High Energy Particle Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[559] viXra:1411.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 12:25:26

On the Limitations of Wilson's Renormalization Group Program

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[558] viXra:1411.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 17:34:38

Dirac Monopoles, Gauge Symmetry, Orientation-Entanglement, and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[557] viXra:1411.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 02:35:37

Did Atlas CMS Cern Find the Last Elementary Particle?

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 8 Pages.

The evidence from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN announced 4 July 2012; suggest, at the very least, some interesting equations, standard model architecture, and a possible "heavier charged Higgs-like".
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[556] viXra:1411.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:27:32

The Stability and Radioactivity of Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put forward the causes and mechanism of radioactivity of unstable nucleus
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[555] viXra:1411.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 02:21:50

The Principle of Asymmetry in the Elementary Universe

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 18 Pages. First essay id: 1309.0009

In this paper we consider a few important questions concerning the microuniverse of elementary physical systems. We know leptonic matter is characterized by negative electric charge and leptonic antimatter by positive electric charge. Conversely baryonic matter is characterized by positive electric charge and baryonic antimatter by negative electric charge. In the Non-Standard Model both, matter and antimatter, can have negative values of mass (antimass) for greater speeds than the critical speed. We will demonstrate, always in the order of the Non-Standard Model, there is a full symmetry for elementary particles in regard to the behavior of matter, antimatter and antimass whether when they are in the leptonic state or in the baryonic state. The physical reality of nature shows neverheless in the Elementary Universe a Principle of Asymmetry is in force. In fact if this Principle doesn't exist then in the Universe and in Nature we would have to observe a comparable quantity of matter and antimatter. It is known instead that the practically exclusive presence of matter, above all at low energy, is proved. Our object now is to discover that principle of Asymmetry, that in our physico-mathematical model represents a surmounting of the concept of spontaneous breaking of the symmetry, that is assumed in the Standard Model. We will demonstrate the Principle of Asymmetry is based upon a criterion of stability that identifies the actual asymmetry of the Elementary Universe with the instability state of some microphysical structures. This paper represents the second essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe".
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[554] viXra:1411.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-17 13:54:33

Solving the Naturalness Problem on Minimal Fractal Manifolds

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages.

The “naturalness” problem stands out as one of the deepest mysteries of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and General Relativity (GR). A vast array of proposals on how to tackle this challenge has been advanced over the years with no compelling experimental backup and no major breakthrough. In this brief report we re-emphasize that the onset of the minimal fractal manifold near or above the electroweak scale enables a straightforward resolution of this problem.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[553] viXra:1411.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-17 08:33:18

Higgs Boson May Appear to be a Techni-Higgs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

The discovered elusive Higgs boson, first predicted theoretically, turns out to may have been a different particle after all. A team of international researchers have claimed that it could be an even more mysterious techni-higgs. [3] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[552] viXra:1411.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 08:21:05

Charge, Parity, and Time Violation Caused Baryogenesis

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 8 Pages.

There were three charge, parity, and time (CPT) violation arguments which supported each other and this article’s conclusions. First, the CPT theorem was invalid at the Planck scale. Second, highly curved space-times violated CPT because of apparent violations of unitarity caused by incoming matter information disappearance. Third, a quantum mechanics axiom stated the transformation from one state to another respected unitarity and entropy preservation. If quantum mechanics was invalid, both unitarity and entropy preservation were not respected.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[551] viXra:1411.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 08:52:14

Ether-Medium and a New Constant on Photons Radiated

Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin
Comments: 9 Pages.

According to the definition of force in Newton's second law, through the force analysis on a high speed particle, we have proved that the existence of the ether-medium is absolutely essential, and the speed of light in vacuum is the limiting value of the moving object in that. And put forward that as the cosmic background, the ether-medium is composed of the electro-ultimate particles which are moving at the highest speed close to the speed of light in vacuum. In addition, the average force suffered on static mass per unit of the electro-ultimate particle is a constant which implication is the upper limit on photons radiated. For any photon of known wavelength, the moving speed can be directly calculated through this constant. After that, the average force suffered and the static mass, when the photon moving along the wavelength direction, can be calculated. On the basis above, it also reveals that the mechanism behind the spectral redshift, the dynamic mass (or called relativistic mass) of ponderable bodies and the law of universal gravitation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[550] viXra:1411.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-03 17:32:07

Decoding the Nuclear Genome: Is there an Unambiguous and Precise way to Define the Current Quark Masses and Relate them to Nuclear Binding Energies and Mass Defects, and what is the Underlying Theory?

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 68 Pages.

In several previous publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses from the tightly-known Q=0 empirical electron, proton and neutron (EPN) masses with commensurately high precision. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data, and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This paper systematically pulls all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory already established via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and for the first time uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[549] viXra:1410.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-30 05:54:06

Understanding the Balance of Matter and Antimatter in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter. Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[548] viXra:1410.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-23 22:12:24

The Eightfold Way Model, the Su(3)-Flavour Model and the Medium-Strong Interaction

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 10 Pages.

Lack of any baryon number in the Eightfold Way model, and its intrinsic presence in the SU(3)-flavour model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964. In this paper we show that this is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation. This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in Quantum Chromodynamics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[547] viXra:1410.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-21 13:34:44

The Seesaw Mechanism and the Structure of Spacetime above the Electroweak Scale

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages. Work in progress.

According to the seesaw mechanism, neutrino masses arise from the existence of heavy Majorana neutrinos postulated to emerge near the grand unification scale (GUT) of about 10^16 GeV. Despite its theoretical appeal, this scenario involves either physics at inaccessible scales or tuning the Yukawa couplings to un-naturally low values. Our work sidesteps the seesaw mechanism and shows that neutrino masses follow from placing the Standard Model on a spacetime support equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[546] viXra:1410.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-17 14:56:59

Baryon Asymmetry, Dark Matter, WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes

Authors: Jaidev B. Parmar
Comments: 2 Pages.

CPT theorem is reinterpreted in the context of commonly observed phenomenon and extrapolated to explain the Baryogenesis in the early Universe that has led to the observed Baryon Asymmetry in the present Universe. Anti-neutron matter is proposed as a suitable candidate for Dark Matter WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) at the Galactic centers.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[545] viXra:1410.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-17 09:18:16

Realistic Quark-Gluon Plasma and the Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[544] viXra:1410.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-17 09:23:03

New Subatomic Particle and the Electro-Strong and Weak Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[543] viXra:1410.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-17 09:13:13

The Challenge of the Lepton Universality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

The finding that electrons and muons aren’t produced equally in certain particle decays may hint at a crack in the standard model. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[542] viXra:1410.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-14 14:32:23

Ultraviolet Completion of Electroweak Theory on Minimal Fractal Manifolds

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages. Work in progress

The experimental discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has effectively disqualified all Higgs-less models developed prior to July 2012. Today, despite its conclusive validation, the Higgs sector of the Standard Model (SM) remains a largely uncharted territory. This raises the following question: Are there any hidden insights brought up by Higgs-less models that can still be beneficial for the on-going research in particle physics? Pursuing this thought, we re-examine here Moffat’s scenario based on a finite electroweak Lagrangian built outside the Higgs paradigm. Unlike the original proposal, we place the model on a spacetime support equipped with minimal fractality. In doing so, we find that the theory is perturbatively well-behaved at large scattering cross-sections and that it gracefully connects with the conventional formulation of the SM in the limit of vanishing fractality.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[541] viXra:1410.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-12 10:19:18

Existence of Antiparticles as an Indication of Finiteness of Nature

Authors: Felix M. Lev
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is shown that in a quantum theory over a Galois field, the famous Dirac's result about antiparticles is generalized such that a particle and its antiparticle are already combined at the level of irreducible representations of the symmetry algebra without assuming the existence of a local covariant equation. We argue that the very existence of antiparticles is a strong indication that nature is described by a finite field rather than by complex numbers.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[540] viXra:1410.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-03 16:53:32

Information Entropy and Correlations in Prime Kaluza- Klein modes

Authors: E.Koorambas
Comments: 3 Pages.

The difference between two consecutive prime Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes is defined as the distance between the primes KK modes. We study the statistical properties of the distances and their increments (the difference between two consecutive distances) for a sequence comprising the first 10^7 prime KK modes. The information entropy production for prime KK modes may open a window for extra dimensions ruled out by experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[539] viXra:1410.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-02 15:45:02

7.1 Kev and 35 Gev Dark Matter: More Signs of Supersymmetry

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 11 Pages.

A 7.1 keV dark matter fermion in partnership with a 35 GeV scalar WIMP would join the electron, the up quark and their previously hypothesised supersymmetric partners in a spectacular arrangement on the mass levels of the Supersymmetric Planck Model. All three partnerships are arranged symmetrically about the precise centre, at the scale of 16 MeV, of a symmetrical pattern of coincident mass levels that extends over 35 orders of magnitude. The implied dynamical supersymmetry-breaking scale lambda coincides with coincident mass levels at the centre of another symmetrical pattern. The investigation has revealed new evidence of quark-lepton symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[538] viXra:1410.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-01 08:13:45

An Intimate Relationship Between Higgs Forces, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 7 Pages.

Our universe’s eight permanent matter particles are the: up quark, down quark, electron, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, tau-neutrino, zino, and photino. The zino and photino are dark matter particles. Each of these eight permanent matter particles has an associated supersymmetric Higgs force. The sum of the eight Higgs force energies of these eight permanent matter particles is dark energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[537] viXra:1409.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 17:55:16

Decoding the Complete Internal Struture and Origin of Mass in the "New" Proton

Authors: John R. Springer
Comments: 13 Pages. Confirmation of HERA Experiments

Experiments performed at the HERA Ring Accelerator, Hamburg, Germany, have provided “A New View of the Proton as Seen by HERA”1 which shows that the “new” proton contains not just three quarks but a large number of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons. A model is presented here which confirms this. It shows that quarks exist only as triads and anti-triads, not as single isolated quark- antiquark pairs. The triads and anti-triads (TAT) are all paired together with exception of one uud, the valence triad. The model confirms that precisely 8 gluons exist in each uud and u- u- d- structure. However, in the pairing process, 9 gluons of negative energy are required for each TAT pair. The model shows that although precise mass cannot be assigned to either quarks or gluons, it can be assigned to each gluon/quark pair and to each (of many) quark triads and anti-triads, which ultimately add up accurately to the proton mass. Finally, the model has been expanded to include the structure and mass of the neutron and stable mesons. It also proposes a quark (without gluons) structure for the lower leptons. Thus, all particles found in nature may have a quark structure in this model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[536] viXra:1409.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-17 12:55:14

First and Second Least Action Principles: de Broglie Frequency and Neutron Decay

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 07pages, 08 references

We propose two kinds of least action principles. The first one is defined in a periodic time, and when applied to creation and annihilation of particle pairs, leads to the formula for the de Broglie frequency. The second one is defined in a double-time’s metric, namely: the longitudinal and transverse (related to the discreteness of the space) times. If applied to a problem dealing with the fluctuations of the metric, this second principle permit us to infer a coherence time. We interpret this as the neutron decay time, where we take the fluctuation in the kinetic energy as being the difference between the mass-energy of the neutron minus the sum of the mass-energies of the proton and electron. The neutron decay time evaluated in this way, does not make any explicit reference to the weak interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[535] viXra:1409.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-16 18:27:55

A Brief Note on Charge Quantization from Fractal Distributions

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages. Work in progress

This brief note points out that fractal spacetimes having minimal deviations from integer dimensionality naturally lead to the emergence of fractional magnetic charges. Although these are un-observable at energy scales significantly lower than the electroweak scale, their cumulative contribution may become relevant for charge quantization according to Dirac’s theory of magnetic monopoles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[534] viXra:1409.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-15 07:31:22

Should the Standard Model of Particle Physics Have Merely a Conventional Definition of the Electric Charge ?

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is most disconcerting that the Standard Model of particle physics defines, as fundamental a quantity as the electric charge, only conventionally and arbitrarily. We look into the nature of this conventionality and try to find an underlying structure to it. This brings in the Higgs field in a non-trivial manner, which points as to how the above arbitrariness and conventionality may be avoided. Next, the same is demonstrated as actually being part of the intrinsic mathematical structure of the Standard Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[533] viXra:1409.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-09 16:17:38

Fractal Spacetime and the Dynamic Generation of Mass Scales in Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 14 Pages.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[532] viXra:1409.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-09 11:35:16

New Wave Equation for Ultrarelativistic Particles

Authors: Ginés R. Pérez Teruel
Comments: 15 Pages.

Starting from first principles and general assumptions based on the energy-momentum relation of the Special Theory of Relativity we present a novel wave equation for ultrarelativistic matter. This wave equation arises when particles satisfy the condition, $p>>m$, i.e, when the energy-momentum relation can be approximated by, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^{2}}{2p}$. Interestingly enough, such as the Dirac equation, it is found that this wave equation includes spin in a natural way. Furthermore, the free solutions of this wave equation contain plane waves that are completely equivalent to those of the theory of neutrino oscillations. Therefore, the theory reproduces some standard results of the Dirac theory in the limit $p>>m$, but offers the possibility of an explicit Lorentz Invariance Violation of order, $\mathcal{O}((mc)^{4}/p^{2})$. As a result, the theory could be useful to test small departures from Dirac equation and Lorentz Invariance at very high energies. On the other hand, the wave equation can also describe particles of spin 1 by a simple substitution of the spin operators, $\boldsymbol{\sigma}\rightarrow\boldsymbol{\alpha}$. In addition, it naturally admits a Lagrangian formulation and a Hamiltonian formalism. We also discuss the associated conservation laws that arise through the symmetry transformations of the Lagrangian.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[531] viXra:1408.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-31 06:59:09

Теория строения элементарных частиц Theory of the Structure of Elementary Particles

Authors: Bakhmetov Sergey Petrovich
Comments: 19 Pages.

В теории даны определения для гравитационного, электромагнитного и ядерного взаимодействий, постоянной тонкой структуры, удельной энергии связи, черной дыры. Представлены геометрические модели для электрона, протона, нейтрона, ядра атома дейтерия, п - мезона, м - мезона. Найдены численные значения для постоянной тонкой структуры и отношения массы протона, нейтрона, п - мезона, м - мезона к массе электрона. In theory, given the definition of the gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear interactions, the fine structure constant, the specific binding energy of the black hole. Shows the geometric model for the electron, proton, neutron, nucleus of an atom of deuterium, n - meson, m - meson. Found numerical values ​​for the fine structure constant and the ratio of the mass of the proton, neutron, n - meson, m - meson to the mass of the electron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[530] viXra:1408.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-31 01:11:08

The Wave Equation for Particle Energy and Interaction

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 52 pages

A new wave equation is proposed to calculate subatomic particle energies, including rest mass, photon absorption and emission, and annihilation properties. It is suggested that this wave equation is the link between classical and quantum equations, and shows the derivation of such equations, including relativity. Evidence in support of a wave equation is presented in this paper by accurately calculating the energy of lepton particles, the hydrogen spectral series and the ionization energies for elements from hydrogen to calcium. This paper also proposes that a fundamental particle is the building block for all other subatomic particles and is validated by the new wave equation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[529] viXra:1408.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-31 05:38:43

Quantum F-matrix Theory

Authors: Peter Hickman
Comments: 9 Pages.

Yang–Mills Theory coupled to Gravitation is found, using the 6d spaces [1], f-matrices which are doublets of gamma matrices and spin-vectors. Lagrangians for the fermion sector with internal symmetry G=SU(4) coupled to Gravitation, and the scalar sector with quadratic potentials are derived. Calculations given for Higgs bare mass 125.3GeV, Dark matter scalar particle mass 41.8GeV, the cosmological constant 1.15e-52 m-2, Top quark mass 172.7GeV, Higgs VEV 246.2GeV. Inflaton field is a negative complex potential. Electric charges of quarks and leptons are determined. Matter-antimatter asymmetry is resolved. Symmetry breaking of G results in QCD SU(3), QED U(1), and Chiral Electroweak group SU(2)xU(1) is an emergent interaction are the only other gauge groups acting on 3 generations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[528] viXra:1408.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-28 11:24:43

Bootstrapping Generations

Authors: Alejandro Rivero
Comments: 3 Pages. Old paper expunged of Koideish references.

A supersymmetric version of Chew's "democratic bootstrap" argument predicts the existence of three generations of particles, with a quark, of type "up", more massive that the other five.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[527] viXra:1408.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-27 07:41:44

Protons Are Perfectly Stable or Their Lifetime is Enormous

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 4 Pages.

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons. Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z. Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z. The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant. Decay modes „elementary particles“
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[526] viXra:1408.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-24 15:09:43

The Higgs Vacuum.The Particles Of The Standard Model And The Compliance With the Energy-Momentum Equation. The Necessary Existence Of the Axion. Stop Quark Mass.

Authors: A.Garcés Doz
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper it is demonstrated that all the masses of the standard model particles; including the Higgs boson h; with nonzero rest mass, comply with the equation of energy-momentum. The model Higgs vacuum corresponds to a virtual vacuum, for which the contribution of particles with zero rest mass is null (photon, gluon, graviton) .With the best values ​​of the masses of the particles (Particle Data Group), it is found that axion mass has to be extremely small. Also the theoretical model Higgs vacuum, a completely new model based on the lattice R8 and sixteen matrix elements of energy; corresponding to the four solutions of the equation of energy-momentum (isomorphism with the four components of the scalar field. One complex doublet ); to be factored into two factors with real and imaginary components of energy. Of this new model Higgs vacuum; naturally get the beta angle. Stop quark mass is obtained by solving the equation of radiative mass correction Higss boson, h, to one loop. The exact determination of the beta angle, allows calculating the mass of the stop of about 1916 GeV. Similarly, a mass for axion is proposed of around 110 micro eV .
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[525] viXra:1408.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-23 11:32:31

Absence of Non-Trivial Supersymmetries and Grassmann Numbers in Physical State Spaces

Authors: Hironobu Kihara
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper reviews the well-known fact that nilpotent Hermitian operators on physical state spaces are zero, thereby indicating that the supersymmetries and ``Grassmann numbers" are also zero on these spaces. Next, a positive definite inner product of a Grassmann algebra is demonstrated, constructed using a Hodge dual operator which is similar to that of differential forms. From this example, it is shown that the Hermitian conjugates of the basis do not anticommute with the basis and, therefore, the property that ``Grassmann numbers" commute with ``bosonic quantities" and anticommute with ``fermionic quantities", must be revised. Hence, the fundamental principles of supersymmetry must be called into question.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[524] viXra:1408.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-23 08:00:33

A Relativistic Newtonian Mechanics Predicts with Precision the Results of Recent Neutrino-Velocity Experiments

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 8 Pages.

The research on quasi-luminal neutrinos has sparked several experimental studies for testing the "speed of light limit" hypothesis. Until today, the overall evidence favors the "null" hypothesis, stating that there is no significant difference between the observed velocities of light and neutrinos. Despite numerous theoretical models proposed to explain the neutrinos behavior, no attempt has been undertaken to predict the experimentally produced (v-c)/c results. This paper presents a simple novel extension of Newton's mechanics to the domain of relativistic velocities. For a typical neutrino-velocity experiment, the proposed model is utilized to derive a general expression for (v-c)/c. Comparison of the model's prediction with results of six neutrino-velocity experiments, conducted by five collaborations, reveals that the model predicts all the reported results with striking accuracy. Because in the proposed model, the direction of the neutrino flight matters, the model's impressive success in accounting for all the tested data, indicates a complete collapse of the Lorentz symmetry principle in stringent tests involving quasi-luminal particles, moving in two opposite directions. This conclusion is support by previous studies on the linear Sagnac effect, indicating that the travel-time difference between two counter-propagating light beams, relative to a uniformly moving fiber, is identical one detected in radial motion.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[523] viXra:1408.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-23 04:29:00

Massless Electroweak Field Propagator Predicts Mass Gap

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 3 Pages.

There are two contributions to the propagator, one from massless field quanta which doesn’t have a running coupling, and one from massive field quanta which generate the logarithmic running contribution to mass above the IR cutoff of about 0.5 Mev, which is utilized in renormalization procedures. In other words, the observed particle mass below 0.5 Mev (where no pair production, vacuum polarization, or running of mass and coupling occur), is predictable from integral of the massless Coulomb field potential Feynman diagram. (This paper further develops the theory discussed in “Mechanism of renormalization can predict particle masses,” N. B. Cook, vixra, 24 July 2014.)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[522] viXra:1408.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-18 09:00:15

Dirac-Like Equation and the Excited States of the Nucleon

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 09 paged, 18 references

We use a Dirac-like equation with a linear potential in order to evaluate the energy levels of the excited states of the Y-shaped color-electric flux tubes, describing the quarks interactions inside the nucleon. We have neglected the bare-masses of the quarks, and the obtained results reproduce the energy of the centroid of the excited states of the nucleon as well as the possible creation of nucleon-antinucleon pairs.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[521] viXra:1408.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-17 18:41:10

Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 9 Pages.

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined, and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[520] viXra:1408.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-17 07:24:10

A Derivation of the Negative Binomial Distribution

Authors: M. Hafidouni
Comments: 17 Pages.

The negative binomial distribution is derived as a solution of a linear recurrence equation with an appropriate set of constraints
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[519] viXra:1408.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-15 15:30:45

Fractal Propagators and the Asymptotic Sectors of Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages. Work in progress.

Charged Dirac propagators in the deep infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). On sufficiently short distance scales, they acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[518] viXra:1408.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-14 11:08:01

Wilson and Polyakov Loops of Gravitational Gauge Fields in Rindler Space

Authors: E.Koorambas
Comments: 12 Pages.

We will study the gravitational forces acting between static massive sources generated by exchange of massless gravitons within the framework of Quantum Gauge Theory Gravity .The gravitational force will be determined via Wilson loops and Polyakov loop correlation functions. This method will enable us to separate the contribution of the quantum mechanical transverse graviton from that of the classical longitudinal field. It will be the method of choice if one attempts to determine the gravitational static force in simulations of Quantum Gauge Theory Gravity on a Rindler space lattice.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[454] viXra:1411.0566 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-27 21:14:29

On the Limitations of Wilson's Renormalization Group Program

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[453] viXra:1411.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-26 21:15:43

The Stability and Radioactivity of Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put the causes and mechanism for unstable atomic nucleus has radioactivity
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[452] viXra:1411.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-23 01:34:43

The Stability and Radioactivity of Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put forward the causes and mechanism of radioactivity of unstable nucleus
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[451] viXra:1411.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-19 20:33:56

Solving the Naturalness Problem on Minimal Fractal Manifolds

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages.

The “naturalness” problem stands out as one of the deepest mysteries of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and cosmology. A vast array of proposals on how to tackle this challenge has been advanced over the years with no compelling experimental evidence and no major breakthrough. In this brief report we re-emphasize that the onset of the minimal fractal manifold near or above the electroweak scale provides a straightforward resolution of this problem.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[450] viXra:1411.0023 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-09 21:50:46

Decoding the Nuclear Genome: Is there an Unambiguous and Precise way to Define the Current Quark Masses and Relate them to Nuclear Binding Energies and Mass Defects, and what is the Underlying Theory?

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 71 Pages. Version 2 contains miscellaneous minor editorial revisions

In several previous publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses with commensurately high precision from the tightly-known Q=0 empirical electron mass and the neutron minus proton mass difference. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This paper systematically pulls all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[449] viXra:1410.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-29 19:49:13

Baryon Asymmetry, Dark Matter, WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes

Authors: Jaidev B. Parmar
Comments: 4 Pages.

CPT theorem is reinterpreted in the context of commonly observed phenomenon of free neutron beta decay and extrapolated to explain the Baryogenesis in the early Universe that has led to the observed Baryon Asymmetry in the present Universe. Anti-neutron and Protonium are proposed as a suitable Dark Matter WIMP candidates. Anti-neutrons are proposed as the basic components from which Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) at the Galactic centers are formed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[448] viXra:1409.0136 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-20 21:39:58

A Brief Note on Charge Quantization from Fractal Distributions

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages. Work in progress.

This brief note points out that classical Maxwell equations on fractal distributions can accommodate fractional magnetic charges. Although these fractional objects are un-observable at energy scales significantly lower than the electroweak scale, their cumulative contribution may become relevant for charge quantization in Dirac’s theory of magnetic monopoles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[447] viXra:1409.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-11 22:57:49

Fractal Spacetime and the Dynamic Generation of Mass Scales in Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 14 Pages. Work in progress.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (the so-called minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[446] viXra:1409.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-10 15:40:24

Fractal Spacetime and the Dynamic Generation of Mass Scales in Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 14 Pages. Work in progress.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (the so-called minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[445] viXra:1409.0061 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-12 15:41:06

New Wave Equation for Ultrarelativistic Particles

Authors: Ginés R. Pérez Teruel
Comments: 15 Pages.

Starting from first principles and general assumptions based on the energy-momentum relation of the Special Theory of Relativity we present a novel wave equation for ultrarelativistic matter. This wave equation arises when particles satisfy the condition, $p>>m$, i.e, when the energy-momentum relation can be approximated by, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^{2}}{2p}$. Interestingly enough, such as the Dirac equation, it is found that this wave equation includes spin in a natural way. Furthermore, the free solutions of this wave equation contain plane waves that are completely equivalent to those of the theory of neutrino oscillations. Therefore, the theory reproduces some standard results of the Dirac theory in the limit $p>>m$, but offers the possibility of an explicit Lorentz Invariance Violation of order, $\mathcal{O}((mc)^{4}/p^{2})$. As a result, the theory could be useful to test small departures from Dirac equation and Lorentz Invariance at very high energies. On the other hand, the wave equation can also describe particles of spin 1 by a simple substitution of the spin operators, $\boldsymbol{\sigma}\rightarrow\boldsymbol{\alpha}$. In addition, it naturally admits a Lagrangian formulation and a Hamiltonian formalism. We also discuss the associated conservation laws that arise through the symmetry transformations of the Lagrangian.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[444] viXra:1408.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-28 00:26:05

The Wave Equation for Particle Energy and Interaction

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 53 pages

A new wave equation is proposed to calculate subatomic particle energies, including rest mass, photon absorption and emission, and annihilation properties. It is suggested that this wave equation is the link between classical and quantum equations, and shows the derivation of such equations, including relativity. Evidence in support of a wave equation is presented in this paper by accurately calculating the energy of lepton particles, the hydrogen spectral series and the ionization energies for elements from hydrogen to calcium. This paper also proposes that a fundamental particle is the building block for all other subatomic particles and is validated by the new wave equation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[443] viXra:1408.0196 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-29 22:20:17

Bootstrapping Generations

Authors: A. Rivero
Comments: 4 Pages.

A supersymmetric version of Chew's "democratic bootstrap" argument predicts the existence of three generations of particles, with a quark, of type "up", more massive that the other five.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[442] viXra:1408.0162 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-26 02:09:30

The Higgs Vacuum.The Particles Of The Standard Model And The Compliance With the Energy-Momentum Equation. The Necessary Existence Of the Axion. Stop Quark Mass

Authors: A.Garcés Doz
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper it is demonstrated that all the masses of the standard model particles; including the Higgs boson h; with nonzero rest mass, comply with the equation of energy-momentum. The model Higgs vacuum corresponds to a virtual vacuum, for which the contribution of particles with zero rest mass is null (photon, gluon, graviton) .With the best values ​​of the masses of the particles (Particle Data Group), it is found that axion mass has to be extremely small. Also the theoretical model Higgs vacuum, a completely new model based on the lattice R8 and sixteen matrix elements of energy; corresponding to the four solutions of the equation of energy-momentum (isomorphism with the four components of the scalar field. One complex doublet ); to be factored into two factors with real and imaginary components of energy. Of this new model Higgs vacuum; naturally get the beta angle. Stop quark mass is obtained by solving the equation of radiative mass correction Higss boson, h, to one loop. The exact determination of the beta angle, allows calculating the mass of the stop of about 1916 GeV. Similarly, a mass for axion is proposed of around 110 micro eV
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[441] viXra:1408.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-22 11:39:11

Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 9 Pages. clarified the roles of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian in the conservation and flow of energy.

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined, and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[440] viXra:1408.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-19 22:28:47

Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 9 Pages. fixed more broken links in the references

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined, and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[439] viXra:1408.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-19 15:41:34

Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 9 Pages. fixed broken references (thanks Ralph), other minor changes

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined, and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[438] viXra:1408.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-17 06:16:35

Fractal Propagators and the Asymptotic Sectors of Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages. Work in progress.

In the far infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics, propagators for charged fermions no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on spacetimes having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[437] viXra:1408.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-17 02:12:01

Fractal Propagators and the Asymptotic Sectors of Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages. Work in progress

In the far infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics, propagators for charged fermions no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on spacetimes having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[436] viXra:1408.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-19 09:50:07

Fractal Propagators and the Asymptotic Sectors of Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages. Work in progress.

Propagators for charged fermions do not follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT) in the far infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics. They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[435] viXra:1408.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-16 20:04:12

Fractal Propagators and the Asymptotic Sectors of Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages. Work in progress.

In the deep infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics, propagators for charged fermions no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[434] viXra:1408.0061 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-21 04:13:24

Theory of Everything Was Found

Authors: Ichiro Nakayama
Comments: 19 Pages.

This manuscript newly proposes a model of elementary particles and space that describes the creation and structure of the universe from a collective point of view, and that includes the interaction of elementary particles, the generation of electromagnetic field, gravity and unknown dark energy. This model goes ahead of “quantum field theory” with showing many concrete figures, even if it leaves mathematical quantitative inspections until later. The body of the theory is intuitively convinced by anyone. In this theory, the aspect of the universe is caught as not mere mathematical three -dimensional space, but really existent matter (energy body) with physical nature. More, the material of many types of elementary particles is the same material as the universe. Namely, elementary particles are the energy body itself with the closed waves that are rotating around their own axis. Also, space generates elementary particles and absorbs them by condensation and diffusion of space.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics