[13] **viXra:1603.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 11:28:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The proton sounds like a simple object, but it's not. Inside, there's a teeming microcosm of quarks and gluons with properties such as spin and "color" charge that contribute to the particle's seemingly simplistic role as a building block of visible matter. By analyzing the particle debris emitted from collisions of polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), scientists say they've found a new way to glimpse that internal microcosm. They've measured a key effect of the so-called color interaction-the basis for the strong nuclear force that binds quarks within the proton. This new measurement tests, for the first time, theoretical concepts that are essential for mapping the proton's three-dimensional internal structure. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1603.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 07:22:53*

**Authors:** C A Brannen

**Comments:** 18 Pages. For submission to Foundations of Physics. Acknowledgements to be added after review by friends.

Density matrices can be used to describe ensembles of particles in thermodynamic equilibrium. We assume that the density matrices are a more natural description of quantum objects than state vectors. This suggests that we generalize density matrices from the usual operators on a Hilbert space to be elements of an algebra. Using density matrix renormalization to change the temperature of the ensembles, we show how the choice of algebra determines the symmetry and particle content of these generalized density matrices. The symmetries are of the form SU(N)xSU(M)x...U(1). We propose that the Standard Model of elementary particles should include a dark matter SU(2) doublet.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1603.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 18:32:25*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages, 10 references

- The Gell-Mann, Oakes and Renner and the Goldberger-Treiman relations jointly with a bold hypothesis about virtual thermal equilibrium, leads to the determination of the up and down-quarks current masses. The obtained results show good agreement with the best ones of the literature.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1603.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 00:30:40*

**Authors:** Eugene V. Stefanovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recent experiments, performed by Prof. Pizzella's team with relativistic electron bunches, indicate that Coulomb field is rigidly attached to the charge's instantaneous position. Despite a widespread opinion, this fact does not violate causality in moving reference frames. To see that, one should apply the Wigner--Dirac theory of relativistic dynamics and take into account that the Lorentz boost generator depends on interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1603.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 09:19:32*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Abstract
Derived from the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, axions are hypothetical pseudo-Goldstone bosons that restore the charge-parity (CP) symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). As of today, the mainstream view is that the PQ mechanism offers the most plausible explanation on the puzzle of preserving CP symmetry in QCD. Moreover, several astrophysical models postulate that axions are likely components of Cold Dark Matter (DM). For example, a recent study argues that DM behaves as a strongly coupled superfluid phase consisting of axion-like particles with mass in the eV range or below [1]. Despite these attractive features, experimental searches have either ruled out some axion-based models or placed them under stringent exclusion limits. The object of this work is to show that the concept of spacetime equipped with minimal fractality (the so called minimal fractal manifold, MFM in short [2-5]) solves the CP problem of QCD without invoking the PQ paradigm. Rather than discarding axions as superfluous complications of the theory, we conclude that they may be seen as topological signature of the MFM, which we suggestively refer to as “Cantor Dust”. We tentatively find that the properties of “Cantor Dust” match current observations of DM on both cosmological and galactic scales. They also fall in line with the idea that Dark Energy arises from the dynamics of neutrino oscillations on cosmological scales [6].

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1603.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 12:05:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

University of Cincinnati theoretical physicists are about to report on a controversial discovery that they say contradicts the work of researchers over the decades. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1603.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 08:03:24*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 7 pages, 2 figs, submitted to EPL

The site reduction of SU(2) lattice gauge theory is employed to model the magnetic monopoles of SU(2) gauge theory. The site reduced theory is a matrix model on discrete world-line for the angle-valued coordinates of 0-branes. The Monte~Carlo numerical analysis
introduces the critical temperature $T_c\simeq 0.25~a^{-1}$ and the critical coupling $g_c\simeq 1.56$, above which the free energy does not exhibit a minimum leading to a phase transition.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1603.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 16:14:21*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 14 references

The weak interaction due to different compositions of up and down quarks leads to the neutron-proton mass difference. The radius of the nucleon is fixed by the strong interaction. In a first calculation, the weak coupling is introduced by the hand. In a second one, both the mass difference and the weak coupling are determined.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1603.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 01:38:37*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Conformal Dark Energy interacts with Josephson Junction BSCCO superconductors. Neutrino mass gives a cutoff at about 1.7 x 10^12 Hz. Using BSCCO crystals as edges, configurations such as 16-edge 5-dipyramid can be constructed in flat 3-dim Space to observe Dark Energy Curvature Distortion of 4-dim Spacetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1603.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 13:59:05*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The proton *F*_{2} structure function curve reveals the number and type of particles inside the proton. Deep inelastic scattering experiments from the late 1960s produced an *F*_{2} curve with no data for proton momentum fractions less than 0.06. However, the assumption the missing *F*_{2} values remain constant in that region provided the basis for the current proton model of quarks and gluons. Here, I produce a complete proton *F*_{2} curve by combining data generated in 2000 with the original 1960s data. It shows the aforementioned assumption was wrong, invalidating the basis for the quark-gluon proton. My analysis of the new curve indicates protons are made of nine particles that appear to be muons; each of which is made of approximately 204 particles that look like electrons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1603.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 05:35:17*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

G matrices are matrices with single entries 1,i. It is shown that linear sums of G matrices generate the SU(n), SO(n) generators. The Kronecka sums of the unitary representations of so(n) and su(n) results in an expression for the dimension of a SU(N) group. The spatial dimension n is found to be restricted to 3 dimensions. It is shown that the allowable unitary representations of so(3), are the spin spaces of spin ½,1. It is shown that there are 3 generations of chiral electroweak doublets of quarks and leptons. Exponentiation of differential operators acting on spinors results in the Lagrangians of Gravitation with Dark Energy and the Fermion sector of the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1603.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 00:00:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a series of papers, Bo Lehnert proposed a novel and revised version of Quantum Electrodynamics (RQED) based on Proca equations. However, as far as I know there is no paper yet for extending his RQED to fractal media and Cantor Sets. Drawing similarity between Proca and Maxwell equations, in the present paper I extend RQED further based on a recent paper published at Advances in High Energy Physics (AHEP) journal, where Yang Zhao et al. derived Maxwell equations on Cantor sets from the local fractional vector calculus. It can be shown that Maxwell equations on Cantor sets in a fractal bounded domain give efficiency and accuracy for describing the fractal electric and magnetic fields. I also extend RQED to anisotropic fractal media based on the work of Martin Ostoja-Starzewski. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for finding physics beyond Standard Model in fractal media. It may be expected to have some impact to fractal cosmology modeling too.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1603.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 17:19:57*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 10 references

It is applied the Holographic Principle as a means to estimate the neutron decay time. A stationary condition for a free energy is also considered. The spherical surface at the boundary of this universe having the radius of the neutron is tiled with unit cells of area equal the Planck length times a length related to the weak interaction. It is also considered an energy difference tied to the electromagnetic interaction.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics