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2015 - 1501(8) - 1502(12) - 1503(11)

Any replacements are listed further down

[603] **viXra:1503.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 22:47:59*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The electron is composed of sixteen parts, in Vedic Particle Physics, which is a notion contrary to western physics. The sixteen parts of the electron indicate that the electron pertains to the Sedenions - perhaps the Conic Sedenions or even the Twisted Octonions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[602] **viXra:1503.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 08:44:34*

**Authors:** Christina Munns

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All rights reserved - Copyright 2014

Abstract:
Consideration is given to the relevance of unitary symmetry in relation to the environment in which photonic research takes place. Both a U(1) and a SU(2) environment are considered and the results compared. It is found that there is a direct polarity between these two unitary symmetry groups with regard to both photonic behaviour and research results, such that it leads to the conclusion that environmental symmetry directly affects photonic activity and also research outcomes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[601] **viXra:1503.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 15:34:10*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The dark energy density has been derived from the density of vacuum energy at the scale of the Bohr radius in a ten-dimensional model, and from the radius of the observable universe. The Bohr radius and the radius of the observable universe were found to be related through a 5/2 power law correspondence that applies generally between subatomic length scales and cosmological distances. It follows that dark energy is carried by ultra high frequency gravitational waves. Cosmological phase transitions of the expanding universe took place at times that correspond to specific mass, and energy, scales originating from a ten-dimensional geometry. The onset of inflation is associated with the GUT scale. Recombination has an associated particle: the electron. The accelerating expansion of space that initiated about 5 billion years ago is associated with the conjectured 7.1 keV dark matter particle, with an intriguing implication.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[600] **viXra:1503.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 10:29:57*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

As the author has previously written on Vixra, there are 18 types of Quarks in Vedic Particle Physics, not merely six, as described in western physics. This paper provides the sources which describe these 18 Quark types, both Vedic and western, as these 18 types of Quarks have been lingering around western science in the form of Binary Matroids – albeit the 18 irregular or Sporadic Binary Matroids.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[599] **viXra:1503.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-19 06:12:47*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Work in progress (first draft). References and two Appendix sections not included.

This work is a synthesis of some of our older and recent publications.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[598] **viXra:1503.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-19 07:02:21*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

giving a new definition for the meson and the baryon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[597] **viXra:1503.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 09:33:39*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

As a result of insight that elementary particles are equivalent to vacuum space, (both made of the same material named energy body), the elementary particle model that has a character of field was made up. By this model, concrete images were given to electromagnetism’s phenomena that are abstractly theorized by quantum mechanics. The shape of elementary particle model is like this; the wave of the energy body rotating around its own axis thinly and infinitely spreads out being attenuating from the central part in a spherical shape with high energy level. The central part in a spherical shape shows the character of a particle and the skirts part shows the character of field (electromagnetic field). And that gives elementary particles an important character of polarization. And more, when the two elementary particles draw close the difference of energy level of each wave works as interaction (electromagnetic interaction).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[596] **viXra:1503.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-13 11:52:45*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The time scales of events occurring since the Big Bang, including the onset of inflation, electroweak symmetry breaking, nucleosynthesis, recombination and reionisation are related through an inverse 5/2 power law to subatomic mass scales characteristic of the events. Those mass scales derive from the geometry of 10D spacetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[595] **viXra:1503.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-09 14:45:13*

**Authors:** Thomas B Kerwick

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Although studies into the relation between the effects of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes produced in particle colliders relative to those which may be produced in nature due to cosmic ray (CR) collisions have already been conducted in great detail [3] this short paper re-examines the relationship between the two.Herein the same figures of CR flux and the planned number of collisions over the lifetime of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are used to determine a comparison between the two, though different results are concluded due to account taken of the relative flux of sub-Keplerian phenomena produced at colliders (<11.186km/s) to faster naturally occurring phenomena which would evade gravity capture. A re-visitation of alternative astrophysical safety assurances follows, where some minor concerns are raised.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[594] **viXra:1503.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 19:18:06*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 46 Pages. @Sergey V., Thank you, thank you, thank you, thank you very much .... In a Physics First, Light is Captured as Both Particle and Wave

Confirmation of the theory under discussion
Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion
in discussion group Theoretical Physics !!!! Eureka !!!!
Light Captures as Both Particle and Wave
Sergey V. Efremov
@Sergey V.,
Thank you, thank you, thank you, thank you very much ....
In a Physics First, Light is Captured as Both Particle and Wave
Physicists have theorized for over a century that light acts as both a particle and a wave, depending on the conditions, but they've never been able to capture it being both at once — until a team in Switzerland did just that in a recent experiment. Scientists at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne managed to take a snapshot of light in all its elusive wave-particle duality, a form first proposed by Einstein in 1905.
It was no easy task: You need light in order to take pictures of things, but how do you take a picture of light itself? The EPFL team, led by Fabrizio Carbone, started by exposing a tiny metallic nanowire to a pulse of laser light. The light travels up and down this wire and interferes with itself, forming stationary "standing waves" and illustrating that portion of light's dual nature.
At the same time, though, those waves are made of innumerable photons. This was shown by barraging the standing waves with electrons — some of which would speed up, and some slow down, depending on how they strike photons in the stream. The simple fact that these "quanta" of exchanged energy exist proves that there are particles there, not just a simple waveform of radiation (like a magnetic field).
The result is the image above, which shows light exhibiting wavelike and particle-like properties at the same time. This research, published in the journal Nature Communications, significantly advances our understanding of how light works on the smallest detectable scales, and may be highly valuable in the field of quantum computing.
It is fully in line with
Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion.
Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave in transmission medium (as the energy of the electromagnetic field)
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle (as its own kinetic energy of particle )
Tkin id = mc2[ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[593] **viXra:1503.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 14:42:18*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Employing Dirac’s suggested approach to “perfect and generalise the mathematical formalism that forms the existing basis of theoretical physics,” and thereafter “try to interpret the new mathematical features in terms of physical entities,” we obtain the complete set of mathematical solutions to the Wu-Yang differential equation for Dirac monopoles to find three general classes of solutions. The first set includes the Dirac Quantization Condition but generalizes to encompass fractional charges also. The second set includes charge quantization without any fractionalization, in the absence of magnetic monopoles. The third set includes electric and magnetic charges but exhibits a breaking of the electric-magnetic duality symmetry not only due to the low-energy experimental coupling ~1/137, but even at the theoretical level. We then offer some preliminary physical interpretations and suggest a path for experimental validation based on the fractionalized charge solutions which are part of the first solution set.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[592] **viXra:1502.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-27 22:58:52*

**Authors:** J.X. Zheng-Johansson

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Presentation at the 30th Int Colloq on Group Theo. Meth in Phys, Ghent Univ, Belgium

A microscopic theory of the neutron, which consists in a neutron model constructed based on key relevant experimental observations, and the first principles solutions for the basic properties of the model neutron, is proposed within a framework consistent with the Standard Model. The neutron is composed of an electron e and a proton p that are separated at a distance r_1\sim 10^{-18} m, and are in relative orbital angular motion and Thomas precession highly relativistically, with their reduced mass moving along a quantised l=1th circular orbit of radius r_1 about their instantaneous mass centre. The associated rotational energy flux or vortex has an angular momentum (1/2)\hbar and is identifiable as a (confined) antineutrino. The particles e,p are attracted with one another predominantly by a central magnetic force produced as result of the particles' relative orbital, precessional and intrinsic angular motions. The interaction force (resembling the weak force), potential (resembling the Higgs' field), and a corresponding excitation Hamiltonian (H_I), among others, are derived based directly on first principles laws of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and relativistic mechanics within a unified framework. In particular, the equation for (4/3)\pi r_1^3 H_I, which is directly comparable with the Fermi constant G_F, is predicted as G_F=(4/3)\pi r_1^3 H_I =A_o C_{01} /\ammag_e \gamma_p, where A_o=e^2 \hbar^2/12\pi\epsilon_0 m_e^0 m_p^0 c^2, m_e^0, m_p^0 are the e,p rest masses, C_{01} is a geometric factor, and \gamma_e, \gamma_p are the Lorentz factors. Quantitative solution for a stationary meta-stable neutron is found to exist at the extremal point r_{1m}=2.513 \times 10^{-18} m, at which the G_F is a minimum (whence the neutron lifetime is a maximum) and is equal to the experimental value. Solutions for the neutron spin (1/2), apparent magnetic moment, and the intermediate vector boson masses are also given in this paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[591] **viXra:1502.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 15:34:16*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Work in progress. References not included.

As natural outcome of dimensional regularization, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes a space-time continuum equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. This brief note suggests that the inner connection between MFM and local conformal field theory points to a surprising duality between the MFM and classical gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[590] **viXra:1502.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-23 00:37:59*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair Moshe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A method for testing the idea from a previous paper on Discrete Time Locations

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[589] **viXra:1502.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 11:35:46*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

There have been a spontaneous oscillations of elementary particles, called Neutrinos,
observed during the last few decades.
The results in the many types of research suggest the non-zero masses of the neutrinos.
The possibility of neutrino oscillations and transformation-stabilizations number in three or
four types of them, according to Italian scientist Bruno Pontecorvo’s (1946) research and
theory, has not been eliminated until these days.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[588] **viXra:1502.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 16:31:49*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The extremely precise extraction of the proton radius by Pohl et al. from the mea- sured energy diference between the 2P and 2S states of muonic hydrogen disagrees signiﬁcantly with that extracted from electronic hydrogen or elastic electron-proton scattering. This is the proton radius puzzle.
Randolf Pohl Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany
Ronald Gilman Department of Physics & Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019, USA.
Gerald A. Miller Department of Physics, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560, USA.
Krzysztof Pachucki Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoz˙a 69, 00-681 Warsaw, Poland
arXiv:1301.0905v2 [physics.atom-ph] 30 May 2013
In this paper, using the fundamental equation that equals the electromagnetic force and gravity; obtained in one of our previous work; and which is derived from gravity, both elementary electric charge, the mass of electron and gravitino; as a dependent equation canonical partition function of the imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function and the Planck mass. This equation directly implies the existence of a repulsive gravitational force at very short distances. The decay of gravitinos in a W boson and lepton (muon) would be the phenomenon responsible for this repulsive force that would make the radius of the proton in the muonic hydrogen atom, was that obtained experimentally 8.4087 x 10 ^ -16 m . Likewise, the long half-life, very massive gravitinos, would allow these, penetrate the proton where they finally decay in the W boson and the a lepton. The invariance of the proton, ie its non transformation into a neutron; would be the consequence of an effect of virtual particles: gravitinos, W boson, muon and even the X,Y bosons, of the theories SU(5) grand unification.
The same canonical partition function of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function; It is indeed a sum of Yukawa type potential; therefore repulsive by exchanging a vector boson.
The absence of singularities of black holes, surely, is an effect of this repulsive force. For this reason, increasing the area of a black hole can be interpreted physically as the action of this repulsive force.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[587] **viXra:1502.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 14:03:37*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The Dirac Quantization Condition (DQC) for magnetic charges and its elegant Dirac-Wu-Yang (DWY) derivation based on U(1)em gauge theory predicts an electric / magnetic duality which to the best of our knowledge simply has never been observed in nature, as well as a charge quantization which is observed. The fact that this predicted duality has never been observed to our knowledge means as a matter of elementary logic that this DWY derivation (and the DQC itself) is either elegant but physically wrong, or elegant and correct but physically incomplete. This paper pinpoints a flawed assumption deeply-hidden in the DWY derivation that the south gauge field patch of the posited monopole charge differs from the north patch merely by an unobservable gauge-transformation. By correcting this assumption by defining an observable difference between the north and south patches, the DQC is made fully compatible with the non-observation of magnetic charges and its correct prediction of electric charge quantization is maintained, while the incomplete DWY derivation is made complete. Some concurrences among the corrected DWY derivation and the FQHE and the electronic structure of electrons in atoms are reported without present claim, and several experiments designed to empirically arbitrate these concurrences are proposed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[586] **viXra:1502.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 17:31:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One can think of the IVBs as "wormholes" to a younger, hotter universe, connecting our ground-state cold electromagnetic universe with the universe as it existed a few micro-seconds after the "Big Bang". What comes through the "IVB wormhole" is a single elementary particle, newly minted in the original forge and mold of the electroweak era from long ago, and hence identical to every elementary particle (of its type) ever created, or that ever will be created. The "wormhole" connection effectively circumvents the enervating entropy of eons of cosmic expansion that would otherwise make the exact replication of single elementary particles impossible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[585] **viXra:1502.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 02:48:49*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 27 Pages. illustrations

The Papyrus of Ani illustrates the sub – atomic processes between the Thaamic Substratum of Dark Matter and its transformation into visible, stable 8 x 8 Satvic matter and dynamic 9 x 9 Rajic matter. Traditional interpretations explain the papyrus in reverse, from top to bottom, from left to right. In fact, the process begins with the Opening of the Mouth, the Weighing of the Osirian soul, and the manifestation of functioning Dark Matter into the visible world, via the Exceptional Lie Algebra G2, the Octonions and Sedenions, after having passed the tests of the 42 Assessors. This paper explains the Papyrus of Ani in terms of Vedic Particle Physics, and reveals the existence of four Dark Matter particles which remain unknown in western and Vedic Particle Physics. The relationship explained in this paper leads to the question of which came first – Vedic Literature or the Egyptian Books of the Dead – or were both derived from a common, earlier source?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[584] **viXra:1502.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 11:50:50*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The cosmological constant lambda is derived from the radius of the observable universe. The corresponding value of vacuum energy density is equal to the value derived from zero-point energy on the boundary, at the scale of the Bohr Radius, of a six-dimensional AdS spacetime. The two length scales are related.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[583] **viXra:1502.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 06:34:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect ‘dark matter’, the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe’s mass. [14]
Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can’t even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today’s paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[582] **viXra:1502.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 03:03:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Classic thermodynamics studies and describes the thermal behavior of complex systems, in particular gaseous, reaching the definition of the three principles of thermodynamics and of the concept of entropy. In this paper we want to demonstrate also single charged massive elementary particles have a thermodynamic behavior that is related to the elementary structure and to the electrodynamic mass of particle. Thermodynamics of single elementary particles is defined by physical transformations and by energy exchanges that particles experience when the speed and the temperature change.
These transformations allow to define for elementary particles an intrinsic temperature and an intrinsic entropy that have a different behavior with respect to the same physical quantities of complex classic systems and with respect to the collective behavior of particles inside a plasma.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[581] **viXra:1501.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 13:15:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Some physicists are surprised that two relatively recent discoveries in their field have captured so much widespread attention: cosmic inflation, the ballooning expansion of the baby universe, and the Higgs boson, which endows other particles with mass. These are heady and interesting concepts, but, in one sense, what's new about them is downright boring.
These discoveries suggest that so far, our prevailing theories governing large and small—the Big Bang and the Standard Model of subatomic particles and forces—are accurate, good to go. But both cosmic inflation and the Higgs boson fall short of unifying these phenomena and explaining the deepest cosmic questions. “The Standard Model, as it stands, has no good explanation for why the Universe has anything in it at all,” says Mark Messier, physics professor at Indiana University and spokesman for an under-construction particle detector. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[580] **viXra:1501.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 11:38:13*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 8 pages, 8 figures

The fundamental particles of the Standard Model are arranged in symmetric mass hierarchy within a geometric framework that is connected to Planck scale. Atomic scales are incorporated within the scheme.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[579] **viXra:1501.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 00:51:42*

**Authors:** Murod Abdukhakimov

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The concept of axial anomaly is fully accepted by modern physics, but nearly all physicists find it weird.
Once we know from experiment that axial current is not conserved, why do we start with equation that preserves axial symmetry? Do we intentionally "make even number of mistakes" to obtain the correct result?
Is there a field equation allowing to directly derive the correct expression for the divergence of the axial current? In this paper we will find such equation and describe some amazing consequences emerging from it.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[578] **viXra:1501.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-06 14:22:52*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

81 Tetrahedra form a Pearce Cluster. 3 Pearce Clusters form a Triangle Face of a Diamond Network in 3-dim space of 4-dim space-time. Each Triangle Face can be augmented by a 57-Group of 57 Tatrahedra, forming a 300-cell configuration that is half of a 600-cell. The geometry of the 57-Groups represents the Fundamental First-Generation Fermions, Gauge Bosons, and Ghosts of the Standard Model and Gravity+Dark Energy. In this way, configurations of Tetrahedra represent E8 Physics including its results described in viXra 1405.0030 .

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[577] **viXra:1501.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-03 00:43:19*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Work in progress.

As natural outcome of the Renormalization Group program, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes a space-time continuum having arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions. Recent studies point out that MFM offers unexplored solutions to the challenges raised by the Standard Model for particle physics. Here we show that the inner connection between MFM and local conformal field theory (CFT) makes quantum spin a topological property of the MFM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[576] **viXra:1412.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-29 20:50:11*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We obtain a new mathematical duality relating the Jacobi Identity and the Lie Algebra.
The duality is between two independent but simultaneously existing mathematical structures
related to the fundamental relationship between the Lie algebra of a Lie group and the corresponding
Jacobi Identity. We show that this new mathematical duality has a physical counterpart within the
Eightfold-way model and the SU(3) Lie group.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[575] **viXra:1412.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-27 18:41:56*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In 2007 a single mathematical model encompassing both quark and lepton mixing was described.
This model exploited the fact that when a 3 x 3 rotation matrix whose elements are squared
is subtracted from its transpose, a matrix is produced whose non-diagonal elements have
a common absolute value, where this value is an intrinsic property of the rotation matrix.
For the traditional CKM quark mixing matrix with its
second and third rows interchanged (i.e., c - t interchange)
this value equals one-third the corresponding value for the leptonic matrix (roughly, 0.05 versus 0.15).
This model was distinguished by three such constraints on mixing.
As seven years have elapsed since its introduction, it is timely to assess the model's accuracy.
Despite large conflicts with experiment at the time of its introduction,
and significant improvements in experimental accuracy since then,
the model's six angles collectively fit experiment well; but one angle,
incorrectly forecast, did require toggling (in 2012) the sign of an integer exponent.
The model's mixing angles in degrees are
45, 33.210911, 8.034394 (the angle affected) for leptons;
and 12.920966, 2.367442, 0.190986 for quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[574] **viXra:1412.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-22 19:49:21*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Work in progress.

The minimal fractal manifold (MFM) defines a space-time continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. It was recently shown that MFM is a natural consequence of the Renormalization Group and that it brings up a series of unforeseen solutions to the challenges raised by the Standard Model. In this brief report we argue that MFM may be treated as asymptotic manifestation of Non-Commutative (NC) Field Theory near the electroweak scale. Our provisional findings may be further expanded to bridge the gap between MFM and NC Field Theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[573] **viXra:1412.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 09:11:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In a paper published in Physical Review D, they suggest that scientists at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the Higgs was discovered, look for a specific kind of Higgs decay when the collider starts up again in 2015. The details of that decay could tell them whether or not the Higgs has a say in the matter-antimatter imbalance. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[572] **viXra:1412.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 23:12:22*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 12 pages, 2 figs, 1 table

The energy spectrum of two 0-branes for fixed angular momentum in 2+1 dimensions is calculated by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The basis function used for each angular momentum consists of 80 eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator problem on the corresponding space. It is seen that the spectrum exhibits a definite linear Regge trajectory behavior. It is argued how this behavior, together with other pieces of evidence, suggests the picture by which the bound-states of quarks and QCD-strings are governed by the quantum mechanics of matrix coordinates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[571] **viXra:1412.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 22:38:37*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 24 Pages. v2 is a partial draft of a revised paper in process, which in section 5 lays out important new relationships between topology and atomic structure.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement / twist applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[570] **viXra:1412.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 01:06:10*

**Authors:** Hideki Mutoh

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We found new current-field equations including charge creation-annihilation fields. Although it is difficult to treat creation and annihilation of charge pairs for Maxwell's equations, the new equations easily treat them. The equations cause the confinement of charge creation and annihilation centers, which means the charge conservation for this model. The equations can treat not only electromagnetic field but also weak and strong force fields. Weak gravitational field can be also treated by the equations, where four current means energy and momentum. It is shown that Klein-Gordon and Schr\"{o}dinger equations
and gauge transformation can be directly derived from the equations, where the wave function is defined as complex exponential function of the energy creation-annihilation field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[569] **viXra:1412.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 01:06:27*

**Authors:** V.S.Mitin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Biotonic law is a physical act with more specific constants M. Feigenbaum.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[568] **viXra:1412.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 02:24:29*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 28 Pages. The main differences between Einstein's theory[1] and the latest knowledge[2]are: 1.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical, 2. Form of the interference field is non-linear, 3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the v

Relationship Lorentz derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, that is we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation, fictional by Maxwell and not to be derived.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which charge creates in transmision medium.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[567] **viXra:1412.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:05:54*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 69 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(11): 1042-1110 (Nov. 2014)

This article is a continuation of the Principle of Existence. A premomentumenergy model of elementary particles, four forces and human consciousness is formulated, which illustrates how the self-referential hierarchical spin structure of the premomentumenergy provides a foundation for creating, sustaining and causing evolution of elementary particles through matrixing processes embedded in said premomentumenergy. This model generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external momentum-energy space and an internal momentum-energy space. In contrast, the prespacetime model described previously generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external spacetime and an internal spacetime. These quantum frames and their metamorphoses are interconnected through quantum jumps as demonstrated in forthcoming articles.
The premomentumenergy model reveals the creation, sustenance and evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless entities each of which is comprised of an external wave function or external object in the external momentum-energy space and an internal wave function or internal object in the internal momentum-energy space. The model provides a unified causal structure in said dual universe (quantum frame) for weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement, human consciousness. Further, the model provides a unique tool for teaching, demonstration, rendering, and experimentation related to subatomic and atomic structures and interactions, quantum entanglement generation, gravitational mechanisms in cosmology, structures and mechanisms of human consciousness.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[566] **viXra:1412.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:09:14*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(11): 1111-1142 (Nov. 2014)

This work is a continuation of the premomentumenergy model described recently. Here we show how in this model premomentumenergy generates: (1) time, position, & intrinsic-proper-time relation from transcendental Law of One, (2) self-referential matrix law with time, position and intrinsic-proper-time relation as the determinant, (3) dual-universe Law of Zero, and (4) immanent Law of Conservation in the external/internal momentum-energy space which may be violated in certain processes. We further show how premomentum-energy generates, sustain and makes evolving elementary particles and composite particles incorporating the genesis of self-referential matrix law. In addition, we discuss the ontology and mathematics of ether in this model. Illustratively, in the beginning there was premomentumenergy by itself ei0 =1 materially empty and it began to imagine through primordial self-referential spin 1=ei0=ei0ei0=e+iL-iLe+iM-iM=e+iLe-iMe+iLe-iM=e+iLe+iM/e+iLe+iM …such that it created the self-referential matrix law, the external object to be observed and internal object as observed, separated them into external momentum-energy space and internal momeutm-energy space, caused them to interact through said matrix law and thus gave birth to the dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of the external momentum-energy space and the internal momentum-energy space which it has since sustained and made to evolve.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[565] **viXra:1412.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:11:59*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(11): 1143-1163 (Nov. 2014)

Some modeling methods based on premomentumenergy model are stated. The methods relate to presenting and modeling generation, sustenance and evolution of elementary particles through self-referential hierarchical spin structures of premomentumenergy. In particular, stated are methods for generating, sustaining and causing evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless particles in a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external momentumenergy space and an internal momentumenergy space. Further, methods for modeling weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement and brain function in said dual universe are also stated.
Some additional modeling methods based on premomentumenergy model are also stated. The additional methods relate to presenting and modeling time, position & intrinsic-proper-time relation, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles through self-referential hierarchical spin in premomentumenergy. In particular, methods for generating time, position & intrinsic-proper-time relation, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles in aforesaid dual universe are stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[564] **viXra:1412.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:15:34*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 80 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(12): 1164-1243 (Nov. 2014)

This article is a continuation of the Principle of Existence. A prespacetime-premomentumenergy model of elementary particles, four forces and human consciousness is formulated, which illustrate how the self-referential hierarchical spin structure of the prespacetime-premomentumenergy may provide a foundation for creating, sustaining and causing evolution of elementary particles through matrixing processes embedded in said prespacetime-premomentumenergy. This model generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external spacetime and an internal energy-momentum space. In contrast, the prespacetime model described previously generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external spacetime and an internal spacetime. Then, the premomentumenergy model described recently generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external momentum-energy space and an internal momentum-energy space. These quantum frames and their metamorphoses may be interconnected through quantum jumps as demonstrated in forthcoming articles.
The prespacetime-premomentumenergy model may reveal the creation, sustenance and evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless entities each of which is comprised of an external wave function or external object in the external spacetime and an internal wave function or internal object in the internal momentum-energy space. The model may provide a unified causal structure in said dual universe (quantum frame) for weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement, human consciousness. The model may also provide a unique tool for teaching, demonstration, rendering, and experimentation related to subatomic and atomic structures and interactions, quantum entanglement generation, gravitational mechanisms in cosmology, structures and mechanisms of human consciousness.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[563] **viXra:1412.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:18:02*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 51 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(12): 1244-1294 (Nov. 2014)

This work is a continuation of prespacetime-premomentumenergy model described recently. Here we show how in this model prespacetime-premomentumenergy generates: (1) four-momentum and four-position relation as transcendental Law of One, (2) self-referential matrix law with four-momentum and four-position relation as the determinant, and (3) Law of Zero in a dual universe comprised of an external spacetime and an internal momentum-energy space. We further show how prespacetime-premomentumenergy may generate, sustain and make evolving elementary particles and composite particles incorporating the genesis of self-referential matrix law. In addition, we will discuss the ontology and mathematics of ether in this model. Illustratively, in the beginning there was prespacetime-premomentumenergy by itself ei0 =1 materially empty and it began to imagine through primordial self-referential spin 1=ei0=ei0ei0=eiL-iLeiM-iM=eiLeiMe-iLe-iM=e-iLe-iM/e-iLe-iM=eiLeiM/eiLeiM…such that it created the self-referential matrix law, the external object to be observed and internal object as observed, separated them into external spacetime and internal momentum-energy space, caused them to interact through said matrix law and thus gave birth to the dual universe which it has since sustained and made to evolve.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[562] **viXra:1412.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:20:29*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(12): 1295-1337 (Nov. 2014)

Some modeling methods based on prespacetime-premomentumenergy model are stated. The methods relate to presenting and modeling generation, sustenance and evolution of elementary particles through self-referential hierarchical spin structures of prespacetime-premomentum-energy. In particular, stated are methods for generating, sustaining and causing evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless particles in a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external spacetime and an internal momenutmenergy space, vice versa. Further, methods for modeling weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement and brain function in said dual universe are also stated.
Some additonal methods based on prespacetime-premomentumenergy model are also stated. The additional methods relate to presenting and modeling four-momentum & four-position relation, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles through self-referential hierarchical spin in prespacetime-premomentumenergy. In particular, methods for modeling generating four-momentum & four-position relation, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles in aforesaid dual universe are stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[561] **viXra:1412.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-01 05:34:38*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Symmetries are broken on the mass levels of three geometric sequences that descend from Planck scale and correspond with an extra-dimensional geometry. Partners resulting from broken symmetry take up a symmetrical arrangement about the mass level on which the symmetry is broken. The quark doublets lie in symmetrical arrangement about special mass levels, while isospin doublets are arranged symmetrically about sublevels. The pseudoscalar and vector mesons of the SU(5) multiplets lie in symmetrical arrangement with fundamental fermions of lower mass about mass levels. Such fermions include the valence quarks, charged leptons and a tower of ‘level-states’ that partner the short-lived isospin singlet and triplet mesons. Some level-states carry flavour and charge, and are identified with sea quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[560] **viXra:1411.0594 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 09:19:59*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(6): pp. 661-680 (July 2013)

Some applications of Prespacetime Model II are stated. The applications relate to presenting and modeling energy-momentum-mass relationship, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles through self-referential hierarchical spin in prespacetime. In particular, method and model for generating energy-momentum-mass relationship, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles are stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[559] **viXra:1411.0590 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 09:13:14*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(6): pp. 641-660 (July 2013)

Some applications of Prespacetime Model I are stated. The applications relate to presenting and modeling generation, sustenance and evolution of elementary particles through self-referential hierarchical spin structures of prespacetime. In particular, method and model for generating, sustaining and causing evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless particles are stated. Further, method and model for weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement and brain function are also stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[558] **viXra:1411.0566 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 12:25:26*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[557] **viXra:1411.0552 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 17:34:38*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[556] **viXra:1411.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 02:35:37*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The evidence from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN announced 4 July 2012; suggest, at the very least, some interesting equations, standard model architecture, and a possible "heavier charged Higgs-like".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[555] **viXra:1411.0501 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 02:27:32*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward the causes and mechanism of radioactivity of unstable nucleus

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[480] **viXra:1503.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-26 15:53:26*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The dark energy density has been derived from the density of vacuum energy at the scale of the Bohr radius in a ten-dimensional model, and from the radius of the observable universe. The Bohr radius and the radius of the observable universe were found to be related through a 5/2 power law correspondence that applies generally between subatomic length scales and cosmological distances. It follows that dark energy is carried by ultra high frequency gravitational waves. Cosmological phase transitions of the expanding universe took place at times that correspond to specific mass, and energy, scales originating from a ten-dimensional geometry. The onset of inflation is associated with the GUT scale. Recombination has an associated particle: the electron. The accelerating expansion of space that initiated about 5 billion years ago is associated with the conjectured 7.1 keV dark matter particle, with an intriguing implication.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[479] **viXra:1503.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:48:32*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Work in progress. References and some Appendix sections not included.

This work is a synthesis of some of our older and recent publications.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[478] **viXra:1503.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-20 05:46:57*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Work in progress. References and some Appendix sections not included.

This work is a synthesis of some of our older and recent publications.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[477] **viXra:1503.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 14:11:22*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The time scales of events occurring since the Big Bang, including the onset of inflation, electroweak symmetry breaking, nucleosynthesis, recombination and reionisation are related through an inverse 5/2 power law to subatomic mass scales characteristic of the events. Those mass scales derive from the geometry of 10D spacetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[476] **viXra:1502.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-23 07:12:26*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

There have been a spontaneous oscillations of elementary particles, called Neutrinos,
observed during the last few decades.
The results in the many types of research suggest the non-zero masses of the neutrinos.
The possibility of neutrino oscillations and transformation-stabilizations number in three or
four types of them, according to Italian scientist Bruno Pontecorvo’s (1946) research and
theory, has not been eliminated until these days.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[475] **viXra:1502.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 05:42:06*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There has been some confusion about the previous paper on this subject, so some basic calculations were included to allow for mathematically minded people to understand the concepts more fluidly.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[474] **viXra:1502.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-05 01:16:28*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

The Papyrus of Ani illustrates the sub – atomic process of decay, symbolized by the Higgs Boson in western physics. This paper explains the Papyrus of Ani in terms of Vedic Particle Physics, and reveals the existence of four Dark Matter particles which are probably the Higgs Boson after its decay into two electrons and two muons. The relationship explained in this paper leads to the question of which came first – Vedic Literature or the Egyptian Books of the Dead – or were both derived from a common, earlier source? The two ancient traditions feature similar myths – the Four Sons of Horus, and the Four Sons of Brahma.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[473] **viXra:1501.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-25 02:21:52*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A solution to the mechanism of forces and space-time that is too simple to be true, yet too elegant to be ignored.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[472] **viXra:1501.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 08:49:39*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A solution to the mechanism of forces and space-time that is too simple to be true, yet too elegant to be ignored.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[471] **viXra:1501.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-09 10:28:00*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 7 Pages. minor improvements to the discussion section

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Classical or quantum impedances, geometric or topological, scale invariant or scale dependent, fermionic or bosonic, mechanical or electromagnetic or gravitational - impedance matching governs the flow of energy. This is a universal principle. As such, it is not surprising to find that quantized impedances provide an interesting sensibility when taken as a template for the Big Bang, presenting a detailed perspective on the first few zeptoseconds

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[470] **viXra:1501.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-31 15:51:14*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Weak Force IVBs are "wormholes" to early cosmos

One can think of the IVBs as "wormholes" to a younger, hotter universe, connecting our ground-state cold electromagnetic universe with the universe as it existed a few micro-seconds after the "Big Bang". What comes through the "IVB wormhole" is a single elementary particle, newly minted in the original forge and mold of the electroweak era from long ago, and hence identical to every elementary particle (of its type) ever created, or that ever will be created. The "wormhole" connection effectively circumvents the enervating entropy of eons of cosmic expansion that would otherwise make the exact replication of single elementary particles impossible. After a little reflection it becomes obvious that this is the only method which can possibly work reliably. It is this "wormhole" connection between our ground state electromagnetic and the primordial electroweak universe that frees the alternative charge carriers (leptons and mesons), held in the electroweak symmetric energy state, to do (in our ground-state universe) their necessary work of transformation, creation, and destruction of single quarks and leptons that allows atomic matter to exist, the Sun to shine, and the information-rich Periodic Table of the Elements to be built. The universe remains a single connected unit - not only in space, but in time and historic spacetime - a connectivity that is essential to its proper functioning and conservation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[469] **viXra:1501.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-30 16:58:14*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Adding links and electroweak summary

A 4x4 table represents interactions of the 4 forces of physics with several conservation laws, most notably energy, entropy, causality, and symmetry. The table may be read in the order of an English paragraph - left to right, top to bottom. The first row represents the "Big Bang", which initiates our cosmic system. The origin is assumed to consist of an input of light (free electromagnetic energy), a perfectly symmetric energy form, perhaps derived as a quantum fluctuation (of zero net energy and charge) from the Multiverse.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[468] **viXra:1501.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-28 16:24:24*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

This Version 3 (v3) adds material about 2D and 3D projections of E8 root vectors to Version 2 (v2) which substantially revised (and hopefully clarified) some relationships between Tetrahedral structures, including 57-groups and 600-cells, and Cl(16)-E8 Physics using 4D Feynman Checkerboard Quantum Theory ideas. Humans perceive 3-dim Flat Space as fundamental, with a 4th-dim of Time as a necessary addition for Life to Progress. Human Mathematical study of the basic concept of the Sphere shows that 3 and 4 are very special dimensions: 3 is home of Poincare Dodecahedral Space and 4 is where Smale’s Whitney trick to prove the Poincare Conjecture breaks down. 4 is also the home of Exotic R4. The simplest polyhedron in 3-dim Flat Space is the Tetrahedron. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using the Tetrahedron as a basic building block for a Realistic Theory of Physics. The Realistic Theory of Physics that I will use as a standard in this paper is my Cl(16)-E8 Physics Model described in viXra 1405.0030vG. The result of this paper is that you can combine Tetrahedra in 3-dim Flat Space but to avoid gaps in the combined structure you must curve 3-dim Space and effectively go to 4-dim Space to build 600-cell {3,3,5} polytopes two of which can be combined to produce the 240-polytope that leads to the 8-dim Gossett polytope of the E8 Lie Algebra of Cl(16)-E8 Physics whose AQFT therefore corresponds to a 4D Feynman Checkerboard Quantum Theory constructed with Tetrahedra-based structures. If you do not curve the 3-dim space, there are two possibly useful structures: Tetrahedral Clusters whose Periodicity corresponds to that of Real Clifford Algebras giving a correspondence with the AQFT of Cl(16)-E8 Physics QuasiCrystals and their Approximants whose phason disorder seems to be a measure of an information deficit, and failure of equivalence, with respect to Cl(16)-E8 Physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[467] **viXra:1501.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-20 10:51:09*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

This Version 2 (v2) substantially revises (and hopefully clarifies) some relationships between Tetrahedral structures, including 57-groups and 600-cells, and Cl(16)-E8 Physics using 4D Feynman Checkerboard Quantum Theory ideas. Humans perceive 3-dim Flat Space as fundamental, with a 4th-dim of Time as a necessary addition for Life to Progress. Human Mathematical study of the basic concept of the Sphere shows that 3 and 4 are very special dimensions: 3 is home of Poincare Dodecahedral Space and 4 is where Smale’s Whitney trick to prove the Poincare Conjecture breaks down. 4 is also the home of Exotic R4. The simplest polyhedron in 3-dim Flat Space is the Tetrahedron. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using the Tetrahedron as a basic building block for a Realistic Theory of Physics. The Realistic Theory of Physics that I will use as a standard in this paper is my Cl(16)-E8 Physics Model described in viXra 1405.0030vG. The result of this paper is that you can combine Tetrahedra in 3-dim Flat Space but to avoid gaps in the combined structure you must curve 3-dim Space and effectively go to 4-dim Space to build 600-cell {3,3,5} polytopes two of which can be combined to produce the 240-polytope that leads to the 8-dim Gossett polytope of the E8 Lie Algebra of Cl(16)-E8 Physics whose AQFT therefore corresponds to a 4D Feynman Checkerboard Quantum Theory constructed with Tetrahedra-based structures. If you do not curve the 3-dim space, there are two possibly useful structures: Tetrahedral Clusters whose Periodicity corresponds to that of Real Clifford Algebras giving a correspondence with the AQFT of Cl(16)-E8 Physics QuasiCrystals and their Approximants whose phason disorder seems to be a measure of an information deficit, and failure of equivalence, with respect to Cl(16)-E8 Physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[466] **viXra:1501.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-03 09:42:01*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Work in progress.

As natural outcome of the Renormalization Group program, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes a space-time continuum having arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. Recent studies point out that MFM offers unexplored solutions to the challenges raised by the Standard Model for particle physics. Here we show that the inner connection between MFM and local conformal field theory (CFT) makes quantum spin a topological property of the MFM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[465] **viXra:1412.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-23 07:27:17*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Work in progress.

The minimal fractal manifold (MFM) defines a space-time continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. It was recently shown that MFM is a natural consequence of the Renormalization Group and that it brings up a series of unforeseen solutions to the challenges raised by the Standard Model. In this brief report we argue that MFM may be treated as asymptotic manifestation of Non-Commutative (NC) Field Theory near the electroweak scale. Our provisional findings may be further expanded to bridge the gap between MFM and NC Field Theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[464] **viXra:1412.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-22 22:36:40*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Work in progress.

The minimal fractal manifold (MFM) defines a space-time continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. It was recently shown that MFM is a natural consequence of the Renormalization Group which brings up a series of unforeseen solutions to the challenges raised by the Standard Model. In this brief report we argue that MFM may be treated as asymptotic manifestation of Non-Commutative (NC) Field Theory near the electroweak scale. Our provisional findings may be further expanded to bridge the gap between MFM and NC Field Theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[463] **viXra:1412.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-17 22:33:38*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Sections 6 and 7 are new in v2.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement / twist applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[462] **viXra:1411.0566 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-27 21:14:29*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[461] **viXra:1411.0501 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-26 21:15:43*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put the causes and mechanism for unstable atomic nucleus has radioactivity

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[460] **viXra:1411.0501 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-23 01:34:43*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward the causes and mechanism of radioactivity of unstable nucleus

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics