**Previous months:**

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Any replacements are listed further down

[574] **viXra:1412.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 09:11:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In a paper published in Physical Review D, they suggest that scientists at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the Higgs was discovered, look for a specific kind of Higgs decay when the collider starts up again in 2015. The details of that decay could tell them whether or not the Higgs has a say in the matter-antimatter imbalance. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[573] **viXra:1412.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 23:12:22*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 12 pages, 2 figs, 1 table

The energy spectrum of two 0-branes for fixed angular momentum in 2+1 dimensions is calculated by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The basis function used for each angular momentum consists of 80 eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator problem on the corresponding space. It is seen that the spectrum exhibits a definite linear Regge trajectory behavior. It is argued how this behavior, together with other pieces of evidence, suggests the picture by which the bound-states of quarks and QCD-strings are governed by the quantum mechanics of matrix coordinates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[572] **viXra:1412.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 22:38:37*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 24 Pages. v2 is a partial draft of a revised paper in process, which in section 5 lays out important new relationships between topology and atomic structure.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement / twist applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[571] **viXra:1412.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 01:06:10*

**Authors:** Hideki Mutoh

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We found new current-field equations including charge creation-annihilation fields. Although it is difficult to treat creation and annihilation of charge pairs for Maxwell's equations, the new equations easily treat them. The equations cause the confinement of charge creation and annihilation centers, which means the charge conservation for this model. The equations can treat not only electromagnetic field but also weak and strong force fields. Weak gravitational field can be also treated by the equations, where four current means energy and momentum. It is shown that Klein-Gordon and Schr\"{o}dinger equations
and gauge transformation can be directly derived from the equations, where the wave function is defined as complex exponential function of the energy creation-annihilation field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[570] **viXra:1412.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 01:06:27*

**Authors:** V.S.Mitin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Biotonic law is a physical act with more specific constants M. Feigenbaum.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[569] **viXra:1412.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 02:24:29*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 28 Pages. The main differences between Einstein's theory[1] and the latest knowledge[2]are: 1.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical, 2. Form of the interference field is non-linear, 3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the v

Relationship Lorentz derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, that is we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation, fictional by Maxwell and not to be derived.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which charge creates in transmision medium.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[568] **viXra:1412.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:05:54*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 69 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(11): 1042-1110 (Nov. 2014)

This article is a continuation of the Principle of Existence. A premomentumenergy model of elementary particles, four forces and human consciousness is formulated, which illustrates how the self-referential hierarchical spin structure of the premomentumenergy provides a foundation for creating, sustaining and causing evolution of elementary particles through matrixing processes embedded in said premomentumenergy. This model generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external momentum-energy space and an internal momentum-energy space. In contrast, the prespacetime model described previously generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external spacetime and an internal spacetime. These quantum frames and their metamorphoses are interconnected through quantum jumps as demonstrated in forthcoming articles.
The premomentumenergy model reveals the creation, sustenance and evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless entities each of which is comprised of an external wave function or external object in the external momentum-energy space and an internal wave function or internal object in the internal momentum-energy space. The model provides a unified causal structure in said dual universe (quantum frame) for weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement, human consciousness. Further, the model provides a unique tool for teaching, demonstration, rendering, and experimentation related to subatomic and atomic structures and interactions, quantum entanglement generation, gravitational mechanisms in cosmology, structures and mechanisms of human consciousness.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[567] **viXra:1412.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:09:14*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(11): 1111-1142 (Nov. 2014)

This work is a continuation of the premomentumenergy model described recently. Here we show how in this model premomentumenergy generates: (1) time, position, & intrinsic-proper-time relation from transcendental Law of One, (2) self-referential matrix law with time, position and intrinsic-proper-time relation as the determinant, (3) dual-universe Law of Zero, and (4) immanent Law of Conservation in the external/internal momentum-energy space which may be violated in certain processes. We further show how premomentum-energy generates, sustain and makes evolving elementary particles and composite particles incorporating the genesis of self-referential matrix law. In addition, we discuss the ontology and mathematics of ether in this model. Illustratively, in the beginning there was premomentumenergy by itself ei0 =1 materially empty and it began to imagine through primordial self-referential spin 1=ei0=ei0ei0=e+iL-iLe+iM-iM=e+iLe-iMe+iLe-iM=e+iLe+iM/e+iLe+iM …such that it created the self-referential matrix law, the external object to be observed and internal object as observed, separated them into external momentum-energy space and internal momeutm-energy space, caused them to interact through said matrix law and thus gave birth to the dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of the external momentum-energy space and the internal momentum-energy space which it has since sustained and made to evolve.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[566] **viXra:1412.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:11:59*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(11): 1143-1163 (Nov. 2014)

Some modeling methods based on premomentumenergy model are stated. The methods relate to presenting and modeling generation, sustenance and evolution of elementary particles through self-referential hierarchical spin structures of premomentumenergy. In particular, stated are methods for generating, sustaining and causing evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless particles in a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external momentumenergy space and an internal momentumenergy space. Further, methods for modeling weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement and brain function in said dual universe are also stated.
Some additional modeling methods based on premomentumenergy model are also stated. The additional methods relate to presenting and modeling time, position & intrinsic-proper-time relation, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles through self-referential hierarchical spin in premomentumenergy. In particular, methods for generating time, position & intrinsic-proper-time relation, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles in aforesaid dual universe are stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[565] **viXra:1412.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:15:34*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 80 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(12): 1164-1243 (Nov. 2014)

This article is a continuation of the Principle of Existence. A prespacetime-premomentumenergy model of elementary particles, four forces and human consciousness is formulated, which illustrate how the self-referential hierarchical spin structure of the prespacetime-premomentumenergy may provide a foundation for creating, sustaining and causing evolution of elementary particles through matrixing processes embedded in said prespacetime-premomentumenergy. This model generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external spacetime and an internal energy-momentum space. In contrast, the prespacetime model described previously generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external spacetime and an internal spacetime. Then, the premomentumenergy model described recently generates elementary particles and their governing matrix laws for a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external momentum-energy space and an internal momentum-energy space. These quantum frames and their metamorphoses may be interconnected through quantum jumps as demonstrated in forthcoming articles.
The prespacetime-premomentumenergy model may reveal the creation, sustenance and evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless entities each of which is comprised of an external wave function or external object in the external spacetime and an internal wave function or internal object in the internal momentum-energy space. The model may provide a unified causal structure in said dual universe (quantum frame) for weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement, human consciousness. The model may also provide a unique tool for teaching, demonstration, rendering, and experimentation related to subatomic and atomic structures and interactions, quantum entanglement generation, gravitational mechanisms in cosmology, structures and mechanisms of human consciousness.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[564] **viXra:1412.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:18:02*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 51 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(12): 1244-1294 (Nov. 2014)

This work is a continuation of prespacetime-premomentumenergy model described recently. Here we show how in this model prespacetime-premomentumenergy generates: (1) four-momentum and four-position relation as transcendental Law of One, (2) self-referential matrix law with four-momentum and four-position relation as the determinant, and (3) Law of Zero in a dual universe comprised of an external spacetime and an internal momentum-energy space. We further show how prespacetime-premomentumenergy may generate, sustain and make evolving elementary particles and composite particles incorporating the genesis of self-referential matrix law. In addition, we will discuss the ontology and mathematics of ether in this model. Illustratively, in the beginning there was prespacetime-premomentumenergy by itself ei0 =1 materially empty and it began to imagine through primordial self-referential spin 1=ei0=ei0ei0=eiL-iLeiM-iM=eiLeiMe-iLe-iM=e-iLe-iM/e-iLe-iM=eiLeiM/eiLeiM…such that it created the self-referential matrix law, the external object to be observed and internal object as observed, separated them into external spacetime and internal momentum-energy space, caused them to interact through said matrix law and thus gave birth to the dual universe which it has since sustained and made to evolve.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[563] **viXra:1412.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 13:20:29*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Appeared in Prespacetime Journal 5(12): 1295-1337 (Nov. 2014)

Some modeling methods based on prespacetime-premomentumenergy model are stated. The methods relate to presenting and modeling generation, sustenance and evolution of elementary particles through self-referential hierarchical spin structures of prespacetime-premomentum-energy. In particular, stated are methods for generating, sustaining and causing evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless particles in a dual universe (quantum frame) comprised of an external spacetime and an internal momenutmenergy space, vice versa. Further, methods for modeling weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement and brain function in said dual universe are also stated.
Some additonal methods based on prespacetime-premomentumenergy model are also stated. The additional methods relate to presenting and modeling four-momentum & four-position relation, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles through self-referential hierarchical spin in prespacetime-premomentumenergy. In particular, methods for modeling generating four-momentum & four-position relation, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles in aforesaid dual universe are stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[562] **viXra:1412.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-01 05:34:38*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Symmetries are broken on the mass levels of three geometric sequences that descend from Planck scale and correspond with an extra-dimensional geometry. Partners resulting from broken symmetry take up a symmetrical arrangement about the mass level on which the symmetry is broken. The quark doublets lie in symmetrical arrangement about special mass levels, while isospin doublets are arranged symmetrically about sublevels. The pseudoscalar and vector mesons of the SU(5) multiplets lie in symmetrical arrangement with fundamental fermions of lower mass about mass levels. Such fermions include the valence quarks, charged leptons and a tower of ‘level-states’ that partner the short-lived isospin singlet and triplet mesons. Some level-states carry flavour and charge, and are identified with sea quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[561] **viXra:1411.0594 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 09:19:59*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(6): pp. 661-680 (July 2013)

Some applications of Prespacetime Model II are stated. The applications relate to presenting and modeling energy-momentum-mass relationship, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles through self-referential hierarchical spin in prespacetime. In particular, method and model for generating energy-momentum-mass relationship, self-referential matrix rules, elementary particles and composite particles are stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[560] **viXra:1411.0590 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 09:13:14*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(6): pp. 641-660 (July 2013)

Some applications of Prespacetime Model I are stated. The applications relate to presenting and modeling generation, sustenance and evolution of elementary particles through self-referential hierarchical spin structures of prespacetime. In particular, method and model for generating, sustaining and causing evolution of fermions, bosons and spinless particles are stated. Further, method and model for weak interaction, strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, quantum entanglement and brain function are also stated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[559] **viXra:1411.0566 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 12:25:26*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[558] **viXra:1411.0552 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 17:34:38*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[557] **viXra:1411.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-23 02:35:37*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The evidence from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN announced 4 July 2012; suggest, at the very least, some interesting equations, standard model architecture, and a possible "heavier charged Higgs-like".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[556] **viXra:1411.0501 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 02:27:32*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward the causes and mechanism of radioactivity of unstable nucleus

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[555] **viXra:1411.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:21:50*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 18 Pages. First essay id: 1309.0009

In this paper we consider a few important questions concerning the microuniverse of elementary physical systems. We know leptonic matter is characterized by negative electric charge and leptonic antimatter by positive electric charge. Conversely baryonic matter is characterized by positive electric charge and baryonic antimatter by negative electric charge. In the Non-Standard Model both, matter and antimatter, can have negative values of mass (antimass) for greater speeds than the critical speed. We will demonstrate, always in the order of the Non-Standard Model, there is a full symmetry for elementary particles in regard to the behavior of matter, antimatter and antimass whether when they are in the leptonic state or in the baryonic state. The physical reality of nature shows neverheless in the Elementary Universe a Principle of Asymmetry is in force. In fact if this Principle doesn't exist then in the Universe and in Nature we would have to observe a comparable quantity of matter and antimatter. It is known instead that the practically exclusive presence of matter, above all at low energy, is proved. Our object now is to discover that principle of Asymmetry, that in our physico-mathematical model represents a surmounting of the concept of spontaneous breaking of the symmetry, that is assumed in the Standard Model. We will demonstrate the Principle of Asymmetry is based upon a criterion of stability that identifies the actual asymmetry of the Elementary Universe with the instability state of some microphysical structures.
This paper represents the second essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[554] **viXra:1411.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-17 13:54:33*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The “naturalness” problem stands out as one of the deepest mysteries of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and General Relativity (GR). A vast array of proposals on how to tackle this challenge has been advanced over the years with no compelling experimental backup and no major breakthrough. In this brief report we re-emphasize that the onset of the minimal fractal manifold near or above the electroweak scale enables a straightforward resolution of this problem.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[553] **viXra:1411.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-17 08:33:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discovered elusive Higgs boson, first predicted theoretically, turns out to may have been a different particle after all. A team of international researchers have claimed that it could be an even more mysterious techni-higgs. [3]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[552] **viXra:1411.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 08:21:05*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There were three charge, parity, and time (CPT) violation arguments which supported each other and this article’s conclusions. First, the CPT theorem was invalid at the Planck scale. Second, highly curved space-times violated CPT because of apparent violations of unitarity caused by incoming matter information disappearance. Third, a quantum mechanics axiom stated the transformation from one state to another respected unitarity and entropy preservation. If quantum mechanics was invalid, both unitarity and entropy preservation were not respected.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[551] **viXra:1411.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 08:52:14*

**Authors:** DING Jian, HU Xiuqin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

According to the definition of force in Newton's second law, through the force analysis on a high speed particle, we have proved that the existence of the ether-medium is absolutely essential, and the speed of light in vacuum is the limiting value of the moving object in that. And put forward that as the cosmic background, the ether-medium is composed of the electro-ultimate particles which are moving at the highest speed close to the speed of light in vacuum. In addition, the average force suffered on static mass per unit of the electro-ultimate particle is a constant which implication is the upper limit on photons radiated. For any photon of known wavelength, the moving speed can be directly calculated through this constant. After that, the average force suffered and the static mass, when the photon moving along the wavelength direction, can be calculated. On the basis above, it also reveals that the mechanism behind the spectral redshift, the dynamic mass (or called relativistic mass) of ponderable bodies and the law of universal gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[550] **viXra:1411.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 17:32:07*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

In several previous publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses from the tightly-known Q=0 empirical electron, proton and neutron (EPN) masses with commensurately high precision. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data, and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This paper systematically pulls all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory already established via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and for the first time uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[549] **viXra:1410.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 05:54:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter.
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[548] **viXra:1410.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 22:12:24*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Lack of any baryon number in the Eightfold Way model, and its intrinsic presence in the
SU(3)-flavour model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964.
In this paper we show that this is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is
defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation.
This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic
and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong
interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in
Quantum Chromodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[547] **viXra:1410.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 13:34:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Work in progress.

According to the seesaw mechanism, neutrino masses arise from the existence of heavy Majorana neutrinos postulated to emerge near the grand unification scale (GUT) of about 10^16 GeV. Despite its theoretical appeal, this scenario involves either physics at inaccessible scales or tuning the Yukawa couplings to un-naturally low values. Our work sidesteps the seesaw mechanism and shows that neutrino masses follow from placing the Standard Model on a spacetime support equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[546] **viXra:1410.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 14:56:59*

**Authors:** Jaidev B. Parmar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

CPT theorem is reinterpreted in the context of commonly observed phenomenon and
extrapolated to explain the Baryogenesis in the early Universe that has led to the observed
Baryon Asymmetry in the present Universe. Anti-neutron matter is proposed as a suitable
candidate for Dark Matter WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) at the Galactic
centers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[545] **viXra:1410.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:18:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[544] **viXra:1410.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:23:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[543] **viXra:1410.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:13:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The finding that electrons and muons aren’t produced equally in certain particle decays may hint at a crack in the standard model.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[542] **viXra:1410.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 14:32:23*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress

The experimental discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has effectively disqualified all Higgs-less models developed prior to July 2012. Today, despite its conclusive validation, the Higgs sector of the Standard Model (SM) remains a largely uncharted territory. This raises the following question: Are there any hidden insights brought up by Higgs-less models that can still be beneficial for the on-going research in particle physics? Pursuing this thought, we re-examine here Moffat’s scenario based on a finite electroweak Lagrangian built outside the Higgs paradigm. Unlike the original proposal, we place the model on a spacetime support equipped with minimal fractality. In doing so, we find that the theory is perturbatively well-behaved at large scattering cross-sections and that it gracefully connects with the conventional formulation of the SM in the limit of vanishing fractality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[541] **viXra:1410.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 10:19:18*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that in a quantum theory over a Galois field, the famous Dirac's result about antiparticles is generalized such that a particle and its antiparticle are already combined at the level of irreducible representations of the symmetry algebra without assuming the existence of a local covariant
equation. We argue that the very existence of antiparticles is a strong indication that nature is described by a finite field rather than by complex numbers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[540] **viXra:1410.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-03 16:53:32*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The difference between two consecutive prime Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes is defined as the distance between the primes KK modes. We study the statistical properties of the distances and their
increments (the difference between two consecutive distances) for a sequence comprising the first 10^7 prime KK modes. The information entropy production for prime KK modes may open a window for extra dimensions ruled out by experiments.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[539] **viXra:1410.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-02 15:45:02*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A 7.1 keV dark matter fermion in partnership with a 35 GeV scalar WIMP would join the electron, the up quark and their previously hypothesised supersymmetric partners in a spectacular arrangement on the mass levels of the Supersymmetric Planck Model. All three partnerships are arranged symmetrically about the precise centre, at the scale of 16 MeV, of a symmetrical pattern of coincident mass levels that extends over 35 orders of magnitude. The implied dynamical supersymmetry-breaking scale lambda coincides with coincident mass levels at the centre of another symmetrical pattern. The investigation has revealed new evidence of quark-lepton symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[538] **viXra:1410.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 08:13:45*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our universe’s eight permanent matter particles are the: up quark, down quark, electron, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, tau-neutrino, zino, and photino. The zino and photino are dark matter particles. Each of these eight permanent matter particles has an associated supersymmetric Higgs force. The sum of the eight Higgs force energies of these eight permanent matter particles is dark energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[537] **viXra:1409.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 17:55:16*

**Authors:** John R. Springer

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Confirmation of HERA Experiments

Experiments performed at the HERA Ring Accelerator, Hamburg, Germany, have provided “A New View of the Proton as Seen by HERA”1 which shows that the “new” proton contains not just three quarks but a large number of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons. A model is presented here which confirms this. It shows that quarks exist only as triads and anti-triads, not as single isolated quark- antiquark pairs. The triads and anti-triads (TAT) are all paired together with exception of one uud, the valence triad.
The model confirms that precisely 8 gluons exist in each uud and u- u- d- structure. However, in the pairing process, 9 gluons of negative energy are required for each TAT pair.
The model shows that although precise mass cannot be assigned to either quarks or gluons, it can be assigned to each gluon/quark pair and to each (of many) quark triads and anti-triads, which ultimately add up accurately to the proton mass.
Finally, the model has been expanded to include the structure and mass of the neutron and stable mesons. It also proposes a quark (without gluons) structure for the lower leptons. Thus, all particles found in nature may have a quark structure in this model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[536] **viXra:1409.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 12:55:14*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 07pages, 08 references

We propose two kinds of least action principles. The first one is defined in a periodic time, and when applied to creation and annihilation of particle pairs, leads to the formula for the de Broglie frequency. The second one is defined in a double-time’s metric, namely: the longitudinal and transverse (related to the discreteness of the space) times. If applied to a problem dealing with the fluctuations of the metric, this second principle permit us to infer a coherence time. We interpret this as the neutron decay time, where we take the fluctuation in the kinetic energy as being the difference between the mass-energy of the neutron minus the sum of the mass-energies of the proton and electron. The neutron decay time evaluated in this way, does not make any explicit reference to the weak interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[535] **viXra:1409.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 18:27:55*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Work in progress

This brief note points out that fractal spacetimes having minimal deviations from integer dimensionality naturally lead to the emergence of fractional magnetic charges. Although these are un-observable at energy scales significantly lower than the electroweak scale, their cumulative contribution may become relevant for charge quantization according to Dirac’s theory of magnetic monopoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[534] **viXra:1409.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 07:31:22*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is most disconcerting that the Standard Model of particle physics defines, as fundamental a quantity as the electric charge, only conventionally and arbitrarily. We look into the nature of this conventionality
and try to find an underlying structure to it. This brings in the Higgs field in a non-trivial manner, which points as to how the above arbitrariness and conventionality may be avoided.
Next, the same is demonstrated as actually being part of the intrinsic mathematical structure of the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[533] **viXra:1409.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 16:17:38*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[532] **viXra:1409.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 11:35:16*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Starting from first principles and general assumptions based on the energy-momentum relation of the Special Theory of Relativity we present a novel wave equation for ultrarelativistic matter. This wave equation arises when particles satisfy the condition, $p>>m$, i.e, when the energy-momentum relation can be approximated by, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^{2}}{2p}$. Interestingly enough, such as the Dirac equation, it is found that this wave equation includes spin in a natural way. Furthermore, the free solutions of this wave equation contain plane waves that are completely equivalent to those of the theory of neutrino oscillations. Therefore, the theory reproduces some standard results of the Dirac theory in the limit $p>>m$, but offers the possibility of an explicit Lorentz Invariance Violation of order, $\mathcal{O}((mc)^{4}/p^{2})$. As a result, the theory could be useful to test small departures from Dirac equation and Lorentz Invariance at very high energies. On the other hand, the wave equation can also describe particles of spin 1 by a simple substitution of the spin operators, $\boldsymbol{\sigma}\rightarrow\boldsymbol{\alpha}$. In addition, it naturally admits a Lagrangian formulation and a Hamiltonian formalism. We also discuss the associated conservation laws that arise through the symmetry transformations of the Lagrangian.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[531] **viXra:1408.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 06:59:09*

**Authors:** Bakhmetov Sergey Petrovich

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

В теории даны определения для гравитационного, электромагнитного и ядерного взаимодействий, постоянной тонкой структуры, удельной энергии связи, черной дыры. Представлены геометрические модели для электрона, протона, нейтрона, ядра атома дейтерия, п - мезона, м - мезона. Найдены численные значения для постоянной тонкой структуры и отношения массы протона, нейтрона, п - мезона, м - мезона к массе электрона.
In theory, given the definition of the gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear interactions, the fine structure constant, the specific binding energy of the black hole. Shows the geometric model for the electron, proton, neutron, nucleus of an atom of deuterium, n - meson, m - meson. Found numerical values for the fine structure constant and the ratio of the mass of the proton, neutron, n - meson, m - meson to the mass of the electron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[530] **viXra:1408.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 01:11:08*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 52 pages

A new wave equation is proposed to calculate subatomic particle energies, including rest mass, photon absorption and emission, and annihilation properties. It is suggested that this wave equation is the link between classical and quantum equations, and shows the derivation of such equations, including relativity. Evidence in support of a wave equation is presented in this paper by accurately calculating the energy of lepton particles, the hydrogen spectral series and the ionization energies for elements from hydrogen to calcium. This paper also proposes that a fundamental particle is the building block for all other subatomic particles and is validated by the new wave equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[529] **viXra:1408.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 05:38:43*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Yang–Mills Theory coupled to Gravitation is found, using the 6d spaces [1], f-matrices which are doublets of gamma matrices and spin-vectors. Lagrangians for the fermion sector with internal symmetry G=SU(4) coupled to Gravitation, and the scalar sector with quadratic potentials are derived. Calculations given for Higgs bare mass 125.3GeV, Dark matter scalar particle mass 41.8GeV, the cosmological constant 1.15e-52 m-2, Top quark mass 172.7GeV, Higgs VEV 246.2GeV. Inflaton field is a negative complex potential. Electric charges of quarks and leptons are determined. Matter-antimatter asymmetry is resolved. Symmetry breaking of G results in QCD SU(3), QED U(1), and Chiral Electroweak group SU(2)xU(1) is an emergent interaction are the only other gauge groups acting on 3 generations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[457] **viXra:1412.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-17 22:33:38*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Sections 6 and 7 are new in v2.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement / twist applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[456] **viXra:1411.0566 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-27 21:14:29*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[455] **viXra:1411.0501 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-26 21:15:43*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put the causes and mechanism for unstable atomic nucleus has radioactivity

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[454] **viXra:1411.0501 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-23 01:34:43*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward the causes and mechanism of radioactivity of unstable nucleus

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[453] **viXra:1411.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-19 20:33:56*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The “naturalness” problem stands out as one of the deepest mysteries of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and cosmology. A vast array of proposals on how to tackle this challenge has been advanced over the years with no compelling experimental evidence and no major breakthrough. In this brief report we re-emphasize that the onset of the minimal fractal manifold near or above the electroweak scale provides a straightforward resolution of this problem.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[452] **viXra:1411.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-09 21:50:46*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 71 Pages. Version 2 contains miscellaneous minor editorial revisions

In several previous publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses with commensurately high precision from the tightly-known Q=0 empirical electron mass and the neutron minus proton mass difference. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This paper systematically pulls all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[451] **viXra:1410.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 19:49:13*

**Authors:** Jaidev B. Parmar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

CPT theorem is reinterpreted in the context of commonly observed phenomenon of free neutron
beta decay and extrapolated to explain the Baryogenesis in the early Universe that has led to
the observed Baryon Asymmetry in the present Universe. Anti-neutron and Protonium are
proposed as a suitable Dark Matter WIMP candidates. Anti-neutrons are proposed as the basic
components from which Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) at the Galactic centers are formed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[450] **viXra:1409.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-20 21:39:58*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Work in progress.

This brief note points out that classical Maxwell equations on fractal distributions can accommodate fractional magnetic charges. Although these fractional objects are un-observable at energy scales significantly lower than the electroweak scale, their cumulative contribution may become relevant for charge quantization in Dirac’s theory of magnetic monopoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[449] **viXra:1409.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 22:57:49*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (the so-called minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[448] **viXra:1409.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-10 15:40:24*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (the so-called minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[447] **viXra:1409.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-12 15:41:06*

**Authors:** Ginés R. Pérez Teruel

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Starting from first principles and general assumptions based on the energy-momentum relation of the Special Theory of Relativity we present a novel wave equation for ultrarelativistic matter. This wave equation arises when particles satisfy the condition, $p>>m$, i.e, when the energy-momentum relation can be approximated by, $E\simeq p+\frac{m^{2}}{2p}$. Interestingly enough, such as the Dirac equation, it is found that this wave equation includes spin in a natural way. Furthermore, the free solutions of this wave equation contain plane waves that are completely equivalent to those of the theory of neutrino oscillations. Therefore, the theory reproduces some standard results of the Dirac theory in the limit $p>>m$, but offers the possibility of an explicit Lorentz Invariance Violation of order, $\mathcal{O}((mc)^{4}/p^{2})$. As a result, the theory could be useful to test small departures from Dirac equation and Lorentz Invariance at very high energies. On the other hand, the wave equation can also describe particles of spin 1 by a simple substitution of the spin operators, $\boldsymbol{\sigma}\rightarrow\boldsymbol{\alpha}$. In addition, it naturally admits a Lagrangian formulation and a Hamiltonian formalism. We also discuss the associated conservation laws that arise through the symmetry transformations of the Lagrangian.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[446] **viXra:1408.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-28 00:26:05*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 53 pages

A new wave equation is proposed to calculate subatomic particle energies, including rest mass, photon absorption and emission, and annihilation properties. It is suggested that this wave equation is the link between classical and quantum equations, and shows the derivation of such equations, including relativity. Evidence in support of a wave equation is presented in this paper by accurately calculating the energy of lepton particles, the hydrogen spectral series and the ionization energies for elements from hydrogen to calcium. This paper also proposes that a fundamental particle is the building block for all other subatomic particles and is validated by the new wave equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics