[12] **viXra:1111.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-11-30 16:01:56*

**Authors:** Yves-Henri Sanejouand

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

With respect to the speed of light, the speed excess of the neutrinos (7.2 ± 0.6
km.s−1 ) measured in the OPERA experiment is observed to be close, if not exactly equal,
to two times the orbital velocity of the GPS satellites (≈ 3.9 km.s−1 ), strongly suggesting
that this anomaly is due to an error made on some of the GPS-based measurements
involved in the OPERA experiment. Moreover, when this error is assumed to arise from
a systematic error made on the measurements of GPS satellite velocities, the origin of
the factor two becomes obvious. So, it seems likely that the OPERA experiment, instead
of revealing a new, unexpected and challenging aspect of the physics of neutrinos, has
demonstrated that the Global Positioning System still suffers from a rather important
error, which remained unoticed until now, probably as a consequence of its systematic
nature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1111.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-11-28 16:33:33*

**Authors:** Alejandro Rivero

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

With the negative sign for $\sqrt m_s$, the quarks strange, charm and bottom make a Koide tuple. It continues the c-b-t tuple recently found by Rodejohann and Zhang and, more peculiar, it is quasi-orthogonal to the original charged lepton triplet.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1111.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-25 00:37:53*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 191 Pages. In this edition of this book I added the subsection "Colour of Baryons". note about electric charge of quarks (pp.154--156), and the comment to results of work the LHC.

Chapter 1 gives convenient updating of the Gentzen Natural Logic \cite{GG}, a logic explanation of space-time relations, and logical foundations of the Probability Theory. The reader who isn't interested in these topics, can pass this part and begin readings with Chapter 2.
Chapter 2 receives notions and statements of Quantum Theory from properties of probabilities of physical events.
In Chapter 3 Electroweak Theory, Quarks-Gluon Theory and Gravity Theory are explained from these properties.
For understanding of the maintenance of this book elementary knowledge in the field of linear algebra and the mathematical analysis is sufficient.
In this edition of this book I added the subsection "Colour of Baryons". note about electric charge of quarks (pp.154--156), and the comment to results of work the LHC.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1111.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Tim Joslin

**Comments:** 10 pages

The CERN-OPERA neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory obtained a
measurement, v_{n}, of the muon neutrino velocity with respect to the speed of light, c, of
(v_{n}-c)/c = (2.48 ± 0.28 (stat.) ± 0.30 (sys.)) x10^{-}5. The neutrino flight path from CERN
to OPERA was established using distances and timings based on "round-trip" light speed
signals. These are incommensurate with the reference frame dependent "one-way" flight
times of neutrinos over the same path. We perform a Lorentz transformation to
demonstrate the frame-dependence of the result. We conclude that an Earth system
(ES) reference frame defined by a timing system which assumes isotropic light speed,
such as the UTC, is not able to support experiments requiring accurate one-way light
speed measurement. We hypothesise that v_{n} = c and consider the 2.7K CMB as a
possible candidate for the isotropic frame of reference where round-trip and one-way
light speeds are equal. On this basis we find that the CERN-OPERA experiment would be
expected to measure deviations in neutrino arrival times compared to the expected light
speed transmission of up to ±~2ns/km of neutrino flight path, but usually of less
magnitude and with a bias towards early arrival. Only the N-S component (relative to
the Earth's axis) of the motion of the neutrino flight path relative to the isotropic frame
would be statistically significant in the CERN-OPERA experiment. Assuming no bias in
the mean of the other components of the experiment's motion against the isotropic
frame in the neutrino timing, because of the Earth's rotation and orbit, we find a mean
early neutrino arrival time of ~113ns would be expected were the CMB the isotropic
frame. That is, the potential error is of the same order as the early arrival time of the
neutrinos of (60.7 ± 6.9 (stat.) ± 7.4 (sys.)) ns, suggesting further analysis of possible
sources of deviation from our theoretical estimate may be worthwhile. We propose
further statistical methods to test the hypotheses that v_{n} = c and that the CMB
represents the isotropic frame, using the existing OPERA neutrino velocity measurement
data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1111.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** V. Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The simple explanation of the neutrino's velocity anomaly is presented in the frame of the
4D medium model. It is shown that there is no the faster then light motion in our Unverse. The
effect of neutrino detection before the light with supernova SN1987A is also discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1111.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 09:33:04*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article was motivated by a blog posting in Quantum Diaries with the title "Who ordered that?! An X-traordinary particle?". The learned that in the spectroscopy of ccbar type mesons is understood except for some troublesome mesons christened with letters X and Y. X(3872) is the firstly discovered troublemaker and what is known about it can be found in the blog posting and also in Particle Data Tables. The problems are following.

- These mesons should not be there.
- Their decay widths seem to be narrow taking into account their mass.
- Their decay characteristics are strange: in particular the kinematically allow decays to DDbar dominating the decays of Ψ(3770) with branching ratio 93 per cent has not been observed whereas the decay to DDbarπ
^{0}occurs with a branching fraction >3.2× 10^{-3}. Why the pion is needed? - X(3872) should decay to photon and charmonium state in a predictable way but it does not.

One of the basic predictions of TGD is that both leptons and quarks should have color excitations. In the case of leptons there is a considerable support as carefully buried anomalies: the first ones come from seventies. But in the case of quarks this kind of anomalies have been lacking. Could these mysterious X:s and Y:s provide the first signatures about the existence of color excited quarks?

- The first basic objection is that the decay widths of intermediate gauge bosons do not allow new light particles. This objection is encountered already in the model of leptohadrons. The solution is that the light exotic states are possible only if they are dark in TGD sense having therefore non-standard value of Planck constant and behaving as dark matter. The value of Planck constant is only effective and has purely geometric interpretation in TGD framework.
- Second basic objection is that light quarks do not seem to have such excitations. The answer is that gluon exchange transforms the exotic quark pair to ordinary one and vice versa and considerable mixing of the ordinary and exotic mesons takes place. At low energies where color coupling strength becomes very large this gives rise to mass squared matrix with very large non-diagonal component and the second eigenstate of mass squared is tachyon and therefore drops from the spectrum. For heavy quarks situation is different and one expects that charmonium states have also exotic counterparts.
- The selection rules can be also understood. The decays to DDbar involve at least two gluon emissions decaying to quark pairs and producing additional pion unlikes the decays of ordinary charmonium state involving only the emission of single gluon decaying to quark pair so that DDbar results. The decay of the lightest X to photon and charmonium is not possible in the lowest order since at least one gluon exchange is needed to transform exotic quark pair to ordinary one. Exotic charmonia can however transform to exotic charmonia. Therefore the basic constraints seem to be satisfied.

[6] **viXra:1111.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 09:34:16*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

OPERA collaboration in CERN has reported that the neutrinos travelling from CERN to Gran Sasso in Italy move
with a super-luminal speed. There exists also earlier evidence for the super-luminality of neutrinos: for
instance, the neutrinos from SN1987A arrived for few hours earlier than photons. The standard model based on
tachyonic neutrinos is formally possible but breaks causality and is unable to explain all results. TGD based
explanation relies on sub-manifold geometry replacing abstract manifold geometry as the space-time geometry.
The notion of many- sheeted space-time predicts this kind of effects plus many other effects for which evidence
exists as various anomalies which have not taken seriously by the main stream theorists. In this article the
TGD based model is discussed in some detail.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1111.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 10:18:58*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

p-Adic length scale hypothesis strongly suggests a fractal hierarchy of copies of hadron physics
labelled by Mersenne primes. M_{89} hadron physics whose mass scales relates by a factor
512 to that of ordinary M_{107} hadron physics was predicted already for 15 years ago but
only now the TeV energy region has been reached at LHC making possible to test the prediction.
Pions of any hadron physics are produced copiously in hadronic reactions and their detection is
the most probable manner how the new hadron physics will be discovered if Nature has realized them.
Neutral pions produce monochromatic gamma pairs whereas heavy charged pions decay to W boson and
gluon pair or quark pair. The first evidence -or should we say indication- for the existence of
M_{89} hadron physics has now emerged from CDF which for more than two years ago provided
evidence also for the colored excitations of tau lepton and for leptohadron physics. What CDF has
observed is evidence for the production of quark antiquark pairs in association with W bosons and
the following arguments demonstrate that the interpretation in terms of M_{89} hadron
physics might make sense.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1111.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:24:49*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

There is quite a recent article entitled "Study of the Dependence of Direct Soft Photon Production on the Jet Characteristics in Hadronic Z^{0} Decays" discussing one particular manifestation of an anomaly of hadron physics known for two decades: the soft photon production rate in hadronic reactions is by an averge factor of about four higher than expected. In the article soft photons assignable to the decays of Z^{0} to quark-antiquark pairs. This anomaly has not reached the attention of particle physics which seems to be the fate of anomalies quite generally nowadays: large extra dimensions and blackholes at LHC are much more sexy topics of study than the anomalies about which both existing and speculative theories must remain silent.

TGD leads to an explanation of anomaly in terms of the basic differences between TGD and QCD.

- The first difference is due to induced gauge field concept: both classical color gauge fields and the U(1) part of electromagnetic field are proportional to induced Kähler form. Second difference is topological field quantization meaning that electric and magnetic fluxes are associated with flux tubes. Taken together this means that for neutral hadrons color flux tubes and electric flux tubes can be and will be assumed to be one and same thing. In the case of charged hadrons the em flux tubes must connect different hadrons: this is essential for understanding why neutral hadrons seem to contribute much more effectively to the brehmstrahlung than charged hadrons- which is just the opposite for the prediction of hadronic inner bremsstrahlung model in which only charged hadrons contribute. Now all both sea and valence quarks of neutral hadrons contribute but in the case of charged hadrons only valence quarks do so.
- Sea quarks of neutral hadrons seem to give the largest contribution to bremsstrahlung. p-Adic length scale hypothesis predicting that quarks can appear in several mass scales represents the third difference and the experimental findings suggest that sea quarks are by a factor of 1/2 lighter than valence quarks implying that brehmstrahlung for given sea quark is by a factor 4 more intense than for corresponding valence quark.

[3] **viXra:1111.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:27:20*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The recent discovery that the charge radius of proton deduced from quantum average of nuclear
charge density from the muonic version of hydrogen atom is 4 per cent smaller than the radius
deduced from hydrogen atom challenges either QED or the view about proton or both. In TGD
framework topological quantization leads to the notion of field body as a characteristic of any
system. Field body is expected to contain substructures with sizes given by the primary and
secondary p-adic length scales at at least. u and d quarks would have field bodies with size much
larger than proton itself. In muonic atom the p-adic size scale of the field body of u quark having
mass of 2 MeV according to the last estimates would be roughly twice the Boh radius so that the
anomaly might be understood as a signature of field body.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1111.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:29:18*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

There are some indications that neutrinos can appear in several mass scales from neutrino
oscillations. These oscillations can be classified to vacuum oscillations and to solar neutrino
oscillations believed to be due to the so called MSW effect in the dense matter of Sun. There are
also indications that the mixing is different for neutrinos and antineutrinos. In the following the
possibility that padic length scale hypothesis might explain these findings is discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1111.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The OPERA collaboration has recently claimed discovery of superluminal propagation of neutrino beams.
Excluding the possibility of unaccounted measurement errors, the most natural interpretation of OPERA anomaly is
that, sufficiently far from the source, long-range neutrinos and photons may be regarded as components of the same
field. In particular, we suggest that it is possible to construct a neutrino-photon doublet where the two components
behave as dual entities. We examine conditions that enable the symmetry between neutrinos and photons to be
unbroken. The benefit of this interpretation is that Lorentz invariance stays valid regardless of the relative velocity
of neutrinos and their mean energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics