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Any replacements are listed further down

[817] **viXra:1607.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-27 14:24:30*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We discuss and critique some of the evidence that is often invoked to support the idea that partons are quarks. We present an alternative model in which the charged partons are electrons and positrons. This new model explains many experimental observations that the quark model is unable to explain. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the subject.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[816] **viXra:1607.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-27 14:27:33*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams

**Comments:** 6 pages, 2 figures

We have developed an alternative to the standard model of particle physics. In our model, the mass of an elementary particle, like its charge, is an intrinsic property of the particle determined by its internal structure and internal kinematics. There is no Higgs mechanism.
In this paper we briefly review the current status of our model including the main results of calculations that we have reported previously. We then turn our attention to particle stability. We note a possible reason for the stability of the proton and the electron and, as a further application of our approach, we present a calculation of the neutron lifetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[815] **viXra:1607.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-25 11:57:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.
The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[814] **viXra:1607.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-24 21:10:55*

**Authors:** Martin Dudziak, Matti Pitkanen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A quantum topological model is offered for the potential of producing energy through vacuum electromagnetic current generation, and its possible use for exoplanetary space travel propulsion systems.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[813] **viXra:1607.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-23 02:52:14*

**Authors:** Marius Arghirescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Accepted to IJHEP

The new neutral boson of 34 me , experimentally evidenced and supposed to be an X-boson of a fifth basic force, was predicted as being a basic z0 preon of cold formed quarks by a pre-quantum model of elementary particle resulted from an etherono-quantonic theory of the author, and can be a strong argument for a Bose-Einstein condensate model of particle, resulted by magnetically confined gammons formed as pairs of quasielectrons. An argument in the favour of the preonic structure of quarks and for the Cold Genesis of the elementary particles is proposed a new, pre-quantum model of quark resulted in theory with quasi-crystallin as structure of quasi-electrons of the basic preon z0 . The brought arguments sustain also the conclusion that the z0 boson can be a „dark matter” constituent.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[812] **viXra:1607.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-22 13:12:18*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Chapter1.Elementary particle pulsation principle.[1] Basic concept of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
[2] The concepts of elementary particle pulsation principle. and the existing facts.
[3] The grounds that came up with the idea of the hypothesis of the pulsation principle.Its history.
[4] The first step to elementary particle pulsation principle birth.
[5] I built the geometric model of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
[6] Summary of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
[7] The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (The original of the 1980 announcement)
[8] An elementary particle is a lump of the energy. It is super-high-speed and pulsates. The reason.
[9] The application of the elementary particle pulsation principle. The grounds of the idea.
[10] The characteristic list of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (Timing distinction).
[11] Figure of the quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle.
[12] The idea of elementary pulsation principle apply the concepts.
[13] Elementary pulsation principle concepts of theoretical physics puzzler. (1-33)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[811] **viXra:1607.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-20 03:04:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9]
A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.
The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[810] **viXra:1607.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-18 19:09:24*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic selfenergy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of such magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to Post´s , many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[809] **viXra:1607.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-15 10:12:33*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The pulsation principle solves infinite difficulty.(1)
All elementary particles convert it in sync.
The pulsation model of the elementary particle pulsation principle、
* All elementary particles convert it in sync with a particle trip, a wave trip, a minus number particle trip.
* The electromagnetic force works in a wave trip.
The electromagnetic force does not work in a particle trip. .
The electromagnetic force does not work in a minus number particle trip.
* All particles and minus number particles disappear in a wave trip.
The conversion synchronizes.
The electromagnetic force of All the photons not work in particle processes and negative particles process.
The electromagnetic force works in a wave trip.
* The concept of the vacuum of quantum mechanics.
Virtual particles (generation, annihilation) model.
* The random (generation, annihilation).
By it
Particles and antiparticles are always infinite pieces exist.
* Particles of Infinite number are involved in electromagnetism force.
Negative particles of Infinite number are involved in electromagnetism force.
By it
Renormalization prescriptions are needed.
* Photons mediate the electromagnetic force.
And
Photons are always infinite pieces exist.
Equation would be endless.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[808] **viXra:1607.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-14 10:44:28*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 49 Pages. If the math works, an investigation is warranted.

It is proposed, that fundamental particle physics is inherently comprised of a fundamental scheme (13/12) that gives rise to the constants. The approach taken has been to extrapolate from the known constants of the standard model to a proposed fundamental (Democritean) unit. A hierarchal relationship between the constants and their respective ratios is shown. Every constant with an inherent ratio, e.g., the 2pi ratio of the Planck constant h and the reduced Planck constant h-bar. The 13/12 scheme theoretically calculates constants such as the Rydberg constant, Bohr magneton, Compton wavelength, Planck mass, etc., solely by dimensionless ratios.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[807] **viXra:1607.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-09 13:22:58*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A proton and the neutron in the atomic nucleus.
The interpretation of the pulsation hypothesis,
Of the atomic nucleus,
A proton and the neutron are the same elementary particles.
The valley of the ripple of the material wave due to the neutron pulsation,
The electron goes around the valley.
When an electron is in the orbit of the proton, a proton turns into a neutron.
When an electron goes out of the orbit of the neutron, a neutron becomes the proton.
Proton (+ electric charge), an electron (- electric charge).
The proton (+ electric charge )+ electron (- electric charge) = neutrality.
Valley of the ripples of the nuclei to form electron orbitals.
The electron goes around an orbit.
When an electron is released from the orbit, the atom becomes the positive electric charge.
As for both the atomic nucleus and the atom, the change of the electric charge depends on electronic movement.
An electric charge will undergo a change. It is discontinuous (at the unit of electronic electric charge).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[806] **viXra:1607.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-06 08:32:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[805] **viXra:1607.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-05 10:54:13*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Talk ate the XXXI International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, June 19-25, 2016

In this talk I present three explicit examples of generalizations in relativistic quantum mechanics.
First of all, I discuss the generalized spin-1/2 equations
for neutrinos. They have been obtained by means of the Gersten-Sakurai method
for derivations of arbitrary-spin relativistic equations. Possible physical consequences are discussed. Next, it is easy to check that both Dirac algebraic equation Det (\hat p - m) =0 and Det (\hat p + m) =0 for u- and v- 4-spinors have solutions with p_0= \pm E_p =\pm \sqrt{{\bf p}^2 +m^2}. The same is true for higher-spin equations. Meanwhile, every book considers the equality p_0=E_p for both $u-$ and $v-$ spinors of the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2)) representation only, thus applying the Dirac-Feynman-Stueckelberg procedure for elimination of the negative-energy solutions. The recent Ziino works (and, independently,
the articles of several others) show that the Fock space can be doubled. We re-consider this possibility on the quantum field level for both S=1/2 and higher spin particles.
The third example is: we postulate the non-commutativity of 4-momenta, and we derive the mass splitting in the Dirac equation.
The applications are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[804] **viXra:1607.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-03 13:10:39*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis comments on an uncertainty principle in a figure.
An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis is physics of the dark energy.
According to the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis,
In a particle trip and a minus number particle trip, the elementary particle has size intermittently and can establish a position.
A particle trip and the minus number particle trip are the four-dimensional space that is not recognizable, five dimensions of space-time.
It is called a virtual space.
The wave trip is recognizable three-dimensional space, four-dimensional space-time.
In a wave trip, the mass of the elementary particle is zero.
It is the point that does not have size.
The position of the elementary particle is not clear.
By a particle trip, the minus number particle trip, the elementary particle can establish a position.
There cannot decide a value of the energy.
The wave trip can observe numerical value of the energy, but cannot decide the position of the elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[803] **viXra:1606.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-29 08:22:57*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, I try to reconstruct the quark model based on virtual space-time. It seems that the new quark model is able to get the same results with standard model. So I continue to analysis the virtual photon wave equation, and obtain the new neutrino model. It points out that the neutrino is the mass wave that step crossing the real and virtual space-time.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[802] **viXra:1606.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-29 10:15:43*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis elucidates a mystery of the dark energy.
A mystery of the dark energy. It is the mystery of the astrophysics maximum.
The existing physics cannot elucidate the mystery.
The elementary particle pulsation hypothesis discovered 4-dimensional space.
In four-dimensional space, dark energy pulsates.
A pulsation hypothesis elucidates a mystery of the dark energy.
Pulsating Big Bang universe model.
From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe.
Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure.
Over time, in the early universe.
Void (bubble) group in each microcosm.
Galaxy was born in each microcosm.
The Galaxy by the pulsating bubble moved the boundary. The moved to the borders and bubbles.
The hundred billion galaxies distributed to the boundary of the bubble (lattice).
As a result, became no longer bubbles in Galaxy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[801] **viXra:1606.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-28 18:58:57*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. part two of the original paper

The "Higgs metric" is proposed as the particle analog of the spacetime metric. The Higgs metric of the early, high temperature cosmos "cascades" through several unified-field symmetric energy states (with distinct Higgs Bosons and corresponding IVBs) before it reaches our ground state or Biological Era.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[800] **viXra:1606.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 20:55:05*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mass of a proton and the neutron.
The difference is a difference of the electronic rest mass.
When mass vibrates at high speed, mass occurs.
When vibration gets closer to velocity of light, it becomes the infinite mass.
The electronic mass is rest mass and the sum with the exercise mass.
Most of the electronic mass are formed of exercise mass.
Rest mass is only several percent.
The electric charge of a proton and the neutron.
An electron of the inside does the action of the electric charge.
The electron in the proton acts as a positive electric charge.
+ As for the electric charge, a pulsatile timing acts as a plus electric charge same as a reverse positron.
The neutron which released an electron loses an electric charge.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[799] **viXra:1606.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-24 08:11:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A research team from Cyprus, Germany and Italy led by Constantia Alexandrou of the Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center of the Cyprus Institute and the Physics Department of the University of Cyprus in Nicosia, has now for the first time calculated the scalar quark content of the proton. [16]
Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15]
A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[798] **viXra:1606.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-23 12:22:10*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A pulsation super string theory.
To current super string theory size ～ hadron size. (10¯8cm～10¯³³cm)
The elementary particle pulsation principle covers current super string theory size - atomic nucleus size.
The pulsation super string theory explains a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power as a place of the dark energy.
The energy grand total of a place pulsating by super symmetry is zero.
The infinity does not emerge in an equation.
The infinity does not emerge in an equation.
Filing is unnecessary.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[797] **viXra:1606.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-22 13:32:28*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The “citation culture” continues to grow as a systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[796] **viXra:1606.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 14:25:52*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory.
Atom size, a superstring theory.
The size of "the string" in the super string theory is 10-33cm now.
"The string" of the hadron super string theory is an atom, 10-8cm size.
A current super string theory.
It is theory of String and the D brainy.
The film is an image of the iron plate. The super string is an image of the magnets.
As for the theory, an opened string and a closed annular string exist.
The ring of the string is equivalent to gravity.
The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion.
The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion.
The boundary condition is equivalent to the panel point of a vibrating string.
The D brainy person vibrates, too. The outbreak of the = elementary particle that a string protrudes from D brainy person.
A super string connects two pieces of D brainy people. ・・ ・ this is a current superstring theory.
As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.
As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[795] **viXra:1606.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 20:00:21*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Why exactly should energy rise as we head further into the grand unification scheme [GRS]?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[794] **viXra:1606.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 07:03:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Recently, scientists in Japan uncovered the most convincing evidence to date of a tetraneutron, which is a particle with four neutrons but no proton—something that we shouldn’t see in physics. This evidence increases the possibility of the existence of this hypothetical particle. [15]
In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14]
The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13]
More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[793] **viXra:1606.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-16 02:35:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This file has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

Historically, electromagnetic theory was developed for situations described by the U(1) group. The dynamics equations describing the transformations and interrelationships of the force field are the well known Maxwell equations, and the group algebra underlying these equations are U(1). There was a need to extend these equations to describe SU(2) situations and to derive equations whose underlying algebra is SU(2). In this paper, we will start with Terence W. Barrett’s SU(2) symmetric form of electrodynamics based on topological considerations. Meanwhile, in a series of papers Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. Therefore, we will write down a combination between Barrett’s SU(2) electrodynamics with Lehnert’s RQED. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model. This is a preliminary report, so it is far from being a complete description of SU(2) electrodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[792] **viXra:1606.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-12 03:07:20*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 41 pages

Eighteen of the fundamental physical constants, including the Planck constant, Coulomb constant and the gravitational constant (G), are derived by wave equations based on four, new fundamental constants: wave speed, wavelength, amplitude and density. All calculations match CODATA values of the existing constants with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the wave equations from which they are derived also accurately calculate particle mass, ionization energies and forces.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[791] **viXra:1606.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 03:09:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[790] **viXra:1606.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 05:38:02*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 9 pages, 21 equations, 10 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques, with powerful implementation of the principle of gauge covariance, to the theory of non-Abelian (Yang-Mills) gauge field theory. This describes the self interactions of a massless vector field. Results of two-loop computations are given demonstrating the simplicity and the viability of the underlying framework.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[789] **viXra:1606.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-04 04:13:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[788] **viXra:1606.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-02 08:36:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[787] **viXra:1606.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-02 04:39:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[786] **viXra:1605.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 04:19:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[785] **viXra:1605.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 09:32:31*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The last six years have seen great strides in measuring the neutrino squared-mass splittings and heavy quark masses. It is therefore timely to reconsider the mass formulas introduced by the author in 2010, which then disagreed with the ratio of the neutrino squared-mass splittings.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[784] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 07:30:38*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[783] **viXra:1605.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 03:44:25*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 22 equations, 9 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of Maxwell-Dirac electrodynamics. This describes the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged fermion (the electron). This gives another example of the applicability of our
divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, implementing the principle of gauge-covariant momentum-space quantization.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[782] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 16:34:55*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[781] **viXra:1605.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:11:22*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 1 Page. Fig. 4 to accompany paper "The Symmetry Groups of Light"

Figure 4 is an attempt to represent diagrammatically the connection between leptons and quarks. The essence of the relationship is that the quarks are a resonant subset of the leptons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[780] **viXra:1605.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 09:56:20*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The existence of the bare mass and the bare charge in Quantum Electrodynamics is analyzed in terms
of the Standard Model of particle physics.
QED arises as a renormalized theory as a consequense of spontaneous symmetry breaking
by Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism as
$SU(3)_{C}\otimes SU(2)_{L}\otimes U(1)_{Y} \,\rightarrow \,SU(3)_{C} \otimes U(1)_{em}$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[779] **viXra:1605.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 17:14:04*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We observe that the Standard Model's fermions can be mapped onto a 7-bit pattern, and that these bits can be used to calculate the various charges (color, weak isospin, hypercharge, and electromagnetic) for these particles. A geometrical object, the trihepton, is proposed as means of understanding where the pattern of fermions and the simple formulas for the charges come from. Its relationship with the Fano plane from projective geometry is considered. Issues and implications of the model are discussed. A fourth generation of fermions with spin 3/2 and absolute charge (2, 5/3, 4/3, 1) is hypothesized, and it is also suggested that there may be bosons associated with neutrino oscillation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[778] **viXra:1605.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 12:46:35*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 18 pages. « Oscillations temporelles du neutrino » is the French version of «Neutrino’s Temporal Oscillations» on viXra.org/abs/1605.0005

Nous conjecturons l’existence de neutrinos sans masse qui sont dans la ligne du modèle standard mais qui possèdent des fonctionnalités non représentées par le modèle standard : ils utilisent un chemin radial plus court que le photon et possèdent des saveurs bosoniques. Ils seraient considérés comme des bosons au lieu de fermions. Nous appelons cette théorie « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Confrontée à quelques comparaisons expérimentales – neutrinos solaires, neutrinos de SN1987A, neutrinos cosmologiques ̶ , la théorie donne de meilleurs résultats et des explications plus sensées que la théorie compliquée de l’oscillation du neutrino. L’expérience « OPERA » qui a mesuré la vitesse des neutrinos en 2011 a abouti à des données que ne peuvent expliquer les trois types de neutrinos existants. La physique des neutrinos semble malade. L’oscillation temporelle du neutrino, en montrant le raccourci que prennent des neutrinos sans masse dans l’espace-temps à trois dimensions spatiales que nous connaissons, représente dans le modèle standard une fenêtre ouverte sur une « nouvelle physique » qui a un rapport avec la réalité physique.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[777] **viXra:1605.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 08:11:02*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of standard model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for by the standard model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors. Considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Faced with some experimental comparisons ̶ solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN1987A, cosmological neutrinos ̶ , the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The "OPERA" experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a "superluminal" saga, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth "sterile" neutrino with non-standard interaction. Neutrino physics does not make sense. "Neutrino’s temporal oscillations" shows the short cut that massless neutrinos take in the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a "new physics" that has a connection with physical reality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[776] **viXra:1604.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 23:55:14*

**Authors:** Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$
and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[775] **viXra:1604.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 06:51:21*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 53 equations, 8 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of scalar electrodynamics, describing the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged
scalar. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, demonstrating gauge invariance of the effective vertices. Whereas an infrared-regulating mass parameter is given to the virtual photon, the masslessness of the effective photon is demonstrated as well.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[627] **viXra:1607.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-22 08:38:16*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 8 pages, one figure and one table.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic self-energy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to the adopted by E. Post many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet and decuplet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[626] **viXra:1606.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-22 22:45:30*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The “citation culture” persists as systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[625] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-13 00:14:17*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[624] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 13:32:02*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[623] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-17 13:04:53*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[622] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-11 05:36:09*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages. revised abstract

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[621] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-26 11:00:38*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization extends beyond quantum Hall to impedances corresponding to all potentials. Geometric Clifford algebra permits one to construct a geometric electron model, and to calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between geometric objects of the model. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[620] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 11:16:46*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance is defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. Geometric Clifford algebra permits one to construct a geometric electron model, and to calculate elementrary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between geometric objects of the model. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[619] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-21 10:38:33*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[618] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-19 11:04:44*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics