**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(7) - 0703(6) - 0704(2) - 0706(4) - 0708(1) - 0710(1) - 0712(1)

2008 - 0802(2) - 0803(1) - 0809(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)

2009 - 0904(1) - 0907(10) - 0908(5) - 0909(4) - 0910(7) - 0911(10) - 0912(5)

2010 - 1001(4) - 1002(3) - 1003(13) - 1004(4) - 1005(4) - 1006(2) - 1007(3) - 1008(7) - 1009(5) - 1010(5) - 1011(5) - 1012(8)

2011 - 1102(5) - 1103(16) - 1104(4) - 1105(3) - 1106(2) - 1107(3) - 1108(6) - 1109(8) - 1110(9) - 1111(12) - 1112(5)

2012 - 1201(13) - 1202(6) - 1203(7) - 1204(5) - 1205(4) - 1206(8) - 1207(6) - 1208(14) - 1209(4) - 1210(13) - 1211(6) - 1212(15)

2013 - 1301(14) - 1302(16) - 1303(7) - 1304(7) - 1305(9) - 1306(11) - 1307(11) - 1308(11) - 1309(17) - 1310(12) - 1311(7) - 1312(13)

2014 - 1401(13) - 1402(18) - 1403(10) - 1404(21) - 1405(16) - 1406(14) - 1407(5) - 1408(15) - 1409(6) - 1410(12) - 1411(12) - 1412(16)

2015 - 1501(7) - 1502(12) - 1503(12) - 1504(11) - 1505(21) - 1506(6) - 1507(24) - 1508(22) - 1509(2)

Any replacements are listed further down

[688] **viXra:1509.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 03:10:51*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 10 pages

A new structure is proposed for the organization of subatomic particles, based on a format familiar to science, the Periodic Table of Elements. When particles are organized into a periodic structure, similarities are found between subatomic particles and atomic elements. This paper introduces the new Periodic Table of Particles, which includes particles from the neutrino to the Higgs boson, and how to read and use the table.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[687] **viXra:1509.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 15:36:09*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Bijective epistemology requires that each element in the scientific model correspond exactly one element in the physical world. Bijective epistemology is based on bijective function of set theory where each element in a given set model correspond exactly one element in a given set physical world. Higgs boson is an artificially made particle with extremely short life time and has no existence in physical world. Higgs mechanism is an element of set model which has no Higgs boson as an element in set physical world because Higgs boson does not exist in physical world. Higgs mechanism as an element of set model has its counterpart in set physical world in some other element which generates inertial and gravitational mass which are inseparable.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[686] **viXra:1508.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 16:01:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Pions apparently give strength to the strong force. Where does this meson get its mass. It is made of up and down quarks with a plus or minus one charge. Imagine the insides of a so called elementary particle with jazillions of Kaluza spheres with size and frequency on the order of Planck length and time. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Instead of going down to the 16th dimension, Pion’s, quarks, and other mesons may only go to the 9th dimension. At least that is what these equations hint at.
Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass ratios of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculations for the Pion’s are shown in this paper. Instead of these particles being connected to the neutron, the Pions, quarks, and other Mesons, may be connected to a mass ratio to the Proton. At least, that is what these equations hint at.
This paper is a comparison to “Energy Derivation of Mass Ratio’s of Pions. This theory seems more likely as the sum of Energy Loss of particles in direct collisions of particles. This energy loss will be shown in a separate paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[685] **viXra:1508.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 12:53:48*

**Authors:** Valeriy Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We postulate the non-commutativity of 4-momenta and we derive the mass splitting in the Dirac equation. The applications are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[684] **viXra:1508.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 22:50:55*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Pions apparently give strength to the strong force. Where does this meson get its mass. It is made of up and down quarks with a plus or minus one charge. Imagine the insides of a so called elementary particle with jazillions of Kaluza spheres with size and frequency on the order of Planck length and time. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Instead of going down to the 10th dimension, Pion’s, quarks, and other mesons may only go to the 7th dimension. At least that is what these equations hint at.
Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass ratios of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculations for the Pion’s are shown in this paper. Instead of these particles being connected to the neutron, the Pions, quarks, and other Mesons, may be connected to a mass ratio to the Proton. At least, that is what these equations hint at.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[683] **viXra:1508.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 06:42:03*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Update & extended 1508.0117 - Lie groups of SM arise naturally

G matrices are matrices with single entries 1,i. It is shown that the G matrices generate the Cl(p,q), SU(n), SO(n) generators and the matrix representation of CAR and CCR operators. The exponential map of the direct sum of so(n) and su(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be restricted to 2 or 3 dimensions. It is shown that the unitary representation of SO(3), the spin space of 2x2 SU(2) matrices arises naturally. It is shown that there are 3 generations of chiral electroweak doublets of quarks. The CAR & CCR are invariant under a real scaling of the operators only for a null space-time (n,1) metric condition on the co-ordinates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[682] **viXra:1508.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 07:57:49*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 38 pages, 28 eqs, 45 refs; English translation of a published paper in Russian, http://www.imp.kiev.ua/nanosys/ua/articles/2015/1/nano_vol13_iss1_p0161p0199_2015_abstract.html

Introduction of a new physical entity, the omnipresent Higgs field and bosons, in the Standard Model of elementary particles and interactions is related to the absence of the universal dynamical origin of particle mass in this standard description, which is compensated for by particle interaction with the Higgs field. In this paper we propose an extended review of the theory of complex dynamics of unreduced interaction in multicomponent systems, which provides such universal dynamic and intrinsic origin of mass appearing, in the case of elementary particles, together with particles themselves. The same complex-dynamic interaction in the initial minimal system of two homogeneous protofields accounts also for the emergence of all other internal and dynamical particle properties and fundamental interactions (now dynamically unified). We consider particular advantages of such complex-dynamic origin of mass as compared to the Higgs mechanism and propose the respective Higgsless interpretation of recent experimental results of the "Higgs boson discovery" at the Large Hadron Collider. Finally, we formulate the necessary essential changes of the entire strategy of research in high-energy physics and fundamental physics in general, following from the obtained results.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[681] **viXra:1508.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 10:45:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[680] **viXra:1508.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 01:14:23*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 6 Pages. JSRI Preprint: JSRI-6/2015

Two conflicting theoretical structures,
one using the non-relativistic Schroedinger
equation and the other using relativistic energy, are used simulataneously to derive the expression, for example for
$P_{\nu_\mu \rightarrow \nu_\tau} (t)}$,
to study the neutrino oscillations. This has been confirmed experimentally.
Here we try to resolve the above theoretical inconsistency.
We show that this can be done in a single consistent theoretical framework
which demands that the neutrinos be superluminal.
We therefor predict that in the neutrino appearance experiments ( for example
$P_{\nu_\mu \rightarrow \nu_\tau} (t)$ ) the neutrinos shall be seen to travel with velocities which are faster than that of light.
The experimentalists are urged to try to confirm this prediction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[679] **viXra:1508.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-19 15:57:12*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 105 Pages.

Run-2 2015-16 of the LHC will probably, when enough data is collected, show whether or not there exist two new Standard Model Higgs mass states, around 200 GeV and around 250 GeV, each with cross sections around 25% of the full Standard Model cross section for the 125 GeV state. Run-1 results were consistent with the existence of those two new Higgs mass states, but were also consistent with their peaks being statistical fluctuations that could go away with more data from Run-2. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: 1 - To describe my E8 Physics Model, which predicts the existence of those two new Higgs mass states around 200 GeV and 250 GeV, and which allows calculation of realistic particle masses, force strengths, K-M parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, etc, a description of which takes up pages 6 through 105 (the end) of this paper; and 2 - To describe the status of the LHC Run-2 data that will show the existence or non-existence of the two new Higgs mass states around 200 GeV and 250 GeV with cross sections about 25% or so of the 125 GeV Higgs mass state cross section, and therefore either support my E8 Physics Model or kill it. Since it may be well into 2016 before Run-2 has enough data to decide the issue, I expect to replace this paper with updated versions throughout Run-2 until it has decided the issue.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[678] **viXra:1508.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 09:01:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[677] **viXra:1508.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-15 13:11:19*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

G matrices are matrix generators with single entries 1,i. It is shown that the G matrices generate the Cl(p,q), SU(n), SO(n) generators and the matrix representation of CAR and CCR operators. The direct sum of SO(n) and SU(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be only to 2 or 3 dimensions. It is shown that the unitary representation of SO(3), the spin space of 2x2 SU(2) matrices arises naturally. It follows that there are 3 generations of 8 fermions and 2 complex scalar doublets. The CAR & CCR are invariant under a real scaling of the operators only for a null space-time metric condition on the co-ordinates. Spin conservation requires the generation of spin 1, 2 bosons which is the reason for interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[676] **viXra:1508.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-13 12:45:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Evidence of a fourth ultra-high energy neutrino—the highest-energy neutrino yet—has been detected by the South Pole-based IceCube experiment, a project that Berkeley Lab researchers helped build and to which they currently contribute analysis. [5]
A group observed a beam of muon neutrinos from CERN and detected the tau neutrinos some of them transformed into. The results clearly show that muon neutrinos can transform into tau neutrinos. A similar group working with the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector observed electron neutrinos from a muon neutrino beam. So we now have directed evidence of neutrino oscillation. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[675] **viXra:1508.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-13 09:42:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10]
The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[674] **viXra:1508.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-12 15:53:17*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Submitted to Advances in high Energy Physics

We propose that the two resonant states of the recently found pentaquark with masses of 4380 MeV and 4450 MeV are states of two hadronic molecules with similar properties to those of the Karliner-Lipkin pentaquark. Applying the Morse molecular potential to both molecules some important numbers are obtained for their sizes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[673] **viXra:1508.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-12 13:24:47*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 7 Pages. First draft, references not included.

It is known that quantization of massless spin-1 particles runs into several related complications such as the redundancy of gauge orbits, the presence of extra degrees of freedom and the need to introduce “ghost” fields. The textbook interpretation of quantum gauge theory is that “ghosts” are unphysical objects whose function is to preserve Lorentz covariance and unitarity. In particular, Faddeev-Popov “ghosts” (FPG) violate the spin-statistics theorem and are devoid of measurable properties. FPG are shown to decouple from the spectrum of observable states, yet it remains unclear how their presence in loop diagrams and their interaction with gauge fields is even possible in the absence of any physical attributes.
The first part of this report is a brief pedagogical review of gauge field quantization. The second part builds up on the idea that, at least in principle, the concept of spacetime endowed with minimal fractality enables a “ghost”-free formulation of quantum gauge theory. An added benefit of this insight is that it sets the stage for a non-perturbative understanding of vacuum polarization in Quantum Electrodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[672] **viXra:1508.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 01:26:03*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages. JSRI Preprint: JSRI-5/2015

A subtle but very real difference in how the Pauli Exclusion Principle is applicable to
baryons in three-quark systems and to those in multiquark systems is presented.
This distinction creates no important physical manifestations for structures with light quarks, as in case of the SU(3)-flavour
group with (u,d,s)-quarks.
However it does produce significant effects for multiquark systems containing one or more heavy quarks like the c- and b-quarks.
In fact, these consequences permit us to comprehend the structure of the two pentaquark states at
4.38 and 4.45 Gev, which were discovered recently
by the LHCb Collaboration at CERN.
This model makes a unique prediction
of the existence of similar two new pentaquarks with structure (uudb$\bar{b}$) and with similar spin assignments as above.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[671] **viXra:1508.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 23:13:18*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors of E8 are given by Garrett Lisi (arXiv 1506.08073) and by Tony Smith (viXra 1405.0030) using, respectively, an 8-circle x 30 vertex projection to 2-dim and a square/cube vertex projection to 2-dim. This paper compares the two interpretations and their projections and gives a graphical view of the physical interpretations of viXra 1405.0030 using the square/cube projection.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[670] **viXra:1508.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-07 04:40:23*

**Authors:** Colin James BSc BA MInstP

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper suggests an alternative mechanism to account for the dominant abundance of matter over antimatter in our observed universe by looking at the production side of baryons and antibaryons in the very early universe. The Sakharov conditions
appear to be met.
It is suggested that an aspect of baryogenesis may have been similar to the physics of randomly forming only one isomer from two possible identical energy isomers by non-biased (achiral) stimulus. Research is cited where random 100% one isomer (complete single chirality) is produced without bias from a mixture that should produce a 50%/50% mix of two isomers as they have equal energy and equal probability of being formed.
A similar chance resolution in the production of baryons and antibaryons to generate baryons as the majority might have applied in the very early universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[669] **viXra:1508.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-06 13:01:40*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The talk presented at the Meeting of the DPF of the APS, May 24-28, 2002, The College W&M, Williamsburg, VA, USA, May 26, 2002

The amplitude of Higgs-Higgs interaction is calculated in the Standard Model in the framework of the Sirlin's renormalization
scheme in the unitary gauge. The one-loop corrections for lambda, the constant of 4chi interaction are compared with the previous results of L. Durand et al. obtained on using
the technique of the equivalence theorem, and in the different gauges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[668] **viXra:1508.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 15:02:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In a new blow for the futuristic "supersymmetry" theory of the universe's basic anatomy, experts reported fresh evidence Monday of subatomic activity consistent with the mainstream Standard Model of particle physics. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[667] **viXra:1508.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 11:09:12*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. http://www.physics.sk/aps/pubs/2000/aps-2000-50-6-629.pdf

We argue that self/anti-self charge conjugate states of the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2) representation
possess axial charges. Furthermore, we analyze recent claims of the sigma [Ax A*] interaction
terms for “fermions”. Finally, we briefly discuss the problem in the (1,0)+(0,1) representation.
PACS: 11.30.Er, 12.60.-i, 14.60.St

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[666] **viXra:1508.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 11:16:44*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. http://www.actaphys.uj.edu.pl/_cur/store/vol29/pdf/v29p0619.pdf

Gauge transformations of type-II spinors are considered in the Majorana–
Ahluwalia construct for self/anti-self charge conjugate states. Some speculations
on the relations of this model with the earlier ones are given.
PACS numbers: 11.30. Er, 12.10. Dm, 12.60. -i, 14.60. St

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[665] **viXra:1508.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 11:21:22*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. http://www.actaphys.uj.edu.pl/_cur/store/sup6/pdf/s6p0065.pdf

We construct self/anti-self charge conjugate (Majorana-like) states for
the (1/2, 0)⊕(0, 1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs
for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problems of the
basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac-like and
Majorana-like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties
(P, C, T) are studied. The corresponding dynamical equations are
presented. In the (1/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 1/2) representation they obey the Diraclike
equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by
Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled
(as shown by Ziino). The particular attention has been paid to the questions
of chirality and helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused
in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states, and to the normalization
(“the mass dimension”). We further review several experimental consequences
which follow from the previous works of M. Kirchbach et al. on
neutrinoless double beta decay, and G.J. Ni et al. on meson lifetimes. The
results are generalized for spins 1, 3/2 and 2.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[664] **viXra:1507.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 08:54:55*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Wlliams

**Comments:** 7 pages, 1 figure

We present a simple, semi-classical e-model of the neutron that gives the neutron mass, charge, spin, magnetic moment and internal charge distribution all in good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[663] **viXra:1507.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-26 09:44:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15]
A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[662] **viXra:1507.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 08:35:24*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

One of the most outstanding and puzzling problem of particle physics is,
how come, no baryon number is needed to specify the spin-1/2 fermions of the
Eight Fold Way model. Recently the author has shown that all the models
proposed to solve this problem, at present, are fundamentally wrong. So
what is the resolution of this conundrum? Here we show that the topological
Skyrme model comes to our rescue. It is this model which fills the gap by
providing a topologically generated baryon number for the spin-1/2 baryons
in the Eight Fold Way model. The global nature of this baryon number
complements perfectly well the global nature of the Eight Fold Way model
baryons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[661] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 05:36:19*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: shows the fundamental structure of the proton as an elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[660] **viXra:1507.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 16:17:29*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This manuscript explores the restrictions that light velocity imposes on orbiting objects. It then applies the findings to the ‘entropy atom’, a concept that was introduced in an earlier publication (see http://vixra.org/abs/1408.0142)
The key results are:
1.Proof that Gravity travels a light velocity.
2.Orbit diameters are subject to Lorentz expansion (as opposed to Lorentz contraction).
3.The smallest observable object (thus elementary particle) has an entropy value of 2 bits. It has been named ‘entropy atom’.
4.There is a universal maximum limit to how much an entropy atom can contain: 228.97 GeV/c2.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[659] **viXra:1507.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 15:02:39*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 10 pages, 15 references

A modification of the Dirac extensible model of electron is applied to study both the universe and the electron. Frequencies of small oscillations of the nucleon and of the electron coupled to this universe are estimated. Two bold hypotheses combined with the models results permit us to estimate the nucleon-electron mass ratio. The mass and radius of the observable universe are also determined.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[658] **viXra:1507.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 02:12:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[657] **viXra:1507.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 12:58:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Fock in 1931 showed that Fundamental Quantum Theory requires Linear Operators based on Kernel Functions. Hua showed that Kernel Functions correspond to Complex Classical Domains and Symmetic Spaces. Wolf showed which Symmetric Spaces correspond to Quaternionic Structure, which can represent 4-dim physical spacetime. Schwinger showed that physical elementary particles observed experimentally are not points, but are small geometric volumes he called Sources whose structure carries properties including Creation and Annihilation probability amplitudes. Creation and Annihilation operators lead to Clifford Algebra structure and E8 Physics. The Source structure is based on Green's Functions = Kernel Functions for the Geometry of each Source, which geometry has the symmetry of the Gauge Groups relevant to the particle represented by the Source. Wyler showed the basic process whereby Geoemtric Volumes related to Sources could be used to calculate force strengths and particle masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[656] **viXra:1507.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 16:30:09*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

Inertia of a mass sample directly depends on all the gravity radiation received by that sample from everywhere in the universe. Acceleration away from each gravity radiation source increases the gravity radiation received by any mass sample. Acceleration of the mass sample in the direction away from any gravity radiation source will add further to the strength of the gravity radiation received by the mass sample. This is the direct connection between mass generated gravity and artificial acceleration generated gravity, whether linear or centrifugal. Mach’s vague principle is clearly explained in this paper as well as the causes of inertia.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[655] **viXra:1507.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 11:32:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7]
The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[654] **viXra:1507.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 15:58:38*

**Authors:** Vilkovskii S.S.

**Comments:** Pages 14. English language and russian translation.

Existence of zero rotations for point particles with nonzero rest mass in the field of their quantum size is supposed. The assumption about coordinated interaction of these zero rotations of the above particles leads to possibility of the description of their wave properties.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[653] **viXra:1507.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-18 14:05:11*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 19 pages, 02 figures,01 table

Running coupling constants both of QED and QCD are studied in a heuristic way. We estimate two branches of the running coupling of the QCD, the first going from low to moderate energies, and the second running at high energies. The intercept of the high energy branch of QCD with the high energy curve of the QED-coupling is used, as a means to estimate the Grand Unification Theory (GUT) scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[652] **viXra:1507.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 09:06:33*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Six pages

Most 21st century scientists believe that mass can be directly converted into energy and also that energy can be directly converted into mass, represented by the Dr. Einstein 1905 popularized equation E = mc^2. They often cite nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as proof, or they simply accept the ideas as a given, without much critical thought, as this author did during his early schooling. Imagine raising your hand in a university physics class after the congenial professor has just derived E = mc^2 on the board, as I saw done once, and saying “Dr. Malik, that is wrong; you cannot change mass into energy.” This paper will dispute those mass – energy conversion ideas and show the comedy of errors that have so firmly planted this into virtually all of 21st century physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[651] **viXra:1507.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 10:09:35*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages. http://spacetime.narod.ru/11.html

I discuss generalized spin-1/2 massless equations
for neutrinos. They have been obtained by Gersten's method for derivation of arbitrary-spin equations. Possible physical consequences are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[650] **viXra:1507.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 07:31:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of a new particle called the pentaquark. [9]
CERN scientists just completed one of the most exciting upgrades on the Large Hadron Collider—the Di-Jet Calorimeter (DCal). [8]
As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[649] **viXra:1507.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 08:43:55*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, it has been tried to explain the relation between the length of spirals in the structure of elementary particles with the Energy and Mass of the corresponding observable particle. It also explains the expansive behavior of gluon in nucleon for the length of constituent spiral structure of quark. Referring into the information system of Universe at different scales of information processing varying in collective analysis of information cells, it tries to explain the conservation of information been carried out by the SU (1) gauge symmetry group of Universe across different generations of Universe being reflected through the study of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. It also tries to derive the expression for creation & annihilation operator for the Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[648] **viXra:1507.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-10 10:16:40*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 1 Page.

E8 coset structure corresponds to structure of 4+4 Kaluza-Klein Lagrangian.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[647] **viXra:1507.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-10 03:31:05*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We discuss the gauge invariance of generalized Klein-Gordon wave equation based on sedeonic space-time operators and sedeonic wave function.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[646] **viXra:1507.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 12:56:31*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 1 figure.

We present a simple, semi-classical e-model of the proton that gives the proton mass, charge, spin and magnetic moment that are all in good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[645] **viXra:1507.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 08:50:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

CERN scientists just completed one of the most exciting upgrades on the Large Hadron Collider—the Di-Jet Calorimeter (DCal). [8]
As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[644] **viXra:1507.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 11:51:01*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

Newton introduced the relation F = ma. He never defined m or mass. Dr. Einstein incorrectly used E = mc^2 or m = E/c^2 to define mass. This paper correctly defines mass using Gravitrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[643] **viXra:1507.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-07 00:31:37*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 6 tables, 6 figures, 15 references

This article continues our previous study in arXiv:1010.0458. Sakaton interactions potentials are re-optimized. Masses of mesons, baryons, light nuclei and hypernuclei are obtained in a good agreement with experiment. Scattering cross sections (proton-proton, proton-antiproton, neutron-proton, and lambda-proton) appear overestimated, especially at high energies. This suggests that using interaction potentials that are nonsingular at r=0 would lead to a better agreement with experiments. In general, our results indicate that Sakata model may be a promising replacement for the quark model of hadrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[642] **viXra:1507.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-07 01:57:03*

**Authors:** Han Geuedes

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

In the paper it is demonstrated that the particular form of CHSH, S=E{A(1)[B(1)-B(2)]-A(2)[B(1)+B(2)]} with, S maximally 2 and minimally -2,for A and B functions in {-1,1}, is not generally valid. The nonzero probability that local hidden extra parameters violate the CHSH, is not eliminated with basic principles derived from the CHSH.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[641] **viXra:1507.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 04:33:27*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We discuss the gradient gauge invariance for the massive and massless fields described by sedeonic second-order and first-order wave equations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[640] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 09:21:03*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

The author properly explains, as Dr. Einstein failed to do, the connection between mass, gravity, inertia, and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[639] **viXra:1506.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 11:41:59*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

A tiny composite field – mass particle is identified which accounts for all mass in the universe and explains both inertia and also suggests the intimate relationship between what is traditionally thought of as gravity and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[638] **viXra:1506.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-18 14:02:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A group observed a beam of muon neutrinos from CERN and detected the tau neutrinos some of them transformed into. The results clearly show that muon neutrinos can transform into tau neutrinos. A similar group working with the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector observed electron neutrinos from a muon neutrino beam. So we now have directed evidence of neutrino oscillation. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[637] **viXra:1506.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-09 07:19:07*

**Authors:** Mubarak Dirar A. Allah, Zoalnoon A.Abeid Allah, Hassab Allah Mohamed

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Einstein generalized general relativity Lagrangian dependent on the second derivatives of the field, when use together with poison equation causes the mass term in the Lagrangian disappear. This means that Higgs field which was proposed to generate mass need to be revised. The work also aimed to see how Einstein generalized general relativity Lagrangian can affect Higgs field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[636] **viXra:1506.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 15:09:00*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 17 Pages; 4 Tables; 41 References.

In previous work [Comm. in Phys. 24, 313 (2014)], we have established the foundations of superluminal relativistic mechanics which is actually a basic step toward the superluminalization of special relativity theory (SRT). In the present paper that is partly based on the aforementioned work, the theoretical maximum value of Lorentz factor is proposed in order to determine the limit of validity of SRT in its proper domain of applications, and situate the frontiers between relativistic physics and superluminal physics for the conceptual and practical purpose at microscopic and macroscopic levels. Among the consequences of the developed formalism, a helpful formula for superluminal velocities is suggested and applied to the high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays, also another formula is derived to estimate the nonzero photon rest mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[635] **viXra:1506.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-07 05:48:24*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The behaviour of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) as a dense fluid with very low
viscosity, exhibiting hydrodynamic flow and complete absorption of high momentum
probes, demands a paradigmatic shift in our view of QGP, vis-a-vis the earlier held
view of it being a gas of weakly interacting quarks and gluons. This would have
been a major setback for the quark gas model of QGP, but for the discovery of
a new empirical information. The study of the $v_2$ parameter of the
elliptic flow as a function of ${KE}_T$, the transverse kinematic energy, displays
evidence of scaling by $n_q$, the number of constituent quarks in baryons and
mesons. This is an incontrovertible evidence of the underling role of the quark
degrees of freedom in establishing the elliptic flow. So is the QGP a liquid of a gas?
This is the new conundrum. Here we provide a resolution of this puzzle through a
consistent application of the symmetry structure of the full ${SU(3)}_c$
group itself, rather than just its local Lie group algebra.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[634] **viXra:1505.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-31 02:04:10*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A maximum of 110 elements exist within the Vedic Periodic Table of Elements, in contrast to the Periodic Table of western science. This paper predicts Element 110, which is referred to in the Rig Veda. The paper provides the Vedic Particle Physics and Vedic Combinatorial Mathematics views on why the Table of Periodic Elements is naturally limited to 110 elements and no more.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[633] **viXra:1505.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 11:31:58*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 9 Pages. this paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Comments are welcome

This paper was written in the context of a new concept of Maxwellian neutrino suggested by Valerrii Temnenko [1][2]. Assuming that his classical model of neutrino may be considered close to real description, then it seems also possible to write down Maxwell representation of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. In fact, such an idea has been proposed by Sanchez-Monroy & Quimbay [3]. Therefore, in this paper I extend further such a Maxwell representation of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory on Cantor Sets. However, I should emphasize that the proposed model as outlined here is not complete yet. It is still a long way from a complete classical description of elementary particles including neutrino masses. Therefore, more research is needed, be it theoretical and also experimental.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[632] **viXra:1505.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 09:57:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[631] **viXra:1505.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 23:15:07*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Joy Christian has shown that Bell's Theorem should have been formulated in terms of the 7-sphere, and David Brown has shown that the resulting quantum structure indicates that physical reality uses the group SU(8). The non-compact version of SU(8) is SL(8,R) which is a fundamental part of the semi-direct product H92xSL(8,R) (where H92 is (8+28+56+1+56+28+8) = 185-dim and SL(8,R) is 63-dim) which is the Maximal Compactification of 248-dim E8 of E8 Physics described in viXra 1405.0030.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[630] **viXra:1505.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 12:19:47*

**Authors:** Fabrizio Vassallo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short note I resubmit the model presented in vixra.org/abs/1002.0054 with some corrections.
The mass of the Higgs boson has an integer relation with a particle of the model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[629] **viXra:1505.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 03:49:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Researchers have come a step closer to building one of the world's best dark matter detectors: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently signed off on the conceptual design of the proposed LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment and gave the green light for the procurement of some of its components. DOE's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, a key member of the LZ collaboration, is setting up a test stand for the detector prototype and a facility to purify liquid xenon, which will be the detector's "eye" for dark matter. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[628] **viXra:1505.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 18:27:47*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Due to the existence of man-made laws, many phenomena that are not found in nature, can be manufactured with artificial method, such as instantaneous magnetic monopole. Suppose there is a long uniform rectangular-shaped magnet, along its middle cross section (the demarcation section of N-pole and S-pole) to cut it at very high speed, as the disconnected instant moment, one half of the magnet is the pure N-pole, and the other half is the pure S-pole. Similarly, other instantaneous physical phenomena such as instantaneous fractional charge may also be made with artificial method.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[627] **viXra:1505.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 03:48:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is closed for refurbishment until later this year. But that doesn't discontinue the findings from flooding in. While examining through data from 2011 and 2012, particle physicists have discovered convincing data for a fresh, formerly unobserved decay channel. The pre-published paper can be found in Nature. The LHC accelerates protons, naturally located at the center of an atom, and directs them zooming around its spherical compartment deep underground. When the protons strike, they annihilate—converting from matter into unadulterated energy. Then, among the discordance of senseless energy that's vanishing in and out of reality all around the reaction chamber, particles start to appear, vanish and manifest themselves again. This pathway that the proton's energy takes through particles is termed as decay channel. [12]
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[626] **viXra:1505.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 05:19:38*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the charge non conservation in the decay of a
neutron that made of quarks according to quark model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[625] **viXra:1505.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 10:12:33*

**Authors:** Stephen Reucroft, Edward Williams

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We have developed models for several elementary particles that are based on simple assumptions and experimental observations. Using these models we take a semi-classical approach to derive relations between the particle masses and their radii. All results are in good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[624] **viXra:1505.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 13:28:38*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

The theoretical calculation of the Planck circumference and the Planck length, with a result that is in agreement with the uncertainty limits set by the 2010 (NIST) CODATA values. The author posits the Planck circumference as the first pi, and theorizes a new profound meaning of the inverse of the elementary charge as the number of a postulated fundamental unit Y'; within the framework of a proposed finite fundamental particle grouping theory - Utrixical theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[623] **viXra:1505.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 08:03:17*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Motivated by T-duality, the 10D/4D correspondence is expanded to apply on trans-Planckian scales. On particle mass scales, the correspondence relates four-dimensional length scales with mass values derived from a ten-dimensional geometry. On trans-Planckian scales, the correspondence relates four-dimensional mass scales with length values derived from the ten-dimensional geometry. Trans-Planckian length scales corresponding to the masses of stellar, intermediate-mass and supermassive black holes are shown to derive from the higher-dimensional geometry. The trans-Planckian length scales calculated for supermassive black holes correlate with the masses of atomic nuclei across the Planck divide suggesting that the two types of object are analogous. Curiously, the galaxy cluster has a particle analogue.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[622] **viXra:1505.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 16:10:11*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** Pages.

The paper shows a model for building elementary particles, including the higgs, dark matter and neutral vacuum particles, from preons and sub-preons. The preons are built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. Elementary particles are unravelled and then reformed when preons disaggregate and reaggregate at particle interactions. Hexark colours are separately described by hue (hexacolour) and tone (hexatone). Hexacolour completely determines particle colour charge and hexatone completely determines particle electric charge. Hexacolour branes within the electron intertwine to form a continuously rotating triple helix structure. A higgs-like particle is implicated in fermions radiating bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[621] **viXra:1505.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 09:50:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light - a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[620] **viXra:1505.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 07:56:22*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 7 Pages +appendix. The tenth paper based on reality

A particle model of light (complete in all respects), in which the particles move along helical paths, is proposed. How these particles acquire varying charges and integrate into systems called e-m radiations are explained; the probable physical constants have been deduced. This model replaces 'space-time' by 'gravitational dragging' and 'wave-particle duality' by 'particles following wavy path'. So, if the model is correct, the two great theories of modern physics, 'General Relativity' and 'Quantum Mechanics' will have to be abandoned.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[619] **viXra:1505.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 02:33:51*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We present the sypersymmetric scalar-vector equations for massive and massless fields. The gauge invariance for the potentials described by second-order and first-order wave equations and for field strengths described by the systems of Maxwell-like equations is demonstrated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[618] **viXra:1505.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 08:53:25*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The objective is to formulate a foundation from which SM, GR and the dark sector are emergent. It is proposed that matrix generators with single entries ±1, ±i over a complex field are the building blocks of all physical states. The axiom that vacuum states have non-zero minima requires that all matrix elements are non-zero. In the paper [1], an extended curvature tensor was calculated and N=6d spaces were found. The 4d Weyl spinors are local gauge invariant under SU(4) and a 4d space metric. The transition of a space-like gamma matrix to time like gamma matrix results in the emergence of Space-Time. The dark sector consists of SU(4) gluons modifying the gravitational potential and the cosmological constant is the ground state of the asymmetric curvature scalar. SM fermion sector with 3 generations of quarks & leptons emerges from symmetry breaking of SU(4)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[617] **viXra:1505.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:21:28*

**Authors:** Paolo Palazzi

**Comments:** 42 Pages. slides from the talk presented at the 2nd Workshop on Detectors for Forward Physics at LHC -- La Biodola, Elba, Italy, 28 May 2014. Earlier papers by this author on the same subject at: http://particlez.org/p3a

A mass analysis of the whole particle spectrum, combined with the hypothesis that hadrons are solid-phase and shell-structured, indicates that the proton and the neutron are made of three shells. Mesons states corresponding to shell 1 (pion) and 2 (kaon) are available, but no shells 1 and 2 baryons have been seen. This may be due to the fact that mesons and baryons are built on different lattice systems, the baryonic one being less cohesive.
One of the interpretations of the shape of the p-p elastic scattering dsigma/dt at high energies also relies on a three-layered proton.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[616] **viXra:1505.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-02 09:56:42*

**Authors:** Paolo Palazzi

**Comments:** 61 pages. Slides from a FIAS Colloquium, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, June 5, 2014. Earlier papers by this author on the same subject at: http://particlez.org/p3a

The spectrum of hadron masses is a mystery that the prevalent theory is unable to elucidate: there are no mass rules. In fact the hadron mass system is linear, with an increment of about 70 MeV/c^2. This rule was anticipated in 1952 already, re-discovered independently by several authors but never made it to the accepted body of knowledge. In 2003 this rule has been reassessed by this author for all the mesons listed by the RPP of the PDG, with evaluation of the statistical significance by Monte Carlo. This analysis confirms the rule with greater precision, and shows that the slightly different values of the mass unit u for the various meson groups defined by quark composition and J^PC are quantized on a u-grid of 12 equal intervals, and their location on the grid is correlated with the quantum numbers. A conjecture about shell-structured hadrons, combined with the meson mass rules, suggests that mesons are geometrically similar to nuclei, while their mass patterns imply solid-phase aggregates on an FCC lattice. The equivalent baryon analysis shows that the baryon masses are quantized with the same basic mass unit and on the same u-grid as the mesons. Baryonic shells grow with a lower increment compared to the mesons, and start only at shell 3 with the nucleon, suggesting that mesons and baryons differ for the lattice arrangement. These mass rules were obtained with a largely automatic analysis of the full hadron spectrum, and are statistically significant beyond doubt. Combined with the shells, they may offer an alternative, simpler interpretation of the structure of hadrons, their constituents, and the nature of the strong interaction.

Extended abstract and author bio at:

http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/fileadmin/fias/common/PDF/Colloquium/fias_kollo140605.pdf

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[523] **viXra:1508.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 16:17:42*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Just a small improvement

We propose that the two resonant states of the recently found pentaquark by LHCb with masses of 4380 MeV and 4450 MeV are two states of the hadronic molecule ccbar + proton with similar properties to those of the Karliner-Lipkin pentaquark. Applying the Morse molecular potential to the molecule its minimum size is estimated. If S states exist, the first two possible S states are suggested and their energies are estimated. It is shown that the coupling constant is close to that of charmonium, and this may mean Physics Beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[522] **viXra:1508.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-26 10:58:07*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Just a small but important improvement

We propose that the two resonant states of the recently found pentaquark by LHCb with masses of 4380 MeV and 4450 MeV are two states of the hadronic molecule ccbar + proton with similar properties to those of the Karliner-Lipkin pentaquark. Applying the Morse molecular potential to the molecule its minimum size is
estimated. If S states exist, the first two possible S states are suggested and their energies are estimated. It is shown that the coupling constant is close to that of charmonium, and this may mean Physics Beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[521] **viXra:1508.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-22 22:23:31*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 6 Pages. I changed substantially the paper

We propose that the two resonant states of the recently found pentaquark by LHCb with masses of 4380 MeV and 4450 MeV are two states of the hadronic molecule cc uud with similar properties to those of the Karliner-Lipkin pentaquark. Applying the Morse molecular potential to the molecule its minimum size is
estimated. It is shown that its coupling constant is close to that of charmonium, and this may mean Physics Beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[520] **viXra:1508.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-18 08:47:57*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 6 Pages. I changed the paper a lot

We propose that the two resonant states of the recently found pentaquark with masses of 4380 MeV and 4450 MeV are two states of the hadronic molecule ccbar + proton with similar properties to those of the Karliner-Lipkin pentaquark. Applying the Morse molecular potential to the molecule some important numbers are obtained for its size.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[519] **viXra:1508.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-13 17:47:58*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors of E8 are given by Garrett Lisi (arXiv 1506.08073) and by Tony Smith (viXra 1405.0030) using, respectively, an 8-circle x 30 vertex projection to 2-dim and a square/cube vertex projection to 2-dim. This paper compares the two interpretations and their projections and gives a graphical view of the physical interpretations of viXra 1405.0030 using the square/cube projection. Version 2 [v2] adds full viXra reference number and revises graphics and discussion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[518] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-28 21:29:18*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows the fundamental structure of the proton as an elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[517] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 00:37:58*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows the fundamental structure of the proton as an elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[516] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-25 20:49:47*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[515] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 10:07:08*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[514] **viXra:1507.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 00:34:50*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There are many ways and whats to quantize. Here we seek to explain some of the whys and hows of the impedance model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[513] **viXra:1507.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-10 10:33:18*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Six pages

Newton introduced the relation F = ma. He never defined m or mass. Dr. Einstein incorrectly used E = mc^2 or m = E/c^2 to define mass. See www.k1man.com/c1 This paper correctly defines mass using Gravitrons.
Secondly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the two similar mechanisms of radio, light,. etc. generation and gravity generation, which have acceleration in common, as well as to correctly explain, for the first time, the connection between gravity, inertia, and ordinary acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[512] **viXra:1507.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-09 09:46:52*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

Newton introduced the relation F = ma. He never defined m or mass. Dr. Einstein incorrectly used E = mc^2 or m = E/c^2 to define mass. See www.k1man.com.c1 This paper correctly defines mass using Gravitrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[511] **viXra:1507.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 14:25:45*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 15 Pages. v3: added comparison with existing nucleon-nucleon potentials

This article continues our previous study in arXiv:1010.0458. Sakaton interactions potentials are re-optimized. Masses of mesons, baryons, light nuclei and hypernuclei are obtained in a good agreement with experiment. Scattering cross sections (proton-proton, proton-antiproton, neutron-proton, and lambda-proton) appear overestimated, especially at high energies. This suggests that using interaction potentials that are nonsingular at r=0 would lead to a better agreement with experiments. In general, our results indicate that Sakata model may be a promising replacement for the quark model of hadrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[510] **viXra:1507.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-06 13:14:42*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This article continues our previous study in arXiv:1010.0458. Sakaton interactions potentials are re-optimized. Masses of mesons, baryons, light nuclei and hypernuclei are obtained in a good agreement with experiment. Scattering cross sections (proton-proton, proton-antiproton, neutron-proton, and lambda-proton) appear overestimated, especially at high energies. This suggests that using interaction potentials that are nonsingular at r=0 would lead to a better agreement with experiments. In general, our results indicate that Sakata model may be a promising replacement for the quark model of hadrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[509] **viXra:1507.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-06 01:57:40*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Revised version

We discuss the gradient gauge invariance for the massive and massless fields described by sedeonic second-order and first-order wave equations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[508] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-01 16:48:32*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Six pages

The author properly explains, as Dr. Einstein failed to do, the connection between mass, gravity, inertia, and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[507] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-30 10:21:57*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The author properly explains, as Dr. Einstein failed to do, the connection between mass, gravity, inertia, and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[506] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-27 19:09:37*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[505] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 09:00:42*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

A tiny composite field – mass particle is identified which accounts for all mass in the universe and explains both inertia and also suggests the intimate relationship between what is traditionally thought of as gravity and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[504] **viXra:1506.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-06 08:38:38*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 17 Pages; 4 Tables; 41 References.

In previous work [Comm. in Phys. 24 (2014) 313], we have established the foundations of superluminal relativistic mechanics which is actually a basic step toward the superluminalization of special relativity theory (SRT). In the present paper that is partly based on the aforementioned work, the theoretical
maximum value of Lorentz factor is proposed in order to determine the limit of validity of SRT in its proper domain of applications, and situate the frontiers between relativistic physics and superluminal physics for the conceptual and practical purpose at microscopic and macroscopic levels. Among the consequences of the developed formalism, a helpful formula for superluminal velocities is suggested and applied to the high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays, also another formula is derived to estimate the nonzero photon rest mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[503] **viXra:1506.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-21 15:13:53*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 17 Pages; 4 Tables; 41 References.

In previous work [Comm. in Phys. 24, 313 (2014)], we have established the foundations of
superluminal relativistic mechanics which is actually a basic step toward the superluminalization of special relativity theory (SRT). In the present paper that is partly based on the aforementioned work, the theoretical maximum value of Lorentz factor max γ is proposed in order to determine the limit of validity of SRT in its proper domain of applications, and situate the frontiers between relativistic physics and superluminal physics for the conceptual and practical purpose at microscopic and macroscopic levels. Among the consequences of
the developed formalism, a helpful formula for superluminal velocities is suggested and applied to the high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays, also another formula is derived to estimate the
nonzero photon rest mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[502] **viXra:1506.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-27 03:37:50*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The experimental determination that the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) is
a (perfect) liquid, rather than a gas, creates a crisis for theoretical models.
So is the QGP a liquid of a gas? Here we provide a resolution of this puzzle
through a consistent application of the symmetry structure of the full SU (3) c
group itself, rather than just its local Lie group algebra. Hence this paper
provides a novel resolution of the above puzzle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[501] **viXra:1505.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-16 04:48:52*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper has just been submitted for review to Journal of Advanced Mathematics. Your comments are welcome.

This paper was written in the context of a new concept of Maxwellian neutrino suggested by Valerii Temnenko. Assuming that his classical model of neutrino may be considered close to real description, then it seems also possible to write down Maxwell representation of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. In fact, such an idea has been proposed by Sanchez-Monroy & Quimbay, and they called it: Classical Chromodynamics. Therefore, in this paper I extend further such a Maxwell representation of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory on Cantor Sets. However, I should emphasize that the proposed model as outlined here is not complete yet. It is still a long way from a complete classical description of elementary particles including neutrino masses. Therefore, more research is needed, be it theoretical and also experimental.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[500] **viXra:1505.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 20:36:05*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Joy Christian has shown that Bell's Theorem should have been formulated in terms of the 7-sphere, and David Brown has shown that the resulting quantum structure indicates that physical reality uses the group SU(8). The non-compact version of SU(8) is SL(8,R) which is a fundamental part of the semi-direct product H92xSL(8,R) (where H92 is (8+28+56+1+56+28+8) = 185-dim and SL(8,R) is 63-dim) which is the Maximal Compactification of 248-dim E8 of E8 Physics described in viXra 1405.0030. Version 2 (v2) expands discussion, uses SL(8,R) in title, and states full viXra number.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[499] **viXra:1505.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-09 20:07:21*

**Authors:** Fabrizio Vassallo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short note I resubmit the model presented in vixra.org/abs/1002.0054 with some corrections.
The mass of the Higgs boson has an integer relation with a particle of the model.
A conjecture is made about the internal structure of protons, neutrons, W bosons and neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[498] **viXra:1505.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-13 08:45:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the charge non conservation in the decay of a
neutron that made of quarks according to quark model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[497] **viXra:1505.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-04 13:58:18*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Bracketed quantities removed from p2.

Motivated by T-duality, the 10D/4D correspondence is expanded to apply on trans-Planckian scales. On particle mass scales, the correspondence relates four-dimensional length scales with mass values derived from a ten-dimensional geometry. On trans-Planckian scales, the correspondence relates four-dimensional mass scales with length values derived from the ten-dimensional geometry. Trans-Planckian length scales corresponding to the masses of stellar, intermediate-mass and supermassive black holes are shown to derive from the higher-dimensional geometry. The trans-Planckian length scales calculated for supermassive black holes correlate with the masses of atomic nuclei across the Planck divide suggesting that the two types of object are analogous. Curiously, the galaxy cluster has a particle analogue.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[496] **viXra:1505.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-18 01:51:52*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Revised version.

We present the sypersymmetric scalar-vector equations for massive and massless fields. The gauge invariance for the potentials described by second-order and first-order wave equations and for the field strengths described by the systems of Maxwell-like equations is demonstrated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[495] **viXra:1505.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 04:22:21*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Revised version

We present the sypersymmetric scalar-vector equations for massive and massless fields. The gauge invariance for the potentials described by second-order and first-order wave equations and for the field strengths described by the systems of Maxwell-like equations is demonstrated.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics