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Any replacements are listed further down

[778] **viXra:1605.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 12:46:35*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 18 pages. « Oscillations temporelles du neutrino » is the French version of «Neutrino’s Temporal Oscillations» on viXra.org/abs/1605.0005

Nous conjecturons l’existence de neutrinos sans masse qui sont dans la ligne du modèle standard mais qui possèdent des fonctionnalités non représentées par le modèle standard : ils utilisent un chemin radial plus court que le photon et possèdent des saveurs bosoniques. Ils seraient considérés comme des bosons au lieu de fermions. Nous appelons cette théorie « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Confrontée à quelques comparaisons expérimentales – neutrinos solaires, neutrinos de SN1987A, neutrinos cosmologiques ̶ , la théorie donne de meilleurs résultats et des explications plus sensées que la théorie compliquée de l’oscillation du neutrino. L’expérience « OPERA » qui a mesuré la vitesse des neutrinos en 2011 a abouti à des données que ne peuvent expliquer les trois types de neutrinos existants. La physique des neutrinos semble malade. L’oscillation temporelle du neutrino, en montrant le raccourci que prennent des neutrinos sans masse dans l’espace-temps à trois dimensions spatiales que nous connaissons, représente dans le modèle standard une fenêtre ouverte sur une « nouvelle physique » qui a un rapport avec la réalité physique.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[777] **viXra:1605.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 08:11:02*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of standard model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for by the standard model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors. Considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Faced with some experimental comparisons ̶ solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN1987A, cosmological neutrinos ̶ , the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The "OPERA" experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a "superluminal" saga, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth "sterile" neutrino with non-standard interaction. Neutrino physics does not make sense. "Neutrino’s temporal oscillations" shows the short cut that massless neutrinos take in the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a "new physics" that has a connection with physical reality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[776] **viXra:1604.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 23:55:14*

**Authors:** Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$
and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[775] **viXra:1604.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 06:51:21*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 53 equations, 8 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of scalar electrodynamics, describing the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged
scalar. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, demonstrating gauge invariance of the effective vertices. Whereas an infrared-regulating mass parameter is given to the virtual photon, the masslessness of the effective photon is demonstrated as well.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[774] **viXra:1604.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 08:10:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[773] **viXra:1604.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 05:13:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[772] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 23:25:40*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[771] **viXra:1604.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 01:05:28*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It is commonly understood that the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge fields is the natural generalization of the well known Abelian gauge group symmetry $U(1)$ in the electrodynamics. Taking into account that the problems of the localization and divergences in QFT are not solved in the framework of the Standard Model (SM), I proposed a different approach to the quantum theory of the single self-interacting electron. In connection with this theory, I would like attract the attention to the state-dependent gauge transformations $U(1) \times U(N-1)$ associated with the Jacobi vector fields of the geodesic variations in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[770] **viXra:1604.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 12:03:52*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract
In my prior article, Empirical formulas for Rest-Mass Energies of Sub -Atomic Particles (http://vixra.org/abs/1604.0192), 74 subatomic particles were studied and assigned simple formulas that closely approximated the current measured masses. A closer examination of these formulas reveals that most of the particle masses can be grouped around factors containing 7 times the reciprocal of the fine-structure constant.
by Roger N. Weller (proton3@gmail.com) April 17, 2016

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[769] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 10:14:41*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos.
In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics.
Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates.Oscillations is here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[768] **viXra:1604.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 01:39:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5]
To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[767] **viXra:1604.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 18:15:07*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A mathematical relationship between the rest-mass energies of sub-atomic particles has been discovered. As a consequence, simple formulas for the rest- mass energies of 74 subatomic particles and even some heavy quarks are being proposed. The reciprocal of the fine constant occupies a major role in these formulas.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[766] **viXra:1604.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 03:43:04*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 16 pages, 50 equations, 7 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with nonlinear interactions governed by a dimensional coupling constant. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods, and
the viability of theories that are often disregarded due to the outstanding problem of nonrenormalizable divergences. Our results
demonstrate that the (Goldstone) scalar would remain massless in the effective quantum action, while the original vertices, governed by
nonlinear invariance, would preserve their form.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[765] **viXra:1604.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 08:13:11*

**Authors:** Cvavb.chandra Raju

**Comments:** 14 Pages. (C) 2016, CVAVB.CHANDRA RAJU, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS OSMANIA UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD, INDIA

One pion exchange mass dependent Yukawa Potential Energy is used to estimate neutron-nucleus total elastic scattering cross-
section. When this total cross-section is extrapolated to zero-energy for neutron- Triton case it agrees pretty well with the
known experimental value. Estimations for 5.54 MeV P-3H and P-3He differential scattering cross-section are carried out. It is shown that for 15 degree center of mass angle of scattering the P-3He differential scattering is about 300times that of P-3H ,and this needs experimental confirmation to fix the mass dependence of the Yukawa Potential Energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[764] **viXra:1604.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 08:10:17*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Work in progress.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[763] **viXra:1603.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 11:28:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The proton sounds like a simple object, but it's not. Inside, there's a teeming microcosm of quarks and gluons with properties such as spin and "color" charge that contribute to the particle's seemingly simplistic role as a building block of visible matter. By analyzing the particle debris emitted from collisions of polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), scientists say they've found a new way to glimpse that internal microcosm. They've measured a key effect of the so-called color interaction-the basis for the strong nuclear force that binds quarks within the proton. This new measurement tests, for the first time, theoretical concepts that are essential for mapping the proton's three-dimensional internal structure. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[762] **viXra:1603.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 07:22:53*

**Authors:** C A Brannen

**Comments:** 18 Pages. For submission to Foundations of Physics. Acknowledgements to be added after review by friends.

Density matrices can be used to describe ensembles of particles in thermodynamic equilibrium. We assume that the density matrices are a more natural description of quantum objects than state vectors. This suggests that we generalize density matrices from the usual operators on a Hilbert space to be elements of an algebra. Using density matrix renormalization to change the temperature of the ensembles, we show how the choice of algebra determines the symmetry and particle content of these generalized density matrices. The symmetries are of the form SU(N)xSU(M)x...U(1). We propose that the Standard Model of elementary particles should include a dark matter SU(2) doublet.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[761] **viXra:1603.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 18:32:25*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages, 10 references

- The Gell-Mann, Oakes and Renner and the Goldberger-Treiman relations jointly with a bold hypothesis about virtual thermal equilibrium, leads to the determination of the up and down-quarks current masses. The obtained results show good agreement with the best ones of the literature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[760] **viXra:1603.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 01:41:43*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recent experiments with relativistic electron bunches indicate that Coulomb field is rigidly attached to the charge's instantaneous position. We claim that despite a widespread opinion, this fact does not violate causality in moving reference frames. To see that, one should properly take into account the interaction dependence of the Lorentz boost generator.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[759] **viXra:1603.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 12:30:14*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” match current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They also fall in line with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[758] **viXra:1603.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 12:05:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

University of Cincinnati theoretical physicists are about to report on a controversial discovery that they say contradicts the work of researchers over the decades. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[757] **viXra:1603.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 08:03:24*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 7 pages, 2 figs, submitted to EPL

The site reduction of SU(2) lattice gauge theory is employed to model the magnetic monopoles of SU(2) gauge theory. The site reduced theory is a matrix model on discrete world-line for the angle-valued coordinates of 0-branes. The Monte~Carlo numerical analysis
introduces the critical temperature $T_c\simeq 0.25~a^{-1}$ and the critical coupling $g_c\simeq 1.56$, above which the free energy does not exhibit a minimum leading to a phase transition.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[756] **viXra:1603.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 16:14:21*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 14 references

The weak interaction due to different compositions of up and down quarks leads to the neutron-proton mass difference. The radius of the nucleon is fixed by the strong interaction. In a first calculation, the weak coupling is introduced by the hand. In a second one, both the mass difference and the weak coupling are determined.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[755] **viXra:1603.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 01:38:37*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Conformal Dark Energy interacts with Josephson Junction BSCCO superconductors. Neutrino mass gives a cutoff at about 1.7 x 10^12 Hz. Using BSCCO crystals as edges, configurations such as 16-edge 5-dipyramid can be constructed in flat 3-dim Space to observe Dark Energy Curvature Distortion of 4-dim Spacetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[754] **viXra:1603.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 13:59:05*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The proton *F*_{2} structure function curve reveals the number and type of particles inside the proton. Deep inelastic scattering experiments from the late 1960s produced an *F*_{2} curve with no data for proton momentum fractions less than 0.06. However, the assumption the missing *F*_{2} values remain constant in that region provided the basis for the current proton model of quarks and gluons. Here, I produce a complete proton *F*_{2} curve by combining data generated in 2000 with the original 1960s data. It shows the aforementioned assumption was wrong, invalidating the basis for the quark-gluon proton. My analysis of the new curve indicates protons are made of nine particles that appear to be muons; each of which is made of approximately 204 particles that look like electrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[753] **viXra:1603.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 05:35:17*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

G matrices are matrices with single entries 1,i. It is shown that linear sums of G matrices generate the SU(n), SO(n) generators. The Kronecka sums of the unitary representations of so(n) and su(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be restricted to 3 dimensions. It is shown that the allowable unitary representations of so(3), are the spin spaces of spin ½,1. It is shown that there are 3 generations of chiral electroweak doublets of quarks and leptons. Exponentiation of differential operators acting on spinors results in the Lagrangians of Gravitation with Dark Energy and the Fermion sector of the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[752] **viXra:1603.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 00:00:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a series of papers, Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. However, as far as I know there is no paper yet for extending his RQED to fractal media and Cantor Sets. Drawing similarity between Proca and Maxwell equations, in the present paper I extend RQED further based on a recent paper published at Advances in High Energy Physics (AHEP) journal, where Yang Zhao et al. derived Maxwell equations on Cantor sets from the local fractional vector calculus. It can be shown that Maxwell equations on Cantor sets in a fractal bounded domain give efficiency and accuracy for describing the fractal electric and magnetic fields. I also extend RQED to anisotropic fractal media based on the work of Martin Ostoja-Starzewski. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model in fractal media. It may be expected to have some impact to fractal cosmology modeling too.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[751] **viXra:1603.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 17:19:57*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 10 references

It is applied the Holographic Principle as a means to estimate the neutron decay time. A stationary condition for a free energy is also considered. The spherical surface at the boundary of this universe having the radius of the neutron is tiled with unit cells of area equal the Planck length times a length related to the weak interaction. It is also considered an energy difference tied to the electromagnetic interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[750] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 00:31:04*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R, \bar{t}_Re_R\bar{\nu}_{eR}b_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[749] **viXra:1602.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 11:11:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists on the DZero collaboration at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab have discovered a new particle—the latest member to be added to the exotic species of particle known as tetraquarks.
Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[748] **viXra:1602.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 09:53:43*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Submitted to Phys. Lett. B

The site reduction of U(1) lattice gauge theory is used to model the dynamics of magnetic monopoles. The reduced lattice theory is the 1D plane-rotator model of the angle-valued coordinates on the discrete world-line. The energy spectrum is obtained exactly, with
a minimum in the ground-state at coupling $g_c=1.125$. For $g<g_c$ and $T<T_c=0.247/a$ the model exhibits two phases of real and
imaginary velocities, like particles facing a potential barrier. In the gauge theory side the real velocity phase corresponds to magnetic energy exceeding the electric energy, indicating the dominance of monopole density. For $g>g_c$ or $T>T_c$ the monopoles always dominate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[747] **viXra:1602.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 20:46:08*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 262 Pages.

This paper is an exposition of my view that the 240 E8 Root Vectors encode the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2 ; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2 ; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16) By embedding each E8 local classical Lagrangian into a Cl(16) Real Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(16)s you get a generalized hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor Algebraic Quantum Field Theory that is a realistic global quantum theory for our universe. The main body of the paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors with a rough qualitative description of how they are used in setting up calculations of force strengths, particle masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, etc. It is not intended to give full details of all calculations etc but is only intended to provide an expository overview of how the 240 E8 Root Vectors produce a realistic Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics. The main body of the paper (46 pages) concludes with a summary of the results of those calculations. Details of the calculations, some related experimental results, etc, are given in a more lengthy set of appendices (216 pages) that can be read and evaluated by anyone who might be interested.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[746] **viXra:1602.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 05:02:16*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Bekenstein-Hawking entropy takes discrete values proportional to 2 to the power n in a holographic model. Horizon numbers n are calculated for specific black holes and for subatomic particles, which have been shown to be the analogues of black holes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[745] **viXra:1602.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 16:02:36*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The object of this (exceedingly) brief note is to point out that the recent discovery of gravitational waves may further constrain brane-worlds models and alternative theories of gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[744] **viXra:1602.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 00:59:24*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 24 pages. Some contents copied from viXra:1602.0192

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of boson fields as Majorana and electroweak bosons. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor bosons. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is explained by a Majorana boson, which is a collective mode of underlying four-top-quark condensation. According to a generalized sum rule, it is suggested that the diphoton resonance mass should be close to 4 times top quark mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[743] **viXra:1602.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 04:37:45*

**Authors:** V.S.Mitin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Biotonic law is a physical act with more specific constants M. Feigenbaum.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[742] **viXra:1602.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 04:42:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[741] **viXra:1602.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 03:27:14*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of Higgs fields as Majorana and electroweak Higgs bosons. The Majorana Higgs sector is responsible for the 750 GeV diphoton resonance, flavor mixing, and right-handed neutrino Majorana masses. The electroweak Higgs sector, which induces Dirac masses, is composed of scalar, pseudoscalar, and antisymmetric tensor components.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[740] **viXra:1602.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 05:35:01*

**Authors:** V.S.Mitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Worldview and an example from nuclear physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[739] **viXra:1602.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 19:49:07*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking. Thus, how could we have spontaneous without explicit symmetry breaking? We study the concept of Hidden symmetries, which are not necessarily spontaneously broken, and its real representations on Higgs fields.
Given $G_p$ is a normal subgroup of $G_a$ (compact group), we proved for a multi-Higgs-doublet model that:
1) if we impose a symmetry $G_p$ to the Higgs potential and no term exists violating $G_a$, then there is no spontaneous breaking of $G_a$.
2) if explicit symmetry breaking of $G_a$ is allowed while $G_p$ is conserved, then $G_a$ is allowed to break spontaneously;
Using this theorem we explain a recent and related conjecture related with the CP symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[738] **viXra:1602.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 10:03:59*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article says about new perspective of Modern Physics of Elementary Particles, called
neutrinos. This omnipresent particles probably could be have eminent role in birth of new
technical and theoretical branches of new physical science called NEUTRINIC΄S or
NEUTRINICA. This new established science discipline will be touched many human
activities from noninvasive medicinal diagnostics and operations to neutrino pulse-canal
communication. About importance of this phenomenon is evident many large Projects all
over the world and last Nobel Prize for Physics 2015, which was awarded to Takaaki Kajita
from Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, University of Tokyo, Japan and Arthur B. McDonald
from Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Collaboration, Queen΄s University, Kingston, Canada,
“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows, that neutrinos have mass”. These
realities can prove new horizons to our view of the whole Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[737] **viXra:1602.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 08:44:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Researchers have recreated the universe's primordial soup in miniature format by colliding lead atoms with extremely high energy in the 27 km long particle accelerator, the LHC at CERN in Geneva. The primordial soup is a so-called quark-gluon plasma and researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute, among others, have measured its liquid properties with great accuracy at the LHC's top energy. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[736] **viXra:1602.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 02:36:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[735] **viXra:1602.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 10:46:26*

**Authors:** Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In order to make launching, cost efficient and the consumption of propellant minimum, an idea to accelerate the space shuttle is proposed in this paper. This proposal involves simultaneous use of both propellant and argon plasma jet injection in tip of a space shuttle. An experimental investigation of aerodynamic drag reduction by counter flow plasma jet injection from the stagnation region of a hemispherical blunt cylinder model flying at hypersonic Mach numbers are presented. Experiments are carried out in a hypersonic shock tunnel at four different jet-to-pitot pressure ratios namely 15∙3, 24∙52, 72∙5 and 96∙67 and three supply powers, namely 1∙8KW, 2∙7KW and 3∙6KW. The flow fields around the test model are visualized using high speed schlieren technique. Direct force measurement is also performed using a single component accelerometer balance. The weakly ionized argon plasma jet has an electron temperature around 6,400K and electron number density ~1∙64×〖10〗^15 〖cm〗^(-3). With plasma jet at pressure ratio 72∙5 and 1∙8KW supply power the reduction in drag is found to be ~28 % (more than its cold jet counter part) although the plasma jet momentum is less than its cold jet counter part. Experimental results show that this plasma jet injection help in achieving extravelocity, with the minimum usage of propellant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[604] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-25 20:12:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[603] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-24 07:53:33*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[602] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-23 17:39:19*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[601] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-21 07:58:35*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[600] **viXra:1604.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-20 14:38:16*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It is commonly understood that the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge fields is the natural generalization of the well known Abelian gauge group symmetry $U(1)$ in the electrodynamics. Taking into account that the problems of the localization and divergences in QFT are not solved in the framework of the Standard Model (SM), I proposed a different approach to the quantum theory of the single self-interacting electron. In connection with this theory, I would like attract the attention to the state-dependent gauge transformations $U(1) \times U(N-1)$ associated with the Jacobi vector fields of the geodesic variations in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[599] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 07:13:21*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos. In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics. Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the
question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates. Oscillations are here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is
principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[598] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-14 02:59:24*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos.
In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics. Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the
question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates. Oscillations are here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[597] **viXra:1603.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 00:30:40*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recent experiments, performed by Prof. Pizzella's team with relativistic electron bunches, indicate that Coulomb field is rigidly attached to the charge's instantaneous position. Despite a widespread opinion, this fact does not violate causality in moving reference frames. To see that, one should apply the Wigner--Dirac theory of relativistic dynamics and take into account that the Lorentz boost generator depends on interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[596] **viXra:1603.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 09:19:32*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract
Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” match current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They also fall in line with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[595] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-03 19:27:14*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R$, $\bar{c}_R\mu_R\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}s_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[594] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-02 23:45:41*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R$, $\bar{c}_R\mu_R\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}s_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[593] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-01 23:04:55*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R$, $\bar{c}_R\mu_R\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}s_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[592] **viXra:1602.0288 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-28 06:41:28*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The object of this (exceedingly) brief note is to point out that the recent discovery of gravitational waves may further constrain brane-worlds models and alternative theories of gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[591] **viXra:1602.0288 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-23 10:16:26*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The object of this (exceedingly) brief note is to point out that the recent discovery of gravitational waves may further constrain brane-worlds models and alternative theories of gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[590] **viXra:1602.0288 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-23 07:42:39*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[589] **viXra:1602.0271 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-25 22:42:15*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is explained by a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of uscd four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a family-related global U(1) symmetry involving up, down, charm, and strange quarks. Being standard model singlets, four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[588] **viXra:1602.0271 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-23 06:01:26*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as Majorana and electroweak bosons. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is explained by the flavon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of uscd four-quark condensation. The flavon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a global phase symmetry involving first and second generation quarks. Being a standard model singlet, the four-fermion condensation is a potential dark matter candidate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[587] **viXra:1602.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-19 18:51:06*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of Higgs fields as Majorana and electroweak Higgs bosons. The Majorana Higgs sector, is responsible for the 750 GeV diphoton resonance, flavor mixing, and right-handed neutrino Majorana masses. The electroweak Higgs sector, which induces Dirac masses, is composed of scalar, pseudoscalar, and antisymmetric tensor components.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[586] **viXra:1602.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 18:13:26*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Major update

One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking.
We add explicit symmetry breaking terms to the Higgs potential, so that the spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry in multi-Higgs-doublet models is a particular case of explicit symmetry breaking.
Then we show that it is possible to study the Higgs potential without assuming that the local gauge $SU(2)_L$ symmetry is spontaneously broken or not (it is known that gauge symmetries may not be possible to break spontaneously). We also discuss the physical spectrum of multi-Higgs-doublet models and the related custodial symmetry.
We review background symmetries: these are symmetries that despite already explicitly broken, can still be spontaneously broken.
We show that the CP background symmetry is not spontaneously broken, based on this fact: we explain in part a recent conjecture relating spontaneous and explicit breaking of the
charge-parity (CP) symmetry; we also relate explicit and spontaneous geometric CP-violation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[585] **viXra:1602.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 08:07:52*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking. Thus, how could we have spontaneous without explicit symmetry breaking? We study the concept of sectorial symmetries, which generalizes and relates different types of symmetry: gauge, spontaneously broken and spurion symmetries.
For instance, since the Higgs potential is gauge invariant, the gauge group acts on a different sector than the parameters of the Higgs potential,
so that we do not need to make assertions on whether the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken or not when studying the Higgs potential.
Consider the most general Higgs potential $V$ which is invariant under a compact group $G_l$.
Consider a group $G_L$ which includes $G_l$ as a normal subgroup.
We assume that the observables are invariant under $G_l$, then:\\
1) if $V$ is necessarily invariant under $G_L$, then the observables do not show spontaneous symmetry breaking of $G_L/G_l$;\\
2) if $V$ can break explicitly $G_L$, then there are observables showing spontaneous symmetry breaking of $G_L/G_l$.
Using the above proposition:\\
1) we show that it is possible to study the Higgs potential without making assertions on the spontaneous breaking of the local gauge $SU(2)_L$ symmetry,
which (non-perturbatively) may not be possible to break spontaneously without gauge fixing;\\
2) we relate the proposition with the accidental custodial symmetry of the Higgs potential of the Standard Model
and the spontaneous breaking of $U(1)_{em}$ in multi-Higgs-doublet models;\\
3) we explain a recent and related conjecture related with the charge-parity symmetry in multi-Higgs-doublet models.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[584] **viXra:1602.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-11 15:20:31*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking. Thus, how could we have spontaneous without explicit symmetry breaking? We study the concept of sectorial symmetries, which generalizes and relates different types of symmetry: gauge, spontaneously broken and spurion symmetries.
For instance, since the Higgs potential is gauge invariant, the gauge group acts on a different sector than the parameters of the Higgs potential,
so that we do not need to make assertions on whether the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken or not when studying the Higgs potential.
Consider the most general Higgs potential $V$ which is invariant under a compact group $G_l$.
Consider a group $G_L$ which includes $G_l$ as a normal subgroup.
We assume that the observables are invariant under $G_l$, then:\\
1) if $V$ is necessarily invariant under $G_L$, then the observables do not show spontaneous symmetry breaking of $G_L/G_l$;\\
2) if $V$ can break explicitly $G_L$, then there are observables showing spontaneous symmetry breaking of $G_L/G_l$.
Using the above proposition:\\
1) we show that it is possible to study the Higgs potential without making assertions on the spontaneous breaking of the local gauge $SU(2)_L$ symmetry,
which (non-perturbatively) may not be possible to break spontaneously without gauge fixing;\\
2) we relate the proposition with the accidental custodial symmetry of the Higgs potential of the Standard Model
and the spontaneous breaking of $U(1)_{em}$ in multi-Higgs-doublet models;\\
3) we explain a recent and related conjecture related with the charge-parity symmetry in multi-Higgs-doublet models.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[583] **viXra:1602.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-14 13:09:44*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking. Thus, how could we have spontaneous without explicit symmetry breaking? We study the concept of Hidden symmetries, which are not spontaneously broken by the Higgs potential, and its representations on the (multi-)Higgs field $\phi$.
Suppose $\phi$ is a direct sum of irreducible equivalent representations of the compact group $G_a$. If we impose a symmetry $G_p$ (compact) to the most general potential of the multi-Higgs-doublet Higgs potential we show that:
1) if no explicit term exists violating $G_a$, then there is no spontaneous breaking of $G_a$ (the symmetry $G_a$ is hidden in the Higgs potential).
2) if explicit symmetry breaking of $G_a$, then $G_a$ is allowed to break spontaneously;
Then we explain a recent and related conjecture related with the charge-parity symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics