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Any replacements are listed further down

[720] **viXra:1511.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-28 04:58:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

An international team of physicists has published ground-breaking research on the decay of subatomic particles called kaons -- which could change how scientists understand the formation of the universe. [9]
CERN scientists just completed one of the most exciting upgrades on the Large Hadron Collider—the Di-Jet Calorimeter (DCal). [8]
As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[719] **viXra:1511.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-26 11:02:39*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Can Yang-Mills (YM) Kaluza-Klein (KK) correspondence drive the Future of Particle Physics? Although it is generally known that YM-KK theories define equivalence on principle fiber bundles; specific conditions for equating their Lagrangians have not been rigorously specified. Since the origin of KK Theory virtually all corresponding extensions of the Standard Model (SM) rely on a profusion of additional dimensionality (XD); a conundrum that clearly can only be resolved experimentally. In contrast to ongoing QED violation and CERN LHC SUSY XD experiments, this work explores a radical new low energy-tabletop Unified Field Mechanical (UFM) approach surmounting uncertainty.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[718] **viXra:1511.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 03:03:17*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The power spectral formula of the radiation of an electron moving in a rotating
dielectric disc is derived. We suppose the index of refraction is constant during the
rotation. This is in accord with the Fermi dielectric rotating disc for the determination
of the light polarization gyration. While the well-known Cherenkov effect, transition
effect, the Cherenkov-synchrotron effect due to the motion of particles in magnetic field
are experimentally confirmed, the new phenomenon - the radiation due to a charge
motion in rotating dielectric medium and the Cherenkov-synchrotron radiation due to the
superluminal motion of particle in the rotating dielectric medium is still in the state of
the preparation of experiment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[717] **viXra:1511.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 14:25:28*

**Authors:** M. A. Thomas

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The subject of fine tuning in physics is a long contentious issue especially now as it has hitched a ride on the Multiverse bandwagon. The mathematics of quadratic forms are predominately featured and relate the physics parameters G h c, which in turn are weighted during the Planck Era(s) determined by relative Planck time clocking. This simplifies the search to these three values as being the important apparent fine-tuned parameters (quasi fine tuning) for determining the gravitational build structures restricted to SM-4D type Universes. Two gravitational coupling constants (dimensionless) are prescribed within the Ghc complex. Both describe the relative rigidity of gravitational physics in the low energy build of our Universe (General Relativity toward endpoint neutron star, black hole formation). A Master vacuum field symmetry relation (Yang-Mills) is presented using both gravitational coupling constants in their respective degenerate domains (electron to neutron) which shows a relative rigid coherent field of parameters from the Codata set showing the interdependency of these values with each other, particularly G,h,c and particle masses. A consensus example aligns the mass-energy value of the charged pi-meson to 140.050502 MeV. The interdependency demands that the gravitational constant’s empirical value to be 6.67354236 x 10-11 m3kg-1s-2 using Codata 2014 values. The Yang-Mills relation has a perfect symmetry (hidden) due to the inclusion of the very weak gravitational charge (Zxx). This is then the weak gravity unification incorporated into the Standard Model. If the Yang-Mills symmetry relation is true then a double copy pion field permeates the observable Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[716] **viXra:1511.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 08:31:11*

**Authors:** S.S.Vilkovskii

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The English text with Russian translation

Possibility of formation of a stationary de Broglie wave by the coordinated interaction of periodic processes in elementary particles is considered. It is shown, the length of a wave of an elementary particle corresponds to a half of length of a wave of a low-frequency bending-around total wave of high-frequency processes of a particle and
its environment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[715] **viXra:1511.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 18:21:59*

**Authors:** Valeriy Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 36 Pages. beamer.cls. Talks at the 5th Workshop FLASY2015, Manzanillo, Mexico, Jun. 29 - Jul. 2, 2015, and at the XI Workshop of the Division of Gravitation and Mathematical Physics (DGFM SMF),), Guanajuato, Mexico, Nov. 16-20, 2015

We study the discrete symmetries (P,C and T) on the kinematical level within the extended Poincare Group. On the basis of the Silagadze research, we investigate the question of the definitions of the discrete symmetry operators both on the classical level, and in the secondary-quantization scheme. We study the physical contents within several bases: light-front formulation, helicity basis, angular momentum basis, and so on, on several practical examples. We analize problems in construction of the neutral particles in the the
(1/2,0)+(0,1/2) representation, the (1,0)+(0,1) and the (1/2,1/2) representations of the Lorentz Group. As well known, the photon has the quantum numbers 1-, so the (1,0)+(0,1) representation of the Lorentz group is relevant to its description. We have ambiguities in the definitions of the corresponding operators P, C; T, which lead to different physical consequences. It appears that the answers are connected with the helicity basis properties, and commutations/anticommutations of the corresponding operators, C, P, T, and C^2, P^2, (CP)^2 properties.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[714] **viXra:1511.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 09:38:34*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Prepared for the BGL-9 Conference, October 27-30, 2015, Minsk, Belarus, http://dragon.bas-net.by/bgl9/

We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials. We discuss corresponding massless limits.
We analize the quantum field theory taking into account the mass dimensions
of the notoph and the photon. Next, we deduced the gravitational field equations from
relativistic quantum mechanics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[713] **viXra:1511.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 08:54:56*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

I explore the question: Does the deep inelastic scattering data support a simpler, more accommodating, model of the proton than the quark-gluon model?; and present a case for an alternative to the current proton model. By
reanalyzing the SLAC proton and deuteron F2 curves, I show that the proton can be modeled as nine muons. Then, by reevaluating the F2 results of the HERA proton deep inelastic scattering experiments, I further show that the muons in this proton model are each made of just over 200 electrons. A model of the free electron falls out of the new proton model that reveals why the Bohr magneton only approximates the free electron magnetic moment, and that the mass of the electron neutrino is 236 eV. Finally, by slightly modifying my proton model, I build a model of
the neutron that reveals 0.24 MeV of energy not currently accounted for in the neutron mass-energy balances used to determine its mass. From all of this, I conclude that the deep inelastic scattering data does support a simpler, more accommodating, model of the proton than the quark-gluon model, and question the validity of the quark model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[712] **viXra:1511.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 16:46:44*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 19 Pages. v2 contains a newly-added section 7 showing how the half-integer fractions would only be detectable by electrically-charged fermions, not bosons.

It has long been believed that to avoid unphysical observable string singularities, Dirac monopoles must be quantized in whole integers according to the Dirac Quantization Condition 2eg=n, where e and g are the electric and magnetic charge strengths respectively, and n is an integer. This is in fact true if the electron wavefunction is not rotated while it traverses a single complete 2π circuit about the monopole. But it is also well-known that when a spinor undergoes a rotation through 2π, the sign of that spinor is reversed yielding an opposite “version” of that spinor, and that the original sign and version are only restored after a 4π double rotation. Consequently, it is shown here that when an electron wavefunction is rotated in a tidal lock with the monopole during a single 2π circuit, and specifically due to the version change that occurs because of this tidally-locked rotation, to avoid unphysical singularities the Dirac condition must change from the usual whole integer condition to a half-integer condition 2eg=n-½. It is also shown how these half-integer charges would only be detectable by electrically-charged fermions, not bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[711] **viXra:1511.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-15 13:08:19*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** Pages.

By way of the 10D/4D correspondence we have identified atomic nuclei as the particle analogues of supermassive black holes. We now specify the nuclear analogues of the supermassive black holes of the Milky Way and M31 galaxies and show that they occupy mass levels in the Planck Model. We show that the particle analogue of the ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1, which is thought to be an intermediate mass black hole, would be of mass 0.8 TeV. The particle analogues of stellar mass black holes would have masses in the region of 3-5 TeV. The 10D/4D correspondence may have implications for the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[710] **viXra:1511.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 09:57:36*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This paper shows a model for building all elementary particles of the Standard Model plus the higgs, dark matter and gravitons, out of preons and sub-preons. The preons are built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. Hexark colour and tone completely determine particle colour charge and electric charge. Gravitons occur in three generations: the first generation graviton is colourless and gives rise to dark energy. The third generation gravitons are coloured with colour-anticolour, like the gluon, and give rise to a generally attractive but very weak force over an inter-galactic range, just as the gluon gives a generally attractive but much stronger force over a much shorter distance. The third generation higgs, recently discovered, also has colour-anticolour. Model #7 replaces the old Model #6 of May 2015 which did not cater for the graviton.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[709] **viXra:1511.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 12:56:53*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Submitted to journal N.P.

The proposed coordinate/field duality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 163] is applied to the gauge and matter sectors of gauge theories. In the non-Abelian case, due to indices originated from the internal space, the dual coordinates appear to be matrices. The dimensions and the transformations of the matrix coordinates of gauge and matter sectors are different and are consistent to expectations from lattice gauge theory and the theory of open strings equipped with the Chan-Paton factors. It is argued that in the unbroken symmetry phase, where only proper collections of field components as colorless states are detected, it is logical to assume that the same happens for the dual coordinates, making matrix coordinates the natural candidates to capture the internal dynamics of baryonic confined states. The proposed matrix coordinates happen to be the same appearing in the bound-state of D0-branes of string theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[708] **viXra:1511.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 06:55:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A group of national particle physicists known as the Lattice Strong Dynamics Collaboration, led by a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory team, has combined theoretical and computational physics techniques and used the Laboratory's massively parallel 2-petaflop Vulcan supercomputer to devise a new model of dark matter. [16]
Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15]
A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[707] **viXra:1511.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 08:28:34*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Connes has constructed a realistic physics model in 4-dim spacetime based on NonCommutative Geometry (NCG) of M x F
where M = 4-dim spacetime and F = C x H x M3(C) and C = Complex Numbers, H = Quaternions, and M3(C) = 3x3 Complex Matrices. E8 has been used as a basis for physics models such as those by Lisi ( arXiv 1506.08073 ) and Smith ( viXra 1508.0157 ) so the purpose of this paper is to show a connection between Connes NCG Physics and E8.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[706] **viXra:1511.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 07:05:24*

**Authors:** N. Murata, YojaPanchan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. -

In this paper, the mass derived from the g$\_$equation is assumed to be the mass of quark-lepton, and is used to calculate the masses of the atomic nucleus.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[705] **viXra:1511.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 21:53:48*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Experimental Observed and Theoretical Ideal T-quark widths are discussed for the 3 mass states of the T-quark of E8 Physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[704] **viXra:1511.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 08:03:27*

**Authors:** Hui-Bin Qiu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The 3rd version of viXra:1510.0446

We propose an instructive possibility to generalize the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing
ansatz, such that leptonic CP violation and the fractal feature of the universe can
naturally be incorporated into the resultant scenario of fractal nearly tri-bimaximal
flavor mixing. The consequences of this new ansatze on the latest experimental da-
ta of neutrino oscillations are analyzed.
This theory is perfectly matched with the
current experimental data, and surprisedly, we find that the existing neutrino oscil-
lation experimental data is the initial experimental evidence supporting one kind of
high dimensional unified theories, such as M-theory. Besides, an interesting approach
to construct lepton mass matrices in fractal universe under permutation symmetry is
also discussed. This theory opens an unexpected window on the physics beyond the
Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[703] **viXra:1511.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 10:24:30*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Work in progress, abstract and references only.

Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” fall in line with current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They are also consistent with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[702] **viXra:1511.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 01:31:39*

**Authors:** Bhupendra Badgaiyan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4841.8002

A variant of Dirac equation has been proposed wherein in addition to particles and anti-particles (fermions) with positive and negative energies respectively, one also obtains a bosonic solution with spin 0 (a scalar particle) with the same mass. The boson also has positive and negative energies. In the context of supersymmetry the boson can be seen as an unbroken super partner of the corresponding fermion. Quaternion coordinates have been used to obtain this result.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[701] **viXra:1510.0503 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 22:37:48*

**Authors:** Hui-Bin Qiu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The 2nd version of viXra:1510.0446

We propose an instructive possibility to generalize the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing ansatz,
such that leptonic CP violation and the fractal feature of the universe can naturally be incorporated
into the resultant scenario of fractal nearly tri-bimaximal flavor mixing. The consequences of this
new ansatze on the latest experimental data of neutrino oscillations are analyzed. Our theory is
perfectly matched with the current experimental data, and we are surprised and excited to find that
the existing neutrino oscillation experimental data is the first experimental evidence supporting one
kind of higher dimensional unified theory, such as M theory. An interesting approach to construct
lepton mass matrices in fractal universe under permutation symmetry is also discussed. Our theory
opens an unexpected window on the physics beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[700] **viXra:1510.0446 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 10:10:12*

**Authors:** Hui-Bin Qiu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose an instructive possibility to generalize the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing ansatz,
such that leptonic CP violation and the fractal feature of the universe can naturally be incorporated
into the resultant scenario of fractal nearly tri-bimaximal flavor mixing. The consequences of this
new ansatze on the latest experimental data of neutrino oscillations are analyzed. Our theory is
perfectly matched with the current experimental data, and we are surprised and excited to find that
the existing neutrino oscillation experimental data is the first experimental evidence supporting one
kind of higher dimensional unified theory, such as M theory. An interesting approach to construct
lepton mass matrices in fractal universe under permutation symmetry is also discussed. Our theory
opens an unexpected window on the physics beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[699] **viXra:1510.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 17:03:32*

**Authors:** Llewlyn Chang, Randall McSmith, \\ Ignacio Tosca, Heinrich von Zimmer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As indicated in the seminal work of reformer physicist G. Fekete all natural constants can be derived at least to eight digit accuracy. In this work we show that his model can in fact be understood by membrane lattices in string theory. More specifically fibred non-trivial conformal algebraic varieties sequenced of super-Hirzebruch curves that approximate Maxwell-Enriques surfaces. We propose the structure of the Fekete matrix to be parametrised by all possible toric condensates. By analytic continuation we extend our result N=pi supersymmetry on a sphere. Thus the only physical sense to understand the Fekete model is through radiative fluxes in superstring theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[698] **viXra:1510.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 09:17:26*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 88 Pages. If you want to order a print version of this book, go to: https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/a-biblical-theory-of-everything/isbn/978-3-659-78041-7

Theory of Everything (TOE ) is the holy grail of theoretical and mathematical physics, it is a dream of unified description of almost all problems from cosmos, to elementary particles up to economics. So far, there are a number of candidates of TOE, such as M-Theory or Superstring, but they lack observable predictions. That is why many theoreticians think that M-Theory or Superstring have a status of Not Even Wrong, in the word of Pauli.
The theme of this book is a Biblical Theory of Everything inspired by the Johannine Prologue, and the message of this book is: Jesus is the Ultimate Agent of Creation of the Universe. What I mean is that Jesus Christ is the originator of everything in Cosmos. This book is a collection of my papers which have been submitted to several journals, including Foundations of Physics. My basic tenet here is that many physical phenomena and also economics as system can be modeled using classical wave equations, especially electromagnetic wave equations. If you want to order a print version of this book, go to: https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/a-biblical-theory-of-everything/isbn/978-3-659-78041-7

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[697] **viXra:1510.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-13 02:20:43*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

RUN I of LHC took no significant new results. A single newly discovered particle turned out to be a hadrons multiplet but not Higgs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[696] **viXra:1509.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 22:17:56*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The purpose of this brief note is to point out that, to the best of our knowledge, the first rationale for modeling the Higgs scalar as mixture of electroweak bosons was disclosed in refs. [1-3]. According to this interpretation, the Higgs scalar is a topological condensate of gauge bosons on spacetime having minimal fractality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[695] **viXra:1509.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 10:20:50*

**Authors:** Lamont Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

For many decades, the Higgs boson was the missing piece of the Standard Model of particle physics — the successful theoretical framework that describes all of the known fundamental particles and their interactions. While the Standard Model predicts the existence of the Higgs boson, it does not predict a specific mass for the particle — this must be determined through experimentation. The masses of the other fundamental particles also must be measured and, to date, there does not appear to be any logical way to derive one mass value from the others. This does not appear to be the case for the Higgs boson, however. Here the author shows that the mass of the Higgs boson can be calculated using the mass values of the Z and W bosons, which represent two of its primary decay channels. The implications of this are potentially far-reaching, particularly as it suggests that the boson discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is not a fundamental particle, but instead is derived from Z and W bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[694] **viXra:1509.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 08:45:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A study led by researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the University of California, Los Angeles has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders - powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13]
More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[693] **viXra:1509.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-11 10:35:53*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

It is known that quantization of massless spin-1 particles runs into several related complications such as the redundancy of gauge orbits, the presence of extra degrees of freedom and the need to introduce “ghost” fields. The textbook interpretation of quantum gauge theory is that “ghosts” are unphysical objects whose function is to preserve Lorentz covariance and unitarity. In particular, Faddeev-Popov “ghosts” (FPG) violate the spin-statistics theorem and are devoid of measurable properties. FPG are shown to decouple from the spectrum of observable states, yet it remains unclear how their presence in loop diagrams and their interaction with gauge fields is even possible in the absence of any physical attributes. The object of this work is to suggest that, at least in principle, the concept of spacetime endowed with minimal fractality enables a “ghost”-free formulation of quantum gauge theory. Our approach opens the door for a non-perturbative understanding of vacuum polarization in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[692] **viXra:1509.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 07:19:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Leptoquark's Tracks? The ZEUS detector began showing results that hinted at the leptoquark last fall. More intriguing results emerged from Fermilab a year ago. A preliminary analysis of a few anomalous collisions between protons suggested that their constituent quarks might be made of smaller, more fundamental entities--a direct violation of the Standard Model. After subsequent analysis, however, the "subquarks" vanished; theorists showed that with minor tweaking, the Standard Model could easily account for the data. [11]
An intriguing signal from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) might prove to be the crack that prises apart the standard model — physicists’ current best description of how matter and forces interact. [10]
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[691] **viXra:1509.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-09 11:05:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Earth, planets, stars, and galaxies form only the visible portion of the matter in the universe. Greater by far is the share accounted for by invisible "dark matter". Scientists have searched for the particles of dark matter in numerous experiments - so far, in vain. With the CRESST experiment, now the search radius can be considerably expanded: The CRESST detectors are being overhauled and are then able to detect particles whose mass lies below the current measurement range. As a consequence, the chance of tracking dark matter down goes up. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[690] **viXra:1509.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 08:30:16*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Kaon Mesons masses are known relatively well so it is easier to use to characterize the masses of the mesons. The following paper shows that the Kaon meson mass formula is consistent with the other meson formulas used by this author. The same basic integrated polynomial is use. The basic sub formulas are also consistent between mesons. The positive and negative Kaon use the same formula as the Rho meson, except in the sub formula 14/27 is used for the positive and negative Kaon instead of 22/27 for the rho meson. As has been noted by Paolo Palazzi, (10) the mesons can be characterized as parts of 27 and all even parts of 27. The author of this paper has not characterized all of the mesons to verify if this follows for all the mesons, but it has held for the pion, rho, and kaons. The value of 27 has been used in all the polynomial calculations and the sub formula’s. It is getting less and less doubtful that this is coincidental. To this point on 9-6-2015 this author had worked out the formulas for the electron, muon, tauon, pion, rho, and kaon particles independent of Paolo Palazzi’s work, without knowledge that anyone had noticed the pattern of 27 previously, although the pattern was so obvious, except in the case of the electron, that is seemed unlikely that it had not been noticed previously. The high mass mesons, have such a large mass, that it would be difficult to determine that the pattern of 27 was used or if it was simply numerology and coincidental curve fitting. This paper uses the same technique for proposing a method that gives clues to the mass ratio of mesons to the Proton. This is for the mesons made of, at least one, up or down quarks or their anti quarks. The structure of the equations are such that the masses are related to a type of probability. For example, the 10 percent chance an emission of energy would be going in the x direction vs the 90 percent in the y direction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[689] **viXra:1509.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 17:56:27*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Rho Mesons mass is not known as well as the Pions and Kaons. This paper uses the same technique for proposing a method that gives clues to the mass ratio of mesons to the Proton. This is for the mesons made of, at least one, up or down quarks or their anti quarks. The structure of the equations are such that the masses are related to a type of probability.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[688] **viXra:1509.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 13:35:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

An intriguing signal from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) might prove to be the crack that prises apart the standard model — physicists’ current best description of how matter and forces interact. [10]
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[687] **viXra:1509.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-05 07:18:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[686] **viXra:1509.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 03:10:51*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 10 pages

A new structure is proposed for the organization of subatomic particles, based on a format familiar to science, the Periodic Table of Elements. When particles are organized into a periodic structure, similarities are found between subatomic particles and atomic elements. This paper introduces the new Periodic Table of Particles, which includes particles from the neutrino to the Higgs boson, and how to read and use the table.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[685] **viXra:1509.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 15:36:09*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Bijective epistemology requires that each element in the scientific model correspond exactly one element in the physical world. Bijective epistemology is based on bijective function of set theory where each element in a given set model correspond exactly one element in a given set physical world. Higgs boson is an artificially made particle with extremely short life time and has no existence in physical world. Higgs mechanism is an element of set model which has no Higgs boson as an element in set physical world because Higgs boson does not exist in physical world. Higgs mechanism as an element of set model has its counterpart in set physical world in some other element which generates inertial and gravitational mass which are inseparable.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[684] **viXra:1508.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 16:01:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Pions apparently give strength to the strong force. Where does this meson get its mass. It is made of up and down quarks with a plus or minus one charge. Imagine the insides of a so called elementary particle with jazillions of Kaluza spheres with size and frequency on the order of Planck length and time. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Instead of going down to the 16th dimension, Pion’s, quarks, and other mesons may only go to the 9th dimension. At least that is what these equations hint at.
Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass ratios of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculations for the Pion’s are shown in this paper. Instead of these particles being connected to the neutron, the Pions, quarks, and other Mesons, may be connected to a mass ratio to the Proton. At least, that is what these equations hint at.
This paper is a comparison to “Energy Derivation of Mass Ratio’s of Pions. This theory seems more likely as the sum of Energy Loss of particles in direct collisions of particles. This energy loss will be shown in a separate paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[683] **viXra:1508.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-28 12:53:48*

**Authors:** Valeriy Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We postulate the non-commutativity of 4-momenta and we derive the mass splitting in the Dirac equation. The applications are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[682] **viXra:1508.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 22:50:55*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Pions apparently give strength to the strong force. Where does this meson get its mass. It is made of up and down quarks with a plus or minus one charge. Imagine the insides of a so called elementary particle with jazillions of Kaluza spheres with size and frequency on the order of Planck length and time. Each one is paired with another of exactly opposite rotation. Going from an incremental/discrete scale of rotation fraction to minus one to plus one on the x, y, and z axes. Instead of going down to the 10th dimension, Pion’s, quarks, and other mesons may only go to the 7th dimension. At least that is what these equations hint at.
Matching the energy effects these matched pairs may be result in the mass ratios of elementary particles. The mass ratio calculations for the Pion’s are shown in this paper. Instead of these particles being connected to the neutron, the Pions, quarks, and other Mesons, may be connected to a mass ratio to the Proton. At least, that is what these equations hint at.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[681] **viXra:1508.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 06:42:03*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Update & extended 1508.0117 - Lie groups of SM arise naturally

G matrices are matrices with single entries 1,i. It is shown that the G matrices generate the Cl(p,q), SU(n), SO(n) generators and the matrix representation of CAR and CCR operators. The exponential map of the direct sum of so(n) and su(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be restricted to 2 or 3 dimensions. It is shown that the unitary representation of SO(3), the spin space of 2x2 SU(2) matrices arises naturally. It is shown that there are 3 generations of chiral electroweak doublets of quarks. The CAR & CCR are invariant under a real scaling of the operators only for a null space-time (n,1) metric condition on the co-ordinates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[545] **viXra:1511.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-28 04:07:08*

**Authors:** Andreas Henriksson

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

We propose that the quantum vacuum is a superposition of topologically inequivalent four-dimensional spacetime vacuas that are obtained by minimizing the effective potential. The topological vacuas are separated in discrete imaginary time. We study the flow of particles in imaginary time and argue that vacuum decay between topological vacuas is the origin behind cosmic acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[544] **viXra:1511.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-25 12:55:36*

**Authors:** Andreas Henriksson

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The groundstate of the Universe exist in a superposition of topologically inequivalent vacuas. The vacuas are topologically distinct in the sense that their respective energies cannot be smoothly transformed into each other. The set of vacuas is the quantum vacuum. Each vacua has three spatial dimensions. The topological quantization for the groundstate of the Universe is illustrated by a discrete imaginary-valued fifth dimension, referred to as quantum time. Interactions in the quantum vacuum is illustrated as an exchange of virtual particles between different vacuas. The dominant contribution to such topological interactions come from instantons. They are physical particles that propagate in quantum time. The flow of instantons follow the second law of physics, a generalization of the second law in thermodynamics to include quantum time. Based on the assumption that quantum time is a physical dimension, combined with energy conservation and the second law, we address the origin of quantum phenomena, matter-antimatter asymmetry, vacuum energy, the cosmological constant, quantum gravity, vacuum decay and cosmic acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[543] **viXra:1511.0236 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-25 12:05:24*

**Authors:** M. A. Thomas

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Inserted Photo, Also available on Hal-01232002

The subject of fine tuning in physics is a long contentious issue especially now as it has hitched a ride on the Multiverse bandwagon. The mathematics of quadratic forms are predominately featured and relate the physics parameters G h c, which in turn are weighted during the Planck Era(s) determined by relative Planck time clocking. This simplifies the search to these three values as being the important apparent fine-tuned parameters (quasi fine tuning) for determining the gravitational build structures restricted to SM-4D type Universes. Two gravitational coupling constants (dimensionless) are prescribed within the Ghc complex. Both describe the relative rigidity of gravitational physics in the low energy build of our Universe (General Relativity toward endpoint neutron star, black hole formation). A Master vacuum field symmetry relation (Yang-Mills) is presented using both gravitational coupling constants in their respective degenerate domains (electron to neutron) which shows a relative rigid coherent field of parameters from the Codata set showing the interdependency of these values with each other, particularly G,h,c and particle masses. A consensus example aligns the mass-energy value of the charged pi-meson to 140.050502 MeV. The interdependency demands that the gravitational constant’s empirical value to be 6.67354236 x 10^-11 m^3kg^-1s^-2 using Codata 2014 values. The Yang-Mills relation has a perfect symmetry (hidden) due to the inclusion of the very weak gravitational charge (Z_xx). This is then the weak gravity unification incorporated into the Standard Model. If the Yang-Mills symmetry relation is true then a double copy pion field permeates the observable Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[542] **viXra:1511.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 19:36:32*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 19 Pages. v2 contains a new section 7 showing how the half-integer monopole charges would only be detectable by electrically-charged fermions, not bosons.

It has long been believed that to avoid unphysical observable string singularities, Dirac monopoles must be quantized in whole integers according to the Dirac Quantization Condition 2eg=n, where e and g are the electric and magnetic charge strengths respectively, and n is an integer. This is in fact true if the electron wavefunction is not rotated while it traverses a single complete 2π circuit about the monopole. But it is also well-known that when a spinor undergoes a rotation through 2π, the sign of that spinor is reversed yielding an opposite “version” of that spinor, and that the original sign and version are only restored after a 4π double rotation. Consequently, it is shown here that when an electron wavefunction is rotated in a tidal lock with the monopole during a single 2π circuit, and specifically due to the version change that occurs because of this tidally-locked rotation, to avoid unphysical singularities the Dirac condition must change from the usual whole integer condition to a half-integer condition 2eg=n-½. It is also shown how these half-integer charges would only be detectable by electrically-charged fermions, not bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[541] **viXra:1511.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-17 16:34:18*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Connes has constructed a realistic physics model in 4-dim spacetime based on NonCommutative Geometry (NCG) of M x F where M = 4-dim spacetime and F = C x H x M3(C) and C = Complex Numbers, H = Quaternions, and M3(C) = 3x3 Complex Matrices. E8 has been used as a basis for physics models such as those by Lisi ( arXiv 1506.08073 ) and Smith ( viXra 1508.0157 ) so the purpose of this paper is to show a connection between Connes NCG Physics and E8. Version 2 (v2) gives more detailed comparison of Tquark and Higgs masses from NCG Physics and from E8 Physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[540] **viXra:1511.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-03 22:51:02*

**Authors:** Hui-Bin Qiu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The 4th version of viXra:1510.0446

We propose an instructive possibility to generalize the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing
ansatz, such that leptonic CP violation and the fractal feature of the universe can
naturally be incorporated into the resultant scenario of fractal nearly tri-bimaximal
flavor mixing. The consequences of this new ansatze on the latest experimental da-
ta of neutrino oscillations are analyzed.
This theory is perfectly matched with the
current experimental data, and surprisedly, we find that the existing neutrino oscil-
lation experimental data is the initial experimental evidence supporting one kind of
high dimensional unified theories, such as M-theory. Besides, an interesting approach
to construct lepton mass matrices in fractal universe under permutation symmetry is
also discussed. This theory opens an unexpected window on the physics beyond the
Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[539] **viXra:1510.0446 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 09:17:00*

**Authors:** Hui-Bin Qiu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The 5th version of viXra:1510.0446

We propose an instructive possibility to generalize the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing
ansatz, such that leptonic CP violation and the fractal feature of the universe can
naturally be incorporated into the resultant scenario of fractal nearly tri-bimaximal
flavor mixing. The consequences of this new ansatze on the latest experimental data of
neutrino oscillations are analyzed. This theory is perfectly matched with the current
experimental data, and surprisedly, we find that the existing neutrino oscillation exper-
imental data is the first experimental evidence supporting one kind of high dimensional
unified theories, such as M-theory. Besides, an interesting approach to construct lep-
ton mass matrices in fractal universe under permutation symmetry is also discussed.
This theory opens an unexpected window on the physics beyond the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[538] **viXra:1510.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 05:24:54*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

RUN I of LHC took no significant new results. There are not super partners, no black holes, no extra dimensions, or dark matter particles, and so on. A single newly discovered particle turned out to be a hadrons multiplet but not Higgs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[537] **viXra:1510.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 18:37:26*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The eight geometric objects of the impedance model of the electron, as fortuitous
happenstance would have it, are those of the 3D Pauli subalgebra of the geometric interpretation
of Clifford algebra. Given that impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition
to the flow of energy, and that quantum phase is the gauge parameter in quantum mechanics, one
might consider an approach in which the elements of a gauge group of the electron would be
impedances of interactions between these geometric objects. The resulting 4D Dirac subalgebra
is examined in relation to the E8 exceptional Lie group.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[536] **viXra:1510.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-15 09:43:06*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The eight geometric objects of the impedance model of the electron, as fortuitous
happenstance would have it, are those of the 3D Pauli subalgebra of the geometric interpretation
of Clifford algebra. Given that impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition
to the flow of energy, and that quantum phase is the gauge parameter in quantum mechanics, one
might consider an approach in which the elements of a gauge group of the electron would be
impedances of interactions between these geometric objects. The resulting 4D Dirac subalgebra
is examined in relation to the E8 exceptional Lie group.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[535] **viXra:1510.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-14 15:31:11*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages. improved treatment of pseudoscalar property of magnetic charge.

The eight geometric objects of the impedance model of the electron, as fortuitous
happenstance would have it, are those of the 3D Pauli subalgebra of the geometric interpretation
of Clifford algebra. Given that impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition
to the flow of energy, and that quantum phase is the gauge parameter in quantum mechanics, one
might consider an approach in which the elements of a gauge group of the electron would be
impedances of interactions between these geometric objects. The resulting 4D Dirac subalgebra
is examined in relation to the E8 exceptional Lie group.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[534] **viXra:1510.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-11 07:30:00*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[533] **viXra:1509.0294 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-24 07:29:46*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The purpose of this brief note is to point out that, to the best of our knowledge, the first rationale for modeling the Higgs scalar as mixture of electroweak bosons was disclosed in refs. [1-3]. According to this interpretation, the Higgs scalar is a topological condensate of gauge bosons on spacetime having minimal fractality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[532] **viXra:1509.0294 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-22 12:12:14*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The purpose of this brief note is to point out that, to the best of our knowledge, the first rationale for modeling the Higgs scalar as mixture of electroweak bosons was disclosed in refs. [1-3]. According to this interpretation, the Higgs scalar is a topological condensate of gauge bosons on spacetime having minimal fractality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[531] **viXra:1509.0294 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-05 08:50:39*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[530] **viXra:1509.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-12 10:36:49*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

It is known that quantization of massless spin-1 particles runs into several related complications such as the redundancy of gauge orbits, the presence of extra degrees of freedom and the need to introduce “ghost” fields. The textbook interpretation of quantum gauge theory is that “ghosts” are unphysical objects whose function is to preserve Lorentz covariance and unitarity. In particular, Faddeev-Popov “ghosts” (FPG) violate the spin-statistics theorem and are devoid of measurable properties. FPG are shown to decouple from the spectrum of observable states, yet it remains unclear how their presence in loop diagrams and their interaction with gauge fields is even possible in the absence of any physical attributes. The object of this work is to suggest that, at least in principle, the concept of spacetime endowed with minimal fractality enables a “ghost”-free formulation of quantum gauge theory. Our approach opens the door for a non-perturbative understanding of vacuum polarization in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics