High Energy Particle Physics

1111 Submissions

[12] viXra:1111.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2011-11-30 16:01:56

Does the Opera Experiment Reveal a Systematic Error in the Satellite Ephemeris of the Global Positioning System ?

Authors: Yves-Henri Sanejouand
Comments: 3 Pages.

With respect to the speed of light, the speed excess of the neutrinos (7.2 ± 0.6 km.s−1 ) measured in the OPERA experiment is observed to be close, if not exactly equal, to two times the orbital velocity of the GPS satellites (≈ 3.9 km.s−1 ), strongly suggesting that this anomaly is due to an error made on some of the GPS-based measurements involved in the OPERA experiment. Moreover, when this error is assumed to arise from a systematic error made on the measurements of GPS satellite velocities, the origin of the factor two becomes obvious. So, it seems likely that the OPERA experiment, instead of revealing a new, unexpected and challenging aspect of the physics of neutrinos, has demonstrated that the Global Positioning System still suffers from a rather important error, which remained unoticed until now, probably as a consequence of its systematic nature.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[11] viXra:1111.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2011-11-28 16:33:33

A New Koide Triplet: Strange, Charm, Bottom.

Authors: Alejandro Rivero
Comments: 5 Pages.

With the negative sign for $\sqrt m_s$, the quarks strange, charm and bottom make a Koide tuple. It continues the c-b-t tuple recently found by Rodejohann and Zhang and, more peculiar, it is quasi-orthogonal to the original charged lepton triplet.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10] viXra:1111.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-22 23:20:40

Final Book on Fundamental Theoretical Physics

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov
Comments: 106 Pages.

In the study of the logical foundations of probability theory, I found that the terms and equations of the fundamental theoretical physics represent terms and theorems of the classical probability theory, more precisely, of that part of this theory, which considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time. In particular, the masses, moments, energies, spins, etc. turn out of parameters of probability distributions such events. The terms and the equations of the electroweak and of the quark-gluon theories turn out the theoretical-probabilistic terms and theorems. Here the relation of a neutrino to his lepton becomes clear, the W and Z bosons masses turn out dynamic ones, the cause of the asymmetry between particles and antiparticles is the impossibility of the birth of single antiparticles. In addition, phenomena such as confinement and asymptotic freedom receive their probabilistic explanation. And here we have the logical foundations of the gravity theory with phenomena dark energy and dark matter. "Final Book" contains development and continuation of ideas of these books. Chapter 1 gives convenient updating of the Gentzen Natural Logic \cite{GG}, a logic explanation of space-time relations, and logical foundations of the Probability Theory. The reader who isn't interested in these topics, can pass this part and begin readings with Chapter 2. Chapter 2 receives notions and statements of Quantum Theory from properties of probabilities of physical events. In Chapter 3 Electroweak Theory, Quarks-Gluon Theory and Gravity Theory are explained from these properties. For understanding of the maintenance of this book elementary knowledge in the field of linear algebra and the mathematical analysis is sufficient.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9] viXra:1111.0041 [pdf] submitted on 10 Nov 2011

Explanation of Apparent Superluminal Neutrino Velocity in the CERN-OPERA Experiment

Authors: Tim Joslin
Comments: 10 pages

The CERN-OPERA neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory obtained a measurement, vn, of the muon neutrino velocity with respect to the speed of light, c, of (vn-c)/c = (2.48 ± 0.28 (stat.) ± 0.30 (sys.)) x10-5. The neutrino flight path from CERN to OPERA was established using distances and timings based on “round-trip” light speed signals. These are incommensurate with the reference frame dependent “one-way” flight times of neutrinos over the same path. We perform a Lorentz transformation to demonstrate the frame-dependence of the result. We conclude that an Earth system (ES) reference frame defined by a timing system which assumes isotropic light speed, such as the UTC, is not able to support experiments requiring accurate one-way light speed measurement. We hypothesise that vn = c and consider the 2.7K CMB as a possible candidate for the isotropic frame of reference where round-trip and one-way light speeds are equal. On this basis we find that the CERN-OPERA experiment would be expected to measure deviations in neutrino arrival times compared to the expected light speed transmission of up to ±~2ns/km of neutrino flight path, but usually of less magnitude and with a bias towards early arrival. Only the N-S component (relative to the Earth’s axis) of the motion of the neutrino flight path relative to the isotropic frame would be statistically significant in the CERN-OPERA experiment. Assuming no bias in the mean of the other components of the experiment’s motion against the isotropic frame in the neutrino timing, because of the Earth’s rotation and orbit, we find a mean early neutrino arrival time of ~113ns would be expected were the CMB the isotropic frame. That is, the potential error is of the same order as the early arrival time of the neutrinos of (60.7 ± 6.9 (stat.) ± 7.4 (sys.)) ns, suggesting further analysis of possible sources of deviation from our theoretical estimate may be worthwhile. We propose further statistical methods to test the hypotheses that vn = c and that the CMB represents the isotropic frame, using the existing OPERA neutrino velocity measurement data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8] viXra:1111.0025 [pdf] submitted on 4 Nov 2011

The Velocity of Neutrino in the 4D Medium Model

Authors: V. Skorobogatov
Comments: 3 Pages.

The simple explanation of the neutrino's velocity anomaly is presented in the frame of the 4D medium model. It is shown that there is no the faster then light motion in our Unverse. The effect of neutrino detection before the light with supernova SN1987A is also discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7] viXra:1111.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-30 09:33:04

Do X and Y Mesons Provide Evidence for Color Excited Quarks or Squarks?

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article was motivated by a blog posting in Quantum Diaries with the title "Who ordered that?! An X-traordinary particle?". The learned that in the spectroscopy of ccbar type mesons is understood except for some troublesome mesons christened with letters X and Y. X(3872) is the firstly discovered troublemaker and what is known about it can be found in the blog posting and also in Particle Data Tables. The problems are following.

  1. These mesons should not be there.
  2. Their decay widths seem to be narrow taking into account their mass.
  3. Their decay characteristics are strange: in particular the kinematically allow decays to DDbar dominating the decays of Ψ(3770) with branching ratio 93 per cent has not been observed whereas the decay to DDbarπ0 occurs with a branching fraction >3.2× 10-3. Why the pion is needed?
  4. X(3872) should decay to photon and charmonium state in a predictable way but it does not.

One of the basic predictions of TGD is that both leptons and quarks should have color excitations. In the case of leptons there is a considerable support as carefully buried anomalies: the first ones come from seventies. But in the case of quarks this kind of anomalies have been lacking. Could these mysterious X:s and Y:s provide the first signatures about the existence of color excited quarks?
  1. The first basic objection is that the decay widths of intermediate gauge bosons do not allow new light particles. This objection is encountered already in the model of leptohadrons. The solution is that the light exotic states are possible only if they are dark in TGD sense having therefore non-standard value of Planck constant and behaving as dark matter. The value of Planck constant is only effective and has purely geometric interpretation in TGD framework.
  2. Second basic objection is that light quarks do not seem to have such excitations. The answer is that gluon exchange transforms the exotic quark pair to ordinary one and vice versa and considerable mixing of the ordinary and exotic mesons takes place. At low energies where color coupling strength becomes very large this gives rise to mass squared matrix with very large non-diagonal component and the second eigenstate of mass squared is tachyon and therefore drops from the spectrum. For heavy quarks situation is different and one expects that charmonium states have also exotic counterparts.
  3. The selection rules can be also understood. The decays to DDbar involve at least two gluon emissions decaying to quark pairs and producing additional pion unlikes the decays of ordinary charmonium state involving only the emission of single gluon decaying to quark pair so that DDbar results.
  4. The decay of the lightest X to photon and charmonium is not possible in the lowest order since at least one gluon exchange is needed to transform exotic quark pair to ordinary one. Exotic charmonia can however transform to exotic charmonia. Therefore the basic constraints seem to be satisfied.
The above arguments apply with minimal modifications also to squark option and at this moment I am not able to to distinguish between this options. The SUSY option is however favored by the fact that it would explain why SUSY has not been observed in LHC in terms of shadronization and subsequent decay to hadrons by gluino exhanges so that the jets plus missing energy would not serve as a signature of SUSY. Note that the decay of gluon to dark squark pair would require a phase transition to dark gluon first.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[6] viXra:1111.0020 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-30 09:34:16

Are Neutrinos Superluminal?

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 9 Pages.

OPERA collaboration in CERN has reported that the neutrinos travelling from CERN to Gran Sasso in Italy move with a super-luminal speed. There exists also earlier evidence for the super-luminality of neutrinos: for instance, the neutrinos from SN1987A arrived for few hours earlier than photons. The standard model based on tachyonic neutrinos is formally possible but breaks causality and is unable to explain all results. TGD based explanation relies on sub-manifold geometry replacing abstract manifold geometry as the space-time geometry. The notion of many- sheeted space-time predicts this kind of effects plus many other effects for which evidence exists as various anomalies which have not taken seriously by the main stream theorists. In this article the TGD based model is discussed in some detail.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[5] viXra:1111.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-30 10:18:58

First Evidence for M_89 Hadron Physics

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 19 Pages.

p-Adic length scale hypothesis strongly suggests a fractal hierarchy of copies of hadron physics labelled by Mersenne primes. M89 hadron physics whose mass scales relates by a factor 512 to that of ordinary M107 hadron physics was predicted already for 15 years ago but only now the TeV energy region has been reached at LHC making possible to test the prediction. Pions of any hadron physics are produced copiously in hadronic reactions and their detection is the most probable manner how the new hadron physics will be discovered if Nature has realized them. Neutral pions produce monochromatic gamma pairs whereas heavy charged pions decay to W boson and gluon pair or quark pair. The first evidence -or should we say indication- for the existence of M89 hadron physics has now emerged from CDF which for more than two years ago provided evidence also for the colored excitations of tau lepton and for leptohadron physics. What CDF has observed is evidence for the production of quark antiquark pairs in association with W bosons and the following arguments demonstrate that the interpretation in terms of M89 hadron physics might make sense.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4] viXra:1111.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-30 21:24:49

Explanation for the Soft Photon Excess in Hadron Production

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 5 Pages.

There is quite a recent article entitled "Study of the Dependence of Direct Soft Photon Production on the Jet Characteristics in Hadronic Z0 Decays" discussing one particular manifestation of an anomaly of hadron physics known for two decades: the soft photon production rate in hadronic reactions is by an averge factor of about four higher than expected. In the article soft photons assignable to the decays of Z0 to quark-antiquark pairs. This anomaly has not reached the attention of particle physics which seems to be the fate of anomalies quite generally nowadays: large extra dimensions and blackholes at LHC are much more sexy topics of study than the anomalies about which both existing and speculative theories must remain silent.
TGD leads to an explanation of anomaly in terms of the basic differences between TGD and QCD.

  1. The first difference is due to induced gauge field concept: both classical color gauge fields and the U(1) part of electromagnetic field are proportional to induced Kähler form. Second difference is topological field quantization meaning that electric and magnetic fluxes are associated with flux tubes. Taken together this means that for neutral hadrons color flux tubes and electric flux tubes can be and will be assumed to be one and same thing. In the case of charged hadrons the em flux tubes must connect different hadrons: this is essential for understanding why neutral hadrons seem to contribute much more effectively to the brehmstrahlung than charged hadrons- which is just the opposite for the prediction of hadronic inner bremsstrahlung model in which only charged hadrons contribute. Now all both sea and valence quarks of neutral hadrons contribute but in the case of charged hadrons only valence quarks do so.
  2. Sea quarks of neutral hadrons seem to give the largest contribution to bremsstrahlung. p-Adic length scale hypothesis predicting that quarks can appear in several mass scales represents the third difference and the experimental findings suggest that sea quarks are by a factor of 1/2 lighter than valence quarks implying that brehmstrahlung for given sea quark is by a factor 4 more intense than for corresponding valence quark.

Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[3] viXra:1111.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-30 21:27:20

The Incredibly Shrinking Proton

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 13 Pages.

The recent discovery that the charge radius of proton deduced from quantum average of nuclear charge density from the muonic version of hydrogen atom is 4 per cent smaller than the radius deduced from hydrogen atom challenges either QED or the view about proton or both. In TGD framework topological quantization leads to the notion of eld body as a characteristic of any system. Field body is expected to contain substructures with sizes given by the primary and secondary p-adic length scales at at least. u and d quarks would have eld bodies with size much larger than proton itself. In muonic atom the p-adic size scale of the eld body of u quark having mass of 2 MeV according to the last estimates would be roughly twice the Boh radius so that the anomaly might be understood as a signature of eld body.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[2] viXra:1111.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-30 21:29:18

Could Neutrinos Appear in Several Mass Scales?

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 5 Pages.

There are some indications that neutrinos can appear in several mass scales from neutrino oscillations. These oscillations can be classi ed to vacuum oscillations and to solar neutrino oscillations believed to be due to the so called MSW e ect in the dense matter of Sun. There are also indications that the mixing is di erent for neutrinos and antineutrinos. In the following the possibility that padic length scale hypothesis might explain these ndings is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1] viXra:1111.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2 Nov 2011

Photon-Neutrino Symmetry and the OPERA Anomaly

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 9 Pages.

The OPERA collaboration has recently claimed discovery of superluminal propagation of neutrino beams. Excluding the possibility of unaccounted measurement errors, the most natural interpretation of OPERA anomaly is that, sufficiently far from the source, long-range neutrinos and photons may be regarded as components of the same field. In particular, we suggest that it is possible to construct a neutrino-photon doublet where the two components behave as dual entities. We examine conditions that enable the symmetry between neutrinos and photons to be unbroken. The benefit of this interpretation is that Lorentz invariance stays valid regardless of the relative velocity of neutrinos and their mean energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics