**Previous months:**

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2012 - 1201(13) - 1202(6) - 1203(7) - 1204(5) - 1205(4) - 1206(8) - 1207(6) - 1208(14) - 1209(4) - 1210(13) - 1211(6) - 1212(15)

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2015 - 1501(7) - 1502(12) - 1503(13) - 1504(11) - 1505(21) - 1506(6) - 1507(24) - 1508(21) - 1509(11) - 1510(5) - 1511(20) - 1512(5)

2016 - 1601(16) - 1602(16) - 1603(13) - 1604(13) - 1605(10) - 1606(13)

Any replacements are listed further down

[799] **viXra:1606.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-24 08:11:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A research team from Cyprus, Germany and Italy led by Constantia Alexandrou of the Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center of the Cyprus Institute and the Physics Department of the University of Cyprus in Nicosia, has now for the first time calculated the scalar quark content of the proton. [16]
Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15]
A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[798] **viXra:1606.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-23 12:22:10*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A pulsation super string theory.
To current super string theory size ～ hadron size. (10¯8cm～10¯³³cm)
The elementary particle pulsation principle covers current super string theory size - atomic nucleus size.
The pulsation super string theory explains a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power as a place of the dark energy.
The energy grand total of a place pulsating by super symmetry is zero.
The infinity does not emerge in an equation.
The infinity does not emerge in an equation.
Filing is unnecessary.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[797] **viXra:1606.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-22 13:32:28*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The “citation culture” continues to grow as a systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[796] **viXra:1606.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 14:25:52*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory.
Atom size, a superstring theory.
The size of "the string" in the super string theory is 10-33cm now.
"The string" of the hadron super string theory is an atom, 10-8cm size.
A current super string theory.
It is theory of String and the D brainy.
The film is an image of the iron plate. The super string is an image of the magnets.
As for the theory, an opened string and a closed annular string exist.
The ring of the string is equivalent to gravity.
The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion.
The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion.
The boundary condition is equivalent to the panel point of a vibrating string.
The D brainy person vibrates, too. The outbreak of the = elementary particle that a string protrudes from D brainy person.
A super string connects two pieces of D brainy people. ・・ ・ this is a current superstring theory.
As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.
As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[795] **viXra:1606.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 20:00:21*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Why exactly should energy rise as we head further into the grand unification scheme [GRS]?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[794] **viXra:1606.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 07:03:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Recently, scientists in Japan uncovered the most convincing evidence to date of a tetraneutron, which is a particle with four neutrons but no proton—something that we shouldn’t see in physics. This evidence increases the possibility of the existence of this hypothetical particle. [15]
In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14]
The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13]
More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[793] **viXra:1606.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-16 02:35:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This file has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

Historically, electromagnetic theory was developed for situations described by the U(1) group. The dynamics equations describing the transformations and interrelationships of the force field are the well known Maxwell equations, and the group algebra underlying these equations are U(1). There was a need to extend these equations to describe SU(2) situations and to derive equations whose underlying algebra is SU(2). In this paper, we will start with Terence W. Barrett’s SU(2) symmetric form of electrodynamics based on topological considerations. Meanwhile, in a series of papers Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. Therefore, we will write down a combination between Barrett’s SU(2) electrodynamics with Lehnert’s RQED. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model. This is a preliminary report, so it is far from being a complete description of SU(2) electrodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[792] **viXra:1606.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-12 03:07:20*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 41 pages

Eighteen of the fundamental physical constants, including the Planck constant, Coulomb constant and the gravitational constant (G), are derived by wave equations based on four, new fundamental constants: wave speed, wavelength, amplitude and density. All calculations match CODATA values of the existing constants with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the wave equations from which they are derived also accurately calculate particle mass, ionization energies and forces.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[791] **viXra:1606.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 03:09:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[790] **viXra:1606.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 05:38:02*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 9 pages, 21 equations, 10 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques, with powerful implementation of the principle of gauge covariance, to the theory of non-Abelian (Yang-Mills) gauge field theory. This describes the self interactions of a massless vector field. Results of two-loop computations are given demonstrating the simplicity and the viability of the underlying framework.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[789] **viXra:1606.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-04 04:13:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it. [15] Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[788] **viXra:1606.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-02 08:36:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, a team of researchers has, for the first time, demonstrated a new technique for producing polarized positrons. The method could enable new research in advanced materials and offers a new avenue for producing polarized positron beams for a proposed International Linear Collider and an envisioned Electron-Ion Collider. [14] A study led by researchers from the has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders-powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks. [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[787] **viXra:1606.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-02 04:39:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[786] **viXra:1605.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 04:19:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[785] **viXra:1605.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 09:32:31*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The last six years have seen great strides in measuring the neutrino squared-mass splittings and heavy quark masses. It is therefore timely to reconsider the mass formulas introduced by the author in 2010, which then disagreed with the ratio of the neutrino squared-mass splittings.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[784] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 07:30:38*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[783] **viXra:1605.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 03:44:25*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 22 equations, 9 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of Maxwell-Dirac electrodynamics. This describes the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged fermion (the electron). This gives another example of the applicability of our
divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, implementing the principle of gauge-covariant momentum-space quantization.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[782] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 16:34:55*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[781] **viXra:1605.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:11:22*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 1 Page. Fig. 4 to accompany paper "The Symmetry Groups of Light"

Figure 4 is an attempt to represent diagrammatically the connection between leptons and quarks. The essence of the relationship is that the quarks are a resonant subset of the leptons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[780] **viXra:1605.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 09:56:20*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The existence of the bare mass and the bare charge in Quantum Electrodynamics is analyzed in terms
of the Standard Model of particle physics.
QED arises as a renormalized theory as a consequense of spontaneous symmetry breaking
by Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism as
$SU(3)_{C}\otimes SU(2)_{L}\otimes U(1)_{Y} \,\rightarrow \,SU(3)_{C} \otimes U(1)_{em}$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[779] **viXra:1605.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 17:14:04*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We observe that the Standard Model's fermions can be mapped onto a 7-bit pattern, and that these bits can be used to calculate the various charges (color, weak isospin, hypercharge, and electromagnetic) for these particles. A geometrical object, the trihepton, is proposed as means of understanding where the pattern of fermions and the simple formulas for the charges come from. Its relationship with the Fano plane from projective geometry is considered. Issues and implications of the model are discussed. A fourth generation of fermions with spin 3/2 and absolute charge (2, 5/3, 4/3, 1) is hypothesized, and it is also suggested that there may be bosons associated with neutrino oscillation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[778] **viXra:1605.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 12:46:35*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 18 pages. « Oscillations temporelles du neutrino » is the French version of «Neutrino’s Temporal Oscillations» on viXra.org/abs/1605.0005

Nous conjecturons l’existence de neutrinos sans masse qui sont dans la ligne du modèle standard mais qui possèdent des fonctionnalités non représentées par le modèle standard : ils utilisent un chemin radial plus court que le photon et possèdent des saveurs bosoniques. Ils seraient considérés comme des bosons au lieu de fermions. Nous appelons cette théorie « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Confrontée à quelques comparaisons expérimentales – neutrinos solaires, neutrinos de SN1987A, neutrinos cosmologiques ̶ , la théorie donne de meilleurs résultats et des explications plus sensées que la théorie compliquée de l’oscillation du neutrino. L’expérience « OPERA » qui a mesuré la vitesse des neutrinos en 2011 a abouti à des données que ne peuvent expliquer les trois types de neutrinos existants. La physique des neutrinos semble malade. L’oscillation temporelle du neutrino, en montrant le raccourci que prennent des neutrinos sans masse dans l’espace-temps à trois dimensions spatiales que nous connaissons, représente dans le modèle standard une fenêtre ouverte sur une « nouvelle physique » qui a un rapport avec la réalité physique.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[777] **viXra:1605.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 08:11:02*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of standard model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for by the standard model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors. Considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Faced with some experimental comparisons ̶ solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN1987A, cosmological neutrinos ̶ , the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The "OPERA" experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a "superluminal" saga, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth "sterile" neutrino with non-standard interaction. Neutrino physics does not make sense. "Neutrino’s temporal oscillations" shows the short cut that massless neutrinos take in the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a "new physics" that has a connection with physical reality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[776] **viXra:1604.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 23:55:14*

**Authors:** Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$
and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[775] **viXra:1604.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 06:51:21*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 53 equations, 8 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of scalar electrodynamics, describing the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged
scalar. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, demonstrating gauge invariance of the effective vertices. Whereas an infrared-regulating mass parameter is given to the virtual photon, the masslessness of the effective photon is demonstrated as well.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[774] **viXra:1604.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 08:10:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[773] **viXra:1604.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 05:13:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[772] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 23:25:40*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[771] **viXra:1604.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 01:05:28*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It is commonly understood that the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge fields is the natural generalization of the well known Abelian gauge group symmetry $U(1)$ in the electrodynamics. Taking into account that the problems of the localization and divergences in QFT are not solved in the framework of the Standard Model (SM), I proposed a different approach to the quantum theory of the single self-interacting electron. In connection with this theory, I would like attract the attention to the state-dependent gauge transformations $U(1) \times U(N-1)$ associated with the Jacobi vector fields of the geodesic variations in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[770] **viXra:1604.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 12:03:52*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract
In my prior article, Empirical formulas for Rest-Mass Energies of Sub -Atomic Particles (http://vixra.org/abs/1604.0192), 74 subatomic particles were studied and assigned simple formulas that closely approximated the current measured masses. A closer examination of these formulas reveals that most of the particle masses can be grouped around factors containing 7 times the reciprocal of the fine-structure constant.
by Roger N. Weller (proton3@gmail.com) April 17, 2016

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[769] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 10:14:41*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos.
In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics.
Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates.Oscillations is here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[768] **viXra:1604.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 01:39:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5]
To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[767] **viXra:1604.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 18:15:07*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A mathematical relationship between the rest-mass energies of sub-atomic particles has been discovered. As a consequence, simple formulas for the rest- mass energies of 74 subatomic particles and even some heavy quarks are being proposed. The reciprocal of the fine constant occupies a major role in these formulas.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[766] **viXra:1604.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 03:43:04*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 16 pages, 50 equations, 7 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with nonlinear interactions governed by a dimensional coupling constant. This gives an example of the applicability of our divergence-free methods, and
the viability of theories that are often disregarded due to the outstanding problem of nonrenormalizable divergences. Our results
demonstrate that the (Goldstone) scalar would remain massless in the effective quantum action, while the original vertices, governed by
nonlinear invariance, would preserve their form.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[765] **viXra:1604.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 08:13:11*

**Authors:** Cvavb.chandra Raju

**Comments:** 14 Pages. (C) 2016, CVAVB.CHANDRA RAJU, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS OSMANIA UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD, INDIA

One pion exchange mass dependent Yukawa Potential Energy is used to estimate neutron-nucleus total elastic scattering cross-
section. When this total cross-section is extrapolated to zero-energy for neutron- Triton case it agrees pretty well with the
known experimental value. Estimations for 5.54 MeV P-3H and P-3He differential scattering cross-section are carried out. It is shown that for 15 degree center of mass angle of scattering the P-3He differential scattering is about 300times that of P-3H ,and this needs experimental confirmation to fix the mass dependence of the Yukawa Potential Energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[764] **viXra:1604.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 08:10:17*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Work in progress.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[763] **viXra:1603.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 11:28:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The proton sounds like a simple object, but it's not. Inside, there's a teeming microcosm of quarks and gluons with properties such as spin and "color" charge that contribute to the particle's seemingly simplistic role as a building block of visible matter. By analyzing the particle debris emitted from collisions of polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), scientists say they've found a new way to glimpse that internal microcosm. They've measured a key effect of the so-called color interaction-the basis for the strong nuclear force that binds quarks within the proton. This new measurement tests, for the first time, theoretical concepts that are essential for mapping the proton's three-dimensional internal structure. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[762] **viXra:1603.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 07:22:53*

**Authors:** C A Brannen

**Comments:** 18 Pages. For submission to Foundations of Physics. Acknowledgements to be added after review by friends.

Density matrices can be used to describe ensembles of particles in thermodynamic equilibrium. We assume that the density matrices are a more natural description of quantum objects than state vectors. This suggests that we generalize density matrices from the usual operators on a Hilbert space to be elements of an algebra. Using density matrix renormalization to change the temperature of the ensembles, we show how the choice of algebra determines the symmetry and particle content of these generalized density matrices. The symmetries are of the form SU(N)xSU(M)x...U(1). We propose that the Standard Model of elementary particles should include a dark matter SU(2) doublet.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[761] **viXra:1603.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 18:32:25*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages, 10 references

- The Gell-Mann, Oakes and Renner and the Goldberger-Treiman relations jointly with a bold hypothesis about virtual thermal equilibrium, leads to the determination of the up and down-quarks current masses. The obtained results show good agreement with the best ones of the literature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[760] **viXra:1603.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 01:41:43*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recent experiments with relativistic electron bunches indicate that Coulomb field is rigidly attached to the charge's instantaneous position. We claim that despite a widespread opinion, this fact does not violate causality in moving reference frames. To see that, one should properly take into account the interaction dependence of the Lorentz boost generator.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[759] **viXra:1603.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 12:30:14*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” match current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They also fall in line with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[620] **viXra:1606.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-22 22:45:30*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The “citation culture” persists as systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[619] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-13 00:14:17*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[618] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 13:32:02*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[617] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-17 13:04:53*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[616] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-11 05:36:09*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages. revised abstract

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[615] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-26 11:00:38*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization extends beyond quantum Hall to impedances corresponding to all potentials. Geometric Clifford algebra permits one to construct a geometric electron model, and to calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between geometric objects of the model. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[614] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 11:16:46*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance is defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. Geometric Clifford algebra permits one to construct a geometric electron model, and to calculate elementrary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between geometric objects of the model. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[613] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-21 10:38:33*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[612] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-19 11:04:44*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the
flow of energy. The notion of exact impedance quantization can be extended beyond quantum Hall to impedances associated with all potentials. The tools of geometric Clifford algebra permit one to construct a geometric electromagnetic model of the electron, and to calculate the impedance network of interactions between the constituents. Proton structure (and a little spin) are extracted from the
topological dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[611] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-25 20:12:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[610] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-24 07:53:33*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have recently shown that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) may be configured as a multifractal set, with all field components acting as primary generators of this set. The goal of this brief note is to point out that a multifractal description of General Relativity (GR) is also possible, starting from the definition of the metric tensor and relativistic interval. This finding paves the way to an unforeseen homeomorphism between the structure of SM and classical gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[609] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-23 17:39:19*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[608] **viXra:1604.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-21 07:58:35*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[607] **viXra:1604.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-20 14:38:16*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It is commonly understood that the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge fields is the natural generalization of the well known Abelian gauge group symmetry $U(1)$ in the electrodynamics. Taking into account that the problems of the localization and divergences in QFT are not solved in the framework of the Standard Model (SM), I proposed a different approach to the quantum theory of the single self-interacting electron. In connection with this theory, I would like attract the attention to the state-dependent gauge transformations $U(1) \times U(N-1)$ associated with the Jacobi vector fields of the geodesic variations in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[606] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 07:13:21*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos. In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics. Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the
question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates. Oscillations are here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is
principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[605] **viXra:1604.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-14 02:59:24*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This publication says about new phenomena of Modern Physics – Neutrinics – particles called neutrinos.
In introduction author says about his personal experience with this elusive and mysterious, subatomic particles, where he for the first time registered about this “phantom” of physics. He summarizes publications of authors or scientists, which influenced him to his interests in particle and nuclear physics. Author describes briefly principles of detection of neutrinos in underwater neutrino detectors, like AMANDA / ICE CUBE, ANTARES, Baikal, NESTOR, DUMAND and NEMO. Author of this article fills this text by his own pictures or figures of neutrino detection, transmission and oscillation. He lays the
question like for example: “is neutrino unstable subatomic particle?” It's very difficult to integrate to the Standard Model. Author further put on description of neutrino transmission under leading physicist Daniel Stancil and the scientific group of physicists from State University of Northern Carolina, which in
Fermilab successfully realized teleporting of onefold message – word “neutrino” with help of particles neutrinos on the distance 1 kilometer. Next mention is about neutrino cross efficient section, mixing angles and mixing matrix (nut) of neutrinos. Neutrino cross section according author of this text fluctuates. Oscillations are here described with help of Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawi and Sakata matrix (nut). Extraordinary attention is devoted to Exciton theory. In the end could be said, that physicists are sure, that communication by intermediary neutrinos is principly possible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[604] **viXra:1603.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 00:30:40*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recent experiments, performed by Prof. Pizzella's team with relativistic electron bunches, indicate that Coulomb field is rigidly attached to the charge's instantaneous position. Despite a widespread opinion, this fact does not violate causality in moving reference frames. To see that, one should apply the Wigner--Dirac theory of relativistic dynamics and take into account that the Lorentz boost generator depends on interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[603] **viXra:1603.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 09:19:32*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract
Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” match current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They also fall in line with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics