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Any replacements are listed further down

[856] **viXra:1609.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 02:52:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Standard Model allows for the Higgs boson to decay to identically flavored pairs of leptons, such as electrons and muons, but not to mixed pairings of lepton flavors. Evidence of the latter would be a sign of new physics. [14] It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[855] **viXra:1609.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 22:38:05*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Include Chinese version

This work based on my previous works. I postulate that there is proton neutrino just like electron neutrino since protons are also the elementary particles just like electrons. Then I point out that there must be proton meson that consisted with proton and proton neutrino. In this paper, I analysis the proton meson’s decay model by diagrammatic scheme. I also calculate some parameters of proton meson, and give some advises on how to detect these particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[854] **viXra:1609.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 09:37:38*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This actual submitted publication refers about recent facts and phenomenas, elusive or real
particles called neutrinos.
During last few months was revealed in giant neutrino's projects in Europe–CERN–LHC
(Large Hadron Collider) ATLAS DETECTOR and in MINOS EXPERIMENT / MAIN
INJECTOR NEUTRINO OSCILLATION SEARCH) Fermilab NUMI / Illinois near Chicago,
U.S.A. many new realities about these elementary nuclear particles, which consists of whole
cosmic matter.
Were studied and observed properties of neutrinos, like emission, oscillation (Nobel Prize
for Physics 2015), detection and the most interesting (qm) superposition in Project MINOS
(735 km of distance between place with Detector 1 in Fermilab and place with Detector 2
in Soudan), under leading of David Kaiser from M.I.T. / Massachussett's Institute
of Technology) in Cambridge, U.S.A.
D. Kaiser easily said: “The particles neutrinos can existed in many quantum states at the same
time.“
According this theory, particles neutrinos can rotate according direction of clocks hands and
against their direction at the same time, or could be together nonexcited and excitated.
About (QM) SUPERPOSITION before 100 years was reflected already Erwin Schrödinger
in mind–experiment the Schrödinger's cat.
In July's number of Journal Physical Review Letters, Physicist David Kaiser and his team
studied distribution of all types of neutrinos produced in Chicago's Fermilab and compared it
with distribution of all types on neutrinos detected in Soudan.
Finally they had come to believe that, observed particles distributions are the best explanated,
that neutrinos are during the flight between Chicago's Fermilab and Mine Soudan, in
MINNESOTA, in state known like quantum-mechanic superposition, and not take
resemblence of one's concretely type of neutrino.
From upper sets realities are offered questions like “are neutrinos immortal or like hologram“.
Further parts of this article is dedicated to summarizing of data from Superkamiokande
and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (Nobel Prize for Physics 2015), and emission
and detection of neutrinos and other “quanticles“ defined by principles of Prof. Joseph Weber
and other scientists.
In the ending part of this article is dedicated a chapter to theory of Fermi's Golden Rule
(respectively neutrino–antineutrino cross section).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[853] **viXra:1609.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 20:30:28*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It's expected that electrostatic background signatures surmounts at the supersymmetric [SUSY] energy scale. These electrostatic background signatures is intrinsic to metamorphic space. In order to derive a Lagrangian vertex operator one must treat SUSY as a metamorphic phenomenon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[852] **viXra:1609.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 22:32:40*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[851] **viXra:1609.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 01:38:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[850] **viXra:1609.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 03:53:32*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Elementary Fermions come in generations, e.g.
(electron, muon, tau), neutrino-triplet, etc., which is an experimental fact and sometimes apostrophized as a mystery [1] because a theoretical explanation is missing. That there are more than three generations is considered possible but unlikely. We show that generations follow from group-theoretical arguments and that their number is determined by the number of space dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[849] **viXra:1609.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:16:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11]
When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can “feel” each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10]
The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[848] **viXra:1609.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 18:16:17*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We aim to produce systemic analysis that produces data efficiency. Data efficiency that requires sacrificing over-emphasis of LF [Logical Form] in favor of solutions that resonates in the classical approximation and statistical quantization.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[847] **viXra:1609.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 07:14:32*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I have proposed an intuitive diagrammatic method to explore the elementary particles’ structures and decay processes based on virtual space-time. Then I discuss the possibilities of the existing of new particles. I also raised some issues that need to attention when probing those new particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[846] **viXra:1609.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 22:02:39*

**Authors:** Pawan Kumar Joshi, O.P.S.Negi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Considering the generalized charge and generalized four potential associated of dyons as complex quantities with their real and imaginary parts as electric and magnetic constituents, in this present discussion we have constructed a gauge covariant and rotational symmetric angular momentum operator for dyons in order to analyze the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. It has been shown that the commutation relations of angular momentum operator possesses a higher symmetry to reproduce the eigen values and eigen function Lowest Landau Level (LLL) for quantum Hall system. The LLL has also been constructed in terms of I^{st}
Hopf map \left(S^{3}\rightarrow S^{2}\right)
and it is concluded that dyons are more suitable object to investigate the existence of quantum Hall effect (both integer and fractional )

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[845] **viXra:1609.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:41:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The physicists describe the hypothetical new particle as an "electrophobic scalar boson." Currently there are five bosons in the standard model, only one of which is a scalar (the Higgs), meaning it has zero spin. All five bosons have been experimentally confirmed, and all are force carriers that play a role in holding matter together. [14] It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[844] **viXra:1609.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 22:17:34*

**Authors:** Clifford E Chafin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A classical field theory is introduced that is defined on a tower of dimensionally increasing spaces and is argued to be equivalent to QED. The domain of dependence is discussed to show how an equal times picture of the many coordinate space gives QED results as part of a well posed initial value formalism. Identical particle symmetries are not, a priori, required but when introduced are clearly propagated. This construction uses only classical fields to provide some explanation for why quantum fields and canonical commutation results have been successful. Some old and essential questions regarding causality of propagators are resolved. The problem of resummation, generally forbidden for conditionally convergent series, is discussed from the standpoint of particular truncations of the infinite tower of functions and a two step adiabatic turn on for scattering. As a result of this approach it is shown that the photon inherits its quantization \hbar ω from the free lagrangian of the Dirac electrons despite the fact that the free electromagnetic lagrangian has no hbar in it. This provides a possible explanation for the canonical commutation relations for quantum operators, [P,Q] = i hbar without ever needing to invoke such a quantum postulate. The form of the equal times conservation laws in this many particle field theory suggests a simplification of the radiation reaction process for fields that allows QED to arise from a sum of path integrals in the various particle time coordinates. A novel method of unifying this theory with gravity, but that has no obvious quantum field theoretic computational scheme, is introduced.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[843] **viXra:1609.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 13:12:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Scientists at the High Energy Physics Group (HEP) of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg predict the existence of a new boson that might aid in the understanding of Dark Matter in the Universe. [15] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[842] **viXra:1609.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 10:58:22*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is demonstrated that constants (and groupings of constants)are ratios, with theoretically inherent exact values. Based on the exact value of the speed of light in vacuum, as defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, CODATA value: 299792458.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[841] **viXra:1608.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 14:59:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

An ultrafast "electron camera" at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has made the first direct snapshots of atomic nuclei in molecules that are vibrating within millionths of a billionth of a second after being hit by a laser pulse. The method, called ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), could help scientists better understand the role of nuclear motions in light-driven processes that naturally occur on extremely fast timescales. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[840] **viXra:1608.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 08:41:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new paper published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics A will help scientists provide higher quality antiproton beams to experiments at CERN and antimatter facilities across the world. "Non-Gaussian beam dynamics in low energy antiproton storage rings" (J. Resta-López et.al) presents simulation studies undertaken to investigate the effects of beam heating phenomena present in antimatter decelerators. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[839] **viXra:1608.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-30 01:48:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

An international team of researchers have for the first time, discovered that in a very high magnetic field an electron with no mass can acquire a mass. [12] Electronic components have become faster and faster over the years, thus making powerful computers and other technologies possible. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now investigated how fast electrons can ultimately be controlled with electric fields. Their insights are of importance for the petahertz electronics of the future. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[838] **viXra:1608.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-29 03:07:40*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Based on the postulation of virtual space-time, I reconstruct a new neutron’s model. Then I calculate the neutron’s mass based on the new model. I obtain a theoretic neutron’s mass that is close to the experimental results. My calculation shows that the neutron’s theoretic mass is 939.579MeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[837] **viXra:1608.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 11:11:45*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The speed of light (exact value) equation as a mechanism to improve the lesser known values of the Planck mass and Planck length.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[836] **viXra:1608.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-27 03:31:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[835] **viXra:1608.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-24 13:25:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[834] **viXra:1608.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-22 10:01:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For the first time in over half a century, the search for a particular type of interaction, known as a tensor interaction, in nuclear beta decay has been advanced. [5] In fact, one of the biggest disagreements involves one of the most common particles in the Universe: the neutron. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[833] **viXra:1608.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 02:50:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In a new paper, University of California, Riverside theoretical physicist Flip Tanedo and his collaborators have made new progress towards unraveling a mystery in the beryllium nucleus that may be evidence for a fifth force of nature. [17] Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according to a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters by theoretical physicists at the University of California, Irvine. [16] Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[832] **viXra:1608.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-16 05:37:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according to a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters by theoretical physicists at the University of California, Irvine. [16] Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[831] **viXra:1608.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-14 09:01:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[830] **viXra:1608.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-12 08:10:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[829] **viXra:1608.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-12 08:47:09*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 pages

A functional class of particles, the Alternative Charge Carriers (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[828] **viXra:1608.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-11 08:50:17*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Does the grand unification work when entropy is cause by too much D-energy?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[827] **viXra:1608.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-09 18:51:56*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Current observations reinforce the hypothesis that Dark Matter does not consist of particles resembling in any way the primary constituents of the Standard Model (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons or the Higgs scalar). By default, these findings point to an earlier proposal according to which Dark Matter is an elusive manifestation of “Unmatter”.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[826] **viXra:1608.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-08 22:44:28*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 pages

Abstract
A functional class of particles, the Alternative Charge Carriers (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[825] **viXra:1608.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-08 08:52:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave, which could explain why matter persists over antimatter. [9] Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[824] **viXra:1608.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-06 08:04:00*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the main difference between new particle physics
with the Standard Model of particle physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[823] **viXra:1608.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-03 07:37:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Scientists exploring the dynamic behavior of particles emerging from subatomic smashups at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)-a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility for nuclear physics research at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory-are increasingly interested in the role of gluons. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[822] **viXra:1608.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-03 09:33:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers set a new record for the in-plane spin-alignment lifetime of deuterons circulating in a magnetic storage ring. [16] Why is so much more matter than antimatter present in the universe? A clue to this mystery may be provided by a sensitive search for a separation of positive and negative charges inside the neutron, which is referred to as the neutron's "electric dipole moment" (EDM). [15] A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[821] **viXra:1608.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-01 15:33:20*

**Authors:** Verin O.G.

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The quantum mechanics, as is known, was the theorists «powerful answer» to sensational results of experiments which have shown up the wave properties of smallest particles of substance. Disputes on the nature of such a strange microparticles behavior had not yet time to calm down, but the theory of phenomena in the form of «wave mechanics» was already complete.
According to this theory a freely moving particle is described by «probability» wave function in the form of a monochromatic wave. Besides many other open-ended questions stipulated by so-called postulates, founders of the quantum theory have left without answer and the most crucial issue: why elementary particles of substance (as oscillatory systems) should be indispensable linear – monofrequent?
Later there appeared experimental data «provoking» an idea of basic nonlinearity of oscillating microcosm, but the quantum mechanics has already turned into «a sacred cow» and any doubt about its validity actually meant «excommunication» from science.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[820] **viXra:1607.0564 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-31 12:15:04*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 08 Pages.

It is suggested that neutrino oscillations do not exist and, in the light of the latest results of July 2016 of the Daya Bay Collaboration and the recent discovery of a new fundamental interaction, it is proposed that the neutrino production at the Sun’s core in the pp and CNO cycles are much larger than what is predicted by the Standard Solar Model, exactly because of this new interaction. Therefore, the claimed neutrino deficits on Earth are completely misleading.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[819] **viXra:1607.0549 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-29 09:31:05*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new explanation of the essence of protons beam tumor therapy

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[818] **viXra:1607.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-28 05:30:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper is summary of questions and answers in RG forum. Your comments are welcome

It is known that Yang-Mills theory is part of classical field theory. Therefore it seems possible to write down SU(2) electrodynamics. What do you think?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[817] **viXra:1607.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-27 14:24:30*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We discuss and critique some of the evidence that is often invoked to support the idea that partons are quarks. We present an alternative model in which the charged partons are electrons and positrons. This new model explains many experimental observations that the quark model is unable to explain. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the subject.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[816] **viXra:1607.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-27 14:27:33*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams

**Comments:** 6 pages, 2 figures

We have developed an alternative to the standard model of particle physics. In our model, the mass of an elementary particle, like its charge, is an intrinsic property of the particle determined by its internal structure and internal kinematics. There is no Higgs mechanism.
In this paper we briefly review the current status of our model including the main results of calculations that we have reported previously. We then turn our attention to particle stability. We note a possible reason for the stability of the proton and the electron and, as a further application of our approach, we present a calculation of the neutron lifetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[815] **viXra:1607.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-25 11:57:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.
The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[814] **viXra:1607.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-24 21:10:55*

**Authors:** Martin Dudziak, Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A quantum topological model is offered for the potential of producing energy through vacuum electromagnetic current generation, and its possible use for exoplanetary space travel propulsion systems.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[813] **viXra:1607.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-23 02:52:14*

**Authors:** Marius Arghirescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Accepted to IJHEP

The new neutral boson of 34 me , experimentally evidenced and supposed to be an X-boson of a fifth basic force, was predicted as being a basic z0 preon of cold formed quarks by a pre-quantum model of elementary particle resulted from an etherono-quantonic theory of the author, and can be a strong argument for a Bose-Einstein condensate model of particle, resulted by magnetically confined gammons formed as pairs of quasielectrons. An argument in the favour of the preonic structure of quarks and for the Cold Genesis of the elementary particles is proposed a new, pre-quantum model of quark resulted in theory with quasi-crystallin as structure of quasi-electrons of the basic preon z0 . The brought arguments sustain also the conclusion that the z0 boson can be a „dark matter” constituent.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[812] **viXra:1607.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-22 13:12:18*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Chapter1.Elementary particle pulsation principle.[1] Basic concept of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
[2] The concepts of elementary particle pulsation principle. and the existing facts.
[3] The grounds that came up with the idea of the hypothesis of the pulsation principle.Its history.
[4] The first step to elementary particle pulsation principle birth.
[5] I built the geometric model of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
[6] Summary of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
[7] The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (The original of the 1980 announcement)
[8] An elementary particle is a lump of the energy. It is super-high-speed and pulsates. The reason.
[9] The application of the elementary particle pulsation principle. The grounds of the idea.
[10] The characteristic list of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (Timing distinction).
[11] Figure of the quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle.
[12] The idea of elementary pulsation principle apply the concepts.
[13] Elementary pulsation principle concepts of theoretical physics puzzler. (1-33)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[811] **viXra:1607.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-20 03:04:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9]
A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.
The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[810] **viXra:1607.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-18 19:09:24*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic selfenergy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of such magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to Post´s , many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[809] **viXra:1607.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-15 10:12:33*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The pulsation principle solves infinite difficulty.(1)
All elementary particles convert it in sync.
The pulsation model of the elementary particle pulsation principle、
* All elementary particles convert it in sync with a particle trip, a wave trip, a minus number particle trip.
* The electromagnetic force works in a wave trip.
The electromagnetic force does not work in a particle trip. .
The electromagnetic force does not work in a minus number particle trip.
* All particles and minus number particles disappear in a wave trip.
The conversion synchronizes.
The electromagnetic force of All the photons not work in particle processes and negative particles process.
The electromagnetic force works in a wave trip.
* The concept of the vacuum of quantum mechanics.
Virtual particles (generation, annihilation) model.
* The random (generation, annihilation).
By it
Particles and antiparticles are always infinite pieces exist.
* Particles of Infinite number are involved in electromagnetism force.
Negative particles of Infinite number are involved in electromagnetism force.
By it
Renormalization prescriptions are needed.
* Photons mediate the electromagnetic force.
And
Photons are always infinite pieces exist.
Equation would be endless.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[808] **viXra:1607.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-14 10:44:28*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 49 Pages. If the math works, an investigation is warranted.

It is proposed, that fundamental particle physics is inherently comprised of a fundamental scheme (13/12) that gives rise to the constants. The approach taken has been to extrapolate from the known constants of the standard model to a proposed fundamental (Democritean) unit. A hierarchal relationship between the constants and their respective ratios is shown. Every constant with an inherent ratio, e.g., the 2pi ratio of the Planck constant h and the reduced Planck constant h-bar. The 13/12 scheme theoretically calculates constants such as the Rydberg constant, Bohr magneton, Compton wavelength, Planck mass, etc., solely by dimensionless ratios.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[807] **viXra:1607.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-09 13:22:58*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A proton and the neutron in the atomic nucleus.
The interpretation of the pulsation hypothesis,
Of the atomic nucleus,
A proton and the neutron are the same elementary particles.
The valley of the ripple of the material wave due to the neutron pulsation,
The electron goes around the valley.
When an electron is in the orbit of the proton, a proton turns into a neutron.
When an electron goes out of the orbit of the neutron, a neutron becomes the proton.
Proton (+ electric charge), an electron (- electric charge).
The proton (+ electric charge )+ electron (- electric charge) = neutrality.
Valley of the ripples of the nuclei to form electron orbitals.
The electron goes around an orbit.
When an electron is released from the orbit, the atom becomes the positive electric charge.
As for both the atomic nucleus and the atom, the change of the electric charge depends on electronic movement.
An electric charge will undergo a change. It is discontinuous (at the unit of electronic electric charge).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[806] **viXra:1607.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-06 08:32:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[805] **viXra:1607.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-05 10:54:13*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Talk ate the XXXI International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, June 19-25, 2016

In this talk I present three explicit examples of generalizations in relativistic quantum mechanics.
First of all, I discuss the generalized spin-1/2 equations
for neutrinos. They have been obtained by means of the Gersten-Sakurai method
for derivations of arbitrary-spin relativistic equations. Possible physical consequences are discussed. Next, it is easy to check that both Dirac algebraic equation Det (\hat p - m) =0 and Det (\hat p + m) =0 for u- and v- 4-spinors have solutions with p_0= \pm E_p =\pm \sqrt{{\bf p}^2 +m^2}. The same is true for higher-spin equations. Meanwhile, every book considers the equality p_0=E_p for both $u-$ and $v-$ spinors of the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2)) representation only, thus applying the Dirac-Feynman-Stueckelberg procedure for elimination of the negative-energy solutions. The recent Ziino works (and, independently,
the articles of several others) show that the Fock space can be doubled. We re-consider this possibility on the quantum field level for both S=1/2 and higher spin particles.
The third example is: we postulate the non-commutativity of 4-momenta, and we derive the mass splitting in the Dirac equation.
The applications are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[804] **viXra:1607.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-03 13:10:39*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis comments on an uncertainty principle in a figure.
An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis is physics of the dark energy.
According to the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis,
In a particle trip and a minus number particle trip, the elementary particle has size intermittently and can establish a position.
A particle trip and the minus number particle trip are the four-dimensional space that is not recognizable, five dimensions of space-time.
It is called a virtual space.
The wave trip is recognizable three-dimensional space, four-dimensional space-time.
In a wave trip, the mass of the elementary particle is zero.
It is the point that does not have size.
The position of the elementary particle is not clear.
By a particle trip, the minus number particle trip, the elementary particle can establish a position.
There cannot decide a value of the energy.
The wave trip can observe numerical value of the energy, but cannot decide the position of the elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[803] **viXra:1606.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-29 08:22:57*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, I try to reconstruct the quark model based on virtual space-time. It seems that the new quark model is able to get the same results with standard model. So I continue to analysis the virtual photon wave equation, and obtain the new neutrino model. It points out that the neutrino is the mass wave that step crossing the real and virtual space-time.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[802] **viXra:1606.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-29 10:15:43*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis elucidates a mystery of the dark energy.
A mystery of the dark energy. It is the mystery of the astrophysics maximum.
The existing physics cannot elucidate the mystery.
The elementary particle pulsation hypothesis discovered 4-dimensional space.
In four-dimensional space, dark energy pulsates.
A pulsation hypothesis elucidates a mystery of the dark energy.
Pulsating Big Bang universe model.
From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe.
Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure.
Over time, in the early universe.
Void (bubble) group in each microcosm.
Galaxy was born in each microcosm.
The Galaxy by the pulsating bubble moved the boundary. The moved to the borders and bubbles.
The hundred billion galaxies distributed to the boundary of the bubble (lattice).
As a result, became no longer bubbles in Galaxy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[801] **viXra:1606.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-28 18:58:57*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. part two of the original paper

The "Higgs metric" is proposed as the particle analog of the spacetime metric. The Higgs metric of the early, high temperature cosmos "cascades" through several unified-field symmetric energy states (with distinct Higgs Bosons and corresponding IVBs) before it reaches our ground state or Biological Era.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[800] **viXra:1606.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 20:55:05*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mass of a proton and the neutron.
The difference is a difference of the electronic rest mass.
When mass vibrates at high speed, mass occurs.
When vibration gets closer to velocity of light, it becomes the infinite mass.
The electronic mass is rest mass and the sum with the exercise mass.
Most of the electronic mass are formed of exercise mass.
Rest mass is only several percent.
The electric charge of a proton and the neutron.
An electron of the inside does the action of the electric charge.
The electron in the proton acts as a positive electric charge.
+ As for the electric charge, a pulsatile timing acts as a plus electric charge same as a reverse positron.
The neutron which released an electron loses an electric charge.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[799] **viXra:1606.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-24 08:11:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A research team from Cyprus, Germany and Italy led by Constantia Alexandrou of the Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center of the Cyprus Institute and the Physics Department of the University of Cyprus in Nicosia, has now for the first time calculated the scalar quark content of the proton. [16]
Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15]
A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[798] **viXra:1606.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-23 12:22:10*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A pulsation super string theory.
To current super string theory size ～ hadron size. (10¯8cm～10¯³³cm)
The elementary particle pulsation principle covers current super string theory size - atomic nucleus size.
The pulsation super string theory explains a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power as a place of the dark energy.
The energy grand total of a place pulsating by super symmetry is zero.
The infinity does not emerge in an equation.
The infinity does not emerge in an equation.
Filing is unnecessary.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[797] **viXra:1606.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-22 13:32:28*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The “citation culture” continues to grow as a systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[796] **viXra:1606.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 14:25:52*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory.
Atom size, a superstring theory.
The size of "the string" in the super string theory is 10-33cm now.
"The string" of the hadron super string theory is an atom, 10-8cm size.
A current super string theory.
It is theory of String and the D brainy.
The film is an image of the iron plate. The super string is an image of the magnets.
As for the theory, an opened string and a closed annular string exist.
The ring of the string is equivalent to gravity.
The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion.
The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion.
The boundary condition is equivalent to the panel point of a vibrating string.
The D brainy person vibrates, too. The outbreak of the = elementary particle that a string protrudes from D brainy person.
A super string connects two pieces of D brainy people. ・・ ・ this is a current superstring theory.
As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.
As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[795] **viXra:1606.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 20:00:21*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Why exactly should energy rise as we head further into the grand unification scheme [GRS]?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[794] **viXra:1606.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 07:03:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Recently, scientists in Japan uncovered the most convincing evidence to date of a tetraneutron, which is a particle with four neutrons but no proton—something that we shouldn’t see in physics. This evidence increases the possibility of the existence of this hypothetical particle. [15]
In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14]
The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13]
More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[793] **viXra:1606.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-16 02:35:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This file has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

Historically, electromagnetic theory was developed for situations described by the U(1) group. The dynamics equations describing the transformations and interrelationships of the force field are the well known Maxwell equations, and the group algebra underlying these equations are U(1). There was a need to extend these equations to describe SU(2) situations and to derive equations whose underlying algebra is SU(2). In this paper, we will start with Terence W. Barrett’s SU(2) symmetric form of electrodynamics based on topological considerations. Meanwhile, in a series of papers Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. Therefore, we will write down a combination between Barrett’s SU(2) electrodynamics with Lehnert’s RQED. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model. This is a preliminary report, so it is far from being a complete description of SU(2) electrodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[792] **viXra:1606.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-12 03:07:20*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 41 pages

Eighteen of the fundamental physical constants, including the Planck constant, Coulomb constant and the gravitational constant (G), are derived by wave equations based on four, new fundamental constants: wave speed, wavelength, amplitude and density. All calculations match CODATA values of the existing constants with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the wave equations from which they are derived also accurately calculate particle mass, ionization energies and forces.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[791] **viXra:1606.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 03:09:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[790] **viXra:1606.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 05:38:02*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 9 pages, 21 equations, 10 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques, with powerful implementation of the principle of gauge covariance, to the theory of non-Abelian (Yang-Mills) gauge field theory. This describes the self interactions of a massless vector field. Results of two-loop computations are given demonstrating the simplicity and the viability of the underlying framework.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[789] **viXra:1606.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-04 04:13:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[788] **viXra:1606.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-02 08:36:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[787] **viXra:1606.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-02 04:39:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[786] **viXra:1605.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 04:19:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[785] **viXra:1605.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 09:32:31*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The last six years have seen great strides in measuring the neutrino squared-mass splittings and heavy quark masses. It is therefore timely to reconsider the mass formulas introduced by the author in 2010, which then disagreed with the ratio of the neutrino squared-mass splittings.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[784] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 07:30:38*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[783] **viXra:1605.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 03:44:25*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 22 equations, 9 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of Maxwell-Dirac electrodynamics. This describes the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged fermion (the electron). This gives another example of the applicability of our
divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, implementing the principle of gauge-covariant momentum-space quantization.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[782] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 16:34:55*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[781] **viXra:1605.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:11:22*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 1 Page. Fig. 4 to accompany paper "The Symmetry Groups of Light"

Figure 4 is an attempt to represent diagrammatically the connection between leptons and quarks. The essence of the relationship is that the quarks are a resonant subset of the leptons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[780] **viXra:1605.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 09:56:20*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The existence of the bare mass and the bare charge in Quantum Electrodynamics is analyzed in terms
of the Standard Model of particle physics.
QED arises as a renormalized theory as a consequense of spontaneous symmetry breaking
by Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism as
$SU(3)_{C}\otimes SU(2)_{L}\otimes U(1)_{Y} \,\rightarrow \,SU(3)_{C} \otimes U(1)_{em}$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[779] **viXra:1605.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 17:14:04*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We observe that the Standard Model's fermions can be mapped onto a 7-bit pattern, and that these bits can be used to calculate the various charges (color, weak isospin, hypercharge, and electromagnetic) for these particles. A geometrical object, the trihepton, is proposed as means of understanding where the pattern of fermions and the simple formulas for the charges come from. Its relationship with the Fano plane from projective geometry is considered. Issues and implications of the model are discussed. A fourth generation of fermions with spin 3/2 and absolute charge (2, 5/3, 4/3, 1) is hypothesized, and it is also suggested that there may be bosons associated with neutrino oscillation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[778] **viXra:1605.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 12:46:35*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 18 pages. « Oscillations temporelles du neutrino » is the French version of «Neutrino’s Temporal Oscillations» on viXra.org/abs/1605.0005

Nous conjecturons l’existence de neutrinos sans masse qui sont dans la ligne du modèle standard mais qui possèdent des fonctionnalités non représentées par le modèle standard : ils utilisent un chemin radial plus court que le photon et possèdent des saveurs bosoniques. Ils seraient considérés comme des bosons au lieu de fermions. Nous appelons cette théorie « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Confrontée à quelques comparaisons expérimentales – neutrinos solaires, neutrinos de SN1987A, neutrinos cosmologiques ̶ , la théorie donne de meilleurs résultats et des explications plus sensées que la théorie compliquée de l’oscillation du neutrino. L’expérience « OPERA » qui a mesuré la vitesse des neutrinos en 2011 a abouti à des données que ne peuvent expliquer les trois types de neutrinos existants. La physique des neutrinos semble malade. L’oscillation temporelle du neutrino, en montrant le raccourci que prennent des neutrinos sans masse dans l’espace-temps à trois dimensions spatiales que nous connaissons, représente dans le modèle standard une fenêtre ouverte sur une « nouvelle physique » qui a un rapport avec la réalité physique.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[777] **viXra:1605.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 08:11:02*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of standard model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for by the standard model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors. Considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Faced with some experimental comparisons ̶ solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN1987A, cosmological neutrinos ̶ , the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The "OPERA" experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a "superluminal" saga, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth "sterile" neutrino with non-standard interaction. Neutrino physics does not make sense. "Neutrino’s temporal oscillations" shows the short cut that massless neutrinos take in the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a "new physics" that has a connection with physical reality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[776] **viXra:1604.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 23:55:14*

**Authors:** Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$
and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[775] **viXra:1604.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 06:51:21*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 53 equations, 8 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of scalar electrodynamics, describing the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged
scalar. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, demonstrating gauge invariance of the effective vertices. Whereas an infrared-regulating mass parameter is given to the virtual photon, the masslessness of the effective photon is demonstrated as well.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[774] **viXra:1604.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 08:10:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[773] **viXra:1604.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 05:13:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[772] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 23:25:40*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[771] **viXra:1604.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 01:05:28*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It is commonly understood that the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge fields is the natural generalization of the well known Abelian gauge group symmetry $U(1)$ in the electrodynamics. Taking into account that the problems of the localization and divergences in QFT are not solved in the framework of the Standard Model (SM), I proposed a different approach to the quantum theory of the single self-interacting electron. In connection with this theory, I would like attract the attention to the state-dependent gauge transformations $U(1) \times U(N-1)$ associated with the Jacobi vector fields of the geodesic variations in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[770] **viXra:1604.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 12:03:52*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract
In my prior article, Empirical formulas for Rest-Mass Energies of Sub -Atomic Particles (http://vixra.org/abs/1604.0192), 74 subatomic particles were studied and assigned simple formulas that closely approximated the current measured masses. A closer examination of these formulas reveals that most of the particle masses can be grouped around factors containing 7 times the reciprocal of the fine-structure constant.
by Roger N. Weller (proton3@gmail.com) April 17, 2016

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[769] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 10:14:41*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos.
In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics.
Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates.Oscillations is here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[768] **viXra:1604.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 01:39:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5]
To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[767] **viXra:1604.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 18:15:07*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A mathematical relationship between the rest-mass energies of sub-atomic particles has been discovered. As a consequence, simple formulas for the rest- mass energies of 74 subatomic particles and even some heavy quarks are being proposed. The reciprocal of the fine constant occupies a major role in these formulas.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[766] **viXra:1604.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 03:43:04*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 16 pages, 50 equations, 7 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with nonlinear interactions governed by a dimensional coupling constant. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods, and
the viability of theories that are often disregarded due to the outstanding problem of nonrenormalizable divergences. Our results
demonstrate that the (Goldstone) scalar would remain massless in the effective quantum action, while the original vertices, governed by
nonlinear invariance, would preserve their form.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[765] **viXra:1604.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 08:13:11*

**Authors:** Cvavb.chandra Raju

**Comments:** 14 Pages. (C) 2016, CVAVB.CHANDRA RAJU, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS OSMANIA UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD, INDIA

One pion exchange mass dependent Yukawa Potential Energy is used to estimate neutron-nucleus total elastic scattering cross-
section. When this total cross-section is extrapolated to zero-energy for neutron- Triton case it agrees pretty well with the
known experimental value. Estimations for 5.54 MeV P-3H and P-3He differential scattering cross-section are carried out. It is shown that for 15 degree center of mass angle of scattering the P-3He differential scattering is about 300times that of P-3H ,and this needs experimental confirmation to fix the mass dependence of the Yukawa Potential Energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[764] **viXra:1604.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 08:10:17*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Work in progress.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[763] **viXra:1603.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 11:28:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The proton sounds like a simple object, but it's not. Inside, there's a teeming microcosm of quarks and gluons with properties such as spin and "color" charge that contribute to the particle's seemingly simplistic role as a building block of visible matter. By analyzing the particle debris emitted from collisions of polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), scientists say they've found a new way to glimpse that internal microcosm. They've measured a key effect of the so-called color interaction-the basis for the strong nuclear force that binds quarks within the proton. This new measurement tests, for the first time, theoretical concepts that are essential for mapping the proton's three-dimensional internal structure. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[762] **viXra:1603.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 07:22:53*

**Authors:** C A Brannen

**Comments:** 18 Pages. For submission to Foundations of Physics. Acknowledgements to be added after review by friends.

Density matrices can be used to describe ensembles of particles in thermodynamic equilibrium. We assume that the density matrices are a more natural description of quantum objects than state vectors. This suggests that we generalize density matrices from the usual operators on a Hilbert space to be elements of an algebra. Using density matrix renormalization to change the temperature of the ensembles, we show how the choice of algebra determines the symmetry and particle content of these generalized density matrices. The symmetries are of the form SU(N)xSU(M)x...U(1). We propose that the Standard Model of elementary particles should include a dark matter SU(2) doublet.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[761] **viXra:1603.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 18:32:25*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages, 10 references

- The Gell-Mann, Oakes and Renner and the Goldberger-Treiman relations jointly with a bold hypothesis about virtual thermal equilibrium, leads to the determination of the up and down-quarks current masses. The obtained results show good agreement with the best ones of the literature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[760] **viXra:1603.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 01:41:43*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recent experiments with relativistic electron bunches indicate that Coulomb field is rigidly attached to the charge's instantaneous position. We claim that despite a widespread opinion, this fact does not violate causality in moving reference frames. To see that, one should properly take into account the interaction dependence of the Lorentz boost generator.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[759] **viXra:1603.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 12:30:14*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” match current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They also fall in line with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[758] **viXra:1603.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 12:05:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

University of Cincinnati theoretical physicists are about to report on a controversial discovery that they say contradicts the work of researchers over the decades. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[757] **viXra:1603.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 08:03:24*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 7 pages, 2 figs, submitted to EPL

The site reduction of SU(2) lattice gauge theory is employed to model the magnetic monopoles of SU(2) gauge theory. The site reduced theory is a matrix model on discrete world-line for the angle-valued coordinates of 0-branes. The Monte~Carlo numerical analysis
introduces the critical temperature $T_c\simeq 0.25~a^{-1}$ and the critical coupling $g_c\simeq 1.56$, above which the free energy does not exhibit a minimum leading to a phase transition.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[756] **viXra:1603.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 16:14:21*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 14 references

The weak interaction due to different compositions of up and down quarks leads to the neutron-proton mass difference. The radius of the nucleon is fixed by the strong interaction. In a first calculation, the weak coupling is introduced by the hand. In a second one, both the mass difference and the weak coupling are determined.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[755] **viXra:1603.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 01:38:37*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Conformal Dark Energy interacts with Josephson Junction BSCCO superconductors. Neutrino mass gives a cutoff at about 1.7 x 10^12 Hz. Using BSCCO crystals as edges, configurations such as 16-edge 5-dipyramid can be constructed in flat 3-dim Space to observe Dark Energy Curvature Distortion of 4-dim Spacetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[754] **viXra:1603.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 13:59:05*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The proton *F*_{2} structure function curve reveals the number and type of particles inside the proton. Deep inelastic scattering experiments from the late 1960s produced an *F*_{2} curve with no data for proton momentum fractions less than 0.06. However, the assumption the missing *F*_{2} values remain constant in that region provided the basis for the current proton model of quarks and gluons. Here, I produce a complete proton *F*_{2} curve by combining data generated in 2000 with the original 1960s data. It shows the aforementioned assumption was wrong, invalidating the basis for the quark-gluon proton. My analysis of the new curve indicates protons are made of nine particles that appear to be muons; each of which is made of approximately 204 particles that look like electrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[753] **viXra:1603.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 05:35:17*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

G matrices are matrices with single entries 1,i. It is shown that linear sums of G matrices generate the SU(n), SO(n) generators. The Kronecka sums of the unitary representations of so(n) and su(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be restricted to 3 dimensions. It is shown that the allowable unitary representations of so(3), are the spin spaces of spin ½,1. It is shown that there are 3 generations of chiral electroweak doublets of quarks and leptons. Exponentiation of differential operators acting on spinors results in the Lagrangians of Gravitation with Dark Energy and the Fermion sector of the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[752] **viXra:1603.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 00:00:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a series of papers, Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. However, as far as I know there is no paper yet for extending his RQED to fractal media and Cantor Sets. Drawing similarity between Proca and Maxwell equations, in the present paper I extend RQED further based on a recent paper published at Advances in High Energy Physics (AHEP) journal, where Yang Zhao et al. derived Maxwell equations on Cantor sets from the local fractional vector calculus. It can be shown that Maxwell equations on Cantor sets in a fractal bounded domain give efficiency and accuracy for describing the fractal electric and magnetic fields. I also extend RQED to anisotropic fractal media based on the work of Martin Ostoja-Starzewski. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model in fractal media. It may be expected to have some impact to fractal cosmology modeling too.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[751] **viXra:1603.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 17:19:57*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 10 references

It is applied the Holographic Principle as a means to estimate the neutron decay time. A stationary condition for a free energy is also considered. The spherical surface at the boundary of this universe having the radius of the neutron is tiled with unit cells of area equal the Planck length times a length related to the weak interaction. It is also considered an energy difference tied to the electromagnetic interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[750] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 00:31:04*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R, \bar{t}_Re_R\bar{\nu}_{eR}b_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[749] **viXra:1602.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 11:11:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists on the DZero collaboration at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab have discovered a new particle—the latest member to be added to the exotic species of particle known as tetraquarks.
Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[748] **viXra:1602.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 09:53:43*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Submitted to Phys. Lett. B

The site reduction of U(1) lattice gauge theory is used to model the dynamics of magnetic monopoles. The reduced lattice theory is the 1D plane-rotator model of the angle-valued coordinates on the discrete world-line. The energy spectrum is obtained exactly, with
a minimum in the ground-state at coupling $g_c=1.125$. For $g<g_c$ and $T<T_c=0.247/a$ the model exhibits two phases of real and
imaginary velocities, like particles facing a potential barrier. In the gauge theory side the real velocity phase corresponds to magnetic energy exceeding the electric energy, indicating the dominance of monopole density. For $g>g_c$ or $T>T_c$ the monopoles always dominate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[747] **viXra:1602.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 20:46:08*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 262 Pages.

This paper is an exposition of my view that the 240 E8 Root Vectors encode the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2 ; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2 ; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16) By embedding each E8 local classical Lagrangian into a Cl(16) Real Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(16)s you get a generalized hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor Algebraic Quantum Field Theory that is a realistic global quantum theory for our universe. The main body of the paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors with a rough qualitative description of how they are used in setting up calculations of force strengths, particle masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, etc. It is not intended to give full details of all calculations etc but is only intended to provide an expository overview of how the 240 E8 Root Vectors produce a realistic Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics. The main body of the paper (46 pages) concludes with a summary of the results of those calculations. Details of the calculations, some related experimental results, etc, are given in a more lengthy set of appendices (216 pages) that can be read and evaluated by anyone who might be interested.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[746] **viXra:1602.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 05:02:16*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Bekenstein-Hawking entropy takes discrete values proportional to 2 to the power n in a holographic model. Horizon numbers n are calculated for specific black holes and for subatomic particles, which have been shown to be the analogues of black holes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[649] **viXra:1609.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-19 18:35:20*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It's expected that electrostatic background signatures surmounts at the supersymmetric [SUSY] energy scale. These electrostatic background signatures is intrinsic to metamorphic space. In order to derive a Lagrangian vertex operator one must treat SUSY as a metamorphic phenomenon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[648] **viXra:1609.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-18 22:00:53*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Include Chinese Version

I have proposed an intuitive diagrammatic method to explore the elementary particles’ structures and decay processes based on virtual space-time. Then I discuss the possibilities of the existing of new particles. I also raised some issues that need to attention when probing those new particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[647] **viXra:1608.0385 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-02 20:24:38*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Based on the postulation of virtual space-time, I reconstruct a new neutron’s model. Then I calculate the neutron’s mass based on the new model. I obtain a theoretic neutron’s mass that is close to the experimental results. My calculation shows that the neutron’s theoretic mass is 939.579MeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[646] **viXra:1608.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-14 22:38:02*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[645] **viXra:1608.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-31 22:09:17*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Correcting many small errors, adding important new ideas

A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[644] **viXra:1608.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-18 21:42:20*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Long new section on black holes added as "Postscript III".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[643] **viXra:1608.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-13 19:25:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. numerous small changes and clarifications

Abstract
A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[642] **viXra:1608.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-11 09:38:47*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Current observations reinforce the hypothesis that Dark Matter does not consist of particles resembling in any way the primary constituents of the Standard Model (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons or the Higgs scalar). By default, these findings point to an earlier proposal according to which Dark Matter is an elusive manifestation of “Unmatter”.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[641] **viXra:1608.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-10 12:12:02*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Current observations reinforce the hypothesis that Dark Matter does not consist of particles resembling in any way the primary constituents of the Standard Model (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons or the Higgs scalar). By default, these findings point to an earlier proposal according to which Dark Matter is an elusive manifestation of “Unmatter”.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[640] **viXra:1608.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-15 03:31:59*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the main difference between new particle physics
with the Standard Model of particle physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[639] **viXra:1608.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-07 02:42:35*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the main difference between new particle physics
with the Standard Model of particle physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[638] **viXra:1607.0564 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-01 16:02:01*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 08 Pages. Replacement just for correcting a reference

It is suggested that neutrino oscillations do not exist and, in the light of the latest results of July 2016 of the Daya Bay Collaboration and the recent discovery of a new fundamental interaction, it is proposed that the neutrino production at the Sun’s core in the pp and CNO cycles are much larger than what is predicted by the Standard Solar Model, exactly because of this new interaction. Therefore, the claimed neutrino deficits on Earth are completely misleading.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[637] **viXra:1607.0549 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-30 02:54:14*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new explanation of the essence of protons beam tumor therapy

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[636] **viXra:1607.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-10 01:41:23*

**Authors:** Marius Arghirescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages. partially published to IJHEP

The new neutral boson of 34 me , experimentally evidenced and supposed to be an X-boson of a fifth basic force, was predicted as being a basic z0 preon of cold formed quarks by a pre-quantum model of elementary particle resulted from an etherono-quantonic theory of the author, and can be a strong argument for a Bose-Einstein condensate model of particle, resulted by magnetically confined gammons formed as pairs of quasielectrons. A strong argument in the favour of the preonic structure of quarks and for the Cold Genesis of the elementary particles is proposed a new, pre-quantum model of quark resulted in theory with quasi-crystallin preonic structure, given by a quasi-crystallin form of the basic preon z0 , resulted as cluster of quasi-electrons. The brought arguments sustain also the conclusion that the z0 boson can be a „dark matter” constituent.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[635] **viXra:1607.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-22 08:38:16*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 8 pages, one figure and one table.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic self-energy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to the adopted by E. Post many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet and decuplet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[634] **viXra:1606.0326 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-02 20:26:19*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, I try to reconstruct the quark model based on virtual space-time. It seems that the new quark model is able to get the same results with standard model. So I continue to analysis the virtual photon wave equation, and obtain the new neutrino model. It points out that the neutrino is the mass wave that step crossing the real and virtual space-time.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[633] **viXra:1606.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-22 22:45:30*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The “citation culture” persists as systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[632] **viXra:1606.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-11 00:42:44*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 49 pages

Twenty of the fundamental physical constants, including the Planck constant, Coulomb constant and the gravitational constant (G), are derived by wave equations based on four, new fundamental constants: wave speed, wavelength, amplitude and density. All calculations match CODATA values of the existing constants with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the wave equations from which they are derived also accurately calculate particle mass, ionization energies and forces.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[631] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-13 00:14:17*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[630] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 13:32:02*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[629] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-17 13:04:53*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[628] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-11 05:36:09*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages. revised abstract

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[627] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-26 11:00:38*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization extends beyond quantum Hall to impedances corresponding to all potentials. Geometric Clifford algebra permits one to construct a geometric electron model, and to calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between geometric objects of the model. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[626] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 11:16:46*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance is defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. Geometric Clifford algebra permits one to construct a geometric electron model, and to calculate elementrary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between geometric objects of the model. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[625] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-21 10:38:33*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[624] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-19 11:04:44*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[623] **viXra:1604.0382 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-17 04:18:18*

**Authors:** Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$
and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[622] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-25 20:12:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[621] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-24 07:53:33*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[620] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-23 17:39:19*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[619] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-21 07:58:35*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[618] **viXra:1604.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-20 14:38:16*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It is commonly understood that the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge fields is the natural generalization of the well known Abelian gauge group symmetry $U(1)$ in the electrodynamics. Taking into account that the problems of the localization and divergences in QFT are not solved in the framework of the Standard Model (SM), I proposed a different approach to the quantum theory of the single self-interacting electron. In connection with this theory, I would like attract the attention to the state-dependent gauge transformations $U(1) \times U(N-1)$ associated with the Jacobi vector fields of the geodesic variations in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[617] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 07:13:21*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos. In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics. Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the
question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates. Oscillations are here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is
principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[616] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-14 02:59:24*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos.
In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics. Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the
question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates. Oscillations are here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[615] **viXra:1603.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 00:30:40*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recent experiments, performed by Prof. Pizzella's team with relativistic electron bunches, indicate that Coulomb field is rigidly attached to the charge's instantaneous position. Despite a widespread opinion, this fact does not violate causality in moving reference frames. To see that, one should apply the Wigner--Dirac theory of relativistic dynamics and take into account that the Lorentz boost generator depends on interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[614] **viXra:1603.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 09:19:32*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract
Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” match current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They also fall in line with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[613] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-03 19:27:14*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R$, $\bar{c}_R\mu_R\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}s_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[612] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-02 23:45:41*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R$, $\bar{c}_R\mu_R\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}s_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[611] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-01 23:04:55*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R$, $\bar{c}_R\mu_R\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}s_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[610] **viXra:1602.0322 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 07:15:12*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. The interpretation of result is corrected and is based on first order phase transition.

The site reduction of U(1) lattice gauge theory is used to model the 0-branes in the dual theory. The reduced theory is the 1D plane-rotator model of the angle-valued coordinates on discrete world-line. The energy spectrum is obtained exactly via the transfer-matrix method, with a minimum in the lowest energy as a direct consequence of compact nature of coordinates. Below the critical coupling $g_c=1.125$ and temperature $T_c=0.335$ the system undergoes a first order phase transition between coexistent phases with lower and higher gauge couplings. The possible relation between the model and the proposed role for magnetic monopoles in confinement mechanism based on dual Meissner effect is pointed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[609] **viXra:1602.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-24 18:14:57*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 356 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2 E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2 D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16) Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25)
Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Physics model described herein may be called the Cl(1,25) E8 Physics Model, since the Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The main body of the paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors with a rough qualitative description of how they are used in setting up calculations of force strengths, particle masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, etc. The main body of the paper (46 pages) concludes with a summary of the results of those calculations. Details of the calculations, some related experimental results, etc, are given in a more lengthy set of appendices (310 pages). This latest (August 2016) version includes LHC results of about 13 /fb of 2016 run, including Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel events relevant to the existence of two Higgs mass states predicted by E8 Physics beyond the conventional 125 GeV state.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[608] **viXra:1602.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-06 18:06:55*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 354 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2 and E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2 and D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16) Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25) Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Physics model described herein may be called the Cl(1,25) E8 Physics Model, since the Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The main body of the paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors with a rough qualitative description of how they are used in setting up calculations of force strengths, particle masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, etc. The main body of the paper (46 pages) concludes with a summary of the results of those calculations. Details of the calculations, some related experimental results, etc, are given in a more lengthy set of appendices (308 pages).
This latest (August 2016) version includes LHC results of about 13 /fb of 2016 run, including Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel events relevant to the existence of two Higgs mass states predicted by E8 Physics beyond the conventional 125 GeV state.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics