High Energy Particle Physics

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(7) - 0703(6) - 0704(2) - 0706(4) - 0708(1) - 0710(1) - 0712(1)
2008 - 0802(2) - 0803(1) - 0809(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)
2009 - 0904(1) - 0907(8) - 0908(5) - 0909(4) - 0910(7) - 0911(10) - 0912(5)
2010 - 1001(4) - 1002(3) - 1003(13) - 1004(4) - 1005(4) - 1006(2) - 1007(3) - 1008(7) - 1009(6) - 1010(5) - 1011(5) - 1012(8)
2011 - 1102(5) - 1103(16) - 1104(4) - 1105(3) - 1106(2) - 1107(3) - 1108(6) - 1109(8) - 1110(9) - 1111(12) - 1112(5)
2012 - 1201(13) - 1202(6) - 1203(7) - 1204(5) - 1205(4) - 1206(8) - 1207(6) - 1208(14) - 1209(4) - 1210(13) - 1211(6) - 1212(15)
2013 - 1301(12) - 1302(15) - 1303(7) - 1304(7) - 1305(9) - 1306(11) - 1307(11) - 1308(11) - 1309(16) - 1310(12) - 1311(7) - 1312(13)
2014 - 1401(13) - 1402(18) - 1403(10) - 1404(21) - 1405(15) - 1406(14) - 1407(5) - 1408(15) - 1409(5) - 1410(12) - 1411(11) - 1412(15)
2015 - 1501(7) - 1502(12) - 1503(13) - 1504(11) - 1505(21) - 1506(6) - 1507(24) - 1508(21) - 1509(11) - 1510(5) - 1511(20) - 1512(5)
2016 - 1601(16) - 1602(16) - 1603(13) - 1604(13) - 1605(10) - 1606(17) - 1607(17) - 1608(21) - 1609(19) - 1610(24) - 1611(18)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[902] viXra:1611.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 13:00:16

On Scale Invariance and Particle Localization in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is known that microcausality is a cornerstone principle of relativistic Quantum Field Theory (QFT). It requires commutativity of local fields defined at space-like separations and prohibits physical effects to propagate at superluminal speeds. However, it is also known that exact localizability of quantum fields fails to apply to quantum particles, which behave as non-local entities (the Reeh-Schlieder and Malamert theorems). Over the years, challenges associated with the point-wise description of quantum particles have inspired many attempts to revisit the particle interpretation of QFT. All these proposals suffer from specific limitations and have not gained universal acceptance. Here we suggest that a field theory approaching scale invariance near the fixed points of the Renormalization Group flow blurs the distinction between locality and non-locality. In particular, self-similarity resolves the issue of particle localizability in QFT, reinforcing microcausality by default.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[901] viXra:1611.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 07:36:23

Cutting-Off Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory by Occam’s Sickle (How the Mountain (Large Hadron Collider) Has Brought Forth a Mouse)

Authors: Mamaev A.V.
Comments: 22 Pages.

In this paper it is shown that Einstein’s special relativity theory is a self- contradictory theory. The contradiction between two Einstein’s postulates is eliminated by refusal from the Einstein’s second postulate, basing upon the Occam’s advice to decrease the quantity of basic postulates to a single one. From this single postulate a law of dependence of the speed of light propagation in vacuum on the speed of light source motion was derived. Then a new transformation without invariance of light speed and without prohibition of superlight speeds is derived instead of Lorentz’s transformation followed by discovery of particle electric charge dependence upon speed of a particle motion. Dissimilarities between the new space-time theory and Einstein’s Special Relativity theory are considered. They are the following: 1) speed of light in vacuum dependence in a moving inertial reference frame on the speed of moving inertial reference frame motion; 2|) absence of superlight speeds prohibition; 3|) absence of time dilation; 4) availability of a particle electric charge dependence on the particle motion speed. Then the formulas of new particle dynamics are derived from new theory transformation. The experiment by Neddermeyer and Anderson in 1938 is interpreted as a confirmation of superlight speeds and dependence of electric charge upon particles speed existence in nature. It is shown that according to the NRSTT accelerated protons in the Large Hadron Collider have the energy below 400 MeV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[900] viXra:1611.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 20:58:07

The Basic Base Foundational Theory Of Everything ©

Authors: Jason Robert Lewis Sentinella
Comments: 3 Pages. The files associated with this dataset are licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported licence.

•MRF – means, Magnetic Resonance Field (Dark Energy/Matter) created from previous resonance times by 2 •fg– means, an external MRF equal to the same base equations divided by 2 (resonance = 1,079,252,849) •f – means, Forces’ and represents the MRF (resonance = 2,158,505,698) •fh– means, an external MRF equal to the same base equations time by 2 (resonance = 4,317,011,395) •b – means, Black holes •c – means, the speed of light •d – means, time •da– means, Distance within light •e – means, Energy •r – means, rotation •m – means, Matter •g – means, Gravity •u – means, universe equilibrium •dm- means, Dark Matter f = c2 b=c(e-f)c c= f/2 d=(da/c)/2 da= dc2 e= f(dc2) r= (ef)/(f(dc2) m= r/((ef)( f(dc2)) g=r/m u=c(b-e)/c dm=(rg)/m MRF=MRF2 As photons move at the speed of light(c) the Magnetic Resonance Fields’ (MRF also known as f in the equations) moves at the same rate times 2 but reduce by 2 equal (b/r)(f/2). Photons are created at the point of the beginning which is an inconsistent resonance to the MRF resonance created by the collision of two MRF mats which created a different resonance at the beginning which created the photon which is the first confused multiple resonance which can alternate between matter and resonance/MRF which produce the Higgs Boson when other photon collisions happen a very short time after the beginning. The MRF is the base foundation for non-rotational matter and light and consist of many multiple layers of 2 dimensional mats which stack 360o in all directions to create a 2-dimentional stack and within the 2-dimentional stack now exists a 3-dimentional universe. Therefore, the universe runs and is full of many, two dimensional MRF mats which is what we call as Zero Point Energy or the Higgs Field or Dark Energy or Dark Matter which is the first force created which is non-changing, every expanding and creating. Therefore, the MRF’s will remain constant with the speed of light from the force of fg consistent with (b/e)fg2. With multiple collisions between photons and MRF’s, the first component of the Higgs is created which is first creation of matter (m) from the change in the resonance which creates a domino effect for matter itself. As matter begins to form, mass is created therefore slows down at the rate of the mass created. e=mc2 is not correct as energy already exists from the MRF’s created from a singularity therefore, e=f(dc2) which is a result of the previous MRF2. mc2 is an atomic calculation consistent with the speed of light squared.   Matter/Mass is the incredible absorption of energy (e) captured and created at the point of slowing down from the speed of light at the time of transformation from a resonance to matter which in turn creates and draws in gravity. As matter cannot maintain the velocity of the speed of light, in which the force from the MRF is trying to push matter to the speed of light matter absorbs the energy trying to push it to the speed of light and now rotation (r) is created (which is quantum gravity), therefore matter and gravity follow resulting in r=(ef)/(f(dc2) “then” m=r/(ef)(f(dc2) “now” g=r/m. As the building blocks of matter begin the process of increasing matter/mass, the mass of each building block of matter reduces its velocity and increase’s its mass equal to the matter created from r/(ef)(f(dc2), therefore r/(ef)(f(dc2) reoccurring to the maximum different reoccurring resonance governed by the maximum reoccurring r/m equivalent to r/((ef)f(dc2)). So “e” is already applied to m= r/(ef)(f(dc2) and already exists from the MRF therefore e=f(dc2). The Higgs Field is the MRF’s which is the constant 2-dimensional resonance contained within the physics it created from the preceding MRF but is not a Higgs Boson itself as the Higgs Boson is matter not the MRF derived from the previous MRF2. Matter is a complex combination of many resonance which create our Standard Model yet our Standard Model does not go as deep as resonance therefore our Standard Model is incomplete. There is no outer membrane of our universe to create any sort of opposite force on our expanding universe, therefore, the shell around the outer most limits of our expanding universe is the laws of physics itself created from the beginning and therefore gave our universe the laws in which it abides and the MRF in which all our universe is contained and expanding. When the energy released from the previous MRF, it created our MRF2 in which at the same time of the release from the previous MRF, the photon was recreated from our MRF. The photon reduces back into the MRF at entry into the Black Hole inline with b=c(e-f)c as light cannot increase inline with the rate required to enter the Black Hole therefore reduces back to its foundation which is the MRF. Therefore, light is part MRF and part matter which is then the ultimate perfect imbalance between a two dimensional and three-dimensional universe which now allows the beginning for (ef)/(f(dc2) and r/((ef)( f(dc2)) and r/m. Our universe with the increased energy physics created from the previous MRF now creates its own sustainable energy input and output which in turn is the process of MRF2. This is the process of sustainable multi universal physics. Everything is maybe within a 1 dimension infinite entity (Creation itself) which is the real unknow singularity. All dimensions/MRF2 maybe within this 1 dimensional singularity. This singularity has no area, all area is contained within it which allows multi dimensions/universes which are derived by MRF’s at a different energy level. Any conceived space between universes is not an area of space, it is this 1 dimensional singularity. All Universes are connected through the many Black Holes it creates. Once the new energy level stabilises to that universe equilibrium, the Black Hole will close off with a burst of energy back through the Black Hole equal to the previous universes MRF. These bursts are predicated in my equations with a fluctuation in energy and then stabilised back to it's equilibrium with the creation of another Black Hole. Each universe creates more energy than it can hold, therefore, there is many other universes with the same physics as ours. Dark Matter is the MRF’s but a distorted portion of The MRF’s closest to the matter that is creating the distortion. Dark Energy is also the MRF’s it is just the undistorted portion that is further away from the matter. The area of the MRF’s closest to the mass of matter (galaxy) assists gravity to keep the mass in equilibrium with itself. The indented distortion of the MRF’s (also known as Dark Matter) is now the distorted/indent within the MRF’s required to keep matter together. Therefore (rg)/m is Dark Matter which is equal to the MRF. The distortion (Dark Matter) in the MRF’s is approximately 200% more distortion (Dark Matter) than there is matter. Dark Energy is equal to f which again, is the MRF. Dark Energy is equal to MRF which again, is the MRF’s. This paper shows the universe is expanding and the energy within it increases. This theory brings together general relativity and quantum theory, it also proves string theory. Matter is moving within the MRF’s but does not increase in velocity it is contained within r/((ef)( f(dc2), however, it is the area of the universe that is increasing in area therefore the distance between matter increases. Matter never increases outside of the universe equilibrium, matter is formed equal to the universe equilibrium. Therefore, the equations of (ef)/(f(dc2) and r/(ef)(f(dc2) and r/m remain the same but in equilibrium with f(dc2) and c(e-f)c = c(b-e)/c. A black hole is like a drain to reduce the incredible build-up of f(dc2), therefore we get c(e-f)c resulting in c(b-e)/c. After our universe reached its equilibrium c(b-e)/c approximately 946 years after exiting the previous Black Hole from the previous MRF, our universe equalised. The new physical laws created now would not protect us from amalgamation with other universes of the same physical laws. If our universe was to combine with another universe with the same laws, it would be like what we see with merging galaxies. The indication that our universe is merging with another would be a rush of matter in our universe towards the mass in which the collision/merger will take place, therefore, would merely be a merger of equal MRF’s. At the time of exiting the previous MRF, the universe was organising itself within the new physical laws it created. Around 943 years after the exit, the universe began to stabilise as a result of f(dc2) and c(e-f)c. at around 946 years after the exit, the universe reached its equilibrium c(b-e)/c and continues in line with the physics described in this paper. The energy in the universe has stabilised as per c(b-e)/c, this is the basic base foundational theory of everything. Fig1 – 3 multiverses of different energy
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[899] viXra:1611.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 08:27:40

Formulation of Energy Momentum Tensor for Generalized Fields of Dyons

Authors: Gaurav Karnatak, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 12 Pages. Vixra is very good journal of Physics.

The energy momentum tensor of generalized fields of dyons and energy momentum conservation laws of dyons has been developed in simple, compact and consistent manner. We have obtained the Maxwell’s field theory of energy momentum tensor of dyons (electric and magnetic) of electromagnetic field, Poynting vector and Poynting theorem for generalized fields of dyons in a simple, unique and consistent way.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[898] viXra:1611.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 07:26:54

Shows Structure and Composition Density Images of Protons and Neutrons

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing the images of the fundamental structure and composition density distribution of a proton and a neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[897] viXra:1611.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 11:37:27

Axions Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[896] viXra:1611.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 05:00:04

Non-Perturbative Resonances of the Electromagnetic Interaction

Authors: Andrea Gregori
Comments: 14 Pages.

We discuss enhancements of the cross section in particle-antiparticle scattering, of a type not expected in quantum field theory, however predicted in the quantum gravity theoretical framework discussed in Refs [1, 2, 3]. The first events of this kind are to be found in the energy range between some 111 GeV and 130 GeV, with a stronger peak around 125-126 GeV, and weaker ones around 114 GeV and 130 GeV. The strongest peak turns out to correspond to the resonance which is usually interpreted as due to a Higgs boson, whereas the other ones are compatible with astrophysical observations devoted to inspect the presence of Dark Matter. This approach provides a no-Higgs, no Dark Matter explanation for the observed excess of photon production, which does not result from fine-tuning of parameters chosen ad-hoc in a particular model, but naturally fits within the theoretical scenario described in [1]–[3]. Further peaks are expected to appear at higher energy. They show up separated from each other by energy steps much wider than a typical resonance width. Being isolated and of moderate intensity, they may be more difficult to single out over the statistical fluctuations of background events.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[895] viXra:1611.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 03:24:16

What is a Photon? Photon Kinetic and Electromagnetic Structure Simplified and Explained and How One Photon Can go Through Two Different Holes at the Same Time.

Authors: Colin James
Comments: 51 Pages.

To attempt to answer the question 'What is a photon?' we combine the kinetic and electromagnetic aspects of a photon and derive a straightforward picture of the photon that appears to readily explain a number of phenomena including some of the strange features of the double-slit experiment. By considering the kinetic properties of a photon first, we look at wave-particle duality from the point of view of a particle system behaving with wavelike properties as the kinetic complement of a wave-packet. We find that the photon is contained by the vacuum by a force that is more than 200 times stronger than electrostatic.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[894] viXra:1611.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 13:17:46

Confinement Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

In physics, confinement of particles is such an important phenomenon that the Clay Mathematics Institute has even pledged an award of a million dollars to anyone who can give a convincing and exhaustive scientific explanation from a mathematical point of view. For example, the quarks are confined in pairs or threes by the strong interaction-the force which holds the nuclei of the atoms together-making up neutrons and protons. A recent study at SISSA adds a new chapter to what we know about confinement. Using a relatively simple method, it has been shown how to determine whether, in a system with ferromagnetic characteristics, the emerging "particles" are subject to confinement. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[893] viXra:1611.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 10:20:20

A Theory of the Muon; Explaining the Electron's Embarrassing Fat Cousin!

Authors: Stephen Joseph Kennedy
Comments: 24 Pages. copyright 1990, Stephen Joseph Kennedy, Library of Congress submitted to Physical Review letters(not accepted) manuscript #LD 5183

A theory of the muon is presented that explains the mass of the muon from a formula derived from the relativistic wave equations independently discovered by Lanczos, Weyl, and Van der Waarden using the Liénard- Wiechert potential, discussed in the appendix. The mean-life of the muon is also calculated in a way that differs from the beta-decay-like standard model mechanism but uses a spontaneous emission-like model using Heisenberg's spontaneous emission formula and the model of Weinberg and Salam with the Z0 Boson playing a role analogous to the photon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[892] viXra:1611.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 12:06:17

Quark Gluon Plasma Simulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[891] viXra:1611.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 08:00:21

Restatement and Extension of Various Spin Particle Equations

Authors: S.R. Shi
Comments: 90 Pages.

This paper is based on my own previous articles. I improve research methods and add some new contents in this paper. A more rigorous, more analytical, more complete and more organized mathematical physical method is adopted. And I am as far as possible to make the whole article have a sense of beauty. Firstly, the mathematics foundation of constant tensors analysis methods is established rigorously in Chapter One. Some wonderful mathematical properties are found. Many important constant tensors are proposed. Then in Chapter Two I use constant tensors as a mathematical tool to apply to physics. Some important physical quantities are defined by using constant tensors. All kinds of relationships between them are studied in detail. The canonical, analytical and strict mathematical physical sign system is established in this chapter. In Chapter Three, I use the mathematical tools in the previous two chapters to study spinorial formalism of various spin particles classical equations. And the equivalence between spinorial formalism and classical one is proved strictly. I focuse to study electromagnetic field, Yang-Mills field and gravitational field etc. Especially, a new spinorial formalism of the gravitational field identity is proposed. In order to further explore, I study several important equations by contrast. Some new and interesting results are obtained. The Chapter Four is the most important part of this thesis. It is also my original intention of writing this paper. In this chapter, I put forward a new form of particle equations: Spin Equation. The equation is directly constructed by spin and spin tensor. And I note that spin tensor is also the transformation matrix of corresponding field representation. So the physical meaning of this equation is very clear. The corresponding particle equation can be simply and directly written according to the transformation law of the particle field. It correctly describes neutrino, electromagnetic field, Yang-Mills field and electron etc. And it is found that it is completely equivalent to full symmetry Penrose equation. A scalar field can be introduced naturally in this formalism. Thus, a more interesting equation is obtained: Switch Spin Equation. When the scalar field is zero, free particles can exist. When the scalar field is not zero, free particles can't exist. The scalar field acts as a switch. It can control particles generation and annihilation. This provides a new physical mechanism of particles generation and annihilation. At the same time, it can also answer the question: why the universe inflation period can be completely described by the scalar fields. And the equation itself has an inherent limitation to the scalar field. So that the scalar will be quantized automatically. Each quantized value of the scalar is corresponding to different physical equations. That provides a new idea and an enlightenment for unity of five superstring theories. Finally, in Chapter Five Bargmann-Wigner equation is analyzed thoroughly. It is proved that it is equivalent to Rarita-Schwinger equation in half integer spin case. And it is equivalent to Klein-Gordon equation in integer spin case. The profound physical meanings of Bargmann-Wigner equation are revealed. By contrast, it is found that Bargmann-Wigner equation is suitable to describe massive particles, but not too suitable to describe massless particles. Penrose spinorial equation or Spin Equation is more suitable to describe massless particles. Mathematics and physics of this paper have a stronger originality. Some mathematical and physical concepts, methods and contents also have a certain novelty. All of them are strictly calculated and established step by step by my own independent efforts. It takes me a lot of time and energy. I use spare time to finish the paper. Due to the limited time and my limited level, it is inevitable that there are a few mistakes. Comments and suggestions are welcome!
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[890] viXra:1611.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 10:55:33

Inner Workings of the Sun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

More than seven years later, that collaboration could result in an inexpensive tabletop device to detect elusive neutrinos more efficiently and inexpensively than is currently possible, and could simplify scientists' ability to study the inner workings of the sun. [9] Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US $66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[889] viXra:1611.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 14:30:15

Antiproton Decelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A precise measurement of absolute beam intensity is a key parameter to monitor any losses in a beam and to calibrate the absolute number of particles delivered to the experiments. [12] In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[888] viXra:1611.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 02:33:40

Neutrons Hologram

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Holography isn't just for photons anymore. Researchers now report their success in using neutrons to make holograms, which record patterns of interference between two coherent beams. [14] James Vary, a professor of physics and astronomy, and Andrey Shirokov, a visiting scientist, together with an international team, used sophisticated supercomputer simulations to show the quasi-stable existence of a tetraneutron, a structure comprised of four neutrons (subatomic particles with no charge). [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[887] viXra:1611.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 03:42:53

Antiproton Mass Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[886] viXra:1611.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 12:04:59

Chameleon Dark Energy Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[885] viXra:1611.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 04:31:28

Four-Neutron Resonance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

James Vary, a professor of physics and astronomy, and Andrey Shirokov, a visiting scientist, together with an international team, used sophisticated supercomputer simulations to show the quasi-stable existence of a tetraneutron, a structure comprised of four neutrons (subatomic particles with no charge). [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can “feel” each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[884] viXra:1610.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 13:33:03

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An international team of physicists has developed a pioneering approach to using Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs)—the highest energy particles in nature since the Big Bang—to study particle interactions far beyond the reach of human-made accelerators. [18] Physicists have come up with a new model that they say solves five of the biggest unanswered questions in modern physics, explaining the weirdness of dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, cosmic inflation, and the strong CP problem all at once. [17] The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[883] viXra:1610.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 03:20:58

Smash Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have come up with a new model that they say solves five of the biggest unanswered questions in modern physics, explaining the weirdness of dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, cosmic inflation, and the strong CP problem all at once. [17] The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[882] viXra:1610.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 09:10:03

Nucleus Bubble Discovered

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[881] viXra:1610.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 09:22:14

Quantum Natural Selection as a Factor of Formation of the Order Described by the Standard Model in Elementary Particle Physics. Квантовый естественный отбор как фактор формирования порядка, описываемого стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц.

Authors: Sergey V. Vasiliev
Comments: 7 Pages. in Russian

Amid all the new negative results of experiments designed to confirm the role of gauge transformations in the creation of a hierarchy of elementary particles and interactions that appear frequently alternate assumptions and hypotheses, trying to find a solution to this problem. This hypothesis describes the evolution of the Universe from the primordial chaos to the order described by the standard model, and describes a possible mechanism for the order of chaos based on nonlocal quantum correlations. На фоне всё новых и новых отрицательных результатов экспериментов, предназначенных подтвердить роль калибровочных преобразований в создании иерархии элементарных частиц и взаимодействий, всё чаще появляются альтернативные предположения и гипотезы, пытающиеся найти иной путь решения этой проблемы. В данной гипотезе рассматривается эволюция Вселенной от начального хаоса к порядку, описываемому стандартной моделью, и описывается возможный механизм упорядочивания хаоса, основанный на нелокальных квантовых корреляциях.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[880] viXra:1610.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 23:52:30

LHC 2016 Sees 3 Higgs Mass States

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 19 Pages.

The first 13 /fb or so of the 2016 p-p LHC run indicates 3 Higgs Mass States: 125, 200, and 240 GeV. If confirmed by all 40 /fb of 2016 data, 3 Tquark Mass States 130, 174, and 220 GeV of a composite Higgs-Tquark system would also be supported as would be an unconventional analysis of Fermilab Tquark data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[879] viXra:1610.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 08:26:38

New 'God Particle'

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

As part of one of the most ambitious quests in science a senior physicist at The University of Manchester has helped to narrow the search to find a ghost-like neutrino particle – its discovery promising to be even bigger than locating the Higgs boson. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[878] viXra:1610.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 03:10:07

An Experiment can Proof that many Muons are Produced on the Ground

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 8 Pages. Include Chinese version

I find that an undergraduate physics experiment can proof that the most of muons on the earth’s surface are not come from cosmic ray particles in the high altitude atmosphere. Most of those muons are produced on the ground for the reasons of interactions among neutrinos and electrons. The main points of views are that the decay time detected in the apparatus should be much smaller than muon’s lifetime if all of the muons are come from high altitude atmosphere. On the other hand, the energy of muons that can arrive at ground must exceed 1GeV according to special relativity theory. Those muons that its energy is much lower cannot arrive at ground in their lifetime. The experiment results show that the natural muons’ decay time on the ground is nearly equal to their lifetime. The experiments also detect that there are numerous muons that its energy close to 100MeV on the ground.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[877] viXra:1610.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 04:20:07

Proca-Maxwell Equations for Dyons with Quaternion

Authors: B. C. Chanyal, S. K. Chanyal, Virendra Singh, A. S. Rawat
Comments: 07 Pages. Published By: Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp 9-15. doi: 10.12691/amp-4-1-2

The quaternions are first hyper-complex numbers, having four-dimensional structure, which may be useful to express the 4 dimensional theory of dyons carrying both electric and magnetic charges. Keeping in mind t’Hooft’s monopole solutions and the fact that despite the potential importance of massive monopole, we discuss a connection between quaternionic complex field, to the generalized electromagnetic field equations of massive dyons. Starting with the Euclidean space-time structure and two four-components theory of dyons, we represent the generalized charge, potential, field and current source in quaternion form with real and imaginary part of electric and magnetic constituents of dyons. We have established the quaternionic formulation of generalized complex-electromagnetic fields equations, generalized Proca-Maxwell’s (GPM) equations and potential wave equations for massive dyons. Thus, the quaternion formulation be adopted in a better way to understand the explanation of complex-field equations as the candidate for the existence of massive monopoles and dyons where the complex parameters be described as the constituents of quaternion.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[876] viXra:1610.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 20:00:43

Multifractal Geometry and Standard Model Symmetries

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 21 Pages.

Despite being supported by overwhelming evidence, the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is challenged by many foundational questions. The root cause of its gauge structure and of discrete symmetry breaking continues to be unknown. Here we show how these questions may be approached using the multifractal geometry of the SM near the electroweak scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[875] viXra:1610.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 00:14:32

Hard-core’s Physical Origin and Action Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving a new explanation for the physical origin and action mechanism of the nuclear force’s ‘hard-core’ repulsive.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[874] viXra:1610.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 19:08:57

A New Formalism of Arbitrary Spin Particle Equations

Authors: S.R. Shi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, a new formalism of arbitrary spin particle equations is constructed. The physical meaning of the new equation is very clear. It's completely expressed by the amounts about spin. It's proved to describe correctly neutrino, photon and electron etc. Then a scalar field is introduced into the new equation. The new equation with the scalar field has an unique characteristic. The scalar field is like a switch. It can control generation and annihilation of particles. This provides a new dynamics mechanism about generation and annihilation of particles. This can also explain why the inflation period universe can be completely described by scalar fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[873] viXra:1610.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 21:01:16

Super Conformal Group in D=10 Space-time

Authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan, O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 15 Pages. Super Poincaré group and Conformal algebra

Abstract In this present discussion we discussed the super Poincaré group in D=10 dimensions in terms of the highest division algebra of octonions. We have construct the Poincaré group in D=8 dimension then it's extension to conformal algebra of D=10 has been discussed in terms of octonion algebra. Finally extension of the conformal algebras of D=10 dimensional space to super conformal algebra of Poincaré group have been done in a consistent manner.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[872] viXra:1610.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 22:07:20

Graded Lie Algebra of Quaternions and Superalgebra of SO(3,1)

Authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan and O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 12 Pages. Quaternionic super Poincaré group and Conformal algebrain D=4 space-time

Abstract In the present discussion we study the grading of Quaternion algebra(\mathbb{H}) and Lorentz algebra of O(3,1) group. Then we have made an attempt to make the whole Poincaré algebra of SO(3,1)in terms of Quaternions. After this the supersymmetrization of this group has been done in a consistent manner. Finally the dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 has been studied.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[871] viXra:1610.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 07:53:04

Triaxial Atomic Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The nuclei of atoms of heavy elements are not necessarily spherical; they may be variously extended or flattened along one, two or even three axes. An international team of physicists, led by scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow (IFJ PAN) and the Heavy Ion Laboratory at the University of Warsaw (HIL), has recently presented the results of experiments showing that complex superdeformed nuclei occur in much lighter elements, as well. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[870] viXra:1610.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 09:46:13

Multifractal Geometry and Stochastic Quantization: A Brief Comparison

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

We suggest that the multifractal geometry of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale may be placed on equal footing with the stochastic quantization method. This analogy gives support to earlier attempts by Beck to derive the Standard Model parameters using the dynamics of coupled map lattices.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[869] viXra:1610.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 10:58:34

Defining and Delimiting of the Elementary Particle

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new definition and boundary of the elementary particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[868] viXra:1610.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 09:26:53

Superconducting Fusion Reactor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

In fusion reactor designs, superconductors (which suffer no resistive power loss) are used to generate the magnetic fields that confine the 100 million degree C plasma. [30] Hundreds of tiny samples of unconventional superconductors called heavy fermions had to be aligned and glued onto aluminum plates for imaging in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. [29] In a recent breakthrough, scientists at the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory got one step closer to understanding how to make that possible. The research, led by physicist Ivan Bozovic, involves a class of compounds called cuprates, which contain layers of copper and oxygen atoms. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[867] viXra:1610.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 14:17:50

Weighting Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US $66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[866] viXra:1610.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 03:03:05

Sterile Neutrino Mystery Deepens

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[865] viXra:1610.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 21:33:05

Four Dimensional Quantum Hall Effect for Dyons

Authors: Pawan Kumar Joshi, O.P.S.Negi
Comments: 18 Pages.

Starting with division algebra based on quaternion, we have constructed the generalization of quantum Hall effect from two dimension to four dimension. We have constructed the required Hamiltonian operator and thus obtained its eigen values and eigen functions for four dimensional quantum Hall effect for dyons. The degeneracy of the four dimensional quantum Hall system has been discussed in terms of two integers (P\,and\,Q ) related together where as the integer Q plays the role of Landau level index and accordingly the lowest Landau level has been obtained for four dimensional quantum Hall effect associated with magnetic monopole(or dyons). It is shown that there exists the integer as well the fractional quantum Hall effect and so, the four dimensional quantum Hall system provides a macroscopic number of degenerate states and at appropriate integer or fractional filling factions this system forms an incompressible quantum liquid. Key Words: Quaternion, dyons, Hamiltonian operator, Landau level etc
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[864] viXra:1610.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 04:14:48

Derivation of Photon Mass and Avogadro Constant from Planck units

Authors: B. Ravi Sankar
Comments: 5 Pages. The mass of the ultimate partcile in the zoo of particles is derived

Originally proposed in 1899 by German physicist Max Planck, Planck units are alsoknown as natural units because the origin of their definition comes only from properties of the fundamental physical theories and not from interchangeable experimental param- eters. It is widely accepted that Planck units are the most fundamental units. In this paper, few more fundamental constants are derived from Planck units. These constants are permutations and combinations of Planck units and hence by construct, they are also constants. The mass and radius of photon are derived. The Avogadro constant, Boltzmann constant and unified mass unit are also derived. The structure of the photon is explained. The meaning of Avogadro constant in terms of photon structure is also explained. The meaning of Planck mass is explained. As proof for the meaning of the Planck mass, the solar constant is derived. The solar constant is derived applying string theory as well. Finally revised Planck current, Planck voltage and Planck impedance are also derived. It is also proven that Planck mass is the energy emitted by any star per second per ray of proper length c. Apart from this, the energy emitted per second per ray of proper length c by a planet or communication antenna is not equal to Planck mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[863] viXra:1610.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 08:16:59

Secret Lives of Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[862] viXra:1610.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 03:47:34

The Quantum Field Theory Approximation

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

One states the quantum field theory [QFT] approximation [QFTA] for the Physicalist Program [PHPR]. An approximation that relates current PHPR knowledge to second quantization of relativistic point-particle interactions and QFT.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[861] viXra:1610.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-02 03:40:56

Charming Asymmetries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[860] viXra:1609.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 07:30:59

Photon Scalar/Pseudoscalar Mixing Dynamics In Magnetized Media

Authors: Manoj K. Jaiswal, Avijit K. Ganguly
Comments: 3 Pages. A short report

We study the dynamics of photon-scalar interaction (mixing) by operators of mass dimension five (predicted in numerous theories, beyond standard model), in various kinds of media. Our main objectives are to study medium specific modifications to the mixing dynamics of of photons with pseudoscalar (axion a(x)) and scalar e.g., dilaton , moduli etc. (denoted by φ(x)) dark matter candidates. We look into spectro-polarimetric as well as oscillation aspects of the same and their possible astrophysical consequences.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[859] viXra:1609.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 21:16:20

On a New Method to Detect Neutrinos

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 15 Pages. 5 figures; Include Chinese version

I proposed a new method to detect the neutrinos. The characteristic of this new method is to make use of the interactions between electron and neutrino. These interactions will produce the W bosons and etc. The produced W bosons will decay to pairs of lepton and neutrino. Then we only need to detect the leptons produced by W bosons to make sure how many neutrinos had arrived.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[858] viXra:1609.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 22:09:45

The Higgs Boson and the Alternative Charge Carriers: Part III

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 5 Pages. 3 of 3 parts (due to length)

The four forces of physics are considered in terms of the broken symmetry of our "matter only" Universe
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[857] viXra:1609.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 14:40:38

Physical Model of a Real Photon with Substructure and Mass

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: 7 Pages. Related to MC Physics or Mono-Charge Physics theories

A physical model of a photon with substructure and mass is presented that satisfies all known properties and characteristics of photons. The model shows that relativistic enhanced rotating mono-charges cause the EMF signature of light, scattering effects, gravity affects, and momentum/ kinetic energy. A photon's kinetic energy (KE) includes both linear KE from its mass travelling at the average speed of light, c, and its rotational KE from instant mass rotating at the frequency required velocity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[856] viXra:1609.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 02:52:09

Lepton Flavor Violation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Standard Model allows for the Higgs boson to decay to identically flavored pairs of leptons, such as electrons and muons, but not to mixed pairings of lepton flavors. Evidence of the latter would be a sign of new physics. [14] It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[855] viXra:1609.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 22:38:05

Is there Proton Neutrino

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 6 Pages. Include Chinese version

This work based on my previous works. I postulate that there is proton neutrino just like electron neutrino since protons are also the elementary particles just like electrons. Then I point out that there must be proton meson that consisted with proton and proton neutrino. In this paper, I analysis the proton meson’s decay model by diagrammatic scheme. I also calculate some parameters of proton meson, and give some advises on how to detect these particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[854] viXra:1609.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 09:37:38

“The Road to Understanding of Neutrinos – the Hidden Truth About Neutrinos and Other “quanticles““

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 21 Pages.

This actual submitted publication refers about recent facts and phenomenas, elusive or real particles called neutrinos. During last few months was revealed in giant neutrino's projects in Europe–CERN–LHC (Large Hadron Collider) ATLAS DETECTOR and in MINOS EXPERIMENT / MAIN INJECTOR NEUTRINO OSCILLATION SEARCH) Fermilab NUMI / Illinois near Chicago, U.S.A. many new realities about these elementary nuclear particles, which consists of whole cosmic matter. Were studied and observed properties of neutrinos, like emission, oscillation (Nobel Prize for Physics 2015), detection and the most interesting (qm) superposition in Project MINOS (735 km of distance between place with Detector 1 in Fermilab and place with Detector 2 in Soudan), under leading of David Kaiser from M.I.T. / Massachussett's Institute of Technology) in Cambridge, U.S.A. D. Kaiser easily said: “The particles neutrinos can existed in many quantum states at the same time.“ According this theory, particles neutrinos can rotate according direction of clocks hands and against their direction at the same time, or could be together nonexcited and excitated. About (QM) SUPERPOSITION before 100 years was reflected already Erwin Schrödinger in mind–experiment the Schrödinger's cat. In July's number of Journal Physical Review Letters, Physicist David Kaiser and his team studied distribution of all types of neutrinos produced in Chicago's Fermilab and compared it with distribution of all types on neutrinos detected in Soudan. Finally they had come to believe that, observed particles distributions are the best explanated, that neutrinos are during the flight between Chicago's Fermilab and Mine Soudan, in MINNESOTA, in state known like quantum-mechanic superposition, and not take resemblence of one's concretely type of neutrino. From upper sets realities are offered questions like “are neutrinos immortal or like hologram“. Further parts of this article is dedicated to summarizing of data from Superkamiokande and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (Nobel Prize for Physics 2015), and emission and detection of neutrinos and other “quanticles“ defined by principles of Prof. Joseph Weber and other scientists. In the ending part of this article is dedicated a chapter to theory of Fermi's Golden Rule (respectively neutrino–antineutrino cross section).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[853] viXra:1609.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 20:30:28

Langrangian Vertex Operator for Electrostatic Background Field in Ω

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

It's expected that electrostatic background signatures surmounts at the supersymmetric [SUSY] energy scale. These electrostatic background signatures is intrinsic to metamorphic space. In order to derive a Lagrangian vertex operator one must treat SUSY as a metamorphic phenomenon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[852] viXra:1609.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-14 22:32:40

Alternative Charge Carriers and the Higgs Boson: Part II

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 5 Pages. Original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[851] viXra:1609.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 01:38:05

Laser Diffraction Proton Acceleration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[850] viXra:1609.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-14 03:53:32

On Generations in Elementary Particle Physics

Authors: Paul R. Gerber
Comments: 2 Pages.

Elementary Fermions come in generations, e.g. (electron, muon, tau), neutrino-triplet, etc., which is an experimental fact and sometimes apostrophized as a mystery [1] because a theoretical explanation is missing. That there are more than three generations is considered possible but unlikely. We show that generations follow from group-theoretical arguments and that their number is determined by the number of space dimensions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[849] viXra:1609.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-13 03:16:30

Nucleus Excitations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can “feel” each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[848] viXra:1609.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 18:16:17

Logical Form in Favor of Long Equations

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

We aim to produce systemic analysis that produces data efficiency. Data efficiency that requires sacrificing over-emphasis of LF [Logical Form] in favor of solutions that resonates in the classical approximation and statistical quantization.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[847] viXra:1609.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-09 07:14:32

The Diagrams of Particles Decay Process and the Prediction of New Particle

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 7 Pages.

I have proposed an intuitive diagrammatic method to explore the elementary particles’ structures and decay processes based on virtual space-time. Then I discuss the possibilities of the existing of new particles. I also raised some issues that need to attention when probing those new particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[846] viXra:1609.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 22:02:39

Quantum Hall Effect for Dyons

Authors: Pawan Kumar Joshi, O.P.S.Negi
Comments: 16 Pages.

Considering the generalized charge and generalized four potential associated of dyons as complex quantities with their real and imaginary parts as electric and magnetic constituents, in this present discussion we have constructed a gauge covariant and rotational symmetric angular momentum operator for dyons in order to analyze the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. It has been shown that the commutation relations of angular momentum operator possesses a higher symmetry to reproduce the eigen values and eigen function Lowest Landau Level (LLL) for quantum Hall system. The LLL has also been constructed in terms of I^{st} Hopf map \left(S^{3}\rightarrow S^{2}\right) and it is concluded that dyons are more suitable object to investigate the existence of quantum Hall effect (both integer and fractional )
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[845] viXra:1609.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 09:41:00

Hypothetical New Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The physicists describe the hypothetical new particle as an "electrophobic scalar boson." Currently there are five bosons in the standard model, only one of which is a scalar (the Higgs), meaning it has zero spin. All five bosons have been experimentally confirmed, and all are force carriers that play a role in holding matter together. [14] It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[844] viXra:1609.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 22:17:34

Beyond Quantum Fields: A Classical Fields Approach to QED

Authors: Clifford E Chafin
Comments: 13 Pages.

A classical field theory is introduced that is defined on a tower of dimensionally increasing spaces and is argued to be equivalent to QED. The domain of dependence is discussed to show how an equal times picture of the many coordinate space gives QED results as part of a well posed initial value formalism. Identical particle symmetries are not, a priori, required but when introduced are clearly propagated. This construction uses only classical fields to provide some explanation for why quantum fields and canonical commutation results have been successful. Some old and essential questions regarding causality of propagators are resolved. The problem of resummation, generally forbidden for conditionally convergent series, is discussed from the standpoint of particular truncations of the infinite tower of functions and a two step adiabatic turn on for scattering. As a result of this approach it is shown that the photon inherits its quantization \hbar ω from the free lagrangian of the Dirac electrons despite the fact that the free electromagnetic lagrangian has no hbar in it. This provides a possible explanation for the canonical commutation relations for quantum operators, [P,Q] = i hbar without ever needing to invoke such a quantum postulate. The form of the equal times conservation laws in this many particle field theory suggests a simplification of the radiation reaction process for fields that allows QED to arise from a sum of path integrals in the various particle time coordinates. A novel method of unifying this theory with gravity, but that has no obvious quantum field theoretic computational scheme, is introduced.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[843] viXra:1609.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 13:12:03

Madala Boson of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists at the High Energy Physics Group (HEP) of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg predict the existence of a new boson that might aid in the understanding of Dark Matter in the Universe. [15] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[842] viXra:1609.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 10:58:22

Musical Chairs of the Constants

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is demonstrated that constants (and groupings of constants)are ratios, with theoretically inherent exact values. Based on the exact value of the speed of light in vacuum, as defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, CODATA value: 299792458.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[841] viXra:1608.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 14:59:44

Electron Camera Films Atomic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

An ultrafast "electron camera" at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has made the first direct snapshots of atomic nuclei in molecules that are vibrating within millionths of a billionth of a second after being hit by a laser pulse. The method, called ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), could help scientists better understand the role of nuclear motions in light-driven processes that naturally occur on extremely fast timescales. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[840] viXra:1608.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 08:41:46

Cool Antiproton Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A new paper published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics A will help scientists provide higher quality antiproton beams to experiments at CERN and antimatter facilities across the world. "Non-Gaussian beam dynamics in low energy antiproton storage rings" (J. Resta-López et.al) presents simulation studies undertaken to investigate the effects of beam heating phenomena present in antimatter decelerators. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[839] viXra:1608.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 01:48:38

Electrons Mass in High Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

An international team of researchers have for the first time, discovered that in a very high magnetic field an electron with no mass can acquire a mass. [12] Electronic components have become faster and faster over the years, thus making powerful computers and other technologies possible. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now investigated how fast electrons can ultimately be controlled with electric fields. Their insights are of importance for the petahertz electronics of the future. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[838] viXra:1608.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 03:07:40

A Calculation of Neutron’s Mass Based on Virtual Space-Time

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the postulation of virtual space-time, I reconstruct a new neutron’s model. Then I calculate the neutron’s mass based on the new model. I obtain a theoretic neutron’s mass that is close to the experimental results. My calculation shows that the neutron’s theoretic mass is 939.579MeV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[837] viXra:1608.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 11:11:45

Utilizing the Speed of Light (C) Value as the Ratio of the Reduced Planck Constant, H-Bar, Divided by the Product of the Planck Mass and the Planck Lenght

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 3 Pages.

The speed of light (exact value) equation as a mechanism to improve the lesser known values of the Planck mass and Planck length.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[836] viXra:1608.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:31:49

Solving the Muon Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[835] viXra:1608.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 13:25:16

Neutrino Horns

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[834] viXra:1608.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 10:01:55

Weak Tensor Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

For the first time in over half a century, the search for a particular type of interaction, known as a tensor interaction, in nuclear beta decay has been advanced. [5] In fact, one of the biggest disagreements involves one of the most common particles in the Universe: the neutron. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[833] viXra:1608.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 02:50:31

Nuclear Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In a new paper, University of California, Riverside theoretical physicist Flip Tanedo and his collaborators have made new progress towards unraveling a mystery in the beryllium nucleus that may be evidence for a fifth force of nature. [17] Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according to a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters by theoretical physicists at the University of California, Irvine. [16] Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[832] viXra:1608.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 05:37:36

Confirm Discovery of Fifth Force of Nature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according to a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters by theoretical physicists at the University of California, Irvine. [16] Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[831] viXra:1608.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-14 09:01:10

Mass Scale of Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[830] viXra:1608.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 08:10:10

Deuterium Nucleus Confirms Proton Radius Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[829] viXra:1608.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 08:47:09

Alternative Charge Carriers and the Higgs Boson

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 pages

A functional class of particles, the Alternative Charge Carriers (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[828] viXra:1608.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 08:50:17

Entropy and Stability in the Grand Unification Scheme

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Does the grand unification work when entropy is cause by too much D-energy?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[827] viXra:1608.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 18:51:56

Is Unmatter a Plausible Dark Matter Candidate?

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages.

Current observations reinforce the hypothesis that Dark Matter does not consist of particles resembling in any way the primary constituents of the Standard Model (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons or the Higgs scalar). By default, these findings point to an earlier proposal according to which Dark Matter is an elusive manifestation of “Unmatter”.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[826] viXra:1608.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 22:44:28

The Higgs Boson and the Alternative Charge Carriers

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 pages

Abstract A functional class of particles, the Alternative Charge Carriers (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[825] viXra:1608.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 08:52:59

The Universe's Existence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave, which could explain why matter persists over antimatter. [9] Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[824] viXra:1608.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 08:04:00

The Differences Between New Elementary Particle Physics and the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the main difference between new particle physics with the Standard Model of particle physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[823] viXra:1608.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 07:37:02

Flicker of Gluons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists exploring the dynamic behavior of particles emerging from subatomic smashups at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)-a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility for nuclear physics research at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory-are increasingly interested in the role of gluons. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[822] viXra:1608.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 09:33:21

Deuterons Spin Together

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers set a new record for the in-plane spin-alignment lifetime of deuterons circulating in a magnetic storage ring. [16] Why is so much more matter than antimatter present in the universe? A clue to this mystery may be provided by a sensitive search for a separation of positive and negative charges inside the neutron, which is referred to as the neutron's "electric dipole moment" (EDM). [15] A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[821] viXra:1608.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 15:33:20

Nonlinear Resonant Microcosm

Authors: Verin O.G.
Comments: 9 Pages.

The quantum mechanics, as is known, was the theorists «powerful answer» to sensational results of experiments which have shown up the wave properties of smallest particles of substance. Disputes on the nature of such a strange microparticles behavior had not yet time to calm down, but the theory of phenomena in the form of «wave mechanics» was already complete. According to this theory a freely moving particle is described by «probability» wave function in the form of a monochromatic wave. Besides many other open-ended questions stipulated by so-called postulates, founders of the quantum theory have left without answer and the most crucial issue: why elementary particles of substance (as oscillatory systems) should be indispensable linear – monofrequent? Later there appeared experimental data «provoking» an idea of basic nonlinearity of oscillating microcosm, but the quantum mechanics has already turned into «a sacred cow» and any doubt about its validity actually meant «excommunication» from science.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[820] viXra:1607.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 12:15:04

Neutrino Oscillations Hint at a New Fundamental Interaction

Authors: Mario Everaldo de Souza
Comments: 08 Pages.

It is suggested that neutrino oscillations do not exist and, in the light of the latest results of July 2016 of the Daya Bay Collaboration and the recent discovery of a new fundamental interaction, it is proposed that the neutrino production at the Sun’s core in the pp and CNO cycles are much larger than what is predicted by the Standard Solar Model, exactly because of this new interaction. Therefore, the claimed neutrino deficits on Earth are completely misleading.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[819] viXra:1607.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 09:31:05

The Principles and Mechanisms of Protons Beam Tumor Therapy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new explanation of the essence of protons beam tumor therapy
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[818] viXra:1607.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 05:30:18

Is it Possible to Write Down SU(2) Electrodynamics?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper is summary of questions and answers in RG forum. Your comments are welcome

It is known that Yang-Mills theory is part of classical field theory. Therefore it seems possible to write down SU(2) electrodynamics. What do you think?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[817] viXra:1607.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 14:24:30

What are Partons?

Authors: S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams
Comments: 6 Pages.

We discuss and critique some of the evidence that is often invoked to support the idea that partons are quarks. We present an alternative model in which the charged partons are electrons and positrons. This new model explains many experimental observations that the quark model is unable to explain. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the subject.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[816] viXra:1607.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 14:27:33

The Neutron Lifetime

Authors: S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Williams
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

We have developed an alternative to the standard model of particle physics. In our model, the mass of an elementary particle, like its charge, is an intrinsic property of the particle determined by its internal structure and internal kinematics. There is no Higgs mechanism. In this paper we briefly review the current status of our model including the main results of calculations that we have reported previously. We then turn our attention to particle stability. We note a possible reason for the stability of the proton and the electron and, as a further application of our approach, we present a calculation of the neutron lifetime.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[815] viXra:1607.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 11:57:07

Leptonic CP Violation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[814] viXra:1607.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:10:55

Stimulated Topological Condensation of "Vapour Phase" Photons and Possible Implications for Space Power Technology

Authors: Martin Dudziak, Matti Pitkanen
Comments: 8 Pages.

A quantum topological model is offered for the potential of producing energy through vacuum electromagnetic current generation, and its possible use for exoplanetary space travel propulsion systems.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[813] viXra:1607.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 02:52:14

A 34 me Neutral Boson, Predicted by a Particles Cold Genesis Theory and Experimentally Evidenced, as Argument for a Preonic Quark Model

Authors: Marius Arghirescu
Comments: 8 Pages. Accepted to IJHEP

The new neutral boson of 34 me , experimentally evidenced and supposed to be an X-boson of a fifth basic force, was predicted as being a basic z0 preon of cold formed quarks by a pre-quantum model of elementary particle resulted from an etherono-quantonic theory of the author, and can be a strong argument for a Bose-Einstein condensate model of particle, resulted by magnetically confined gammons formed as pairs of quasielectrons. An argument in the favour of the preonic structure of quarks and for the Cold Genesis of the elementary particles is proposed a new, pre-quantum model of quark resulted in theory with quasi-crystallin as structure of quasi-electrons of the basic preon z0 . The brought arguments sustain also the conclusion that the z0 boson can be a „dark matter” constituent.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[812] viXra:1607.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 13:12:18

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle. the Complete Table of Contents.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

Chapter1.Elementary particle pulsation principle.[1] Basic concept of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [2] The concepts of elementary particle pulsation principle. and the existing facts. [3] The grounds that came up with the idea of the hypothesis of the pulsation principle.Its history. [4] The first step to elementary particle pulsation principle birth. [5] I built the geometric model of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [6] Summary of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [7] The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (The original of the 1980 announcement) [8] An elementary particle is a lump of the energy. It is super-high-speed and pulsates. The reason. [9] The application of the elementary particle pulsation principle. The grounds of the idea. [10] The characteristic list of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (Timing distinction). [11] Figure of the quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle. [12] The idea of elementary pulsation principle apply the concepts. [13] Elementary pulsation principle concepts of theoretical physics puzzler. (1-33)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[811] viXra:1607.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 03:04:23

Quantum Neutrino Oscillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[810] viXra:1607.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 19:09:24

A Unified Phenomenological Description for the Origin of Mass for Leptons and for the Complete Baryon Octet, Including the Reported Inverse Dependence Upon the Alpha Constant

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 8 Pages.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic selfenergy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of such magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to Post´s , many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[809] viXra:1607.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 10:12:33

The Pulsation Principle Solves Infinite Difficulty.(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

The pulsation principle solves infinite difficulty.(1) All elementary particles convert it in sync. The pulsation model of the elementary particle pulsation principle、 * All elementary particles convert it in sync with a particle trip, a wave trip, a minus number particle trip. * The electromagnetic force works in a wave trip. The electromagnetic force does not work in a particle trip. . The electromagnetic force does not work in a minus number particle trip. * All particles and minus number particles disappear in a wave trip. The conversion synchronizes. The electromagnetic force of All the photons not work in particle processes and negative particles process. The electromagnetic force works in a wave trip. * The concept of the vacuum of quantum mechanics. Virtual particles (generation, annihilation) model. * The random (generation, annihilation). By it Particles and antiparticles are always infinite pieces exist. * Particles of Infinite number are involved in electromagnetism force. Negative particles of Infinite number are involved in electromagnetism force. By it Renormalization prescriptions are needed. * Photons mediate the electromagnetic force.   And Photons are always infinite pieces exist. Equation would be endless.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[808] viXra:1607.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 10:44:28

The 13/12 Schematic of Thirteen Fundamental Constants and Their Twelve Respective Ratios, that Give Rise to All Constants

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 49 Pages. If the math works, an investigation is warranted.

It is proposed, that fundamental particle physics is inherently comprised of a fundamental scheme (13/12) that gives rise to the constants. The approach taken has been to extrapolate from the known constants of the standard model to a proposed fundamental (Democritean) unit. A hierarchal relationship between the constants and their respective ratios is shown. Every constant with an inherent ratio, e.g., the 2pi ratio of the Planck constant h and the reduced Planck constant h-bar. The 13/12 scheme theoretically calculates constants such as the Rydberg constant, Bohr magneton, Compton wavelength, Planck mass, etc., solely by dimensionless ratios.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[807] viXra:1607.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 13:22:58

A Proton and the Neutron in the Atomic Nucleus.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

A proton and the neutron in the atomic nucleus. The interpretation of the pulsation hypothesis, Of the atomic nucleus, A proton and the neutron are the same elementary particles. The valley of the ripple of the material wave due to the neutron pulsation, The electron goes around the valley. When an electron is in the orbit of the proton, a proton turns into a neutron. When an electron goes out of the orbit of the neutron, a neutron becomes the proton. Proton (+ electric charge), an electron (- electric charge). The proton (+ electric charge )+ electron (- electric charge) = neutrality. Valley of the ripples of the nuclei to form electron orbitals. The electron goes around an orbit. When an electron is released from the orbit, the atom becomes the positive electric charge. As for both the atomic nucleus and the atom, the change of the electric charge depends on electronic movement. An electric charge will undergo a change. It is discontinuous (at the unit of electronic electric charge).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[806] viXra:1607.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 08:32:37

CP Symmetry Deviation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[805] viXra:1607.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 10:54:13

Generalized Equations and Their Solutions in the (S,0)+(0,S) Representations of the Lorentz Group

Authors: Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 20 Pages. Talk ate the XXXI International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, June 19-25, 2016

In this talk I present three explicit examples of generalizations in relativistic quantum mechanics. First of all, I discuss the generalized spin-1/2 equations for neutrinos. They have been obtained by means of the Gersten-Sakurai method for derivations of arbitrary-spin relativistic equations. Possible physical consequences are discussed. Next, it is easy to check that both Dirac algebraic equation Det (\hat p - m) =0 and Det (\hat p + m) =0 for u- and v- 4-spinors have solutions with p_0= \pm E_p =\pm \sqrt{{\bf p}^2 +m^2}. The same is true for higher-spin equations. Meanwhile, every book considers the equality p_0=E_p for both $u-$ and $v-$ spinors of the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2)) representation only, thus applying the Dirac-Feynman-Stueckelberg procedure for elimination of the negative-energy solutions. The recent Ziino works (and, independently, the articles of several others) show that the Fock space can be doubled. We re-consider this possibility on the quantum field level for both S=1/2 and higher spin particles. The third example is: we postulate the non-commutativity of 4-momenta, and we derive the mass splitting in the Dirac equation. The applications are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[804] viXra:1607.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 13:10:39

The Illustration of the Uncertainty Principle.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis comments on an uncertainty principle in a figure. An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis is physics of the dark energy. According to the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis, In a particle trip and a minus number particle trip, the elementary particle has size intermittently and can establish a position. A particle trip and the minus number particle trip are the four-dimensional space that is not recognizable, five dimensions of space-time. It is called a virtual space. The wave trip is recognizable three-dimensional space, four-dimensional space-time. In a wave trip, the mass of the elementary particle is zero. It is the point that does not have size. The position of the elementary particle is not clear. By a particle trip, the minus number particle trip, the elementary particle can establish a position. There cannot decide a value of the energy. The wave trip can observe numerical value of the energy, but cannot decide the position of the elementary particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[803] viXra:1606.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 08:22:57

On the New Quark and Neutrino Model Based on Virtual Space-Time

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, I try to reconstruct the quark model based on virtual space-time. It seems that the new quark model is able to get the same results with standard model. So I continue to analysis the virtual photon wave equation, and obtain the new neutrino model. It points out that the neutrino is the mass wave that step crossing the real and virtual space-time.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[802] viXra:1606.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 10:15:43

A Pulsation Hypothesis Elucidates a Mystery of the Dark Energy.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 11 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis elucidates a mystery of the dark energy. A mystery of the dark energy.  It is the mystery of the astrophysics maximum. The existing physics cannot elucidate the mystery. The elementary particle pulsation hypothesis discovered 4-dimensional space. In four-dimensional space, dark energy pulsates. A pulsation hypothesis elucidates a mystery of the dark energy. Pulsating Big Bang universe model. From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe. Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure. Over time, in the early universe. Void (bubble) group in each microcosm. Galaxy was born in each microcosm. The Galaxy by the pulsating bubble moved the boundary. The moved to the borders and bubbles. The hundred billion galaxies distributed to the boundary of the bubble (lattice). As a result, became no longer bubbles in Galaxy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[801] viXra:1606.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 18:58:57

The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric: Postscript

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages. part two of the original paper

The "Higgs metric" is proposed as the particle analog of the spacetime metric. The Higgs metric of the early, high temperature cosmos "cascades" through several unified-field symmetric energy states (with distinct Higgs Bosons and corresponding IVBs) before it reaches our ground state or Biological Era.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[800] viXra:1606.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 20:55:05

The Mass of a Proton and the Neutron.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

The mass of a proton and the neutron. The difference is a difference of the electronic rest mass. When mass vibrates at high speed, mass occurs. When vibration gets closer to velocity of light, it becomes the infinite mass. The electronic mass is rest mass and the sum with the exercise mass. Most of the electronic mass are formed of exercise mass. Rest mass is only several percent. The electric charge of a proton and the neutron. An electron of the inside does the action of the electric charge. The electron in the proton acts as a positive electric charge. + As for the electric charge, a pulsatile timing acts as a plus electric charge same as a reverse positron. The neutron which released an electron loses an electric charge.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[799] viXra:1606.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 08:11:38

Supercomputers on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A research team from Cyprus, Germany and Italy led by Constantia Alexandrou of the Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center of the Cyprus Institute and the Physics Department of the University of Cyprus in Nicosia, has now for the first time calculated the scalar quark content of the proton. [16] Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15] A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[798] viXra:1606.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 12:22:10

A Pulsation Super String Theory.(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

A pulsation super string theory. To current super string theory size ~ hadron size. (10¯8cm~10¯³³cm) The elementary particle pulsation principle covers current super string theory size - atomic nucleus size. The pulsation super string theory explains a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power as a place of the dark energy. The energy grand total of a place pulsating by super symmetry is zero. The infinity does not emerge in an equation. The infinity does not emerge in an equation. Filing is unnecessary.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[797] viXra:1606.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:32:28

On the Misguided "Citation Culture"

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 1 Page.

The “citation culture” continues to grow as a systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[796] viXra:1606.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 14:25:52

The Hadron Super String Theory.(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. Atom size, a superstring theory. The size of "the string" in the super string theory is 10-33cm now. "The string" of the hadron super string theory is an atom, 10-8cm size. A current super string theory.   It is theory of String and the D brainy. The film is an image of the iron plate. The super string is an image of the magnets. As for the theory, an opened string and a closed annular string exist. The ring of the string is equivalent to gravity. The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion. The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion. The boundary condition is equivalent to the panel point of a vibrating string. The D brainy person vibrates, too. The outbreak of the = elementary particle that a string protrudes from D brainy person. A super string connects two pieces of D brainy people. ・・ ・ this is a current superstring theory. As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess. As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[795] viXra:1606.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 20:00:21

Energy-Scale of the Grand Unification Scheme

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why exactly should energy rise as we head further into the grand unification scheme [GRS]?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[794] viXra:1606.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 07:03:42

Found the Tetraneutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Recently, scientists in Japan uncovered the most convincing evidence to date of a tetraneutron, which is a particle with four neutrons but no proton—something that we shouldn’t see in physics. This evidence increases the possibility of the existence of this hypothetical particle. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[793] viXra:1606.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 02:35:19

An Extended SU(2) Electrodynamics based on Lehnert’s Revised Quantum Electrodynamics: A Preliminary Report

Authors: Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 8 Pages. This file has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

Historically, electromagnetic theory was developed for situations described by the U(1) group. The dynamics equations describing the transformations and interrelationships of the force field are the well known Maxwell equations, and the group algebra underlying these equations are U(1). There was a need to extend these equations to describe SU(2) situations and to derive equations whose underlying algebra is SU(2). In this paper, we will start with Terence W. Barrett’s SU(2) symmetric form of electrodynamics based on topological considerations. Meanwhile, in a series of papers Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. Therefore, we will write down a combination between Barrett’s SU(2) electrodynamics with Lehnert’s RQED. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model. This is a preliminary report, so it is far from being a complete description of SU(2) electrodynamics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[792] viXra:1606.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 03:07:20

Fundamental Physical Constants: Explained and Derived by Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 41 pages

Eighteen of the fundamental physical constants, including the Planck constant, Coulomb constant and the gravitational constant (G), are derived by wave equations based on four, new fundamental constants: wave speed, wavelength, amplitude and density. All calculations match CODATA values of the existing constants with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the wave equations from which they are derived also accurately calculate particle mass, ionization energies and forces.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[791] viXra:1606.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 03:09:51

Grazing Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[790] viXra:1606.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-05 05:38:02

Divergence-Free Vector Gauge Field Theory

Authors: N.S. Baaklini
Comments: 9 pages, 21 equations, 10 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques, with powerful implementation of the principle of gauge covariance, to the theory of non-Abelian (Yang-Mills) gauge field theory. This describes the self interactions of a massless vector field. Results of two-loop computations are given demonstrating the simplicity and the viability of the underlying framework.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[789] viXra:1606.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 04:13:53

Plasma Tube at SLAC

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[788] viXra:1606.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 08:36:05

Polarized Positron Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[787] viXra:1606.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 04:39:37

Nuclear Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[786] viXra:1605.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 04:19:10

Hungarian Fifth Force of Nature?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[785] viXra:1605.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 09:32:31

A Roadmap to the Quark and Lepton Mass Ratios

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 2 Pages.

The last six years have seen great strides in measuring the neutrino squared-mass splittings and heavy quark masses. It is therefore timely to reconsider the mass formulas introduced by the author in 2010, which then disagreed with the ratio of the neutrino squared-mass splittings.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[784] viXra:1605.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 07:30:38

Matter Theory of Maxwell Equations

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed. and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[783] viXra:1605.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-20 03:44:25

Divergence-Free Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: N.S. Baaklini
Comments: 10 pages, 22 equations, 9 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of Maxwell-Dirac electrodynamics. This describes the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged fermion (the electron). This gives another example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, implementing the principle of gauge-covariant momentum-space quantization.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[782] viXra:1605.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-13 16:34:55

The Impedance Representation: Proton Structure (And a Little Spin) from an Electron Model

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[781] viXra:1605.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 13:11:22

Fig. 4 - Subatomic Particles of the Standard Model

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 1 Page. Fig. 4 to accompany paper "The Symmetry Groups of Light"

Figure 4 is an attempt to represent diagrammatically the connection between leptons and quarks. The essence of the relationship is that the quarks are a resonant subset of the leptons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[780] viXra:1605.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-09 09:56:20

Bare Charge and Bare Mass in Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 7 Pages.

The existence of the bare mass and the bare charge in Quantum Electrodynamics is analyzed in terms of the Standard Model of particle physics. QED arises as a renormalized theory as a consequense of spontaneous symmetry breaking by Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism as $SU(3)_{C}\otimes SU(2)_{L}\otimes U(1)_{Y} \,\rightarrow \,SU(3)_{C} \otimes U(1)_{em}$.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[779] viXra:1605.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-05 17:14:04

On the Pattern of Standard Model Fermions and Charges

Authors: Cris A. Fitch
Comments: 9 Pages.

We observe that the Standard Model's fermions can be mapped onto a 7-bit pattern, and that these bits can be used to calculate the various charges (color, weak isospin, hypercharge, and electromagnetic) for these particles. A geometrical object, the trihepton, is proposed as means of understanding where the pattern of fermions and the simple formulas for the charges come from. Its relationship with the Fano plane from projective geometry is considered. Issues and implications of the model are discussed. A fourth generation of fermions with spin 3/2 and absolute charge (2, 5/3, 4/3, 1) is hypothesized, and it is also suggested that there may be bosons associated with neutrino oscillation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[778] viXra:1605.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-01 12:46:35

Oscillations Temporelles du Neutrino

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 18 pages. « Oscillations temporelles du neutrino » is the French version of «Neutrino’s Temporal Oscillations» on viXra.org/abs/1605.0005

Nous conjecturons l’existence de neutrinos sans masse qui sont dans la ligne du modèle standard mais qui possèdent des fonctionnalités non représentées par le modèle standard : ils utilisent un chemin radial plus court que le photon et possèdent des saveurs bosoniques. Ils seraient considérés comme des bosons au lieu de fermions. Nous appelons cette théorie « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Confrontée à quelques comparaisons expérimentales – neutrinos solaires, neutrinos de SN1987A, neutrinos cosmologiques ̶ , la théorie donne de meilleurs résultats et des explications plus sensées que la théorie compliquée de l’oscillation du neutrino. L’expérience « OPERA » qui a mesuré la vitesse des neutrinos en 2011 a abouti à des données que ne peuvent expliquer les trois types de neutrinos existants. La physique des neutrinos semble malade. L’oscillation temporelle du neutrino, en montrant le raccourci que prennent des neutrinos sans masse dans l’espace-temps à trois dimensions spatiales que nous connaissons, représente dans le modèle standard une fenêtre ouverte sur une « nouvelle physique » qui a un rapport avec la réalité physique.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[777] viXra:1605.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-01 08:11:02

Neutrino's Temporal Oscillations

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 17 Pages.

We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of standard model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for by the standard model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors. Considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Faced with some experimental comparisons ̶ solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN1987A, cosmological neutrinos ̶ , the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The "OPERA" experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a "superluminal" saga, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth "sterile" neutrino with non-standard interaction. Neutrino physics does not make sense. "Neutrino’s temporal oscillations" shows the short cut that massless neutrinos take in the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a "new physics" that has a connection with physical reality.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[776] viXra:1604.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 23:55:14

Small Nonassociative Corrections to the Susy Generators and Cosmological Constant

Authors: Vladimir Dzhunushaliev
Comments: 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[665] viXra:1611.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 10:18:43

On Scale Invariance and Particle Localization in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is known that microcausality is a cornerstone principle of relativistic Quantum Field Theory (QFT). It requires commutativity of local fields defined at space-like separations and prohibits physical effects to propagate at superluminal speeds. However, it is also known that the exact localization of quantum fields fails to apply to quantum particles, which behave as non-local entities (the Reeh-Schlieder and Malamert theorems). Over the years, challenges associated with the point-wise description of quantum particles have inspired many attempts to revisit the particle interpretation of QFT. All these proposals suffer from specific limitations and have not gained universal acceptance. Here we suggest that a field theory approaching scale invariance near the fixed points of the Renormalization Group flow blurs the distinction between locality and non-locality. In particular, self-similarity resolves the issue of particle localization in QFT, while reinforcing microcausality by default.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[664] viXra:1611.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-25 07:06:49

Show Structure and Constituent Density Images of Protons and Neutrons

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing the images of the most fundamental structure and constituents density distribution of a proton and a neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[663] viXra:1611.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-25 00:27:26

Show Structure and Constituent Density Images of Protons and Neutrons

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing the images of the most fundamental structure and constituents density distribution of a proton and a neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[662] viXra:1610.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-17 05:34:56

LHC 2016 Sees 3 Higgs Mass States

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 19 Pages. Version 2 (v2) corrects the viXra number of the paper.

The first 13 /fb or so of the 2016 p-p LHC run indicates 3 Higgs Mass States: 125, 200, and 240 GeV. If confirmed by all 40 /fb of 2016 data, 3 Tquark Mass States 130, 174, and 220 GeV of a composite Higgs-Tquark system would also be supported as would be an unconventional analysis of Fermilab Tquark data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[661] viXra:1610.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-28 08:41:47

An Estimation of Muons that are Produced on the Ground

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 12 Pages. Include Chinese Version

I find that some experiments can be used to estimate numbers of the muons that produced on the earth’s surface except of that come from cosmic ray particles in the atmosphere. However, calculation showed that the high energy muons on the ground mainly come from cosmic rays. The ground should lack of mechanisms to produce high-energy muons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[660] viXra:1610.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-30 07:37:33

Emergence of Standard Model Symmetries from Multifractal Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 21 Pages.

Despite being supported by overwhelming evidence, the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is challenged by many foundational questions. The root cause of its gauge structure and of discrete symmetry breaking continues to be unknown. Here we show how these questions may be approached using the multifractal geometry of the SM near the electroweak scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[659] viXra:1610.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-29 01:03:05

Hard-core’s Physical Origin and Action Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving a new explanation for the physical origin and action mechanism of the nuclear force’s ‘hard-core’ repulsive.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[658] viXra:1610.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-01 07:32:45

Defining and Delimiting of the Elementary Particle

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new definition and boundary of the elementary particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[657] viXra:1610.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-18 20:21:27

Defining and Delimiting of the Elementary Particle

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new definition and boundary of the elementary particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[656] viXra:1610.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-18 10:11:53

Defining and Delimiting of the Elementary Particle

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new definition and boundary of the elementary particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[655] viXra:1609.0429 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-01 21:49:02

On a New Method to Detect Neutrinos

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 16 Pages. 5 Figures; Include Chinese version

I proposed a new method to detect the neutrinos. The characteristic of this new method is to make use of the interactions between electron and neutrino. These interactions will produce the W bosons and etc. The produced W bosons will decay to pairs of lepton and neutrino. Then we only need to detect the leptons produced by W bosons to make sure how many neutrinos had arrived.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[654] viXra:1609.0396 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-03 05:52:05

The Higgs Boson and the Alternative Charge Carriers: Part III

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages. In three parts due to length. Adding closing statement.

The four forces of physics are considered in terms of the broken symmetry of our "matter only" Universe
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[653] viXra:1609.0396 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-28 16:04:03

The Higgs Boson and the Alternative Charge Carriers: Part III

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 of 3 parts due to length - adding new section

The four forces of physics are considered in terms of the "broken symmetry" of our "matter-only" Universe
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[652] viXra:1609.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-19 18:35:20

Lagrangian Vertex Operator for Electrostatic Background Field in Ω

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

It's expected that electrostatic background signatures surmounts at the supersymmetric [SUSY] energy scale. These electrostatic background signatures is intrinsic to metamorphic space. In order to derive a Lagrangian vertex operator one must treat SUSY as a metamorphic phenomenon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[651] viXra:1609.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-18 22:00:53

The Diagrams of Particles Decay Process and the Prediction of New Particle

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 16 Pages. Include Chinese Version

I have proposed an intuitive diagrammatic method to explore the elementary particles’ structures and decay processes based on virtual space-time. Then I discuss the possibilities of the existing of new particles. I also raised some issues that need to attention when probing those new particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[650] viXra:1608.0385 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-02 20:24:38

A Calculation of Neutron’s Mass Based on Virtual Space-Time

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the postulation of virtual space-time, I reconstruct a new neutron’s model. Then I calculate the neutron’s mass based on the new model. I obtain a theoretic neutron’s mass that is close to the experimental results. My calculation shows that the neutron’s theoretic mass is 939.579MeV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[649] viXra:1608.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-14 22:38:02

Alternative Charge Carriers and the Higgs Boson: Part I

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 8 Pages. Original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[648] viXra:1608.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-31 22:09:17

The Higgs Boson and the Alternative Charge Carriers

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 8 Pages. Correcting many small errors, adding important new ideas

A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[647] viXra:1608.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-18 21:42:20

Alternative Charge Carriers and the Higgs Boson

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 8 Pages. Long new section on black holes added as "Postscript III".

A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[646] viXra:1608.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-13 19:25:47

Alternative Charge Carriers and the Higgs Boson

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages. numerous small changes and clarifications

Abstract A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[645] viXra:1608.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-11 09:38:47

Is Unmatter a Plausible Dark Matter Candidate?

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

Current observations reinforce the hypothesis that Dark Matter does not consist of particles resembling in any way the primary constituents of the Standard Model (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons or the Higgs scalar). By default, these findings point to an earlier proposal according to which Dark Matter is an elusive manifestation of “Unmatter”.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[644] viXra:1608.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-10 12:12:02

Is Unmatter a Plausible Dark Matter Candidate?

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages.

Current observations reinforce the hypothesis that Dark Matter does not consist of particles resembling in any way the primary constituents of the Standard Model (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons or the Higgs scalar). By default, these findings point to an earlier proposal according to which Dark Matter is an elusive manifestation of “Unmatter”.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[643] viXra:1608.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-15 03:31:59

The Difference Between New Particle Physics and the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the main difference between new particle physics with the Standard Model of particle physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[642] viXra:1608.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-07 02:42:35

The Differences Between New Elementary Particle Physics and the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the main difference between new particle physics with the Standard Model of particle physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[641] viXra:1607.0564 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-01 16:02:01

Neutrino Oscillatins Hint at a New Fundamental Interaction

Authors: Mario Everaldo de Souza
Comments: 08 Pages. Replacement just for correcting a reference

It is suggested that neutrino oscillations do not exist and, in the light of the latest results of July 2016 of the Daya Bay Collaboration and the recent discovery of a new fundamental interaction, it is proposed that the neutrino production at the Sun’s core in the pp and CNO cycles are much larger than what is predicted by the Standard Solar Model, exactly because of this new interaction. Therefore, the claimed neutrino deficits on Earth are completely misleading.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[640] viXra:1607.0549 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-30 02:54:14

The Principles and Mechanisms of Protons Beam Tumor Therapy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new explanation of the essence of protons beam tumor therapy
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[639] viXra:1607.0430 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-10 01:41:23

A 34 me Neutral Boson, Predicted by a Particles Cold Genesis Theory and Experimentally Evidenced, as Argument for a Preonic Quark Model

Authors: Marius Arghirescu
Comments: 8 Pages. partially published to IJHEP

The new neutral boson of 34 me , experimentally evidenced and supposed to be an X-boson of a fifth basic force, was predicted as being a basic z0 preon of cold formed quarks by a pre-quantum model of elementary particle resulted from an etherono-quantonic theory of the author, and can be a strong argument for a Bose-Einstein condensate model of particle, resulted by magnetically confined gammons formed as pairs of quasielectrons. A strong argument in the favour of the preonic structure of quarks and for the Cold Genesis of the elementary particles is proposed a new, pre-quantum model of quark resulted in theory with quasi-crystallin preonic structure, given by a quasi-crystallin form of the basic preon z0 , resulted as cluster of quasi-electrons. The brought arguments sustain also the conclusion that the z0 boson can be a „dark matter” constituent.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[638] viXra:1607.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-22 08:38:16

A Unified Phenomenological Description for the Origin of Mass for Leptons and for the Complete Baryon Octet and Decuplet, Including the Reported Inverse Dependence Upon the Alpha Constant.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 8 pages, one figure and one table.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic self-energy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to the adopted by E. Post many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet and decuplet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[637] viXra:1606.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-02 20:26:19

On the New Quark and Neutrino Model Based on Virtual Space-Time

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, I try to reconstruct the quark model based on virtual space-time. It seems that the new quark model is able to get the same results with standard model. So I continue to analysis the virtual photon wave equation, and obtain the new neutrino model. It points out that the neutrino is the mass wave that step crossing the real and virtual space-time.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[636] viXra:1606.0241 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 22:45:30

On the Misguided "Citation Culture"

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 1 Page.

The “citation culture” persists as systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[635] viXra:1606.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-11 00:42:44

Fundamental Physical Constants: Explained and Derived by Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 49 pages

Twenty of the fundamental physical constants, including the Planck constant, Coulomb constant and the gravitational constant (G), are derived by wave equations based on four, new fundamental constants: wave speed, wavelength, amplitude and density. All calculations match CODATA values of the existing constants with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the wave equations from which they are derived also accurately calculate particle mass, ionization energies and forces.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[634] viXra:1605.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-13 00:14:17

Matter Theory of Maxwell Equations

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed. and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[633] viXra:1605.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-28 13:32:02

Matter Theory of Maxwell Equations

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed. and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[632] viXra:1605.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-17 13:04:53

Impedance Representation of the S-matrix: Proton Structure and Spin from an Electron Model

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 12 Pages.

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[631] viXra:1605.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-11 05:36:09

Impedance Representation of the S-matrix: Proton Structure and Spin from an Electron Model

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 12 Pages. revised abstract

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[630] viXra:1605.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-26 11:00:38

Impedance Representation of the S-matrix: Proton Structure and Spin from an Electron Model

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: Pages.

Impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization extends beyond quantum Hall to impedances corresponding to all potentials. Geometric Clifford algebra permits one to construct a geometric electron model, and to calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between geometric objects of the model. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[629] viXra:1605.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-25 11:16:46

The Impedance Representation: Proton Structure (And a Little Spin) from an Electron Model

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 12 Pages.

Impedance is defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. Geometric Clifford algebra permits one to construct a geometric electron model, and to calculate elementrary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between geometric objects of the model. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[628] viXra:1605.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-21 10:38:33

The Impedance Representation: Proton Structure (And a Little Spin) from an Electron Model

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 12 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[627] viXra:1605.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-19 11:04:44

The Impedance Representation: Proton Structure (And a Little Spin) from an Electron Model

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 12 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[626] viXra:1604.0382 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-17 04:18:18

Small Nonassociative Corrections to the Susy Generators and Cosmological Constant

Authors: Vladimir Dzhunushaliev
Comments: 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics