High Energy Particle Physics

1908 Submissions

[20] viXra:1908.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 01:14:21

Superconducting Accelerator at Fermilab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19] viXra:1908.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 02:43:52

Streamline Fusion Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Stellarators, twisty machines that house fusion reactions, rely on complex magnetic coils that are challenging to design and build. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18] viXra:1908.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 10:29:07

Accelerated Computing for Accelerated Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Fermilab scientists and other collaborators successfully tested a prototype machine-learning technology that speeds up processing by 30 to 175 times compared to traditional methods. [30] A potentially useful material for building quantum computers has been unearthed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), whose scientists have found a superconductor that could sidestep one of the primary obstacles standing in the way of effective quantum logic circuits. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[17] viXra:1908.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 16:09:07

A Comparison of Bell’s Theorem and Malus’s Law: Action-at-a-Distance is not Required in Order to Explain Results of Bell’s Theorem Experiments

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper shows that, using counterfactual definiteness, there is an enforceable duality between results of Malus Law experiments and the results from Bell experiments. The results are shown here to be equivalent in the two experiments subject to extending the Malus experiment by doubling it to match the structure of the results table of a Bell experiment. The Malus intensities also need to be converted into counterfactual correlations in order to enable results in both experiments to be compared using a common statistic. It is therefore possible to use the duality to explain the more esoteric Bell results via the simpler Malus results. As Malus results involve singleton particles rather than matched pairs of particles then there is no requirement for action at a distance nor entanglement to feature in an explanation of Malus results and therefore, using the duality, neither in Bell results. The ‘magic’ in Bell’s Theorem results is not eliminated as it still exists contained within Malus results, and that ‘magic’ [of somehow exceeding the Bell Inequalities] remains unexplained by this paper, except it is shown that the ‘magic’ does not involve action-at-a-distance nor entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16] viXra:1908.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 04:58:29

ATLAS Strong Supersymmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

New particles sensitive to the strong interaction might be produced in abundance in the proton-proton collisions generated by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – provided that they aren't too heavy. [30] Supersymmetry predicts that two basic classes of fundamental particles, fermions and bosons, accompany each other in the same representation. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1908.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 08:55:52

Super Proton Synchrotron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

By the end of the second long shutdown (LS2) of CERN's accelerator complex, a nine-metre-long object with several hundred tonnes of shielding will be installed around the beam line of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). [11] By measuring the angles between the top and antitop decay particles, the ATLAS experiment at CERN has not only measured this degree of correlation, but found it to be higher than what is predicted by calculations based on the Standard Model. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14] viXra:1908.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 08:38:59

Particle Physics and Energy Fields.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the first two papers on energy fields, we examined the basic principles for the interactions between energy fields, and analyzed the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields. Here we apply those basic principles to particle physics and make further proposals. The results may provide an alternative explanation for the nature of particles, an alternative explanation for the behavior of particles in colliders, and an alternative explanation for the nature of matter and anti-matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[13] viXra:1908.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 10:00:29

Portable Radiation Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Beginning in early 2012, IPL worked closely with a Japanese customer to understand what a better "gamma camera" would look like. [26] A team of researchers at the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology has found that electron current flow direction produced by the photon-drag effect is dependent on the environment in which a metal is sitting. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12] viXra:1908.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 13:22:50

The Geometry of Particles and the Explanation of Their Creation and Decay

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 21 pages

In this paper, subatomic particles are described by the formation of standing waves of energy as a result of energetic oscillations in the spacetime lattice. The creation of new particles with higher energies, or the decay of particles to lower energies, are described by the formation of wave center points that cause an increase or decrease in standing wave energy. The stability of such particles is found to be based on the geometric formation of these center points which allows standing waves to form to a defined boundary that becomes the particle's radius, or the collapse of its standing waves as particles split to become two or more particles, or completely annihilate. The oscillation energy calculation for a single wave center matches the upper range of the neutrino's estimated energy. It is assumed that this single wave center is the fundamental particle responsible for creating the neutrino. It will be shown in this paper mathematically - and possibly modeled in the near future with computer simulations - that this fundamental particle is responsible for the creation of higher order particles, including but not limited to the electron, proton and neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[11] viXra:1908.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-11 03:57:07

Naturalness Begets Naturalness: an Emergent Definition

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 16 Pages.

We offer a model based upon three `assumptions'. The first is geometric, that the vacuum wavefunction is comprised of Euclid's fundamental geometric objects of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - components of the geometric representation of Clifford algebra. The second is electromagnetic, that physical manifestation follows from introducing the dimensionless coupling constant \textbf{$\alpha$}. The third takes the electron mass to define the scale of space. Such a model is arguably maximally `natural'. Wavefunction interactions are modeled by the geometric product of Clifford algebra. What emerges is more naturalness. We offer an emergent definition.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10] viXra:1908.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 02:53:24

Top-Quark Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A key parameter examined by the ATLAS Collaboration at CERN is the top quark's "decay width", which is related to the particle's lifetime and decay modes. [31] As the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark has a special place in the physics studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. [30] This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9] viXra:1908.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 08:02:30

Similarity Between Collider Events

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have recently developed a metric that can be used to capture the space of collider events based on the earth mover's distance (EMD), a measure used to evaluate dissimilarity between two multi-dimensional probability distributions. [13] Researchers have, for the first time, identified the sufficient and necessary conditions that the low-energy limit of quantum gravity theories must satisfy to preserve the main features of the Unruh effect. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8] viXra:1908.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-08 06:51:49

Top-Quark Production

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

As the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark has a special place in the physics studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. [30] This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7] viXra:1908.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 06:48:12

Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[6] viXra:1908.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 07:12:26

Higgs Boson Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Since discovering the particle in 2012, the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations have been hard at work studying the behaviour of the Higgs boson. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[5] viXra:1908.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 07:50:02

Magnetic Bottle Controls Fusion Power

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Scientists who use magnetic fields to bottle up and control on Earth the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars must correct any errors in the shape of the fields that contain the reactions. [43] Scientists seeking to capture and control on Earth fusion energy, the process that powers the sun and stars, face the risk of disruptions—sudden events that can halt fusion reactions and damage facilities called tokamaks that house them. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4] viXra:1908.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 06:03:46

Antineutrino Monitor Nuclear Reactors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Technology to measure the flow of subatomic particles known as antineutrinos from nuclear reactors could allow continuous remote monitoring designed to detect fueling changes that might indicate the diversion of nuclear materials. [20] Ereditato even dreams of replacing the design of one of the four massive DUNE far detector modules with a pixelated version. [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[3] viXra:1908.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 09:05:10

Higgs Boson Discovery Channels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Critically, the new results examine two of the Higgs boson decays that led to the particle's discovery in 2012: H→ZZ*→4ℓ, where the Higgs boson decays into two Z bosons, in turn decaying into four leptons (electrons or muons); and H→γγ where the Higgs boson decays directly into two photons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[2] viXra:1908.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 09:23:51

28 Gev Particle

Authors: Theodore M Lach
Comments: 15 Pages.

Over 20 years ago I published a paper via arXiv titled "Masses of the subnuclear particles". In that paper there was a prediction of a 27 GeV lepton in the heaviest generation the fifth generation. Today my refined value is 27.5 +/- 0.5 GeV. This discovery of a particle near 28 GeV confirms what I believe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1] viXra:1908.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 03:33:32

Pixels Powered

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Ereditato even dreams of replacing the design of one of the four massive DUNE far detector modules with a pixelated version. [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics