinos is not statistically different from the velocity of light. Surprisingly, in all these experiments, the second constraint, γ(β) = γ(-β), which constitutes the essence of the Lorentz Invariance, was not tested. Here I explain why the design of the neutrino velocity experiments qualifies them as "severe" tests of the Lorentz invariance. I further show that Special Relativity fails colossally in predicting all the reported (v-c)/c values. I also show that for all the discussed experiments, abandoning the Lorentz Invariance yields accurate predictions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[493] **viXra:1405.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 05:14:55*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 1 Page. overview of works

L.Vlcek vixra, getcited, book, CD, Conferences 14.5.2014

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[492] **viXra:1405.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 05:56:52*

**Authors:** Eduard N. Klenov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We have delivered the concept of a structural mass unit as a carrier of a special basic structure, different states of which can be compared (juxtaposed) to weakly interacting particles and antiparticles. This structure radically differs from the compound structure of atoms and nuclei as it doesn’t contain the elements its mass is formed of, and its components cannot be interpreted in the concept of “particles” and removed from it. Mutual transformation of weakly interacting point particles is the result of basic structure and it is possible if every particle has an antiparticle. Mass (energy) of states of the basic structure carrier depends on the orientation of the components of this structure. Neutrino and antineutrino appear to be the states of the structural mass unit and therefore they possess mass. Antiparticles and particles are different states of the basic structure carrier, the structure components of which have opposite signs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[491] **viXra:1405.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 03:50:55*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward a new combination mechanism of nuclear (hadrons)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[490] **viXra:1405.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-10 11:45:29*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward a new model of a neutron and a μ-meson

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[489] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-05 16:49:59*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 141 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[488] **viXra:1405.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 07:23:00*

**Authors:** {A. Bodek, M. E. Christy, B. Coopersmith

**Comments:** Submitted to Eur. Phys. J C. 15 pages, 22 figures

Spectral functions that are used in neutrino event generators (such as GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, NUWRO, and GiBUU) to model quasielastic(QE) scattering from nuclear targets include Fermi gas, Local Thomas Fermi gas (LTF), Bodek-Ritche Fermi gas with high momentum tail, and the Benhar Fantoni two dimensional spectral function. We find that the predictions of these spectral functions for the d-sigma/d-nu distribution of QE events are in disagreement with the prediction of the psi' superscaling function which is extracted from fits to quasielastic electron scattering data on nuclear targets. It is known that spectral functions do not fully describe quasielastic scattering because they only model the initial state. Final state interactions distort the shape of d-sigma/d-nu, reduce the cross section at the peak and increase the cross section at the tails of the distribution. We show that the kinematic distributions predicted by the psi' superscaling formalism can be well described with a modified effective spectral function (EFS).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[487] **viXra:1404.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 13:17:33*

**Authors:** Eduard N. Klenov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The article considers phenomenal geometry figures being the carriers of value spectra for the pairs of the remaining additive quantum numbers occurred in the nature of strongly and weakly interacting particles. The unusual feature of such figures is that during their building no data about particles are used at all but the data about the mentioned spectra though can be found in these figures and this can be discovered with the help of special coordinate systems.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[486] **viXra:1404.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 06:00:55*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in CNSNS 13 (2008) 666-676

Fractional dynamics offers a reliable tool for the study of far-from equilibrium processes that display scale-invariant properties, dissipation and long-range correlations. This feature may be particularly attractive when describing the complex dynamics that is likely to arise in the deep ultraviolet regime of Quantum Field Theory. We analyze here a simple scalar field Lagrangian using Caputo derivatives and the approximation of low-level fractionality. Results may be extrapolated to more realistic field models and suggest a series of surprising implications regarding phenomena that are expected to emerge beyond the range of the Standard Model for particle physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[485] **viXra:1404.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 03:28:01*

**Authors:** B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS, 2 (2013) 23-38

In this paper, we have made an attempt to discuss the role of division
algebras (octonions) in gravity and dark matter where, we have described the octonion
space as the combination of two quaternionic spaces namely gravitational G-space and
electromagnetic EM-space. We have discussed the standard model and GUTs in terms
of split octonion formulation. At last, we have formulated the theory of dark matter
in terms of octonion variables i.e. hot dark matter and cold dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[484] **viXra:1404.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-23 10:10:45*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

An icon of 20th Century Physics, Albert Einstein in fact made many mistakes in his career but none more egregious than setting the Constant in E = MC ^2 at 2.99 x 10^8, instead of the correct setting of the Constant at 3.35 x 108 . During his entire career, Einstein attempted seven times to provide a full proof for this equation, and failed each time. Moreover, although he has taken credit for discovery of the equation, in fact Henri Poincare devised the equation five years earlier than Einstein. The mistake over the value of the Constant has meant that nuclear power plants have been self – damaging since their inception, but changing the Constant value to will reduce the damage, possibly to zero.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[483] **viXra:1404.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 12:45:37*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In two recent articles I have shown that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle, termed Complete Relativity, conforms to quantum mechanics and cosmology. Here I demonstrate that it also conforms to the Standard Model. Using the energy expression derived from the theory, I demonstrate that the theory predicts the recently reported mass (≈125 GeV) of the Higgs boson.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[482] **viXra:1404.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 08:30:46*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I calculated mass (4423 MeV), quantum numbers (unitary spin and positive parity) and estimated the full width (about 100 MeV; such mesons have the resonant character) of the negative resonance Z(4430). It is not a new form of matter called a tetraquark.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[481] **viXra:1404.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:31:59*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The article is ready for publication.

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, electron . leptons, neutrino.
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[480] **viXra:1404.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:58:50*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton (D,He 3 or alpha particle respectively ).Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles. Higgs Boson.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, potential energy. leptons. hyperons, mesons, quarks
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[479] **viXra:1404.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:09:57*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 35 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are small. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Accurate electron speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα.
Comparison the official and of the author´s results.
Theory of particles, waves and heat. Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission medium are waves.
Neutron, β electron , gamma rays – calculations. Discussion to Cobalt-60 decay.
Stable electrons moving with speeds (0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z (= β electrons). Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons (μ−, τ−) = ( particles = electrons different speeds), neutrinos νe, νμ, ντ (= waves) , bosons W +, W-, Z (= particles = β electrons moving at nearly the speed of light ) and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >1019 Hz ).
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[478] **viXra:1404.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:16:15*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 25 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the paper „ Physics is easy“ we showed, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton.
Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles. We show, that neutron is source β rays - β electrons ( bosons Zo, W+- too) , γ rays, electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, tauon neutrinos.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, β rays, bosons Zo, W+- , γ rays, wave–particle duality.
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60., 14.65., 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[477] **viXra:1404.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:23:08*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 29 Pages. The article is ready for publication

. In the present paper we show, that accurate measurement kinetical energy in high-energy physics will use to determine the exact value of the speed of particles. The exact value of the speed of particles allows us to establish the precise momentum of particles.
Keywords: mass, kinetic energy, potential energy. neutron, proton, electron, leptons, quarks
PACS number: 14.20., 14.40., 14.60. 14.65. 14.70.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[476] **viXra:1404.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:47:42*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 23 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[475] **viXra:1404.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:53:01*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 72 Pages. The article is ready for publication

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons@@ in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[474] **viXra:1404.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:03:33*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 40 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In this article are the 5 tables for calculating the average translational velocities of all milisecond pulsars and others fast spinning bodies and shift the center of gravity due to the rotation. Corrections theory ideal spining circle for real bodies. Extreme values for neutron stars. Summary values for neutron stars. A new perspective on neutronization and nuclear fusion. Consent theory with the real Universe.
Keywords: stars: kinematics, pulsars: general, stellar dynamics, , stars: neutron,
PACS number: 97.60.Gb, 97.60.Jd,

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[473] **viXra:1404.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:43:54*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The article is ready for publication

In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . When four protons fuse to become one helium nucleus, two of which must be converted into neutrons, and each such transition depends on the penetration of the two electrons from the Universe, to the interior of the star . Penetration 1038 to 1058 of high energy electrons from the Universe to the interior of the star, transferred huge amounts of energy from the Universe into a small space of the star. This huge cosmic energy is responsible for thermonuclear fusion. Currently prevailing opinion that the star itself is the source of the nuclear fusion powering the star. In fact, without a high-energy electrons from other stars of the Universe, single star can not be able to a nuclear fusion, because without a high-energy electrons from other stars, her stellar protons cannot be transform into her neutrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[472] **viXra:1404.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-13 11:30:05*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 13 Pages. several charts

Western nuclear physics contains six types of Quarks, while Vedic Nuclear Physics accounts for 18 types of Quarks and 18 types of anti – Quarks. In addition, Vedic Nuclear Physics posits three types of matter, which carries implications for Quark charges. Vedic Nuclear Physics posits Giant Quarks, something unknown in Western Physics. This paper describes the concept of Hyper – Circles, which are essential to Vedic Nuclear Physics and which may resemble Octonions, Sedenions or Exceptional Lie Algebras such as E7 and E8.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[471] **viXra:1404.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 07:42:28*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** The work contain 60 pages

Since, at RHIC and LHC heavy-ion colliders the classical color field play an important role to study production of quark-gluon plasma, we propose a theory to describe strong-field inside the nucleons based on Dual Ginzburg-Landau-Pitaevski (DGL) theory .
We provide a detailed analysis of physically important quantities as regarding the nucleons substructure as: the uniform chromoelectric field (vortex) strength inside a nucleon, the mass of monopole viewed as gluons which are the propagators of the QCD and carry colour and anti-colour, with an hedgehog-like configuration, or as a results of interaction of spin-orbit of the monopole current , or of Rashba field interaction, all giving the same result; the quantification of the interaction energies of one vortex ( ) and of a giant vortex ( ), as to be encapsulated by the Abrikosov triangular lattice generated by the coalescence of the flux lines. Therefore, it is proved for the first time, that in the nucleon exist sufficiently high electromagnetic fields that permit to continue extract (with a rate of pair) from vacuum of pairs (virtual) of high energy electrons, of , Higgs bosons, quarks, by a Schwinger effect, etc, to transform its into real one of very short time life, just like in a veritable laboratory. Thus, it was discovered for the first time that is in fact the Schwinger critical field for the pair creation from vacuum. These pairs decay or annihilate into electrons, which passes the monopole condensate barrier as beta-electrons by quantum tunneling due of the phase slip with and of a energy release, the entire model is proved for a free neutron decay life-time.
Equally, the same Schwinger pairs-production rates are enhanced by a thermal Boltzmann factor in place of quantum tunneling, when this thermalization due of the incidence of an high thermal spike of a photon with nucleons destroys the superconductivity.
This effect is proved in the case of , through its β-decay to 1.809 MeV γ-ray, when at high temperatures ( ) equilibrium is reached between and which is relevant to some high temperature astrophysical events such as novae.
In the applications, as based on these data, there are calculated: the Higgs boson energy release due of two gluons fusion during the collision at LHC, gluon pair production from space-time dependent chromoﬁeld due of the collision of and of heavy nuclei; the pairs creation due of the thermally-induced vacuum instability as induced by a laser pulse in a crossed field of a single plane wave generated by a single high energy photon.
A proposal to use a laser pulse to reduce the half life of beta decay nuclides is discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[470] **viXra:1404.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 10:16:04*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Bosons come in positive, negative and zero charges, W+, W− and Z, but western science to date fails to explain why this is so. The W+, W−, and Z0 bosons, together with the photon (γ), comprise the four gauge bosons of the electroweak interaction..Vedic Physics offers the genuine explanation of why bosons have three distinct types of charge and this paper definitively explains the reason, which has to do with the three types of matter in the Universe. The paper concludes with a new typology of bosons based on the three different types of matter found in the universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[469] **viXra:1404.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 13:43:39*

**Authors:** Björn Schemmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The current version of the text is in German

The author is showing a memory hook to calculate the traces of products of Dirac matrices which might be useful for the average student of physics during his QED-class. Further the author proves the universal validity of this technique applied to an arbitrary even number of gamma matrices using complete induction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[468] **viXra:1404.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-02 02:38:30*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In the Planck Model, broken symmetries are manifested on the mass levels of the three Planck sequences. Superpartners, resulting from the breaking of supersymmetry, are arranged symmetrically about superlevels within each sequence. There are two types of superlevel: every third level in each sequence (Type 1) and every fifth level in each sequence (Type 2). The superpartners of each charged lepton and quark are identified; the superpartnerships are centred on superlevels of Type 1. The electron, the up quark and, intriguingly, the proton participate in superpartnerships that are symmetrically arranged about coincident superlevels of Type 1. The W and Z weak gauge bosons and the 126 GeV Higgs boson participate in a trio of superpartnerships about three coincident superlevels of Type 2. Coincident superlevels are rare, concentrated at known particle mass scales, and lie in a symmetric pattern that results from the interplay of the Planck sequences. The pattern of coincident superlevels extends from the GUT scale to meV scale, forming the background to the see-saw mechanism of neutrino mass generation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[467] **viXra:1404.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-01 09:51:19*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In material world matter provides substance to all real entities. Hence, it is logical to conceive development-hierarchy of various matter-particles, starting from unstructured matter, rather than bifurcating superior matter-particles into inferior ones on the basis of noticed properties. Diverse properties of various matter-particles are derived from immediate inferior matter-particles and depend on their physical structures. Very brief account of development of various matter-particles, from unstructured matter, as conceived in alternative concept presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, is presented in this article.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[466] **viXra:1403.0971 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-30 08:46:50*

**Authors:** Keith Maxwell Hardy

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

All forces emerge from a simple field based on the analogy of waves rippling out from a source. New ideas are applied to this field such as plus and minus space and time, an absolute reference frame of nothingness, and origins of influence. This approach results in a basic unified field theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[423] **viXra:1406.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-18 07:34:15*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We show that the Standard Model (SM) represents a self-contained multifractal set on spacetime having arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensionality ( ). All coupling charges residing on this background (gauge, Higgs and Yukawa) satisfy a closure relationship that a) tightly constrains the flavor and mass content of the SM and b) naturally solves the “hierarchy problem”, without resorting to new concepts reaching beyond the physics of the SM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[422] **viXra:1406.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-07 20:05:13*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Astrophysical safety assurances in White Dwarf (WD) longevity and Neutron Star (NS) longevity were proposed in the 2008 safety report [1] commissioned at CERN regarding the existential risks to Earth from micro black holes (MBH) created in Proton-Proton (P-P) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the event of hypothetical stable TeV-scale MBH. The WD safety assurance being stated as only applicable to MBH of dimensions D<=8 and at no greater than 14 TeV energy levels, the NS safety assurance was therefore provided as the solitary astrophysical safety assurance (other than Hawking Radiation theory) outside this remit.
Amid suggestion in outsider-debate [2][3][4] that the process of Hawking Radiation (HR) theorised on such TeV-scale MBH may prove less effective in practice than in its mathematical model, a closer look at the NS assurance is reasoned herein. This short paper presents concerns regarding the NS safety assurance as a solitary safety assurance for MBH of greater dimensions, and/or for MBH created at greater energy levels (> 14 TeV) than those which a solid WD safety assurance [3] can provide.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[421] **viXra:1406.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 18:49:55*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Astrophysical safety assurances in White Dwarf (WD) longevity and Neutron Star (NS) longevity were proposed in the 2008 safety report [1] commissioned at CERN regarding the existential risks to Earth from micro black holes (MBH) created in Proton-Proton (P-P) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the event of hypothetical stable TeV-scale MBH. The WD safety assurance being stated as only applicable to MBH of dimensions D<=8 and at no greater than 14 TeV energy levels, the NS safety assurance was therefore provided as the solitary astrophysical safety assurance (other than Hawking Radiation theory) outside this remit.
Amid suggestion in outsider-debate [2][3][4] that the process of Hawking Radiation (HR) theorised on such TeV-scale MBH may prove less effective in practice than in its mathematical model, a closer look at the NS assurance is reasoned herein. This short paper presents concerns regarding the NS safety assurance as a solitary safety assurance for MBH of greater dimensions, and/or for MBH created at greater energy levels (> 14 TeV) than those which a solid WD safety assurance [3] can provide.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[420] **viXra:1406.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-18 08:43:50*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the mass can not conservation in the β+ decay of a proton

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[419] **viXra:1405.0362 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 08:43:41*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

showing the relationship between Neutrinos and Gamma-ray

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[418] **viXra:1405.0362 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-01 01:27:28*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the relationship between Neutrinos and Gamma rays

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[417] **viXra:1405.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-26 09:23:03*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Determine the mass of a π-meson and a neutrino

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[416] **viXra:1405.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 09:16:42*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

1. Virtual fermions are radially polarized (driven further apart) by the electric field in which they formed.
2. This polarization supplies the virtual fermions energy, at the expense of electric field, which is thus partly “screened.”
3. The energy supplied to virtual fermions by their radial polarization extends their lifetime beyond Heisenberg’s h/E.
4. This supply of extra energy moves “virtual” fermions towards the real mass shell, so they briefly obey Pauli’s principle.
5. As a result of this, the “virtual” fermions become structured like electron orbits, thereby contributing quantized mass. Different isomers are possible which allow various weak decay routes, thereby predicting the CKM matrix mechanism.
6. Because neutrinos only have weak charges (not electromagnetic charge or color charge), they have weak fields, producing on average little mass due to very occasional pair production, so they weakly interact with gravity (gravity’s charge is mass). Neutrino mass data suggest flavor oscillations are geometric differences in the vacuum structuring of their masses.
Whereas string theory envisages different quantized masses to arise by analogy to electron energy levels (line spectra), this model
uses a quantum gravity calculation to quantize mass.
Lattice QCD has to use some particle masses as input, to calculate other masses as output. We instead use the mass mechanism of neutral Z currents, where offshell fermion pair production field quanta around the core of a fundamental particle absorb some of the electric field energy and move apart, attenuating the electric field in the process (hence causing the running of the
electromagnetic coupling with distance and energy), and thus take longer to annihilate than given for purely offshell field quanta. The absorbed extra energy increases the virtual fermion pair survival time towards that of onshell particles, so the Pauli exclusion principle begins to apply to those virtual fermions, structuring the vacuum virtual fermions into electronic “shells,” giving a simple pattern of discrete masses. This model justifies the vacuum shell structure model since rematively stable long-lived particle masses (life >10^-23 second) correspond to parameters equivalent to stable (filled) shells.
A table of theory-to-experiment comparisons is provided, with literature references for the development of the theory, which began in 1952 with the paper by Yoichiro Nambu, the proposer of QCD color charge, "An Empirical Mass Spectrum of Elementary Particles" (Progress in Theoretical Physics, v7, 1952, pp. 595-6), arguing: "“It seems to be a general conviction of current physicists that the theory of elementary particles in its ultimate form could or should give the mass spectrum of these particles just in the same way as quantum mechanics has succeeded in accounting for the regularity of atomic spectra. ... it may perhaps be too ambitious and rather unsound to look for an empirical ‘Balmer’s law’. Nevertheless we should like here to present one such attempt because it happens to be extremely simple ..."
Of course, simple mechanical explanations of Nambu's sort are now laughable to status quo, which is so obsessed with some kind of extravagant explanation for mass that it overlooks - indeed now censors out - common sense.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[415] **viXra:1405.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-23 03:51:04*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Please see paper. This is an expanded version of the paper uploaded on 20 May 2014. The detailed calculations and comparisons to measured particle masses are contained in previous papers; this paper doesn't repeat that stuff over again but concisely explains the underlying physics (behind the equations previously published) in a more understandable way. However, there are still serious presentation problems if the majority of potential readers are extremely bigoted in the Distler fashion against "unorthodox" approaches which are based on facts and produce confirmed predictions honestly. If equations are presented they're ignored, if explanations in words are published, they're ignored. Peer review is simply a censorship to maintain orthodox unless maybe the author is already famous for something else.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[414] **viXra:1405.0270 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 19:01:26*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This article introduces a new physical law that I shall call the scale principle. This law describes exact fundamental relationships such as the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, the black hole entropy, the Einstein’s relativistic energy expression (described on a separate article) and other relationships that might or might not be exact (as the age of the Universe, the Higgs boson mass and the proton radius). This paper introduces two formulas for the proton radius. The first formula suggests that generation 1, which makes up all the normal matter in the universe, exists because of the existence of the other two generations and the structure of the universe at the Planck scale. The second formula matches the proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. Additionally, two formulas for the age of the universe are introduced and are compared with NASA’s experimental data. The second formula uses the Higgs boson mass developed earlier. All theoretical results of this formulation fully agree with the observed values. More importantly, this research shows that several physical laws such as the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the black hole entropy are special cases of this formulation. The theory also unveils a previously unknown natural mechanism of scale factors. Finally the formulation predicts a small range of possible values for the size of the electron. Thus, the scale principle opens a new window into the understanding of nature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[413] **viXra:1405.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 08:10:46*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward a new combination mechanism of nuclear (hadrons)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[412] **viXra:1405.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-11 01:42:52*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward a new model of a neutron based on π-Meson

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[411] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-19 22:45:49*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16). V3 revises and expands about transition to Quaternion structure at end of inflation.V4 adds details about Quantum Consciousness and E8. V5 adds more about E8 Lagrangian structure. V6 revises Root Vectors for Standard Model and for Gravity-Dark Energy. V7 adds detail and revises Root Vectors for SpaceTime and First-Generation Fermion Particles and AntiParticles. V8 adds more about emergence of AQFT from Completion of Union of Tensor Products of Local Lagrangian Cl(16). V9 adds more about the 3-state Higgs-Tquark System.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[410] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-10 09:11:54*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16). V3 revises and expands about transition to Quaternion structure at end of inflation.V4 adds details about Quantum Consciousness and E8. V5 adds more about E8 Lagrangian structure. V6 revises Root Vectors for Standard Model and for Gravity-Dark Energy. V7 adds detail and revises Root Vectors for SpaceTime and First-Generation Fermion Particles and AntiParticles. V8 adds more about emergence of AQFT from Completion of Union of Tensor Products of Local Lagrangian Cl(16).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[409] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-02 18:49:28*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16). V3 revises and expands about transition to Quaternion structure at end of inflation.V4 adds details about Quantum Consciousness and E8. V5 adds more about E8 Lagrangian structure. V6 revises Root Vectors for Standard Model and for Gravity-Dark Energy. V7 adds detail and revises Root Vectors for SpaceTime and First-Generation Fermion Particles and AntiParticles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[408] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-30 17:09:10*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16). V3 revises and expands about transition to Quaternion structure at end of inflation.V4 adds details about Quantum Consciousness and E8. V5 adds more about E8 Lagrangian structure. V6 revises Root Vectors for Standard Model and for Gravity-Dark Energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[407] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 09:59:33*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16). V3 revises and expands about transition to Quaternion structure at end of inflation.V4 adds details about Quantum Consciousness and E8. V5 adds more about E8 Lagrangian structure.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[406] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-12 12:06:43*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16). V3 revises and expands about transition to Quaternion structure at end of inflation.V4 adds details about Quantum Consciousness and E8.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[405] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-02 22:51:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 147 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16). V3 revises and expands about transition to Quaternion structure at end of inflation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[404] **viXra:1405.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-30 07:08:23*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

Over the past 30 years or so I have been constructing Physics Models and writing about them as can be seen on my web sites at www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/
www.tony5m17h.net/ and on viXra - list at vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr
Due to experimental observations and my learning new techniques over those 30 years my Physics Models have been in a state of evolving flux - for example, 30 years ago their basis was the Lie Algebra Spin(8), then to contain vectors and spinors it was F4, then to contain the geometry of bounded complex domains it was E6, then Real Clifford Algebras were used to describe evolution from a Void Empty Set ø, then Periodicity showed the importance of Cl(8) and tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = Cl(16), then E8 emerged from Cl(16) to give the structure of a realistic local E8 Lagrangian, then completion of the union of all tensor products of Cl(16) local structures produced a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). Since my works over those 30 years have been written from various points of view it is not easy to navigate among them. This paper is being written from a single point of view (that of May 2014) in the hope that it might be easier for readers to navigate. Although the nice math of my Cl(16)-E8 model is necessary, it is not sufficient. The Cl(16)-E8 model must be consistent with experimental observations. As of now, given that most calculations are tree-level, the model is substantially so consistent. An interesting test over the 2015-2016 time frame will be whether or not the LHC sees two additional Higgs mass states with cross section about 20% of that of a full Standard Model Higgs. V2 adds details about Cl(Cl(1,3)) and Cl(16).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics