High Energy Particle Physics

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(7) - 0703(6) - 0704(2) - 0706(4) - 0708(1) - 0710(1) - 0712(1)
2008 - 0802(2) - 0803(1) - 0809(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)
2009 - 0904(1) - 0907(9) - 0908(5) - 0909(4) - 0910(7) - 0911(10) - 0912(5)
2010 - 1001(4) - 1002(3) - 1003(13) - 1004(4) - 1005(4) - 1006(2) - 1007(3) - 1008(7) - 1009(6) - 1010(5) - 1011(5) - 1012(8)
2011 - 1102(5) - 1103(15) - 1104(4) - 1105(3) - 1106(2) - 1107(3) - 1108(6) - 1109(8) - 1110(9) - 1111(11) - 1112(5)
2012 - 1201(13) - 1202(6) - 1203(7) - 1204(5) - 1205(4) - 1206(8) - 1207(6) - 1208(14) - 1209(4) - 1210(12) - 1211(6) - 1212(14)
2013 - 1301(12) - 1302(15) - 1303(7) - 1304(7) - 1305(9) - 1306(10) - 1307(11) - 1308(11) - 1309(16) - 1310(12) - 1311(7) - 1312(13)
2014 - 1401(13) - 1402(18) - 1403(10) - 1404(20) - 1405(15) - 1406(14) - 1407(5) - 1408(15) - 1409(5) - 1410(12) - 1411(11) - 1412(15)
2015 - 1501(7) - 1502(12) - 1503(13) - 1504(11) - 1505(21) - 1506(5) - 1507(24) - 1508(21) - 1509(11) - 1510(5) - 1511(20) - 1512(7)
2016 - 1601(16) - 1602(15) - 1603(13) - 1604(13) - 1605(11) - 1606(17) - 1607(17) - 1608(21) - 1609(19) - 1610(24) - 1611(18) - 1612(15)
2017 - 1701(22) - 1702(10) - 1703(13) - 1704(21) - 1705(17) - 1706(16) - 1707(15) - 1708(17) - 1709(17) - 1710(14) - 1711(5) - 1712(18)
2018 - 1801(12) - 1802(20) - 1803(18) - 1804(7) - 1805(23) - 1806(30) - 1807(24) - 1808(20) - 1809(26) - 1810(15) - 1811(21) - 1812(10)
2019 - 1901(25) - 1902(20) - 1903(28) - 1904(25) - 1905(28) - 1906(23) - 1907(19) - 1908(25) - 1909(19) - 1910(24) - 1911(19) - 1912(9)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1584] viXra:1912.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 10:00:44

Accelerators Clean the Environment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

All that was needed was some intrepid scientist or engineer to come up with an accelerator that was cost-effective, compact and user-friendly enough to clean wastewater on an industrial scale. [43] Electrical engineers in the accelerator physics group at TU Darmstadt have developed a design for a laser-driven electron accelerator so small it could be produced on a silicon chip. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1583] viXra:1912.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 13:01:42

Proton-Hydrogen Collision Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

The motions of plasmas may be notoriously difficult to model, but they can be better understood by analysing what happens when protons are scattered by atoms of hydrogen. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] “Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1582] viXra:1912.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:10:56

Strong Lasers Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

During nuclear fusion two atomic nuclei fuse into one new nucleus. In the lab this can be done by particle accelerators, when researchers use fusion reactions to create fast free neutrons for other experiments. [15] A new 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation tool developed by researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and CEA Saclay is enabling cutting-edge simulations of laser/plasma coupling mechanisms that were previously out of reach of standard PIC codes used in plasma research. [14] Researchers from Osaka University have developed a technique for improving accuracy of laser beam shaping and wavefront obtained by conventional methods with no additional cost by optimizing virtual phase grating. [13]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1581] viXra:1912.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 14:23:18

Alternate Models of Some of the Leptons

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is shown here that the three leptons, the electron, the muon and the tau, appear to not be fundamental as declared by the Standard Model of Particle Physics, but are, instead, made of component particles. Electron-like particles here dubbed beta electrons and beta positron make up muons and free electrons. Muons are made of 103 beta electron-beta positron pairs plus a valence beta electron or beta positron surrounding a muon neutrino or antineutrino. The electron is beta electron orbiting an electron neutrino and the positron, a beta positron orbiting an electron antineutrino. The tau also appears to be beta electrons and beta positrons surrounding a tau neutrino or antineutrino; however, a definitive model is not offered here. Consequently, all three leptons and their antiparticles appear to be made of the beta electrons and positrons and their respective neutrinos or antineutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1580] viXra:1912.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 12:14:26

The Particles Inside the Proton

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 10 Pages.

It shows here that the results of the electron-proton deep inelastic scattering experiments can be interpreted to show that the proton and the neutron are made of eight pions. The experiments also appear to show that the pions are made of electrons and positrons. Consequently, the proton appears to be made of 917 electrons and 918 positrons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1579] viXra:1912.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 04:36:49

Why Are there Three Generations of Quarks, Leptons, and Neutrinos?

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Three generations of quarks, leptons, and neutrinos can be related to the three vectors of three-dimensional space. Based on charge relativity, charge is due to spacetime torsion. However, the spacetime torsion will have three forms based on x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis. Three generations of quarks, leptons, and neutrinos will be related to the three axes of spacetime torsion. And, decaying into one axis of spacetime torsion will help to align the interaction force field due to spacetime torsion. Thus, it explains why there are three generations of quarks, leptons, and neutrinos. And, only one generation is most stable and constitutes the majority of atoms to universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1578] viXra:1912.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 04:37:43

Laser Beams Meet Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

New research from the University of Rochester will enhance the accuracy of computer models used in simulations of laser-driven implosions. [39] By using an infrared laser beam to induce a phenomenon known as an electron avalanche breakdown near the material, the new technique is able to detect shielded material from a distance. [38] The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why. [37] In a new review, researchers have described the fundamental physics that causes magnetoelectricity from a theoretical viewpoint. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1577] viXra:1912.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:15:03

Controlling Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The success of ALPHA and ASACUSA has also inspired a new generation of antimatter experiments. [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1576] viXra:1912.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 02:51:54

Neutrino Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

If it turns out that neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillate in a different way from one another, this may partially account for the present-day matter–antimatter imbalance. [21] Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1575] viXra:1911.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 07:54:46

Evidence for the Generation of Baryons from Electromagnetic Instabilities of the Vacuum from a Comparison with Energetic Cosmic Rays Data for Protons.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 14 Pages. 3 figures

Following previous work, we present a field-theoretical treatment in which baryons are generated from perturbations of magnetodynamic origin built upon a background sea of excitations located by the model at 3.7 GeV. A Zeta-function regularization procedure previously adopted for the Casimir Effect is applied to account for the infinite range of the excitations spectrum, and states of negative energy compared to the background state( in the physical form of vortices) are obtained to represent the baryons. A prediction of this theory is that if the energy difference of 2.7 GeV between the vacuum background energy level and a proton rest energy is surpassed by energetic protons, such particles might not be detected since the vortices would become unstable. In reality, a marked decrease in the flux of cosmic rays protons is observed beyond 2.7GeV kinetic energies. Such results gives support to the existence of a vacuum energy state at 3.7 GeV, but the fact that protons are still observed in small amounts even at extremely high energies cannot fit in the simple vortex picture. We argue that at very high energies the binding interactions between individual constituents inside protons not considered in the vortex picture become relevant and this determines the survival of part of the protons in the rays.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1574] viXra:1911.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 13:23:34

Hypothetical X17 Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new paper from the same team, led by Attila Krasznahorkay at the Atomki institute in Hungary, now reports another anomaly, in a similar nuclear transition, that could also be explained by the same hypothetical particle. [28] These new subatomic particles could either be made of six heavy quarks (charm and bottom) or heavy and strange quarks. [27] Argonne scientists look to 3-D printing to ease separation anxiety, which paves the way to recycle more nuclear material. [26] Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1573] viXra:1911.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 07:21:22

Heating Plasma by Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

When you cool the edge of the plasma by injecting impurities, what every standard theory and intuition would tell you is that a cold pulse propagates in, so that eventually the core temperature will drop as well. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1572] viXra:1911.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 05:34:22

Proton Radius Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Instead, it involves smashing electrons into protons at nearly the speed of light, then measuring how far the electrons travel when they bounce off, or scatter, from the protons. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1571] viXra:1911.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 09:54:22

Fifth Fundamental Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The fifth force could exist, but we haven't found it yet. What we do know is that the Standard Model doesn't entirely add up, and that means some very interesting discoveries are waiting to be found. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1570] viXra:1911.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 10:13:53

ATLAS Quark-Gluon Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

A key process examined by ATLAS Experiment physicists involves the annihilation of photons into pairs of oppositely charged muons. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1569] viXra:1911.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 13:39:28

Framework for Baryon Asymmetry and Supergravity Models

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 7 Pages.

A previous composite particle scenario based on unbroken global supersymmetry is extended to five dimensions as a proposal for a unified model of matter and interactions. It is proposed that the strong and weak interactions decouple at the fundamental UV level of particle theory. A preon scenario for baryon and lepton asymmetry is presented. With local supersymmetry one arrives at supergravity as a framework for phenomenological model development towards UV finite theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1568] viXra:1911.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 03:04:42

Upper Limit on Neutrino Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

An international team of researchers has used a new spectrometer to find and set an upper limit for the mass of a neutrino. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos-the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe-have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1567] viXra:1911.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 23:22:04

Some Problems About The Neutrino Oscillation And New Explanation For The Neutrino Observations

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 8 Pages.

We review the neutrino oscillation and find some problems about it. The original theory predicts the mass differences existing on three kinds of neutrino. However, one neutrino transfers to another and then transfers back to itself again that causes the mass non-conservation if no external energy or mass participates in the transferring process. It also violates one of the conservations of energy and momentum. Furthermore, the speeds of neutrinos before and after transfer must be different that results in self-acceleration and deceleration. Even the Lorentz violation is proposed in the standard model extension, the all other originally elementary particles predicting by the standard model will lose their criteria. After reviewing the results of Super-Kamiokande Collaboration and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, both results strongly imply the ratio of number between three kinds of neutrinos is νe:νμ:ντ=1:1:1. According to this, we propose a new explanation for the observation data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1566] viXra:1911.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 17:32:58

The Marked Decrease of Protons Flux in Cosmic Rays Beyond 3 Gev Kinetic Energy Analyzed Through a Vortex Model for the Proton.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 3 Pages.

We analyze available data for cosmic rays protons below 10 GeV and find evidence for instability of these particles as their kinetic energy increases beyond about 3 GeV, as expected from our recent model [1] which proposes a parent state at about 3.7 GeV from which protons would condense in the form of flux-confining vortices. As the kinetic energy increases such vortex states lose stability compared to the parent, and thus protons of higher energy become very rare in cosmic rays.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1565] viXra:1911.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 02:33:53

The Magnetic Moment of the Lee Particle

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 22 Pages. original article

The Lee model of the unstable particle V going to N + Θ, where N-particle is considered charged and Θ−particle uncharged, is inserted into electromagnetic field. While the Θ−particle propagates undisturbed, the N-particle is deflected by the extended photon source. The result of such process is the additional magnetic moment of the Lee particle. The Schwinger source theory is employed to present the calculation of the magnetic moment of the Lee model of the unstable particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1564] viXra:1911.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 10:27:13

Mass of the W Boson as Threshold Energy in Electroweak Interactions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The W and Z bosons are the normal particles that masses follow from weak interactions of pions and leptons. In reality, the weak interactions are defined by the scalar condensates in centres of fermions. Here we show that to produce the scalar condensate in centre of the baryons, involved energy must be equal to or higher than mass of the W boson.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1563] viXra:1911.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 08:28:30

Particle Beam Instability

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

The more intense the beams, the more easily scientists can examine the object they are looking at. But intensity comes with a cost: the more intense the beams, the more they become prone to instabilities. [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1562] viXra:1911.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 07:29:08

The Ferent Mechanism Gives the Electron Mass, not the Wrong Higgs Mechanism

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 455 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“The Ferent mechanism gives the electron Mass, not the wrong Higgs mechanism” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass and electric charge” Adrian Ferent “The Dark electron gives mass to the electron” Adrian Ferent “Because the Ferent mechanism gives Mass to elementary particles, the Higgs mechanism is wrong and the Higgs boson is an unimportant particle” Adrian Ferent You learned from scientists, Nobel Laureates, your professors… that the Higgs boson is a special particle, ‘the God particle’, because it is the manifestation of the Higgs field, that gives mass to elementary particles like electrons, quarks…that cannot be broken into smaller parts. I discovered that: “The electron is not an elementary particle, because it is composed of a Photon and a Dark electron” Adrian Ferent Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam included the wrong Higgs mechanism into modern particle physics and is an essential part of the Standard Model. I discovered that: “The Standard Model is wrong because the electron is not an elementary particle, and it does not include Dark Matter particles” Adrian Ferent 2013 Nobel Prize in physics was a fraud because: François Englert and Peter Higgs did not discover a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles! “The reaction of the Swedish Academy to Higgs boson discovery appears to be a result of being beguiled by CERN’s attempts to justify the billions of dollars of public money being spent.“ The same thing with LIGO, one billion of dollars of public money being spent and zero results! Another fraud was the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything. In Ferent Quantum Gravity, LIGO is a fraud. Since they received the Nobel Prize they did not detect gravitational waves, because: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent “Einstein did not understand Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons” Adrian Ferent The mass generation mechanism is a theory that describes the origin of mass. The mass generation mechanism is one of the most burning problem of the modern particle physics. The problem is complex because the primary role of mass is to mediate gravitational interaction between bodies. “Ferent Quantum Gravity explains how mass mediates gravitational interaction between bodies, with Matter and Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent The Higgs mechanism doesn't explain the source of any masses, the Higgs mechanism is not a mechanism for generating mass. The Higgs boson does not give other particles mass; the Higgs boson is a quantized manifestation of a Higgs field that not generates mass through its interaction with other particles. Particles drag through the Higgs field by exchanging virtual Higgs particles with it. How scientists explain how elementary particles get their masses, with syrup and honey: Except for massless photons and gluons, "all elementary particles get their masses from their interactions with the [Higgs] field, kind of like being 'slowed down' by passing through a thick syrup" “The Higgs field is likened to a rich and creamy soup, or maybe a dense and heavy fog, or even a vat of thick and goopy honey… impeding the free travel of carefree electrons and quarks.” “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent That is why: “The electrons contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than electrons mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “The Ferent mechanism: the interaction energy of gravitons emitted by Dark Matter gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about elementary particles is wrong; because you learned about elementary particles without Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the mass generation mechanism is caused by an internal field the Gravitational field; in Higgs mechanism, there is an external field, the Higgs field.” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity is right, because were only few Higgs boson detected, with very short life, that is why the Higgs field is not like syrup or honey and that is why the Higgs mechanism is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Physics is much more complicated than you learned it, with Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Because the Ferent mechanism gives Mass to elementary particles, the Higgs mechanism is wrong and the Higgs boson is an unimportant particle” Adrian Ferent “I explained Particle physics with Dark Matter from Ferent Quantum Gravity” Adrian Ferent “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “When the photons were created, the photons with the energy 0.5 MeV and the Dark Matter electrons created the electrons” Adrian Ferent “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent “The Spin of the electron is the Orbital angular momentum of the photon within the electron” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent “The electron equation:” Adrian Ferent Where Ψ is the wave function of the electron. “I discovered what the electron is, because I discovered what Dark Matter is” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass and electric charge” Adrian Ferent “The Dark electron gives mass to the electron” Adrian Ferent “The Ferent mechanism gives the electron Mass, not the wrong Higgs mechanism” Adrian Ferent 272. I am the first who discovered that the Ferent mechanism gives the electron Mass, not the wrong Higgs mechanism 273. I am the first who discovered that the photon confined inside the electron has mass 274. I am the first who discovered that the photon confined inside the electron has mass and electric charge 275. I am the first who discovered that the Ferent mechanism gives Mass to elementary particles and the Higgs mechanism is wrong and the Higgs boson is an unimportant particle 276. I am the first who discovered that the Dark electron gives mass to the electron
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1561] viXra:1911.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 09:36:29

Unified Theory W-En..1

Authors: Vladimir Pastushenko
Comments: 1 Page. Unified theory w-EN..1

Unified theory w-EN..1
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1560] viXra:1911.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 01:39:07

Smaller Proton Radius

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

Using the first new method in half a century for measuring the size of the proton via electron scattering, the PRad collaboration has produced a new value for the proton's radius in an experiment conducted at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1559] viXra:1911.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 10:28:44

The Exact Mass of Tau Lepton

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The predicted within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the exact mass of the tau lepton is 1776.833 MeV. It is consistent with experimental result: 1776.86 +- 0.12 MeV. We claim that higher accuracy of measurement should give a result with the central value closer to the SST value.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1558] viXra:1911.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 12:05:14

Minimal Fractal Manifold and the Dual Nature of Dark Matter

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 6 Pages.

As of today, the nature of Dark Matter (DM) remains controversial. Broadly speaking, there are two major schools of thought on the topic. While the first school considers DM to be an extrapolation of particle physics, the second one asserts that DM is a signature of gravitational phenomena. The basic tenet of the second school of thought is that DM can be explained away either through revisions of General Relativity (GR), through its inherent nonlinearity or by deploying non-traditional interpretations of GR. The goal of this brief note is to point out that DM and gravitational physics may no longer be mutually exclusive, but complementary manifestations of the same reality. Elaborating from the minimal fractality of spacetime above the Fermi scale - along with its quaternion formulation - we suggest that DM can replicate the contribution of gravitational nonlinearities on galactic scales.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1557] viXra:1911.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 04:38:08

On Quantum Field Theory and Gravitation

Authors: Paul R. Gerber
Comments: 9 Pages. Would also fit in category "Quantum Gravity (and String Theory)"

Quantum Field Theory is derived from the relativistic symmetry group, the Lorentz group (LG). Results presented here aim at a basic understanding rather then at treating specific systems. They include: • Categorizing field types in terms of irreducible representations of the LG (infinitely many) • A particular field type, "bosonic quark”, yielding a meson-type candidate for dark matter • Structure of spinor-type fields as 4-vector amplitudes • Flavor as consequence of the permutation group S3 for the three space dimensions • Spin-dynamics equations for general spinor types (spin propagation), yielding phase speeds smaller then one, for spin 1 upwards • Consequently, no free field solutions for spin 1 upwards (asymptotic freedom) • Identification of interaction as propagation of fields of equal transformation type (phase speed) • Gravitation as a consequence of the square-root-density (sqd) nature of fields (density-mediated propagation) • The gravitational field is the scalar field which is the only field that is affected by Lorentz transformations exclusively through its sqd property.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1556] viXra:1910.0644 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 09:32:44

What is an Electron?

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 5 Pages. Wave - particle duality elegantly incorporates kinetic energy in direction of movement (as particle in the direction of movement) and kinetic energy against directions of movement (as wave against the spread of direction of movement).

. In the present paper we show, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino , muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . What is an electron? An electron is a particle, that leaves a wave in the transmission medium.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1555] viXra:1910.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 09:36:26

Some Problems About CP Violation In The Neutral Kaon Decay

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 4 Pages.

The CP violation concluded from the neutral Kaon decays in 1964 causes our curiosity about whether it is true. The experimentally observed particles are K1 and K2 which experiences 2π decay in the former and 3π in the latter. In our new explanation, the long-lived KL is more like the linear superposition of both K1 and K2 states because the 2π decay events are indeed originated from K1 and CP violation doesn’t take place on K2. Besides, the estimations of K1’s and K2’s average lifetimes have to include the data in 1964 which may result in significant corrections.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1554] viXra:1910.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 10:26:58

Relations for Massive Spinors

Authors: Clemens Heuson
Comments: 8 pages, no figures

Recently introduced massive spinors are written as 2-vectors consisting of two massless spinors with opposite helicities. With this notation a couple of relations between them can be derived easily, entirely avoiding the spinor indices. The high energy limit of three point amplitudes is discussed shortly. Finally we add some comments on recursion relations with massive particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1553] viXra:1910.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 04:10:20

Better Accelerators Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

A staff scientist at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Palczewski has been awarded a DOE Early Career Research Program grant to put the science back into particle accelerator preparation. [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1552] viXra:1910.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 05:55:29

A Brief Analysis of the Research Scheme of the Cyclotron Radiation from a Single Electron (In Chinese)

Authors: DING Jian
Comments: Pages.

The experiments of Project 8 have been excellent, but the expected goals still difficult to achieve. So much so that some of the results at your fingertips were also missing. In view of this, the focus of this article is to clarify several easy confused concepts. Only in this way, we can reasonably explain the experimental data. The main points are as follows: 1. The value c of the light speed in vacuum and a particle with zero static mass, both of which do not exist in the reality. That is to say, the so-called a photon's static mass is equal to zero but has energy, which is a paradox that confuses two different definitional domains. 2. In the reality, photons are high-speed particles generated by electromagnetic radiation. They must have the characteristics of (static) mass, energy and wave, in order to describe the main body to aim at photons from different angles. 3. After any main body comes into being electromagnetic radiation, its static mass will inevitably decrease accordingly. 4. The charge-mass ratio of an electron is a physical constant, which is the ratio of its charge to the amount of matter, and is not affected by relativistic effects and electromagnetic radiation. 5. The uncertainty of moving electrons is caused by random electromagnetic radiations. Finally, it is pointed out that if the cyclotron frequency of a single electron is measured, and at the same time, its de Broglie wavelength or frequency can also be measured, then its static mass can be obtained. Even so, the expected goals are still difficult to achieve, because random electromagnetic radiations are always taking away continually the matter composition of the single electron being measured. However, this was precisely a result of the research obtained by Project 8, and had universality, which should be reflect on
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1551] viXra:1910.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 02:31:51

Magnetic Reconnection in Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Researchers will next compare these simulations with magnetic reconnection in small-scale laboratory experiments at PPPL to validate the approximations used in the model. [43] Magnetic reconnection, a process in which magnetic field lines tear and come back together, releasing large amounts of kinetic energy, occurs throughout the universe. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1550] viXra:1910.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 02:56:34

LHC Consolidation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A plethora of upgrade and maintenance work is also being carried out in the tunnel on all the equipment, from the cryogenics system to the vacuum, beam instrumentation and technical infrastructures. [31] The proposal envisages a new 100km circumference tunnel that would be bored through the Earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside. [30] On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1549] viXra:1910.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 08:38:35

Speedy Ions in Fusion Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

A team at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility recently took a different approach to studying these difficult-to-measure particles. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1548] viXra:1910.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 09:51:29

Pesky Waves in Fusion Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Without this detailed understanding, scientists cannot reliably predict how to effectively heat plasma, affecting the design of fusion facilities and potentially limiting fusion performance in tokamak fusion devices. [43] A team at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility recently took a different approach to studying these difficult-to-measure particles. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1547] viXra:1910.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 10:06:13

Magnetic Island Instabilities

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Fusion reactors operate by confining a "soup" of charged particles, known as a plasma, within powerful magnetic fields. [44] Without this detailed understanding, scientists cannot reliably predict how to effectively heat plasma, affecting the design of fusion facilities and potentially limiting fusion performance in tokamak fusion devices. [43] A team at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility recently took a different approach to studying these difficult-to-measure particles. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1546] viXra:1910.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 12:25:47

World Record Acceleration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

To understand the fundamental nature of our universe, scientists would like to build particle colliders that accelerate electrons and their antimatter counterparts (positrons) to extreme energies (up to tera electron volts, or TeV). [47] Researchers at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility in San Diego have demonstrated a new approach for injecting microwaves into a fusion plasma that doubles the efficiency of a critical technique that could have major implications for future fusion reactors. [46] Most fusion experiments employ either magnetic confinement, which relies on powerful magnetic fields to contain a fusion plasma, or inertial confinement, which uses heat and compression to create the conditions for fusion. [45] Fusion reactors operate by confining a "soup" of charged particles, known as a plasma, within powerful magnetic fields. [44] Without this detailed understanding, scientists cannot reliably predict how to effectively heat plasma, affecting the design of fusion facilities and potentially limiting fusion performance in tokamak fusion devices. [43] A team at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility recently took a different approach to studying these difficult-to-measure particles. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1545] viXra:1910.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 06:59:20

Stable Form of Plutonium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

An international team of scientists, led by the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), have found a new compound of plutonium with an unexpected, pentavalent oxidation state, using the ESRF, the European Synchrotron, Grenoble, France. [50] Platinum has long been used as a catalyst to enable the oxidation reduction reaction at the center of fuel cell technology. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1544] viXra:1910.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-19 21:08:55

Super Quasars ТОКАМАК

Authors: Пастушенко Владимир Александрович
Comments: 6 Pages. http://pva1.mya5.ru/

Here, in the axioms of dynamic space-matter, a unified theory of all mathematical and physical theories is presented, with the possibility of studying the energy levels of the singularity of the set of Rji (n) objects of singularity in the quantum system of OLji (m) coordinates, the dynamic space-matter of the whole Universe. TOKAMAK
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1543] viXra:1910.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-19 05:00:19

A Model of Charmonium (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 7 Pages.

A composite model of charmonium has been developed, based on the logarithmic confinement potential. The quark and antiquark pair orbit around the centre of mass, with their colour fields confined within a toroidal flux-tube of characteristic radius.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1542] viXra:1910.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 07:03:03

A Model of the Proton (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 31 Pages.

A composite model of the proton is developed which satisfies general empirical features. A Yukawa-type potential is incorporated into Einstein's equations of general relativity to predict a hadronic force constant 76.6 times stronger than the fine structure constant. Proton mass is expressed in terms of muonic mass building-blocks. Analysis of the magnetic moment allows substructure modelling wherein creation of component parts is described in terms of action-integrals. The gluon colour field is related to hadronic force and proton energy. Uniqueness of electromagnetic charge is attributed to a governing action principle. A neutron model has been proposed comprising a proton orbited by a heavy-electron. Compatibility with the quarks of the Standard Model has been established regarding interactions between particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1541] viXra:1910.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 12:19:07

Atlas Boost

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

The outer realms of the periodic table, where stable, long-lived isotopes give way to radioactive ions, offer nuclear scientists a unique glimpse into the structure of nuclei and a better understanding of how the different elements in our universe came to be as a result of stellar fusion or supernova explosions. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1540] viXra:1910.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 04:12:36

Explore Unknown Energy Regions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 87 Pages.

State University physicists are using photon-proton collisions to capture particles in an unexplored energy region, yielding new insights into the matter that binds parts of the nucleus together. [48] Scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow have found further confirmation of this assumption, this time, in the high energy collision of protons with protons or lead nuclei. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1539] viXra:1910.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 04:20:42

The Structure and Properties of Elementary Particles

Authors: S. Reucroft, E. G.H.Williams
Comments: 19 Pages.

We have developed simple models of the elementary particles based on the assumption that the particle interior is influenced by just two force fields, gravity and electrostatics. The fundamental particles are electrons, positrons, neutrinos and photons. All the other elementary particles are composed of these fundamental entities. A semi-classical approach is used to obtain simple expressions that give properties all in good agreement with experimental results. This approach is able to make several predictions. For example: All the elementary particles are composed of the particles they decay into. All particles are made of matter. There is no antimatter. The muon is not point-like. It is a composite particle with internal structure. Neutrinos have a small quantity of mass and charge. The neutron also has a small charge determined by the charge of its neutrino. A particle's lifetime is determined by its size relative to its Schwarzschild radius. Single protons should be produced in electron-positron collisions below the two-proton energy threshold.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1538] viXra:1910.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 13:02:57

Einstein Did not Understand Special Theory of Relativity. How to Accelerate Electrons to the Speed of Light

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 439 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Einstein did not understand Special Theory of Relativity. How to accelerate electrons to the speed of light “Einstein, your professors did not understand STR because the photon has the rest mass m0 = 0, and all the particles have m0 > 0, this means the maximum speed for these particles v < c and their m and E will not be infinite” Adrian Ferent “In Einstein equations and theories are singularities, infinite mass and energy, gravitational singularity, because Einstein did not understand Special relativity and Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “The electron is composed of a photon and a Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent “In particle accelerators they accelerate the electric charge, the photon inside the electron with m0 > 0, this means all the time the speed of the electron v < c” Adrian Ferent “What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “To accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent ”In Ferent Quantum Gravity Dark Photons and Gravitons are faster than light” Adrian Ferent “To accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron with Dark Photons or Gravitons” Adrian Ferent “The electron at the speed of light it will be broken down into high energy photon and Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent “Near the Black Holes gravitons accelerate electrons to the speed of light and they break them in high energy photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent The relativistic mass in STR, m is: the rest mass m0 You learned from Einstein, your professors that when v = c, m and E goes to infinity and that’s not physically possible. In particle accelerators scientists try to accelerate electrons to the speed of light. Because the scientists do not understand what the electron is, they do not understand what they doing there. “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “When the photons were created, the photons with the energy 0.5 MeV and the Dark Matter electrons created the electrons” Adrian Ferent “Einstein, your professors did not understand STR because the photon has the rest mass m0 = 0, and all the particles have m0 > 0, this means the maximum speed for these particles v < c and their m and E will not be infinite” Adrian Ferent “In Einstein equations and theories are singularities, infinite mass and energy, gravitational singularity, because Einstein did not understand Special relativity and Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent “The electron is composed of a photon and a Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent “In particle accelerators they accelerate the electric charge, the photon inside the electron with m0 > 0, this means all the time the speed of the electron v < c” Adrian Ferent In 2019 the Nobel Prizes were awarded to scientists who do not understand Dark Matter, to scientists who discovered batteries, to scientists who discovered how cells sense oxygen, nothing at Planck level or beyond! “What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent They started Stealing from Ferent Quantum Gravity: How Dark Matter was created before the Planck wall, How Stars and Planets were formed around Dark Matter… https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.061302 https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.141301 How to accelerate electrons to the speed of light? Because in Ferent Quantum Gravity the electron is composed of a photon and a Dark Matter electron, acting on a photon how I explained it is not possible in particle accelerators. “To accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent ”In Ferent Quantum Gravity Dark Photons and Gravitons are faster than light” Adrian Ferent “To accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron with Dark Photons or Gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent What will happen with the electron at the speed of light? Not the infinite mass and energy how you learned from your professors! “The electron at the speed of light it will be broken down into high energy photon and Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent In Ferent Quantum Gravity: “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Near the Black Holes gravitons accelerate electrons to the speed of light and they break them in high energy photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent I published this article because today is my Birthday! Remembering my Parents on my Birthday! 257. I am the first who discovered that Einstein, your professors did not understand STR because the photon has the rest mass m0 = 0, and all the particles have m0 > 0, this means the maximum speed for these particles v < c and their m and E will not be infinite 258. I am the first who explained that in Einstein equations and theories are singularities, infinite mass and energy, gravitational singularity, because Einstein did not understand Special relativity and Gravitation 259. I am the first who discovered that the electron is composed of a photon and a Dark Matter electron 260. I am the first who discovered that in particle accelerators they accelerate the electric charge, the photon inside the electron with m0 > 0, this means all the time the speed of the electron v < c 261. I am the first who discovered what the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons 262. I am the first who discovered that to accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron 263. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity Dark Photons and Gravitons are faster than light 264. I am the first who discovered that to accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron with Dark Photons or Gravitons 265. I am the first who discovered that the electron at the speed of light it will be broken down into high energy photon and Dark Matter electron 266. I am the first who discovered that near the Black Holes gravitons accelerate electrons to the speed of light and they break them in high energy photons and Dark Matter electrons
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1537] viXra:1910.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 12:34:21

Минимально необходимая локально-нелокальная модель эволюции элементарных частиц и фундаментальных взаимодействий ранней Вселенной

Authors: Vasiliev V. Sergey
Comments: 23 Pages. In Russian

В статье рассматриваются следствия предложенного ранее Ли Смолиным (Lee Smolin) механизма формирования вероятностей в индетерминированнных квантовых процессах. Результатом экстраполяции этих следствий на области физики высоких энергий и физики ранней Вселенной является предложенная в статье модель эволюции элементарных частиц и фундаментальных взаимодействий ранней Вселенной, в которой наблюдаемый сегодня порядок, описываемый Стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц, развивается в несколько этапов с участием дополняющих друг друга локальных и нелокальных процессов. Включение в модель нелокальных квантовых эффектов позволило сделать её полнее других предшественников и непротиворечиво решить в её рамках некоторые, не решённые в полностью локальных теориях, проблемы, такие как: проблема барионной асимметрии; проблема иерархии фермионных масс; проблема калибровочной иерархии фундаментальных взаимодействий; вопрос о природе и происхождении частиц тёмной материи; экспериментально наблюдаемые в распадах мезонов отклонения от предсказаний Стандартной модели и др. Модель хорошо согласуется с экспериментальными данными, лежащими в основе Стандартной модели и выходящими за рамки её предсказательной силы, совместима с теорией инфляционного расширения Вселенной и космологической моделью $\Lambda$CDM и включает некоторые элементы теорий симметрии и суперсимметрии и теории струн.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1536] viXra:1910.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 07:32:30

Top-Quark Mass Variation Measure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

For the first time, CMS physicists have investigated an effect called the "running" of the top quark mass, a fundamental quantum effect predicted by the Standard Model. [31] As the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark has a special place in the physics studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. [30] This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1535] viXra:1910.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 10:14:18

Lagrangian Quantum Mechanics for Indistinguishable Fermions: a Self-Consistent Universe.

Authors: Adri´ an Arancibia Gonz´ alez
Comments: 22 Pages.

This work corresponds to a paradigmatic classical mechanic approach to quantum mechanics and, as a consequence, the paradigm of expanding universe is replaced for a universe of contracting particles which allows explaining the cosmological redshift because as the time progresses the hydrogen atoms absorb smaller wavelengths. Quantum particles are defined as linearly independent indistinguishable normalized classical bi-spinor fields with quartic interactions, this matter allows defining positive energy spectra and to evade the problems with infinities associated with quantization procedure. To have a consistent particle interpretation in each inertial system, a large N approach for the number of fermions must be imposed. The following model, based in dynamical mass generation methods, explains the quark confinement and the hadronic mass behavior in a trivial form and allows the oscillation of low massive neutrinos inside of massive matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1534] viXra:1910.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 10:41:14

More Energy in Proton Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow have found further confirmation of this assumption, this time, in the high energy collision of protons with protons or lead nuclei. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] “Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1533] viXra:1910.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 06:12:17

Cantor Dust as Underlying Texture of Fuzzy Dark Matter

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 2 Pages.

A close connection exists between the recently advanced concept of Fuzzy Dark Matter and Cantor Dust, a dimensional condensate created from the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near or above the Fermi scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1532] viXra:1909.0644 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 08:07:14

Higgs Troika Disappearance Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of researchers from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the University of Kansas has developed a theory to explain why there is so much more matter than antimatter in the universe. [11] Critically, the new results examine two of the Higgs boson decays that led to the particle's discovery in 2012: H→ZZ*→4ℓ, where the Higgs boson decays into two Z bosons, in turn decaying into four leptons (electrons or muons); and H→γγ where the Higgs boson decays directly into two photons. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1531] viXra:1909.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-28 04:23:28

Exotic Radioactive Decay Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Researchers from the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) and TRIUMF (Canada's national particle accelerator) have observed a rare nuclear decay. [22] A hypothetical nuclear process known as neutrinoless double beta decay ought to be among the least likely events in the universe. [21] Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1530] viXra:1909.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 08:34:22

Cooling Superconducting Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Fermilab scientists and engineers have achieved a landmark result in an ongoing effort to design and build compact, portable particle accelerators. [32] The interdisciplinary research team in the departments of physics, astronomy and advanced materials in the U.S. and Japan found the side gates to be highly efficient, allowing them to control carrier density along either edge of the junction across a wide range of magnetic fields. [31] Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1529] viXra:1909.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 08:54:15

Finish Brazil's Particle Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Brazilian scientists are racing against time to finish building a particle accelerator the size of the Maracana football stadium before government funds run out or it is superseded by rival technology. [33] Fermilab scientists and engineers have achieved a landmark result in an ongoing effort to design and build compact, portable particle accelerators. [32] The interdisciplinary research team in the departments of physics, astronomy and advanced materials in the U.S. and Japan found the side gates to be highly efficient, allowing them to control carrier density along either edge of the junction across a wide range of magnetic fields. [31] Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1528] viXra:1909.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 09:25:37

Extremely Rare Nuclear Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A hypothetical nuclear process known as neutrinoless double beta decay ought to be among the least likely events in the universe. [21] Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1527] viXra:1909.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 07:38:24

Rosetta Stone for Neutrino Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

While the eigenvalues are somewhat unavoidably tricky, this new result shows that the eigenvectors can be written down in a simple, compact, and easy-to-remember form, once the eigenvalues are calculated. For this reason, we called the eigenvalues "the Rosetta Stone" for neutrino oscillations in our original publication-once you have them, you know everything you want to know. [28] An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1526] viXra:1909.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 13:43:11

Neutrinos Explain Matter with Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1525] viXra:1909.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 09:03:56

Ultra-Rare Kaon Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

The experiment, led by an international team of scientists, demonstrates a new technique which captures and measures the ultra rare decay of a sub atomic particle called a kaon. [48] A group of scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermilab has figured out how to use quantum computing to simulate the fundamental interactions that hold together our universe. [47] Phonons, or more specifically, surface acoustic wave phonons, are proposed as a method to coherently couple distant solid-state quantum systems. [46] Now a Rochester Institute of Technology researcher has teamed up with experts at the University of Rochester to create a different kind of laser-a laser for sound, using the optical tweezer technique invented by Ashkin. [45]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1524] viXra:1909.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 08:14:27

Crucial Plasma Pressure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

A key requirement for future facilities that aim to capture and control on Earth the fusion energy that drives the sun and stars is accurate predictions of the pressure of the plasma-the hot, charged gas that fuels fusion reactions inside doughnut-shaped tokamaks that house the reactions. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1523] viXra:1909.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 15:34:57

Naturalness Revisited: not Spacetime, But Rather Spacephase

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: Pages.

What defines the boundary of a quantum system is phase coherence, not time coherence. Time is the same for all three spatial degrees of freedom in flat 4D Minkowski spacetime. However, in the quantum mechanics of wavefunctions in 3D space, phases of wavefunction components are not necessarily the same in all three orientations. Consequently, the S-matrix generated by the geometric Clifford product of two 3D wavefunctions exists not in 4D spacetime, but rather in 6D `spacephase'.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1522] viXra:1909.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 09:49:41

Puzzle of Antineutrino's Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

By understanding neutron production in concert with MINERvA's characterization of antineutrino interactions on many nuclei, future oscillation studies can quantify how undetected neutrons could affect their conclusions about the differences between neutrinos and antineutrinos. [28] An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1521] viXra:1909.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:58:00

Mass Estimate for Elusive Neutrino

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1520] viXra:1909.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 00:18:57

Huangzi Theory Outline

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 5 Pages.

Photons are particles moving at the speed of light. They are the source of energy. Atoms are the elements that make up matter. They are the basis of matter. photons collision transforms into photons dust, photons dust combination transforms into atoms, atoms split into photons dust, photons dust collision transforms into photons. Energy and matter achieve cyclic transformation. The theory of energy and material cycle transformation is called Huangzi theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1519] viXra:1909.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 06:55:46

Neutrons Dance in UC Berkeley Campus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

In an underground vault enclosed by six-foot concrete walls and accessed by a rolling, 25-ton concrete-and-steel door, University of California, Berkeley, students are making neutrons dance to a new tune: one better suited to producing isotopes required for geological dating, police forensics, hospital diagnosis and treatment. [30] Polymer gels, a gel type with unique properties, have piqued the interest of researchers because of their potential uses in medical applications. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin-orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1518] viXra:1909.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 12:34:32

Gluon-Dominated Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

New findings from University of Kansas experimental nuclear physicists Daniel Tapia Takaki and Aleksandr (Sasha) Bylinkin were just published in the European Physical Journal C. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] “Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1517] viXra:1909.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 10:51:11

Calculation of the Standard Model Parameters and Particles Based on a Su(4) Preon Model

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 76 Pages.

This paper describes an extension and a new foundation of the Standard Model of particle physics based on a SU(4)-force called hyper-color. The hyper-color force is a generalization of the SU(2)-based weak interaction and the SU(1)-based right-chiral self-interaction, in which the W- and the Z-bosons are Yukawa residual-field-carriers of the hyper-color force, in the same sense as the pions are the residual-field-carriers of the color SU(3) interaction. Using the method of numerical minimization of the SU(4)-Lagrangian based on this model, the masses and the inner structure of leptons, quarks and weak bosons are calculated: the mass results are very close to the experimental values. We calculate also precisely the value of the Cabibbo angle, so the mixing matrices of the Standard model, CKM matrix for quarks and PMNS matrix for neutrinos can also be calculated. In total, we reduce the 28 parameters of the Standard Model to 2 masses and 2 parameters of the hyper-color coupling constant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1516] viXra:1909.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 07:39:26

Understanding Neutrino Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1515] viXra:1909.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 03:41:33

Precise Proton Radius Measure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

York University researchers have made a precise measurement of the size of the proton—a crucial step towards solving a mystery that has preoccupied scientists around the world for the past decade. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] “Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1514] viXra:1909.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 02:45:43

The Non-Abelian Field Current of the Self-Interacting Quantum Electron

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 8 Pages.

Internal degrees of freedoms of the quantum electron (spin and charge) introduced by Dirac lead to the non-Abelian field configuration of the electron in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(3)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS). Such fields represented by the coefficient functions of the local dynamical variables (LDV's) corresponding $SU(4)$ generators of the Poincar\'e group. These generators describe the deformation of the UQS by the dynamical shifts, boosts and rotations. Interaction of this non-Abelian field with the electrodynamics-like gauge field (internal+external) will suppress the divergency of the Jacobi vector field in the vicinity of the ```north pole" in $CP(3)$. Thereby, the stable ``bundle" of the nearby geodesics comprises the lump-like quantum self-interacting electron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1513] viXra:1908.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-28 09:28:10

Balloons for Particle Acceleration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

The innovative use of balloons provides a new, patented way for engineers to shape the metal heart of particle accelerators. [44] When energy is added to uranium under pressure, it creates a shock wave, and even a tiny sample will be vaporized like a small explosion. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1512] viXra:1908.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 05:32:29

“Charm and Beauty Flavour of Neutrinos and Very Probably “colours“ of Neutrino Resonances and Their Helicity Polarisation, Cross Section, Mixing Angles and Non–Abelian Gauge Fields of Neutrinos“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper according to the Author’s insight to the particle physics brings the next new conception and new point of view on neutrinos, their aroma respectively ”flavor” or ”colours”, their resonances, helicity, polarization, cross section, mixing angles, and new maths concept of Non–Abelian Gauge Fields of neutrinos. Aroma or ”flavor” and colour of Non–Zero Masses Particles, called neutrinos, their resonance and interference in ”Deep Inelastic Scattering” of leptons and neutrinos as their leptonic particles mainly of TAUON, Lepton τ (TAU) NEUTRINO IN SLAC (STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR), here in 1967 Wolfgang Panofsky achieved detection of extraordinary high energy of electron and ”superheavy electron” TAUONS RESONANCES APPROXIMATELY ABOUT 18 GeV. Colours of Neutrinos ordered this particles among very similar to quarks, its extraordinary property is connected with Quark–gluons plasma, which “breathes” this super density state of matter, from full empty vacuum, so called The Hidden Energy of Quantum Vacuum. On the Day Theme is: - WHAT ARE IN EMPTY SPACES? - WHAT EASY IS EMPTY SPACE? - DOES ANYTHING EXIST IN A VACUUM STATE? - HOW MUCH OF INNER AND OUTER SPACE IS EMPTY? - IS NOT TRULY EMPTY BUT INSTEAD CONTAINS FLEETING ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVES AND PARTICLES? - THAT POP INTO AND OUT OF THE EXISTENCE. The main idea of the paper is ordered to neutrinos, their aroma “flavor” and colour in intention of YANG–MILLS AND GELL–MANN MURRAY THEORIES, SO CALLED CABIBBO UNIVERSALITY, IT´S MIXING OF C (CHARM OR CHARMONIUM) AND B (BEAUTY OR BOTTOM (BOTTOMIUM)) NEUTRINOS. YANG–MILLS RESPECTIVELY NON–ABELIAN GAUGE FIELDS IS CONNECTED WITH GAUGE FIELDS RESPECTIVELY GAUGE BOSONS (YANG–MILLS FIELDS → QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS IN EARLY 70’S). SITUATION IN YANG–MILLS TRIPLET γ (NEUTRAL PHOTON) W± GAUGE BOSONS (INTERMEDIARY), Z0 (electric neutral Z0 BOSON), Z0 (VECTOR) BOSON. IF WE WANT RETHINK ABOUT NEW EXOTIC FERMUONS TYPE ”SUPERHEAVY” ELECTRON "TAUON RESONANCES” CAN BE DECAYED TO NEW νC (CHARMONIUM NEUTRINO), CREATING “NEUTRINO GAS”, MOVING BETWEEN GAUGE FIELDS – LEFT HANDED VORTEX – (SINISTRAL). νB (BEAUTY NEUTRINO) HAS RIGT DIRECTION VORTEX (DEXTRAL), ACCORDING TO THE QUANTUM BELTS (RIGHT DIRECTION VORTEX DEXTRAL). THESE NEW NEUTRINOS (νC, νB) COULD LEAD TO DISSOLUTION OF PUZZLE PARTICLES OF A STANDARD MODEL (SM), LEADING TO THE NEW SUPER SYMMETRIC PARTNERS MODELS (SUSY). THIS CONCEPT IS DESCRIBED BY VORTEX FREE NEUTRINO NEUTRAL GAS. ALTHOUGH HAVE THESE RESONANCES (VORTEXES) CLEAR LEPTONIC REACTION WITH NEUTRINOS HAVE SMALL CROSS SECTION, CROSS SECTIONS ARE CLEAR WEAK. NEUTRAL STREAMS, WERE DISCOVERED IN YEAR 1973, EXACTLY ON PROCESSES: a) process: ����+��−→����+��− ELASTIC SCATTERING OF MUON NEUTRINO AND ELECTRON. Detected in bubble chamber GARGAMELLE CERN AND IN FERMI NATIONAL LABORATORY (FNAL) U.S.A.. b) process: ����+��−→��̅+���� (Gargamelle CERN)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1511] viXra:1908.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-25 02:27:17

Maximum Mass of Lightest Neutrino

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Neutrinos come in three flavours made up of a mix of three neutrino masses. While the differences between the masses are known, little information was available about the mass of the lightest species until now. [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1510] viXra:1908.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-24 01:58:01

Strong Magnetic Fields with Neutrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have developed a new method with which strong magnetic fields can be precisely measured. [16] After all, it promises the discovery of new magnetic phenomena that may even be used for quantum computers in the future. [15] But for fast things like biomagnetic fields produced by firing neurons, we need to do better than that, or we might miss out on some information." [14] U.S. Army-funded researchers at Brandeis University have discovered a process for engineering next-generation soft materials with embedded chemical networks that mimic the behavior of neural tissue. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1509] viXra:1908.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-24 03:15:15

Laser-Produced Uranium Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

When energy is added to uranium under pressure, it creates a shock wave, and even a tiny sample will be vaporized like a small explosion. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1508] viXra:1908.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 01:14:21

Superconducting Accelerator at Fermilab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1507] viXra:1908.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 02:43:52

Streamline Fusion Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Stellarators, twisty machines that house fusion reactions, rely on complex magnetic coils that are challenging to design and build. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1506] viXra:1908.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 10:29:07

Accelerated Computing for Accelerated Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Fermilab scientists and other collaborators successfully tested a prototype machine-learning technology that speeds up processing by 30 to 175 times compared to traditional methods. [30] A potentially useful material for building quantum computers has been unearthed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), whose scientists have found a superconductor that could sidestep one of the primary obstacles standing in the way of effective quantum logic circuits. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1505] viXra:1908.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 16:09:07

A Comparison of Bell’s Theorem and Malus’s Law: Action-at-a-Distance is not Required in Order to Explain Results of Bell’s Theorem Experiments

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper shows that, using counterfactual definiteness, there is an enforceable duality between results of Malus Law experiments and the results from Bell experiments. The results are shown here to be equivalent in the two experiments subject to extending the Malus experiment by doubling it to match the structure of the results table of a Bell experiment. The Malus intensities also need to be converted into counterfactual correlations in order to enable results in both experiments to be compared using a common statistic. It is therefore possible to use the duality to explain the more esoteric Bell results via the simpler Malus results. As Malus results involve singleton particles rather than matched pairs of particles then there is no requirement for action at a distance nor entanglement to feature in an explanation of Malus results and therefore, using the duality, neither in Bell results. The ‘magic’ in Bell’s Theorem results is not eliminated as it still exists contained within Malus results, and that ‘magic’ [of somehow exceeding the Bell Inequalities] remains unexplained by this paper, except it is shown that the ‘magic’ does not involve action-at-a-distance nor entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1504] viXra:1908.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 04:58:29

ATLAS Strong Supersymmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

New particles sensitive to the strong interaction might be produced in abundance in the proton-proton collisions generated by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – provided that they aren't too heavy. [30] Supersymmetry predicts that two basic classes of fundamental particles, fermions and bosons, accompany each other in the same representation. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1503] viXra:1908.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 08:55:52

Super Proton Synchrotron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

By the end of the second long shutdown (LS2) of CERN's accelerator complex, a nine-metre-long object with several hundred tonnes of shielding will be installed around the beam line of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). [11] By measuring the angles between the top and antitop decay particles, the ATLAS experiment at CERN has not only measured this degree of correlation, but found it to be higher than what is predicted by calculations based on the Standard Model. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1502] viXra:1908.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 08:38:59

Particle Physics and Energy Fields.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the first two papers on energy fields, we examined the basic principles for the interactions between energy fields, and analyzed the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields. Here we apply those basic principles to particle physics and make further proposals. The results may provide an alternative explanation for the nature of particles, an alternative explanation for the behavior of particles in colliders, and an alternative explanation for the nature of matter and anti-matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1501] viXra:1908.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 10:00:29

Portable Radiation Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Beginning in early 2012, IPL worked closely with a Japanese customer to understand what a better "gamma camera" would look like. [26] A team of researchers at the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology has found that electron current flow direction produced by the photon-drag effect is dependent on the environment in which a metal is sitting. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1500] viXra:1908.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 13:22:50

The Geometry of Particles and the Explanation of Their Creation and Decay

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 21 pages

In this paper, subatomic particles are described by the formation of standing waves of energy as a result of energetic oscillations in the spacetime lattice. The creation of new particles with higher energies, or the decay of particles to lower energies, are described by the formation of wave center points that cause an increase or decrease in standing wave energy. The stability of such particles is found to be based on the geometric formation of these center points which allows standing waves to form to a defined boundary that becomes the particle's radius, or the collapse of its standing waves as particles split to become two or more particles, or completely annihilate. The oscillation energy calculation for a single wave center matches the upper range of the neutrino's estimated energy. It is assumed that this single wave center is the fundamental particle responsible for creating the neutrino. It will be shown in this paper mathematically - and possibly modeled in the near future with computer simulations - that this fundamental particle is responsible for the creation of higher order particles, including but not limited to the electron, proton and neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1499] viXra:1908.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-11 03:57:07

Naturalness Begets Naturalness: an Emergent Definition

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 16 Pages.

We offer a model based upon three `assumptions'. The first is geometric, that the vacuum wavefunction is comprised of Euclid's fundamental geometric objects of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - components of the geometric representation of Clifford algebra. The second is electromagnetic, that physical manifestation follows from introducing the dimensionless coupling constant \textbf{$\alpha$}. The third takes the electron mass to define the scale of space. Such a model is arguably maximally `natural'. Wavefunction interactions are modeled by the geometric product of Clifford algebra. What emerges is more naturalness. We offer an emergent definition.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1498] viXra:1908.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 02:53:24

Top-Quark Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A key parameter examined by the ATLAS Collaboration at CERN is the top quark's "decay width", which is related to the particle's lifetime and decay modes. [31] As the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark has a special place in the physics studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. [30] This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1497] viXra:1908.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 08:02:30

Similarity Between Collider Events

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have recently developed a metric that can be used to capture the space of collider events based on the earth mover's distance (EMD), a measure used to evaluate dissimilarity between two multi-dimensional probability distributions. [13] Researchers have, for the first time, identified the sufficient and necessary conditions that the low-energy limit of quantum gravity theories must satisfy to preserve the main features of the Unruh effect. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1496] viXra:1908.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-08 06:51:49

Top-Quark Production

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

As the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark has a special place in the physics studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. [30] This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1495] viXra:1908.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 06:48:12

Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1494] viXra:1908.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 07:12:26

Higgs Boson Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Since discovering the particle in 2012, the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations have been hard at work studying the behaviour of the Higgs boson. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1493] viXra:1908.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 07:50:02

Magnetic Bottle Controls Fusion Power

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Scientists who use magnetic fields to bottle up and control on Earth the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars must correct any errors in the shape of the fields that contain the reactions. [43] Scientists seeking to capture and control on Earth fusion energy, the process that powers the sun and stars, face the risk of disruptions—sudden events that can halt fusion reactions and damage facilities called tokamaks that house them. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1492] viXra:1908.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 06:03:46

Antineutrino Monitor Nuclear Reactors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Technology to measure the flow of subatomic particles known as antineutrinos from nuclear reactors could allow continuous remote monitoring designed to detect fueling changes that might indicate the diversion of nuclear materials. [20] Ereditato even dreams of replacing the design of one of the four massive DUNE far detector modules with a pixelated version. [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1491] viXra:1908.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 09:05:10

Higgs Boson Discovery Channels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Critically, the new results examine two of the Higgs boson decays that led to the particle's discovery in 2012: H→ZZ*→4ℓ, where the Higgs boson decays into two Z bosons, in turn decaying into four leptons (electrons or muons); and H→γγ where the Higgs boson decays directly into two photons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1490] viXra:1908.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 09:23:51

28 Gev Particle

Authors: Theodore M Lach
Comments: 15 Pages.

Over 20 years ago I published a paper via arXiv titled "Masses of the subnuclear particles". In that paper there was a prediction of a 27 GeV lepton in the heaviest generation the fifth generation. Today my refined value is 27.5 +/- 0.5 GeV. This discovery of a particle near 28 GeV confirms what I believe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1489] viXra:1908.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 03:33:32

Pixels Powered

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Ereditato even dreams of replacing the design of one of the four massive DUNE far detector modules with a pixelated version. [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1488] viXra:1907.0602 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 02:12:07

Strengthen the Weak Force Signal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1487] viXra:1907.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-29 10:36:03

Particle Confinement in Fusion Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

A team of fusion researchers succeeded in proving that energetic ions with energy in mega electron volt (MeV) range are superiorly confined in a plasma for the first time in helical systems. [44] Now, physicists have confirmed that an updated computer code could help to predict and ultimately prevent such leaks from happening. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1486] viXra:1907.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 06:51:17

Physics from Social Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

The researchers say their new technique is the first to relate multitudes of particle collisions to each other, similar to a social network. [43] Now, a team of Virginia Tech chemistry and physics researchers have advanced quantum simulation by devising an algorithm that can more efficiently calculate the properties of molecules on a noisy quantum computer. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1485] viXra:1907.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-27 04:36:06

How to Make Theoretical Physics Valid for the Longest

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 18 Pages. Einstein's theory works only for v < 0.1c.

To construct Theoretical Physics ONLY ON EXPERIMENTAL BASICS. „The first principle is that you must not fool yourself and you are the easiest person to fool.“ R. P. FEYNMAN "The difference between a good experiment and a good theory is in the fact that the theory gets old quickly and it is replaced by another one, based on more perfect ideas. It will be forgotten quickly. The experiment is something else. The experiment, which has been thought well and performed carefully, will step in the science forever. It will become its part. It is possible to explain such experiment differently in different periods of times." P. L. KAPICA
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1484] viXra:1907.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-25 01:55:34

Instability in Fusion Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Now, physicists have confirmed that an updated computer code could help to predict and ultimately prevent such leaks from happening. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1483] viXra:1907.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 01:07:31

Higgs Boson Decays into Muon Pairs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

In the Standard Model, the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism predicts the Higgs boson will interact with matter particles (quarks and leptons, known as fermions) with a strength proportional to the particle's mass. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1482] viXra:1907.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-21 11:31:46

Modeling that Predicts Elementary Particles and Explains Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Galaxy Formation Data

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 42 pages

We propose steps forward regarding the following challenges in elementary particle physics, cosmology, and astrophysics. Predict new elementary particles. Describe mechanisms governing the rate of expansion of the universe. Describe dark matter. Explain ratios of effects of dark matter to effects of ordinary matter. Describe the formation and evolution of galaxies. Integrate modeling that provides those predictions, descriptions, and explanations and modeling that traditional physics theory includes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1481] viXra:1907.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:20:45

Quantum Chromodynamics Simulations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1480] viXra:1907.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:35:10

Cracks in Magnetic Mirrors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Referred to as 'magnetic mirrors', these devices have been known to be a relatively easy way to confine plasma since the 1950s, but they have also proven to be inherently leaky. [44] If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1479] viXra:1907.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:20:16

Non-Interactive Mechanics

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma
Comments: 26 Pages.

The theory of new type of particles called non-intractable particles, these are the particles which attend every mass state in universe, These Particle Explains The Contraction Of Fermions In Fermi-Dirac Statics These Particles Moves In Straight Line And Remain Same In Quantum ,Classical And Relativistic Systems, with it defining the statistic of Non-Intractable particles, The relation Of Particle-Matter Union N+M = 0 ,the equations of Non-Interactive Mechanics, For Matter Particle Relation And Nucleus Energy , Mass , Radius Detection , Ramanujan Entering The Way By Which Non-Intractable Particles Emit, Ramanujan Effect Way Of Exchange Of Particles By Matter. structure of Nucleus and Atom according to Non-Interactive Mechanics, proof of Dirac Particle-Antiparticle theory, Nishant Effect -The process by which Non-Interactive particles react with matter And Need Of Improvement In Equations Where Mass Is Mentioned Such As N+M In Place Of M Only. with this the proofs of Nishant effect 1. Linear harmonic oscillator 2. Plank’s Quantum Hypothesis 3. Mass- energy relation E=mc^2 4.Non-Intractable Particles 20817.22 m/sec Faster Than The Detected velocity of light 5. The Relativistic relation E^2=P^2C^2+m^2c^4 , A Proof Of Equations where Mass Is Mentioned Should Be Written As E = (N+M) C^2.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1478] viXra:1907.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 13:12:47

Testing the Number of Space-Time Dimensions by the 5.9 Years Repeated Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiments

Authors: E Koorambas
Comments: 21 Pages.

Abstract. The basic motive of the five dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory is the unification of gravity and electromagnetism. A feature of these theories was the relation between the electromagnetic coupling e2, and gravitational coupling GN and the radius of the fifth dimension Rc. The radius of the fifth dimension Rc is thus fixed by the elementary electric charge. From the known value of the elementary charge, we find that Rc is of the order of the Planck length. Based on The five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory, we show that if the observed harmonic pattern of the laboratory-measured values of GN is due to some environmental or theoretical errors, these errors must also affect the elementary electric charge e. We calculate the values of fundamental electric charge e predicted by 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional space-time model respectively. We find that in the case of 4+1 the fundamental electric charge e values are oscillated with the 5.9 year LOD oscillation cycle, while in the case of 3+1 spacetime dimensions the fundamental electric charge e is constant and perfect fitted to the straight line. Furthermore, we propose that the number of space-time dimensions can be reveal by the 5,9years repeated Millikan’s oil drop experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1033] viXra:1911.0359 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-25 19:30:53

The Marked Decrease of Protons Flux in Cosmic Rays Beyond 3 Gev Kinetic Energy Analyzed Through a Vortex Model for the Proton.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 6 Pages. 2 Figures

We analyze available data for cosmic rays protons below 10 GeV and find evidence for instability of these particles as their kinetic energy increases beyond about 3 GeV, as expected from our recent model [1] which proposes the existence of a parent state at about 3.7 GeV, from which protons would condense in the form of flux-confining vortices. According to the model, above 2.7 GeV kinetic energy such vortex states become unstable compared to the parent, and thus protons of higher energy become very rare in cosmic rays, as confirmed by the data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1032] viXra:1911.0359 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-23 16:53:05

The Marked Decrease of Protons Flux in Cosmic Rays Beyond 3 Gev Kinetic Energy Analyzed Through a Vortex Model for the Proton

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 5 Pages. 2 Figures

We analyze available data for cosmic rays protons below 10 GeV and find evidence for instability of these particles as their kinetic energy increases beyond about 3 GeV, as expected from our recent model [1] which proposes there exists a parent state at about 3.7 GeV from which protons would condense in the form of flux-confining vortices. As the kinetic energy increases such vortex states lose stability compared to the parent, and thus protons of higher energy become very rare in cosmic rays.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1031] viXra:1911.0359 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-22 19:30:39

The Marked Decrease of Protons Flux in Cosmic Rays Beyond 3 Gev Kinetic Energy Analyzed Through a Vortex Model for the Proton.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 3 Pages.

We analyze available data for cosmic rays protons below 10 GeV and find evidence for instability of these particles as their kinetic energy increases beyond about 3 GeV, as expected from our recent model [1] which proposes there exists a parent state at about 3.7 GeV from which protons would condense in the form of flux-confining vortices. As the kinetic energy increases such vortex states lose stability compared to the parent, and thus protons of higher energy become very rare in cosmic rays.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1030] viXra:1910.0576 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-08 09:12:04

Some Problems About CP Violation In The Neutral Kaon Decay

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 5 Pages.

The CP violation concluded from the neutral Kaon decays in 1964 causes our curiosity about whether it is true. The experimentally observed particles are K1 and K2 which experiences 2π decay in the former and 3π in the latter. In our new explanation, the long-lived KL is more like the superposition of both K1 and K2 states because the 2π decay events are indeed originated from K1 and CP violation doesn’t take place on K2. On the other hand, as long as the K1’s energy is large enough, it can move a very long distance before decay. This situation is like muon passing through a much longer distance to decay. Besides, the estimations of K1’s and K2’s lifetimes have to include the data in 1964 which may result in significant corrections.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1029] viXra:1910.0576 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-29 12:16:43

Some Problems About CP Violation In The Neutral Kaon Decay

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 5 Pages.

The CP violation concluded from the neutral Kaon decays in 1964 causes our curiosity about whether it is true. The experimentally observed particles are K1 and K2 which experiences 2π decay in the former and 3π in the latter. In our new explanation, the long-lived KL is more like the superposition of both K1 and K2 states because the 2π decay events are indeed originated from K1 and CP violation doesn’t take place on K2. Om the other hand, as long as the K1’s energy is large enough, it can move a very long distance before decay. This situation is like muon passing through a much longer distance to decay. Besides, the estimations of K1’s and K2’s lifetimes have to include the data in 1964 which may result in significant corrections.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1028] viXra:1908.0569 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 11:34:21

“Charm and Beauty Flavour of Neutrinos and Very Probably “colours“ of Neutrino Resonances and Their Helicity, Polarisation, Cross Section, Mixing Angles and Non–Abelian Gauge Fields of Neutrinos“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper according to the Author’s insight to the particle physics brings the next new conception and new point of view on neutrinos, their aroma respectively ”flavor” or ”colours”, their resonances, helicity, polarization, cross section, mixing angles, and new maths concept of Non–Abelian Gauge Fields of neutrinos. Aroma or ”flavor” and colour of Non–Zero Masses Particles, called neutrinos, their resonance and interference in ”Deep Inelastic Scattering” of leptons and neutrinos as their leptonic particles mainly of TAUON, Lepton τ (TAU) NEUTRINO IN SLAC (STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR), here in 1967 Wolfgang Panofsky achieved detection of extraordinary high energy of electron and ”superheavy electron” TAUONS RESONANCES APPROXIMATELY ABOUT 18 GeV. Colours of Neutrinos ordered this particles among very similar to quarks, its extraordinary property is connected with Quark–gluons plasma, which “breathes” this super density state of matter, from full empty vacuum, so called The Hidden Energy of Quantum Vacuum. On the Day Theme is: - WHAT ARE IN EMPTY SPACES? - WHAT EASY IS EMPTY SPACE? - DOES ANYTHING EXIST IN A VACUUM STATE? - HOW MUCH OF INNER AND OUTER SPACE IS EMPTY? - IS NOT TRULY EMPTY BUT INSTEAD CONTAINS FLEETING ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVES AND PARTICLES? - THAT POP INTO AND OUT OF THE EXISTENCE. The main idea of the paper is ordered to neutrinos, their aroma “flavor” and colour in intention of YANG–MILLS AND GELL–MANN MURRAY THEORIES, SO CALLED CABIBBO UNIVERSALITY, IT´S MIXING OF C (CHARM OR CHARMONIUM) AND B (BEAUTY OR BOTTOM (BOTTOMIUM)) NEUTRINOS. YANG–MILLS RESPECTIVELY NON–ABELIAN GAUGE FIELDS IS CONNECTED WITH GAUGE FIELDS RESPECTIVELY GAUGE BOSONS (YANG–MILLS FIELDS → QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS IN EARLY 70’S). SITUATION IN YANG–MILLS TRIPLET γ (NEUTRAL PHOTON) W± GAUGE BOSONS (INTERMEDIARY), Z0 (electric neutral Z0 BOSON), Z0 (VECTOR) BOSON. IF WE WANT RETHINK ABOUT NEW EXOTIC FERMIONS TYPE ”SUPERHEAVY” ELECTRON "TAUON RESONANCES” CAN BE DECAYED TO NEW νC (CHARMONIUM NEUTRINO), CREATING “NEUTRINO GAS”, MOVING BETWEEN GAUGE FIELDS – LEFT HANDED VORTEX – (SINISTRAL). νB (BEAUTY NEUTRINO) HAS RIGT DIRECTION VORTEX (DEXTRAL), ACCORDING TO THE QUANTUM BELTS (RIGHT DIRECTION VORTEX DEXTRAL). THESE NEW NEUTRINOS (νC, νB) COULD LEAD TO DISSOLUTION OF PUZZLE PARTICLES OF A STANDARD MODEL (SM), LEADING TO THE NEW SUPER SYMMETRIC PARTNERS MODELS (SUSY). THIS CONCEPT IS DESCRIBED BY VORTEX FREE NEUTRINO NEUTRAL GAS. ALTHOUGH HAVE THESE RESONANCES (VORTEXES) CLEAR LEPTONIC REACTION WITH NEUTRINOS HAVE SMALL CROSS SECTION, CROSS SECTIONS ARE CLEAR WEAK. NEUTRAL STREAMS, WERE DISCOVERED IN YEAR 1973, EXACTLY ON PROCESSES: a) process: �������� ����������������+����������������→�������� ����������������+���������������� ELASTIC SCATTERING OF MUON NEUTRINO AND ELECTRON. Detected in bubble chamber GARGAMELLE CERN AND IN FERMI NATIONAL LABORATORY (FNAL) U.S.A.. b) process: ����������������→����������������+���������������� ���������������� (Gargamelle CERN)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1027] viXra:1908.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-09 14:55:48

The Geometry of Particles and the Explanation of Their Creation and Decay

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 22 pages

In this paper, subatomic particles are described by the formation of standing waves of energy as a result of energetic oscillations in the spacetime lattice. The creation of new particles with higher energies, or the decay of particles to lower energies, are described by the formation of wave center points that cause an increase or decrease in standing wave energy. The stability of such particles is found to be based on the geometric formation of these center points which allows standing waves to form to a defined boundary that becomes the particle's radius, or the collapse of its standing waves as particles split to become two or more particles, or completely annihilate. The oscillation energy calculation for a single wave center matches the upper range of the neutrino's estimated energy. It is assumed that this single wave center is the fundamental particle responsible for creating the neutrino. It will be shown in this paper mathematically - and possibly modeled in the near future with computer simulations - that this fundamental particle is responsible for the creation of higher order particles, including but not limited to the electron, proton and neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1026] viXra:1907.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-18 19:09:46

Testing the Number of Space-Time Dimensions by the 5.9 Years Repeated Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiments

Authors: E Koorambas
Comments: 21 Pages. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, Califor

The basic motive of the five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory is the unification of gravity and electromagnetism. A feature of these theories was the relation between the electromagnetic coupling e, and gravitational coupling GN and the radius of the fifth dimension Rc. The radius of the fifth dimension Rc is thus fixed by the elementary electric charge. From the known value of the elementary charge, we find that Rc is of the order of the Planck length. Based on The five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory, we show that if the observed harmonic pattern of the laboratory-measured values of GN is due to some environmental or theoretical errors, these errors must also affect the elementary electric charge e. We calculate the values of fundamental electric charge e predicted by 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional space-time model respectively. We find that in the case of 4+1 the fundamental electric charge e values are oscillated with the 5.9 year LOD oscillation cycle, while in the case of 3+1 spacetime dimensions the fundamental electric charge e is constant and perfect fitted to the straight line. Furthermore, we propose that the number of space-time dimensions can be reveal by the 5,9 years repeated Millikan’s oil drop experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics