[11] **viXra:1504.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 06:04:47*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 1467-1472

This paper posits the discovery of the new elementary particles from the energy spectrum for the knees-ankles-toe of cosmic rays. The energy spectrum appears to follow a single power law except few breaks at the knees-ankles-toe. The power index increases at the first knee and the second knee, and decreases at the ankle. The fine structure of the cosmic ray spectrum shows that an ankle with decrease in power index is in between the first knee and the second knee, resulting in two knees, two ankles, and one toe. This paper posits that the knees-ankles-toe are explained by the very high-energy fermions and bosons in the periodic table of elementary particles that places all known leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson in the table with the calculated masses in good agreement with observed values. In the periodic table, some high-energy dimensional fermions (Fd where d = dimensional orbital number from 5 to 11) and bosons (Bd) are involved in the knees-ankles-toe. At the knees and the toe, some parts of the energies from the energy sources of cosmic rays are spent to generate Fd and Bd, resulting in the increase of power index. The ankles are the the middle points (midpoints) between the adjacent dimensional fermions and bosons. At a midpoint, the energy is too high to keep the thermally unstable high-energy dimensional particle, resulting in the decay and the decrease of power index. The calculated masses of B8, the midpoint, F9, the midpoint, and B9 are in good agreement with observed masses for the first knee, the first ankle, the second knee, the second ankle, and the toe, respectively. The mass of F10 is beyond the GZK limit, so F10 and above are not observed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1504.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 03:04:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The cyclotron radiation emitted by a single electron has been measured for the first time by a team of physicists in the US and Germany. The research provides a new and potentially more precise way to study beta decay, which involves the emission of an electron and a neutrino. In particular, it could provide physicists with a much better measurement of neutrino mass, which is crucial for understanding physics beyond the Standard Model. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1504.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-27 14:06:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1504.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-25 22:32:28*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

It is widely believed that Dirac magnetic monopoles and their related electric charges must be quantized, and that any fractional charges one might posit cannot exist without creating forbidden observable singularities. Here, we explicitly present a vector potential for a Dirac monopole with fractional magnetic and electric charges whose curl is a Coulomb magnetic field and which potential has no observable singularities. We then demonstrate how these fractional charges are projected onto SO(3) from topological covering groups with generators which are the generalized mth roots of the 2x2 identity matrix I, situated at various Euler angles on the complex plane of the covering group generators, all without observable singularities.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1504.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-21 04:36:41*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the previous paper "Thermodynamics of elementary particles" we analysed the thermodynamic behavior of single elementary particles in the order of a continuous paradigm. Already we know elementary particles have in electrodynamics a few quantum features above all in regard to the emission of electromagnetic energy when they are accelerated. We want now to specify better this quantum behavior making use of particular mathematical functions and expanding successively this study from electrodynamic phenomena to thermodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1504.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-19 11:34:34*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Under construction (first draft). References not included.

There are several instances where non-analytic functions and non-integrable operators are deliberately excluded from perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and Renormalization Group (RG) to maintain internal consistency of both frameworks. Here we briefly review these instances and suggest that they may be a portal to an improved understanding of the asymptotic sectors of QFT and the Standard Model of particle physics (SM).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1504.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 04:56:09*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Presented strong arguments against Black Hole production via two particle collision. Secondly, is talked about Black Hole strong curvature at event horizon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1504.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 01:05:32*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It was shown recently by the author [1], that a proper study of the Eightfold Way model vis-a-vis the SU(3) model shows, that the
adjoint representation has certain unique features which provides it with a
basic fundamentality which was missed out in the earlier interpretations.
That paper [1] also showed that the Lie Algebra gives a more basic and complete
description of the particle physics reality than the corresponding group does.
In this paper we revisit the Eightfold Way Model and provide further support
to the conclusions arrived in Ref. [1].
This demands that a proper Cartan Subalgebra be used for the description
of the adjoint representation.
This in turn allows us to make non-trivial
statements about as to how nucleus may be understood as made up, not only of
protons and neutrons treated as indistinguishable particles as in the SU(2)-isospin group,
but also as another independent structure where the nucleus behaves as if it is made up of
protons and neutrons wherein they are treated as distinguishable fermions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1504.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-05 05:03:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The LHC already revolutionized physics with the discovery of the Higgs boson. Now the revamped particle smasher is 60% more powerful than before, and it's poised to change what we know about the universe yet again. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1504.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 12:21:37*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Although the Wu-Yang derivation of the Dirac Quantization condition (DQC) leads mathematically to fractional charge solutions, a careful study of these fractional solutions using Dirac strings on a closed surface in SO(3) shows precisely why these fractional charges cannot occur without giving rise to observable singularities which of course are not permitted, and why only the standard DQC is permitted. However, SO(3) is multivalued and so is not an exact representation of the operative symmetries. When we carefully analyze simply-connected, single-valued covering groups for which the generators are the generalized mth roots of the 2x2 identity matrix I, which covering groups do exactly represent the operative symmetries, we find that there is no such restriction and well-defined fractional charges are topologically permitted without ambiguity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1504.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-07 08:31:33*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** Revised version, 5 pages

In present paper we develop the description of massless neutrino field on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We consider the generalized relativistic first-order wave equation based on sedeonic wave function and space-time operators. The second-order relations for the neutrino potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem and Lorentz invariant relations in electromagnetism are also derived. Four types of neutrinos are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics