[5] **viXra:0912.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-08 15:00:01*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The strong force (in two expressions) is responsible for the binding of compound atomic nuclei and the binding of quarks in the class of heavy composite particles, the hadrons. Hadrons consist of baryons (containing 3 quarks) and mesons (containing quark-antiquark pairs). Another short-range force, the weak force, is responsible for the creation, destruction, and transformation of single, unpaired elementary particles (quarks and leptons). Both forces are to be understood in terms of energy, charge, and especially symmetry conservation. The strong force conserves whole quantum units of charge (in baryons and mesons), and achieves "least bound energy" nuclear configurations (in compound atomic nuclei); the weak force ensures the invariance of all conserved parameters in elementary particles during the creation, destruction, or transformation of single, unpaired particles - irrespective of time or place. (See: "The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs".)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:0912.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-06 17:04:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. part 1 of 3

The phenomenon of "local gauge symmetry" is a ubiquitous and fundamentally important process in nature, essentially describing the normal activity of the field vectors of all four forces of physics. Although formidable in name, it is simple in concept: it comprises the process/mechanism of changing or protecting any conserved parameter of a single elementary particle. "Local gauge symmetry" is a necessary part of our world for two basic and interrelated reasons: 1) our universe is asymmetric in that it is formed of matter only, lacking a balancing antimatter counterpart; 2) our universe consists of an interacting mixture of a) free electromagnetic energy (massless light) in absolute "intrinsic" spatial motion at "velocity c", but with intrinsic rest in time; and b) bound electromagnetic energy (massive particles) at intrinsic rest in space but with an intrinsic temporal motion which is the metric equivalent of "velocity c". "Local gauge symmetry" activities in the short-range nuclear forces (strong, weak) are consequent upon 1); in the long-range spacetime forces (electromagnetism, gravity), such phenomena are consequent upon 2).
The bound forms (massive particles) of electromagnetic energy carry various conserved attributes (charge, spin, etc.) which are the symmetry debts of the free energy from which such particles are made: the charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem). Conserving, protecting, and maintaining these charges in their original quantity and quality is a major function of the field vectors of the four forces and the "local gauge symmetry currents" they create, all to the end that the original symmetry and energy of the light or free electromagnetic radiation which initiated the universe will be completely conserved. Other issues of energy, entropy, and causality conservation are addressed by the metric properties of the long-range forces (such as the "Lorentz invariance" of Special Relativity) - including, in the case of gravity, the "non-local" distributional symmetry of light's energy, as well as light's spatial entropy drive, both produced by light's intrinsic motion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:0912.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-15 21:37:07*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The application of the global-local gauge symmetry concept to the weak force is implemented in this paper as follows (each force requires a unique treatment of this issue):
"Local symmetry" refers to the transformation, creation, or destruction of a single elementary particle (such as a lepton or quark). Single-particle transformations are the special purview of the weak force: other forces create only particle-antiparticle pairs. "Global symmetry" refers to the universal standard of mass/charge/spin/etc. to which the transformed or newly created particle must conform: all elementary particles ever created must be exactly the same as others of their kind. The universal electron field (the set of all electrons) for example, represents a global standard to which any new electron must conform.
Accomplishing this feat in practice requires the mediation of the Higgs boson and the weak force IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) - and provides the rationale for their huge masses. The Higgs sets the mass scale for the IVBs, and the IVBs perform the transformations. The great mass of the IVBs recreates the original energy density at which the elementary particles in question were originally created during the "Big Bang". Thus every electron is forged from the same mould, and every weak force transformation is a mini- "Big Bang". In the case of the "W" family of IVBs, this energy density corresponds to the electroweak force-unification energy threshold. At this energy all leptons have merged their specific identities into a collective leptonic "genus", and likewise the quarks have merged their identities into a collective hadron "genus". Within each "genus", transformations of identity between one lepton and another lepton, or between one quark and another quark, are readily accomplished due to their merged identities.
The exchange of energy and charge between the local single particle being transformed, and the global "generic" state of the electroweak force-unification energy state represented by the IVBs, comprises a "local gauge symmetry current" composed of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs which are derived from the Dirac/Heisenberg "vacuum" of spacetime. The "vacuum of spacetime" is the ultimate reservoir of particle charge, mass and any other conserved parameters of elementary particles (which exist in the vacuum as virtual particle-antiparticle pairs), but the "vacuum" must be energized to a specific level by the weak force IVBs to achieve the globally invariant "standard of perfection" demanded by energy, charge, and symmetry conservation in an entropically driven universe of relative as well as absolute motion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:0912.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-20 17:37:45*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

"Local gauge symmetry currents" are forces that maintain the local invariance of universal constants, charges, and other conserved parameters (such as causality, "velocity c", and the "Interval") despite the hostile environment of a variable gravitational (or inertial) metric, relative rather than absolute motion, entropy, partial (fractional) charges, etc. These compensatory forces are due to the activity of the field vectors of the four forces, which not only act (in the long term) to return asymmetric material systems to their original symmetric energy state (light), but also act (in the short term) to protect and maintain the invariant values of charge and other conserved symmetry debts. Conserved charges are conserved symmetry debts awaiting a final repayment via antimatter annihilation, proton decay, the "quantum radiance" of black holes, or a universal "Big Crunch". Gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the symmetry debt of matter by creating matter's time dimension via the annihilation of space, providing a historical domain within which charge conservation can have durable significance, and in which the repayment of symmetry debts can be indefinitely deferred. Gravity eventually also pays the energy-"principle" on matter's symmetry debt, converting bound energy to free energy in stars, supernovas, quasars, and finally via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes, in the latter case completely vanishing mass and its associated gravitational field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:0912.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-13 23:40:11*

**Authors:** John A Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a continuous multi-component field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), where one finds a symmetry one finds an associated conservation law, and vice versa. In matter, light's symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, by inertial and gravitational forces.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics